Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Diet, Reducing: A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Diet, Fat-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of fat with less than 30% of calories from all fats and less than 10% from saturated fat. Such a diet is used in control of HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. (From Bondy et al, Metabolic Control and Disease, 8th ed, pp468-70; Dorland, 27th ed)Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Anti-Obesity Agents: Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Diet, High-Fat: Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Appetite Depressants: Agents that are used to suppress appetite.Nuts: Botanically, a type of single-seeded fruit in which the pericarp enclosing the seed is a hard woody shell. In common usage the term is used loosely for any hard, oil-rich kernel. Of those commonly eaten, only hazel, filbert, and chestnut are strictly nuts. Walnuts, pecans, almonds, and coconuts are really drupes. Brazil nuts, pistachios, macadamias, and cashews are really seeds with a hard shell derived from the testa rather than the pericarp.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).TriglyceridesRats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Dietary Sucrose: Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Drinking: The consumption of liquids.Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of CARBOHYDRATES. This is in distinction to a regular DIET.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Appetite: Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Growth: Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.Mice, Inbred C57BLGlycemic Index: A numerical system of measuring the rate of BLOOD GLUCOSE generation from a particular food item as compared to a reference item, such as glucose = 100. Foods with higher glycemic index numbers create greater blood sugar swings.CyclobutanesRats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Appetite Regulation: Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.Weaning: Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Diet, Protein-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of protein. It is prescribed in some cases to slow the progression of renal failure. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Diet, Mediterranean: A diet typical of the Mediterranean region characterized by a pattern high in fruits and vegetables, EDIBLE GRAIN and bread, potatoes, poultry, beans, nuts, olive oil and fish while low in red meat and dairy and moderate in alcohol consumption.Ghrelin: A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Diet, Vegetarian: Dietary practice of completely avoiding meat products in the DIET, consuming VEGETABLES, CEREALS, and NUTS. Some vegetarian diets called lacto-ovo also include milk and egg products.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Gastroplasty: Surgical procedures involving the STOMACH and sometimes the lower ESOPHAGUS to correct anatomical defects, or to treat MORBID OBESITY by reducing the size of the stomach. There are several subtypes of bariatric gastroplasty, such as vertical banded gastroplasty, silicone ring vertical gastroplasty, and horizontal banded gastroplasty.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Obesity, Morbid: The condition of weighing two, three, or more times the ideal weight, so called because it is associated with many serious and life-threatening disorders. In the BODY MASS INDEX, morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2.Body Surface Area: The two dimensional measure of the outer layer of the body.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Ketogenic Diet: A course of food intake that is high in FATS and low in CARBOHYDRATES. This diet provides sufficient PROTEINS for growth but insufficient amount of carbohydrates for the energy needs of the body. A ketogenic diet generates 80-90% of caloric requirements from fats and the remainder from proteins.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Rats, Inbred F344Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Food, Formulated: Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Glucagon-Like Peptide 1: A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.Diet Therapy: By adjusting the quantity and quality of food intake to improve health status of an individual. This term does not include the methods of food intake (NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT).Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Diet Records: Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.Gastric Bypass: Surgical procedure in which the STOMACH is transected high on the body. The resulting small proximal gastric pouch is joined to any parts of the SMALL INTESTINE by an end-to-side SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS, depending on the amounts of intestinal surface being bypasses. This procedure is used frequently in the treatment of MORBID OBESITY by limiting the size of functional STOMACH, food intake, and food absorption.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Diet, Atherogenic: A diet that contributes to the development and acceleration of ATHEROGENESIS.Neuropeptide Y: A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Caloric Restriction: Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.Litter Size: The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Fetal Weight: The weight of the FETUS in utero. It is usually estimated by various formulas based on measurements made during PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Diet, Sodium-Restricted: A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.Diet Fads: Diets which become fashionable, but which are not necessarily nutritious.(Lehninger 1982, page 484)Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Protein Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of proteins in the diet, characterized by adaptive enzyme changes in the liver, increase in amino acid synthetases, and diminution of urea formation, thus conserving nitrogen and reducing its loss in the urine. Growth, immune response, repair, and production of enzymes and hormones are all impaired in severe protein deficiency. Protein deficiency may also arise in the face of adequate protein intake if the protein is of poor quality (i.e., the content of one or more amino acids is inadequate and thus becomes the limiting factor in protein utilization). (From Merck Manual, 16th ed; Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p406)Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Diabetic Diet: A diet prescribed in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, usually limited in the amount of sugar or readily available carbohydrate. (Dorland, 27th ed)Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.Body Constitution: The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Infant, Low Birth Weight: An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Cholesterol, Dietary: Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated: Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Dietary Fats, Unsaturated: Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Gastrointestinal Contents: The contents included in all or any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Caseins: A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.Weight Reduction Programs: Services providing counseling and activities that help overweight individuals to attain a more healthy body weight.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Diet Surveys: Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Fatty Acids, Volatile: Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Body Weights and Measures: Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Pregnancy, Animal: The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Basal Metabolism: Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Corn Oil: Oil from ZEA MAYS or corn plant.Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.Sexual Maturation: Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Body Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Animals, Suckling: Young, unweaned mammals. Refers to nursing animals whether nourished by their biological mother, foster mother, or bottle fed.Housing, AnimalPhosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Soybean Proteins: Proteins which are present in or isolated from SOYBEANS.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Thinness: A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition.Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Body Image: Individuals' concept of their own bodies.Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Diet, Gluten-Free: A diet which is devoid of GLUTENS from WHEAT; BARLEY; RYE; and other wheat-related varieties. The diet is designed to reduce exposure to those proteins in gluten that trigger INFLAMMATION of the small intestinal mucosa in patients with CELIAC DISEASE.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Body Fat Distribution: Deposits of ADIPOSE TISSUE throughout the body. The pattern of fat deposits in the body regions is an indicator of health status. Excess ABDOMINAL FAT increases health risks more than excess fat around the hips or thighs, therefore, WAIST-HIP RATIO is often used to determine health risks.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Glutens: Prolamins in the endosperm of SEEDS from the Triticeae tribe which includes species of WHEAT; BARLEY; and RYE.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Dairy Products: Raw and processed or manufactured milk and milk-derived products. These are usually from cows (bovine) but are also from goats, sheep, reindeer, and water buffalo.Insulin-Like Growth Factor I: A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
Prevention and treatment involve maintaining a healthy diet, regular physical exercise, a normal body weight, and avoiding use ... cardiovascular deaths, and cardiovascular events in patients with diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis". JAMA Internal Medicine. ... For overweight people with type 2 diabetes, any diet that the person will adhere to and achieve weight loss on is effective.[78 ... People with diabetes can benefit from education about the disease and treatment, good nutrition to achieve a normal body weight ...
... low-fat diets on body weight and cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials". The British ... Body weight[edit]. Studies have shown that people losing weight with a low-carbohydrate diet, compared to a low-fat diet, have ... it became a fad diet for people wanting to lose weight.[39] Users of the ketogenic diet may not achieve sustainable weight loss ... Air Force Diet. Toronto, Canada: Air Force Diet Publishers. 1960.. *^ Jameson G, Williams E (2004). The Drinking Man's Diet. ...
Diets high in vegetable consumption are associated with lower body weights than diets high in saturated fat and excess protein ... A diet rich in fruits and vegetables not only reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases and cancers but also helps to ... Whereas Chinese people eat enough to support 99 lbs of body weight and Africans eat only enough meat to support 25 lbs. Meat ... The diet also allows for the practice of not eating meat on certain days but is not to be confused with "Flexitarians". ...
Lower-than-normal body mass index, high mortality[edit]. Caloric restriction diets typically lead to reduced body weight, yet ... One study linked a body mass index lower than 18 in women with increased mortality from noncancer, non−cardiovascular disease ... as body weight is influenced by many factors other than energy intake, Moreover, "the quality of the diets consumed by the low- ... lower body weight and fat mass, reduced food intake, diet quality, and lower fasting blood glucose levels were factors ...
... improved cardiovascular health and appearance, and decreased body fat, blood pressure, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides. The ... which promotes long-term fat loss and helps dieters avoid yo-yo dieting. Moreover, intense workouts elevate metabolism for ... Types of equipment include barbells, dumbbells, pulleys and stacks in the form of weight machines, and the body's own weight in ... In addition, the risk of injury from weights used in weight training is greater than with isometric exercise (no weights), and ...
Studies have shown that a diet high in dairy decreases total body fat. This occurs because a high amount of dietary calcium ... Obesity is a risk factor for many chronic diseases such as Type 2 diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Managing ... Effective weight management strategies consider not only weight loss toward but also the maintenance of a healthy body weight ... Moreover, weight management involves an understanding of meaningful ways to track weight over time and set ideal body weights ...
Prevention and treatment involve maintaining a healthy diet, regular physical exercise, a normal body weight, and avoiding use ... Cardiovascular Deaths, and Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-analysis". JAMA Internal Medicine. ... For overweight people with type 2 diabetes, any diet that the person will adhere to and achieve weight loss on is effective. ... This can usually be accomplished with a healthy diet, exercise, weight loss, and use of appropriate medications (insulin in the ...
Statin treament reduces cardiovascular mortality by about 31%. Decrease body fat if overweight or obese. The effect of weight ... and evidence on weight reducing diets is limited. In observational studies of people with severe obesity, weight loss following ... Among men and women, there are notable differences in body weight, height, body fat distribution, heart rate, stroke volume, ... A diet high in fruits and vegetables decreases the risk of cardiovascular disease and death. Evidence suggests that the ...
The diet, for example, is modifiable and has significant impact on a host of cardiometabolic diseases, including cardiovascular ... body weight, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio), vascular measures (diastolic and systolic blood pressure), and ... These other factors include the diet and specific nutrients within the diet, physical activity, alcohol and tobacco use, sleep ... If they are put on this diet right away and stay on it, these children avoid the severe effects of PKU.[32] This example shows ...
"Long-term effects of 4 popular diets on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors: a systematic review of randomized ... Slavin JL (March 2005). "Dietary fiber and body weight". Nutrition (Review). 21 (3): 411-8. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2004.08.018. PMID ... the Atkins Diet, the Cheater's Diet, the South Beach Diet, the Zone Diet. Year after year, 'new and improved' diets appear ... Many sources place the South Beach Diet on lists of "low carb" diets such as the Atkins Diet. While the South Beach diet does ...
... diet on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors showed the LCD to be associated with significant decreases in body weight, ... diet used to treat epilepsy List of diets Low residue diet Low-fat diet No-carbohydrate diet Online weight loss plans KE Diet ... A category of diets is known as low-glycemic-index diets (low-GI diets) or low-glycemic-load diets (low-GL diets), in ... As with other diet plans, people who maintain a low-carbohydrate diet lose weight. In the case of low-carbohydrate diets, ...
... of their body weight, and were then placed on one of three different dietary regimens: A diet high in protein and fat, but with ... but also displayed increased markers of stress and inflammation in the body, which can lead to cardiovascular disease, among ... The researchers concluded that the type of calories consumed do affect body weight. It should be noted that the physical ... The study focused on factors that influence weight gain including diet, exercise, sleep, smoking, alcohol intake and television ...
After six years on the diet, the trans fat fed monkeys had gained 7.2% of their body weight, compared to just 1.8% in the ... "Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors". Retrieved 2012-05-03. "Lower your cholesterol". National Health Service. Retrieved 2012- ... and studies have found associations between fast food intake and increased body mass index (BMI) and weight gain. In particular ... or reducing material in a package by weight. McDonald's made over 10 reduction in packaging weight in 2012, such as a 48% ...
If niacin is deficient in the diet, anorexia, weight loss and an increase in body temperature can result. Preformed vitamin A ... Deficiencies in taurine result in compensated function of feline cardiovascular and reproductive systems. These abnormalities ... Cats are unusually dependent on a constant supply of the amino acid arginine, and a diet lacking arginine causes marked weight ... In contrast to omnivores such as rats, which only require about 4% protein in their diet, about 20% of a cat's diet must be ...
While weight loss diets reduce body weight and blood pressure, it is unclear if they reduce negative outcomes. Some programs ... Use should take into account the person's cardiovascular risk (including risk of myocardial infarction and stroke) as well as ... such as a low sodium diet and a vegetarian diet are beneficial. A long term (more than 4 weeks) low sodium diet is effective in ... A vegetarian diet is associated with a lower blood pressure and switching to such a diet may be useful for reducing high blood ...
After completing the diet, the dieter is likely to experience the body's starvation response, leading to rapid weight gain of ... or future successful weight loss", and that there is not enough evidence to show risk factors for cardiovascular disease being ... As a result, the dieter may experience loss of both muscle and body fat during the initial weight-loss phase (weight-bearing ... 1994) showed that there are "no adverse effects of weight cycling on body composition, resting metabolic rate, body fat ...
A healthy diet is a diet that helps to maintain or improve overall health. A healthy diet provides the body with essential ... Maintain a healthy weight by eating roughly the same number of calories that your body is using. ... Less than 5 grams of salt per day can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.[34] ... Main article: Diet food. Diet food (or "dietetic food") refers to any food or beverage whose recipe is altered to reduce fat, ...
While terrestrial mammals such as shrews have a lung volume of 0.03 cm3 per gram of body weight, species such as the Wahlberg's ... Diet and foraging[edit]. Most megabats are primarily frugivorous, meaning that they mostly consume fruit.[82] Throughout the ... Flight is very energetically expensive, requiring several adaptations to the cardiovascular system. During flight, bats can ... of adult body mass, compared to 40% of adult body mass in non-bat mammals.[72] Species in the genus Micropteropus wean their ...
Partly due to the large molecular weight (size) of these compounds, their amount actually absorbed in the body is low, an ... Despite the above discussion implying that ORAC-rich foods with polyphenols may provide antioxidant benefits when in the diet, ... By non-antioxidant mechanisms still undefined, polyphenols may affect mechanisms of cardiovascular disease or cancer. The ... According to Frei, "we can now follow the activity of flavonoids in the body, and one thing that is clear is that the body sees ...
... based diets those with suppressed FABP1 expression demonstrated a significant impact on metabolic regulation and weight gain. A ... Alternately obesity may in fact lead the human body to develop resistance to the actions of FABP1 leading to the compensatory ... The T94A mutant has also been associated with metabolic syndrome conditions, cardiovascular disease and T2DM. Studies with mice ... Atshaves BP, McIntosh AL, Storey SM, Landrock KK, Kier AB, Schroeder F (February 2010). "High dietary fat exacerbates weight ...
... s are also a risk factor for type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure, as well as increase in body weight and obesity ... Added sugar in addition to processed foods, has radically changed the American diet. There are roughly 600,000 food items in ... Welsh, J. A.; Sharma, A.; Cunningham, S. A.; Vos, M. B. (2011). "Consumption of Added Sugars and Indicators of Cardiovascular ... can =62.1 calories), vanilla ice cream (1/2 cup = 48 calories), cake doughnut (1=74.2 calories )and so forth (Sugar101). Diet ...
Low total testosterone levels are associated with metabolic syndrome in elderly men: the role of body weight, lipids, insulin ... The Ikaria Study is a small-scale survey by the University of Athens School of Medicine of the diet and lifestyle of Greek ... without known cardiovascular disease: the Ikaria study. Maturitas. 2011 Sep;70(1):58-64. /See also: BBC World TV and domestic ... Mediterranean diet Chrysohoou C, Tsitsinakis G, Siassos G, Psaltopoulou T, Galiatsatos N, Metaxa V, Lazaros G, Miliou A, ...
Excessive body weight is associated with various diseases and conditions, particularly cardiovascular diseases, diabetes ... The main treatment for obesity consists of dieting and physical exercise.[81] Diet programs may produce weight loss over the ... In the short-term low carbohydrate diets appear better than low fat diets for weight loss.[168] In the long term; however, all ... Chiolero A, Faeh D, Paccaud F, Cornuz J (April 2008). "Consequences of smoking for body weight, body fat distribution, and ...
Controlled trials showed that overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages increases body weight and body fat, and that ... Diet food substitutes for sugar include aspartame and sucralose, a chlorinated derivative of sucrose. Sugars are found in the ... Sugar, particularly fructose, does not have unique effects causing injury to the cardiovascular system, but rather excess total ... New to the panel is a requirement to list "Added sugars" by weight and as a percent of Daily Value (DV). For vitamins and ...
Excessive body weight is associated with various diseases and conditions, particularly cardiovascular diseases, diabetes ... Diet programs may produce weight loss over the short term, but maintaining this weight loss is frequently difficult and often ... BMI is closely related to both percentage body fat and total body fat. In children, a healthy weight varies with age and sex. ... In the short-term low carbohydrate diets appear better than low fat diets for weight loss. In the long term; however, all types ...
A diabetic diet which includes calorie restriction to promote weight loss is generally recommended.[95][58] Other ... poor diet, stress, and urbanization.[10][32] Excess body fat is associated with 30% of cases in those of Chinese and Japanese ... cardiovascular outcomes and adverse events in patients with diabetes and cardiovascular disease or risk: A systematic review ... Mediterranean diet, low-fat diet, or monitored carbohydrate diets such as a low carbohydrate diet.[58][97][98] Viscous fiber ...
Even semivegetarians are 50% more likely to have hypertension than vegetarians (4). Even when body weights were similar between ... Other factors in vegetarian diets may impact cardiovascular disease risk independent of effects on cholesterol levels. ... People choosing macrobiotic diets are frequently identified as following a vegetarian diet. The macrobiotic diet is based ... Because these diets have been used along with other lifestyle changes and they have produced weight loss, it has not been ...
It promises to help folks lose weight, balance stubborn blood sugars, rip your abs, and help reset the bodys ability to use ... What is your openion to follow ketogenic diet for whom suffering with type 2 diabetics and cardio vascular disease patients?. ... Shifting the body to burn fats or ketones can support the body in many ways. The ketogenic diet was first used in the 1920s for ... Ketogenic Diet Risks. Numerous studies have found a ketogenic diet to be successful in managing weight gain and obesity. (2) ...
The study concluded that the consumption of a raw food diet is associated with a high loss of body weight. Since many raw food ... Anecdotally i cant count how many individuals on raw vegan diets, that i have witnessed developing cardiovascular, low blood ... Raw Till 4 Vegan Diet Scam, Raw Vegan Diet & Vitamin B12 Deficiency, Raw Vegan Diet Dangers, Raw Vegan Diet Iodine Deficiency, ... admin 2 Comments 30 Bananas A Day Diet Scam, Brian Clement Raw Vegan Diet, Doug Graham 80/10/10 Diet, Durianrider, Freelee The ...
Topics: Groceries, Health Related: blood sugar, grocery aisle, heart smart, hfcs, high fructose corn syrup, lose that weight ... Instead, we debunk diet myths and make sense of breaking nutrition news so that readers will learn the essence of healthy ... While emerging research suggests high consumption of fructose may have different health effects on the body, in general, we can ... they found that consumption of fructose and high fructose corn syrup increased the risk factors for cardiovascular disease: ...
Effect of a 6-month vegan low-carbohydrate (Eco-Atkins) diet on cardiovascular risk factors and body weight in ... Effect of a 6-month vegan low-carbohydrate (Eco-Atkins) diet on cardiovascular risk factors and body weight in ... Weight loss during the study on both diets. Weight loss during the study on both diets. Values represent mean±SEM of the change ... Participants on the low-carbohydrate diet tended to have larger reductions in body weight over time (figure 2). The weight loss ...
Impact of body weight, low energy diet and gastric bypass on drug bioavailability, cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic ... Impact of body weight, low energy diet and gastric bypass on drug bioavailability, cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic ... Body weight was recorded with patients wearing light clothing to the nearest 0.1 kg using an electronic scale (Inbody 720, Body ... Stable body weight (,5 kg self-reported weight change) during the last 3 months before inclusion. ...
Topics: alcoholism; body weight; cardiovascular diseases; diabetes mellitus; diet; geographical variables; hyperlipaemia; ... In addition, age was found to affect body height and weight. Moreover, it was found that stature and weight have increased with ... The aim of this study was to evaluate alterations in weight and body composition of sugar cane cutters during harvest with the ... Numerous studies in the published scientific literature conclude that the low body weight requirement for jockeys increases the ...
Cardiovascular Diseases. Body Weight. Signs and Symptoms. Immune System Diseases. Hyperinsulinism. Glucose Metabolism Disorders ... Diet 1 will maintain body weight in patients with CHF as well as diet 2. ... diet 1); and a conventional low fat, high carbohydrate diet (diet 2) on:. *insulin sensitivity (using the homeostasis model ... As change in body weight has important implications for disease progression, choice of dietary treatment is of particular ...
Body Mass Index Quantitative Trait Locus 8 Disorder Tangier Disease Other: nutrition intervention Phase 3 ... High Protein Weight Loss Diet, High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein and Cardiovascular Risks Among Obese Women. The safety and ... Effect of a High Protein Weight Loss Diet on Weight, High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein, and Cardiovascular Risk among ... Background: Studies regarding the effects of high protein (HP) diet on cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors have reported ...
... and increased cardiovascular risk factors. While diets enriched in natural antioxidants showed beneficial effects on oxidative ... Oxidative stress and early signs of systemic microinflammation already developed after two weeks of high-fat diet and were ... Thus, daily consumption of corabion may be beneficial for the management of obesity-related cardiovascular complications. ... would affect cardiovascular risk factors associated with obesity. Obese mice showed increased serum triglyceride and glucose ...
Comparison a Very Low Carbohydrate Diet and a Calorie-Restricted Low Fat Diet on Body Weight and Cardiovascular Risk Factors. ... diet, heart attack, heart condition, insulin, ketogenic, LCHF, low carb, low sugar, obesity, overweight, weight loss ... Diet, Heart Condition, Heart Disease, Insulin, Keto, LCHF, Nutrition, Obesity, Weight Loss ... Details: 53 healthy but obese females were randomized to either a low-fat diet, or a low-carb diet. Low-fat group was calorie ...
Cardiovascular Risk Factor Body Weight Behavioral: Diet intervention Not Applicable Study Design ... A randomized controlled trial aiming to investigate the effects of diet behavior intervention postpartum on body weight and ... Changes in body weight (kg) between visits. [ Time Frame: Visit 1 (8 weeks postpartum, visit 2 (6 months postpartum) and visit ... Experimental: Diet intervention Behavioral: Diet intervention 12-week program of dietary behavior modification treatment (LEVA- ...
Conditions: Diet, Healthy; Body Weight; Time Restricted Feeding; Sleep; Cardiovascular Risk Factor; Motivation Intervention: ... Diet, Body Composition, Lifestyle and Cardiovascular Health of Healthy and Active Adults From Slovenia. ... Other: Dietary intake, body composition, lifestyle, and CVD risk factors Sponsor: Barbara Jakše s.p. Not yet recruiting (Source ...
A 22-week intervention including a low-fat, vegan diet.. MEASURES: Changes in body weight, anthropometric measures, blood ... A multicomponent intervention reduces body weight and cardiovascular risk at a GEICO corporate site.. Ferdowsian HR1, Barnard ... 014 [SE, .005], p = .0007). Weight loss of 5% of body weight was more frequently observed in the intervention group (48.5%) ... vegan diet effectively reduced body weight and waist circumference. ...
The Role of Diet and Nutrition -What is a quality diet? *Weight management and body composition *Cardiovascular disease and ... The student will learn valid concepts of nutrition and how to apply them to his own diet. *The student will learn the history ... Relationship among stress, diet and exercise *Concepts of Recuperation, Positive Adaptation and De-conditioning *Immediate and ... Cross training and how a variety of activities contribute to cardiovascular and total fitness * ...
The Role of Diet and Nutrition-What is a quality diet? *Weight management and body composition *Cardiovascular disease and ... Relationship among stress, diet and exercise *Applied Physiology of Exercise *Principle of an exercise prescription *Frequency ... The student will learn valid concepts of nutrition and how to apply them to his/her own diet. *This course will help the ... Cross training has a variety of activities contribute to cardiovascular and total fitness *One full class in relaxation ...
Eat a heart-healthy diet.. *. Keep at a healthy body weight. Ask your doctor what your body mass index (or BMI) is. Try to keep ... What is cardiovascular disease?. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is when there are changes in your blood vessels. These changes ...
Dietary diversity score and cardiovascular risk factors in Tehranian adults - Volume 9 Issue 6 - Leila Azadbakht, Parvin ... Dietary diversity, diet quality, and body weight regulation. Nutrition Reviews 2004; 62: S78-81. ... Effect of a High Protein Weight Loss Diet on Weight, High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein, and Cardiovascular Risk among ... Effect of a High Protein Weight Loss Diet on Weight, High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein, and Cardiovascular Risk among ...
Generalized linear modeling was performed while controlling for change in body weight. ... Balanced high fat diet reduces cardiovascular risk in obese women although changes in adipose tissue, lipoproteins, and insulin ... Consuming the balanced high fat diet led to significant reduction in cardiovascular risk factors in both groups. However, the ... We previously reported that consuming a balanced high fat diet (BHFD) wherein total saturated fat was reduced and total ...
Protein, body weight, and cardiovascular health.. *Frank B Hu. *The American journal of clinical nutrition ... Red meat in the diet. @inproceedings{Williamson2005RedMI, title={Red meat in the diet}, author={Conrad Williamson and R. K. ... National diet and nutrition surveys: the British experience.. *Margaret Ashwell, Susan Barlow, Sigrid Gibson, Caroline Harris ...
Eating a diet that is rich in fruits, vegetables and whole grains and low in added sugar, sodium and processed meats could help ... Study links body fat, weight loss, and chromosome length in breast cancer patients. December 8, 2015 It is well documented that ... Cardiovascular health linked to cellular aging. November 14, 2016 The age of a persons immune cells may predict risk of ... including the Mediterranean diet, the DASH diet and two commonly used measures of diet quality developed by the U.S. Department ...
... the low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet group continued to lose total body fat and trunk fat even though they regained body weight ... Fibroblast growth factors in cardiovascular disease: the emerging role of FGF21. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2015;309:H1029 ... Effect of the FGF21 genetic variant on changes in body weight, WC, and body composition in response to low- or high- ... The primary outcomes were changes (Δ) in body weight, WC, and body composition assessed by DEXA (total fat, total lean, total ...
... low-fat diets on body weight and cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials". The British ... Body weight[edit]. Studies have shown that people losing weight with a low-carbohydrate diet, compared to a low-fat diet, have ... it became a fad diet for people wanting to lose weight.[39] Users of the ketogenic diet may not achieve sustainable weight loss ... Air Force Diet. Toronto, Canada: Air Force Diet Publishers. 1960.. *^ Jameson G, Williams E (2004). The Drinking Mans Diet. ...
Body weight, blood pressure, lipid profile, glucose levels, and inflammatory molecules.. Results:. The completion rate was 99.6 ... Effects of a Mediterranean-Style Diet on Cardiovascular Risk Factors Effects of a Mediterranean-Style Diet on Cardiovascular ... Review: A Mediterranean diet reduces cardiovascular risk factors in overweight patients compared with a low-fat diet Annals of ... Review: A Mediterranean diet reduces cardiovascular risk factors in overweight patients compared with a low-fat diet Annals of ...
  • It is the position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada that appropriately planned vegetarian diets are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. (csvv.cz)
  • Vegetarian diets offer a number of nutritional benefits, including lower levels of saturated fat, cholesterol, and animal protein as well as higher levels of carbohydrates, fiber, magnesium, potassium, folate, and antioxidants such as vitamins C and E and phytochemicals. (csvv.cz)
  • 12) The question begging to be asked here is, why would the only culture who naturally ate a ketogenic diet acquire a gene to prevent ketogenesis if the ketogenic diet was in fact a health-promoting diet? (lifespa.com)
  • While emerging research suggests high consumption of fructose may have different health effects on the body, in general, we can all be better off minimizing our total sugar intake from highly refined sources. (healthcastle.com)
  • The HealthCastle.com community's main focus is preventative health - this is a place where women can find fun and practical diet tips to reclaim their health. (healthcastle.com)
  • It promises to help folks lose weight, balance stubborn blood sugars, rip your abs, and help reset the body's ability to use fats as a primary fuel supply. (lifespa.com)
  • Shifting the body to burn fats or ketones can support the body in many ways. (lifespa.com)
  • 4) Burning ketones from a high-fat, low-carb diet has shown to be neuro-protective for the brain, boost brain mitochondria cells, reduce inflammation, boost memory, and deliver more energy and antioxidants while protecting against Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. (lifespa.com)
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