Animals that have no spinal column.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.
Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.
Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.
A diet that contains limited amounts of fat with less than 30% of calories from all fats and less than 10% from saturated fat. Such a diet is used in control of HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. (From Bondy et al, Metabolic Control and Disease, 8th ed, pp468-70; Dorland, 27th ed)
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.
A phylum of the most familiar marine invertebrates. Its class Stelleroidea contains two subclasses, the Asteroidea (the STARFISH or sea stars) and the Ophiuroidea (the brittle stars, also called basket stars and serpent stars). There are 1500 described species of STARFISH found throughout the world. The second class, Echinoidea, contains about 950 species of SEA URCHINS, heart urchins, and sand dollars. A third class, Holothuroidea, comprises about 900 echinoderms known as SEA CUCUMBERS. Echinoderms are used extensively in biological research. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp773-826)
A diet typical of the Mediterranean region characterized by a pattern high in fruits and vegetables, EDIBLE GRAIN and bread, potatoes, poultry, beans, nuts, olive oil and fish while low in red meat and dairy and moderate in alcohol consumption.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
A large subphylum of mostly marine ARTHROPODS containing over 42,000 species. They include familiar arthropods such as lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE), crabs (BRACHYURA), shrimp (PENAEIDAE), and barnacles (THORACICA).
A subphylum of chordates intermediate between the invertebrates and the true vertebrates. It includes the Ascidians.
Organisms that live in water.
A portion of the animal phylum Chordata comprised of the subphyla CEPHALOCHORDATA; UROCHORDATA, and HYPEROTRETI, but not including the Vertebrata (VERTEBRATES). It includes nonvertebrate animals having a NOTOCHORD during some developmental stage.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A diet that contains limited amounts of protein. It is prescribed in some cases to slow the progression of renal failure. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Dietary practice of completely avoiding meat products in the DIET, consuming VEGETABLES, CEREALS, and NUTS. Some vegetarian diets called lacto-ovo also include milk and egg products.
A diet that contains limited amounts of CARBOHYDRATES. This is in distinction to a regular DIET.
A class of marine annelids including sandworms, tube worms, clamworms, and fire worms. It includes also the genus Myxicola infundibulum.
A course of food intake that is high in FATS and low in CARBOHYDRATES. This diet provides sufficient PROTEINS for growth but insufficient amount of carbohydrates for the energy needs of the body. A ketogenic diet generates 80-90% of caloric requirements from fats and the remainder from proteins.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.
A phylum of metazoan invertebrates comprising the segmented worms, and including marine annelids (POLYCHAETA), freshwater annelids, earthworms (OLIGOCHAETA), and LEECHES. Only the leeches are of medical interest. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.
A phylum of radially symmetrical invertebrates characterized by possession of stinging cells called nematocysts. It includes the classes ANTHOZOA; CUBOZOA; HYDROZOA, and SCYPHOZOA. Members carry CNIDARIAN VENOMS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A diet that contributes to the development and acceleration of ATHEROGENESIS.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
By adjusting the quantity and quality of food intake to improve health status of an individual. This term does not include the methods of food intake (NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT).
The only species of a cosmopolitan ascidian.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
Specialized cells in the invertebrates that detect and transduce light. They are predominantly rhabdomeric with an array of photosensitive microvilli. Illumination depolarizes invertebrate photoreceptors by stimulating Na+ influx across the plasma membrane.
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of SNAILS and slugs. The former have coiled external shells and the latter usually lack shells.
Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.
Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
A class of Echinodermata characterized by long, slender bodies.
The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
A genus of dextrally coiled freshwater snails that includes some species of importance as intermediate hosts of parasitic flukes.
A class of annelid worms with few setae per segment. It includes the earthworms such as Lumbricus and Eisenia.
An order of mostly marine CRUSTACEA containing more than 5500 species in over 100 families. Like ISOPODA, the other large order in the superorder Peracarida, members are shrimp-like in appearance, have sessile compound eyes, and no carapace. But unlike Isopoda, they possess thoracic gills and their bodies are laterally compressed.
Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.
Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.
The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.
Diets which become fashionable, but which are not necessarily nutritious.(Lehninger 1982, page 484)
Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.
The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
Phylum in the domain Eukarya, comprised of animals either with fully developed backbones (VERTEBRATES), or those with notochords only during some developmental stage (CHORDATA, NONVERTEBRATE).
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The consumption of edible substances.
A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The phylum of sponges which are sessile, suspension-feeding, multicellular animals that utilize flagellated cells called choanocytes to circulate water. Most are hermaphroditic. They are probably an early evolutionary side branch that gave rise to no other group of animals. Except for about 150 freshwater species, sponges are marine animals. They are a source of ALKALOIDS; STEROLS; and other complex molecules useful in medicine and biological research.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
An infraorder of chiefly marine, largely carnivorous CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA, including the genera Cancer, Uca, and Callinectes.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of SQUID; CUTTLEFISH; OCTOPUS; and NAUTILUS. These marine animals are the most highly organized of all the mollusks.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
A phylum of small sessile aquatic animals living as small tufted colonies. Some appear like hydroids or corals, but their internal structure is more advanced. Most bryozoans are matlike, forming thin encrustations on rocks, shells, or kelp. (Storer & Stebbins, General Zoology, 6th ed, p443)
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A diverse genus of minute freshwater CRUSTACEA, of the suborder CLADOCERA. They are a major food source for both young and adult freshwater fish.
A genus of marine mussels in the family MYTILIDAE, class BIVALVIA. The species MYTILUS EDULIS is the highly edible common mussel.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.
A diet prescribed in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, usually limited in the amount of sugar or readily available carbohydrate. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
A superfamily of various freshwater CRUSTACEA, in the infraorder Astacidea, comprising the crayfish. Common genera include Astacus and Procambarus. Crayfish resemble lobsters, but are usually much smaller.
Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
An arthropod subclass (Xiphosura) comprising the North American (Limulus) and Asiatic (Tachypleus) genera of horseshoe crabs.
A superorder of marine CRUSTACEA, free swimming in the larval state, but permanently fixed as adults. There are some 800 described species, grouped in several genera, and comprising of two major orders of barnacles: stalked (Pedunculata) and sessile (Sessilia).
The contents included in all or any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Annelids of the class Hirudinea. Some species, the bloodsuckers, may become temporarily parasitic upon animals, including man. Medicinal leeches (HIRUDO MEDICINALIS) have been used therapeutically for drawing blood since ancient times.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A class of minute animals of the phylum Aschelminthes.
An alpha-adrenergic sympathomimetic amine, biosynthesized from tyramine in the CNS and platelets and also in invertebrate nervous systems. It is used to treat hypotension and as a cardiotonic. The natural D(-) form is more potent than the L(+) form in producing cardiovascular adrenergic responses. It is also a neurotransmitter in some invertebrates.
Family of large marine CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA. These are called clawed lobsters because they bear pincers on the first three pairs of legs. The American lobster and Cape lobster in the genus Homarus are commonly used for food.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
A phylum of acoelomate, bilaterally symmetrical flatworms, without a definite anus. It includes three classes: Cestoda, Turbellaria, and Trematoda.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.
One of the largest orders of mostly marine CRUSTACEA, containing over 10,000 species. Like AMPHIPODA, the other large order in the superorder Peracarida, members are shrimp-like in appearance, have sessile compound eyes, and no carapace. But unlike Amphipoda, they possess abdominal pleopods (modified as gills) and their bodies are dorsoventrally flattened.
A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.
Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.
The largest order of CRUSTACEA, comprising over 10,000 species. They are characterized by three pairs of thoracic appendages modified as maxillipeds, and five pairs of thoracic legs. The order includes the familiar shrimps, crayfish (ASTACOIDEA), true crabs (BRACHYURA), and lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE and PALINURIDAE), among others.
A genus of planorbid freshwater snails, species of which are intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A diet which is devoid of GLUTENS from WHEAT; BARLEY; RYE; and other wheat-related varieties. The diet is designed to reduce exposure to those proteins in gluten that trigger INFLAMMATION of the small intestinal mucosa in patients with CELIAC DISEASE.
Somewhat flattened, globular echinoderms, having thin, brittle shells of calcareous plates. They are useful models for studying FERTILIZATION and EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
A class in the phylum CNIDARIA which alternates between polyp and medusa forms during their life cycle. There are over 2700 species in five orders.
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.
A genus of IRIDOVIRIDAE comprising small iridescent insect viruses. The infected larvae and purified virus pellets exhibit a blue to purple iridescence.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
A genus of SQUID in the family Loliginidae, superorder DECAPODIFORMES, with a spindle-shaped body. They are well-studied, common inshore squids of the Atlantic and eastern Pacific Oceans, but their various species are taxonomically unresolved.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Cell surface proteins that bind biogenic amines with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells. Biogenic amine is a chemically imprecise term which, by convention, includes the catecholamines epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine, the indoleamine serotonin, the imidazolamine histamine, and compounds closely related to each of these.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.
Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.
A genus of oysters in the family OSTREIDAE, class BIVALVIA.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
A large family of mollusks in the class BIVALVIA, known commonly as scallops. They possess flat, almost circular shells and are found in all seas from shallow water to great depths.
A family of CRUSTACEA, order DECAPODA, comprising the penaeid shrimp. Species of the genus Penaeus are the most important commercial shrimp throughout the world.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The moral and ethical bases of the protection of animals from cruelty and abuse. The rights are extended to domestic animals, laboratory animals, and wild animals.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A superorder of CEPHALOPODS comprised of squid, cuttlefish, and their relatives. Their distinguishing feature is the modification of their fourth pair of arms into tentacles, resulting in 10 limbs.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.
Cell surface receptors for invertebrate peptide hormones or neuropeptides.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
A primitive form of digestive gland found in marine ARTHROPODS, that contains cells similar to those found in the mammalian liver (HEPATOCYTES), and the PANCREAS.
Marine ridges composed of living CORALS, coral skeletons, calcareous algae, and other organisms, mixed with minerals and organic matter. They are found most commonly in tropical waters and support other animal and plant life.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A genus of chiefly Eurasian and African land snails including the principal edible snails as well as several pests of cultivated plants.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Echinoderms having bodies of usually five radially disposed arms coalescing at the center.
A class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
The biological science concerned with similarities or differences in the life-supporting functions and processes of different species.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.
Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
A large, subclass of arachnids comprising the MITES and TICKS, including parasites of plants, animals, and humans, as well as several important disease vectors.
Glucose in blood.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A genus of large SEA CUCUMBERS possessing the primitive radial configuration of podia in all five ambulacral areas.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
A species of European freshwater LEECHES used for BLOODLETTING in ancient times and also for LEECHING in modern times.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
Nonparasitic free-living flatworms of the class Turbellaria. The most common genera are Dugesia, formerly Planaria, which lives in water, and Bipalium, which lives on land. Geoplana occurs in South America and California.
The normal length of time of an organism's life.
A genus of GRAM-POSITIVE ENDOSPORE-FORMING BACTERIA in the family Pasteuriaceae. It is transmitted via soil or waterborne SPORES.
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
A species of SEA URCHINS in the family Strongylocentrotidae found on the Pacific coastline from Alaska to Mexico. This species serves as a major research model for molecular developmental biology and other fields.
Phosphorus used in foods or obtained from food. This element is a major intracellular component which plays an important role in many biochemical pathways relating to normal physiological functions. High concentrations of dietary phosphorus can cause nephrocalcinosis which is associated with impaired kidney function. Low concentrations of dietary phosphorus cause an increase in calcitriol in the blood and osteoporosis.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of proteins in the diet, characterized by adaptive enzyme changes in the liver, increase in amino acid synthetases, and diminution of urea formation, thus conserving nitrogen and reducing its loss in the urine. Growth, immune response, repair, and production of enzymes and hormones are all impaired in severe protein deficiency. Protein deficiency may also arise in the face of adequate protein intake if the protein is of poor quality (i.e., the content of one or more amino acids is inadequate and thus becomes the limiting factor in protein utilization). (From Merck Manual, 16th ed; Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p406)
A genus of nematodes of the superfamily ASCARIDOIDEA whose species usually inhabit the intestine.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.
A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Acquired or learned food preferences.
An approach to nutrition based on whole cereal grains, beans, cooked vegetables and the Chinese YIN-YANG principle. It advocates a diet consisting of organic and locally grown foods, seasonal vegetables, complex carbohydrates, and fewer fats, sugars, and chemically processed foods.
Proteins which are present in or isolated from SOYBEANS.
The conversion of absorbed light energy into molecular signals.
A plant genus of the family BROMELIACEAE. Members contain karatasin and balansain (ENDOPEPTIDASES) and BROMELAINS.
Diet: mainly invertebrates. Nests in tree. BirdLife International (2012). "Lalage melaschistos". IUCN Red List of Threatened ... Their diet consists mainly of caterpillars, beetles and other bugs. A medium-sized, dark cuckoo-shrike with unbarred, grey ...
... its carnivorous diet includes invertebrates. Although its range is small, it includes a number of protected areas, and the ...
Their diet consist of invertebrates. Studies of their feces showed that the major component of their diet is ants and spiders. ...
Yokoyama, L. Q.; Amaral, A. C. Z. (2008). "The diet of Ophionereis reticulata (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) in southeastern ... "Reticulated Brittle Star (Ophioneries reticulata)". Marine Invertebrates of Bermuda. Retrieved 2013-02-05. ...
Its diet includes invertebrates and fruit. It breeds in May and June, laying 3-4 eggs. The breeding population is estimated by ...
Various invertebrates also have graminivorous diets. Many grasshoppers, such as individuals from the family Acrididae, have ... The average consumption of these five species comprised about 80% of their diet. A few of these species include Aristida ... diets consisting primarily of plants from the family Poaceae. Graminivores generally exhibit a preference on which species of ...
... s have a unique diet. The adults' and tadpoles' diets vary. The adults' diet consists of invertebrates. ... The tadpoles' diet is related to its surroundings and food supply. When they are first hatched, they eat plankton. After a few ...
This ibis's diet comprises aquatic invertebrates; snails, especially apple snails of the genus Pomacea; mussels; crabs; frogs; ... Despite this ibis's apparently generalist diet, it is found to specialise on molluscs in the Paraguay-Parana basin. The ... It has also been reported to eat snakes, lizards, skinks and terrestrial invertebrates; which is plausible given its occasional ...
Their diet includes organic matter within sand, live organisms, and dead matter from both ocean and terrestrial sources. In ... Invertebrate Biology. 135 (2): 117-126. doi:10.1111/ivb.12122. ISSN 1744-7410. Trott, Thomas James (1986). "Chemoreception by ... The presence of truncated claws has been shown to allow a broader diet as the crabs are able to feed on both animals and ... The size of their carapace and presence of truncated claws has been shown to influence their diet. Individual O. gaudichaudii ...
Its diet consists mainly of small invertebrates. The Larch Mountain salamander (Plethodon larselli) is a species of salamander ... Their diet consists largely of small insects and worms, though it is not rare for an adult to consume small frogs and baby mice ... Their diet ranges widely, including spiders and beetles. Western Skinks will bite if grasped and will flee if they feel ...
This mammal's diet consists mostly of invertebrates. Smith, A.T. & Johnston, C.H. (2016). "Neotetracus sinensis". IUCN Red List ...
The animal food diet increases to 85% during winter. During nesting, the proportion of invertebrates increases. Ducklings ... Its animal diet includes mollusks, snails, amphipods, insects, mussels and small fishes. During the breeding season, the diet ... Its plant diet primarily includes a wide variety of wetland grasses and sedges, and the seeds, stems, leaves and root stalks of ... The American black duck is an omnivorous species with a diverse diet. It feeds by dabbling in shallow water and grazing on land ...
Its diet consists of bottom-dwelling invertebrates. Reproduction is aplacental viviparous, with females bearing one to three ... The sharpsnout stingray feeds on small burrowing invertebrates such as worms, crustaceans, and molluscs, excavating them from ...
Its diet consists of invertebrates, including earthworms. Though the bird has not been confirmed since 1890, unconfirmed ...
Its diet consists of fishes and invertebrates. When threatened by a predator, it can take water or air into its body to inflate ... This shark consumes a wide variety of fishes and invertebrates, including spiny dogfish, cod, sand perch, blennies, octopus, ...
The blacktail shiner feeds primarily on invertebrates. Its diet includes algae, seeds, and aquatic and terrestrial insects. ...
The diet is made up of invertebrates. The parasite load of this species has been investigated. The nematode Rhabdochona cotti ...
Its diet consists primarily of aquatic invertebrates. One study of river chub stomach contents in western New York found that ...
This type of incubation is why all jawfishes, except for the blue spotted jawfish, are mouthbrooders (Bray 2021). Diet: Jawfish ... eat planktonic invertebrates (Bray 2021). Newest Discoveries: Brazilian Dusky Jawfish (Opistognathus vicinus) was recently ...
Its diet consists mainly of small invertebrates. The salamander inhabits a variety of moist microhabitats and is found along ...
Its diet consists of invertebrates. In aquariums shrimp, squid, clams, octopus, scallops, and crab are all good choices of food ... It preys on a variety of invertebrates, notably sea urchins. As one of the largest and most aggressive of the triggerfish, this ...
Its diet consists mostly of benthic invertebrates. This species grows to a length of 13 centimetres (5.1 in) TL. The specific ...
G. Diets, Culture Media, Food Supplements. Vol. 2. Food Habits of and Diets for Invertebrates and Vertebrates. Zoo diets. ... G. Diets, Culture Media, Food Supplements. Vol. 1. Dits for Mammals. Cleveland, OH: CRC Press, 1977. 645 pp. CRC Handbook ... G. Diets, Culture Media, Food Supplements. Vol. 4. Culture Media for Cells, Organs and Embryos. Cleveland, OH: CRC Press, 1977 ... G. Diets, Culture Media, Food Supplements. Vol. 3. Culture Media for Microorganisms and Plants. Cleveland, OH: CRC Press, 1978 ...
Normally, though, the bulk of its diet consists of fish and frogs. On occasion, juvenile specimens feed on invertebrates. ... Their diet mostly consists of dead fish that has been rejected from nesting birds. Compared to their mainland species, most of ... Its diet includes mammals, birds, amphibians, fish, snakes, small turtles, and small alligators. Cannibalism has also been ... Vincent SE, Herrel A, Irschick DJ (2004). "Sexual dimorphism in head shape and diet in the cottonmouth snake (Agkistrodon ...
Their staple diet is grains, fruit, and invertebrates. They are prone to destroying cultivated crops in fields. Of all the ...
Their diet consists of microscopic invertebrates and plankton. Fourspine stickleback generally breed at one year of age, though ...
Their diet consists mainly of insects; they also consume other invertebrates and plant material. The three species differ in ...
The rest of their diet is small invertebrates. The feeding activities of the damselfish prevent coarser seaweeds, such as Jania ... such as by providing some protection against predators or by removing invertebrates that feed on algae. Collen, B.; Richman, N ... instead feeding on small invertebrates. An alternative possibility was these fish benefited the dusky damselfish in some other ...
O. aureus is primarily herbivorous, but occasionally consumes zooplankton; the young include small invertebrates in their diet ... Apparent digestibility coefficients of feed ingredients and their prediction in diets for tilapia Oreochromis niloticus × ...
The diet appears to consist of small invertebrates. Konings, A.; Kazembe, J. & Makocho, P. (2018). "Aulonocara brevinidus". ...
Some eat other animals - this is a carnivorous diet (and includes insectivorous diets). Other mammals, called herbivores, eat ... Many birds glean for insects, invertebrates, fruit, or seeds. Some hunt insects by suddenly attacking from a branch. Those ... Their diet is still limited, however, because most babies lack molars or canines at this age, and often have a limited number ... Birds' diets. are varied and often include nectar, fruit, plants, seeds, carrion, and various small animals, including other ...
... the diet of the most specialized species is a subset of the diet of the next more generalized species, and its diet a subset of ... of these species consist of microbes and invertebrates, and relatively few have been named or classified by taxonomists.[54][55 ... Koch, P. L.; Fox-Dobbs, K.; Newsom, S. D. Diet, G. P.; Flessa, K. W., eds. The isotopic ecology of fossil vertebrates and ... Many of the Earth's elements and minerals (or mineral nutrients) are contained within the tissues and diets of organisms. Hence ...
... diet, and anatomy. Due to scanty fossil evidence it is unclear which ape or apes contributed to the modern hominid clade, but ... as inferred from the findings of marine invertebrate fossils of both Atlantic and Pacific affinity in La Cascada Formation.[8][ ... fewer modern sea invertebrates than the Pliocene. The Miocene follows the Oligocene and is followed by the Pliocene. ...
Special leaves on carnivorous plants are adapted for trapping food, mainly invertebrate prey, though some species trap small ... Accordingly, leaves are prominent in the diet of many animals. A leaf shed in autumn. ...
They mostly eat live invertebrates and animals that do not move too quickly. These include caterpillars, earthworms, crayfish, ... Diet[change , change source]. Amphibians are predatory animals. If there is no food to be found, they will eat each other. ...
The majority of the mallard's diet seems to be made up of gastropods,[63] invertebrates (including beetles, flies, ... The mallard is omnivorous and very flexible in its choice of food.[61] Its diet may vary based on several factors, including ... Marquiss, M.; Leitch, A. F. (1 October 1990). "The diet of Grey Herons Ardea cinerea breeding at Loch Leven, Scotland, and the ... Plants generally make up the larger part of a bird's diet, especially during autumn migration and in the winter.[67][68] ...
Diet[edit]. The pickerel frog's diet consists of ants, spiders, various bugs, beetles, sawfly larvae, and other invertebrates. ...
Wells, M. J. (1978). Octopus, Physiology and Behaviour of an Advanced Invertebrate. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 978 ... "Octopuses and Relatives: Feeding, diets and growth". A Snail's Odyssey. Retrieved 13 April 2017.. ... Mather, J. A.; Anderson, R. C.; Wood, J. B. (2010). Octopus: The Ocean's Intelligent Invertebrate. Timber Press. ISBN 978-1- ... Anderson, Roland C.; Mather, Jennifer A.; Wood, James B. (2013). Octopus: The Ocean's Intelligent Invertebrate. Timber Press. p ...
The adult diet is omnivorous and includes plant matter, invertebrates and small vertebrates. ... Analyses showed strong niche separation between Brolgas and sarus cranes by diet. It is likely that their diet in dry season ... Diet[edit]. Brolgas are omnivorous and forage in wetlands and saltwater marshes. They tear up the ground with their powerful ... "Sympatric cranes in northern Australia: abundance, breeding success, habitat preference and diet". Emu - Austral Ornithology.. ...
The majority of these species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Variation in length of legs and bills ... They are adaptable birds, with a mixed diet including seeds and insects. ...
The armyworm's diet consists mainly of grasses and small-grain crops such as corn, but the species has been noted to consume ... Fall armyworm caterpillars are directly preyed on by many invertebrates and vertebrates. Common predators include birds, ...
The diet of parrots consists of seeds, fruit, nectar, pollen, buds, and sometimes arthropods and other animal prey. The most ... Some parrot species prey on animals, especially invertebrate larvae. Golden-winged parakeets prey on water snails,[58] the New ... The most important components of most parrots' diets are seeds, nuts, fruit, buds, and other plant material. A few species ... Geographical range and body size predominantly explains diet composition of Neotropical parrots rather than phylogeny.[55] ...
Mynahs and egrets both eat invertebrates from the rhino's skin and around its feet. Tabanus flies, a type of horse-fly, are ... Their diet consists almost entirely of grasses, but they also eat leaves, branches of shrubs and trees, fruits, and submerged ...
The majority of these species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Different lengths of legs and bills enable ... They are adaptable birds, with a mixed diet including seeds and insects. ...
Diet and digestive system[change , change source]. Arachnids are mostly carnivorous, feeding on the pre-digested bodies of ... The Arachnids are a class of eight-legged arthropods.[1] They are a highly successful group of mainly terrestrial invertebrates ...
Diet and damage[edit]. The insect is regarded as an herbivorous generalist, and the larvae feed on numerous horticultural crops ... A review of biological control of invertebrate pests & weeds in New Zealand (Cameron, P. J., Hill, R. L., Bain, J. and Thomas, ...
The majority of these species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Variation in length of legs and bills ... Found in tropical woodlands worldwide, they feed on insects and fruit, and their broad bills and weak legs reflect their diet ... They spend the majority of their time on wet forest floors, eating snails, insects and similar invertebrates. ... They are adaptable birds, with a mixed diet including seeds and insects. ...
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 103: s2-s4. doi:10.1016/j.jip.2009.07.015. Retrieved 21 October 2014.. ... Queen honey bees are created when worker bees feed a single female larvae an exclusive diet of a food called "royal jelly".[58] ... The dominant monosaccharides in honey bee diets are fructose and glucose but the most common circulating sugar in hemolymph is ...
These galliform genera prefer instead to capture live invertebrates in leaf litter, in sand, or shallow pools or along stream ... have a diet primarily of vegetation, they will eat insects, mice, lizards, and amphibians, wading in water to hunt for the ... has been observed digging in the rotting wood of deadfall in a similar manner to woodpeckers to extract invertebrates, even ...
These ants' primary diet is aphid honeydew, but they also prey on invertebrates such as insects and arachnids;[3] they are ...
... and early dinosaurs-and invertebrates, including freshwater snails and clams.[17] ... Coyotes are omnivores with a widely varied diet including many rodents.. Some of the larger animals roaming the grasslands ...
Diet[edit]. This genus is omnivorous and prone to scavenging. The foods of choice for Vulpes consist of invertebrates, a ... The parents supplement this diet with a variety of mammals and birds. During early to middle July, the kits are able to hunt on ...
The common ostrich's diet consists mainly of plant matter, though it also eats invertebrates. It lives in nomadic groups of 5 ... is due to a high protein diets. As seen in various studies, scientists have measured clearance of creatinine, a fairly reliable ...
InvertebratesEdit. MolluscsEdit. Lake Malawi is home to 28 species of freshwater snails (including 16 endemics) and 9 bivalves ... Allison; Irvine; Thompson; and Ngatunga (1996). Diets and food consumption rates of pelagic fish in Lake Malawi, Africa. ...
The quantitative diet of shadow bass consists mostly of small invertebrates, mainly crayfish when less than three inches; after ...
In the forests of Kalimantan, fruits of Moraceae, Burseraceae and Myrtaceae make up more than 50% of the fruit diet.[6] They ... Sun bear scats collected in a forest reserve in Sabah contained mainly invertebrates such as beetles and their larvae, termites ... but otherwise vegetative matter appears rare in the diet. ... Diet[edit]. A sun bear in Shanghai Zoo showing its powerful ...
... s' diets. are varied and often include nectar, fruit, plants, seeds, carrion, and various small animals, including other ... Many birds glean for insects, invertebrates, fruit, or seeds. Some hunt insects by suddenly attacking from a branch. Those ... diet; a study of great frigatebirds stealing from masked boobies estimated that the frigatebirds stole at most 40% of their ... Kiwis and shorebirds with long bills probe for invertebrates; shorebirds' varied bill lengths and feeding methods result in the ...
By 300, corn had become the preeminent staple of the Basketmaker II people's diet, which relied less and less on wild food ... It contains numerous fossil beds of different types of shells, fish teeth, and other invertebrate leftovers from the receded ... Mesa Verdeans supplemented their diet by gathering the seeds and fruits of wild plants, searching large expanses of land while ... Its sediments are approximately 400 feet thick, and its upper layers feature fossiliferous invertebrates.[105] ...
The diets of species of Crotalus generally consist of vertebrates, although many invertebrate species have also been consumed. ...
Pagh, Sussie; Hersteinsson, Pall (2008). "Difference in diet and age structure of blue and white Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) ... It also eats carrion, berries, seaweed, and insects and other small invertebrates. Arctic foxes form monogamous pairs during ... On the coast of Iceland and other islands, their diet consists predominantly of birds. During April and May, the Arctic fox ...
Invertebrate Diets at the lowest prices online - up to 60% off everyday - at That Fish Place. Click or call 1-888-842-8738 for ...
The invertebrate diets include a unique soft LPS Coral Pellet and two micronised flake products for SPS and soft corals, all of ... New Koi, holiday and invertebrate diets from World Feeds August 27, 2016. Karen Youngs ... The Yorkshire-based fish nutrition innovator has launched its first range of invertebrate diets to satisfy the dietary needs of ... In Marine, Freshwater, Products, News Tags food, aquarium, fish, pond, invertebrates, corals, marines, World Feeds, Vitalis, ...
Additionally, vibrissae are grown in utero, potentially offering indirect inference on maternal diet. However, diet ... which can vary relative to diet quality and among animal species. In this study, we provide new TEF estimates for (1) maternal ... relative to pup vibrissae during both gestation and nursing and (2) adult vibrissae relative to a complex diet. Further, we ... and nitrogen isotope trophic enrichment factors for Steller sea lion vibrissae relative to milk and fish/invertebrate diets. ...
... in Freshwater Fish and Invertebrates forum - Our new Ropefish (from petland) that has been in our tank just short of a week now ... Diet Of A Ropefish? Bry, Mar 3, 2019, in forum: Freshwater Fish and Invertebrates ... Aquarium Forum,Freshwater Aquarium Fish Forum,Freshwater Fish and Invertebrates,. Ropefish Help!!! Discussion in Freshwater ... Invertebrates. Gourami. Livebearers. Loaches. Puffers. Tetras. Plant Profiles Saltwater Fish. Angelfish - Dwarf. Angelfish - ...
Purchase Manual of Techniques in Invertebrate Pathology - 2nd Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780123868992, 9780123869005 ... Appendix: artificial diet recipes. Chapter V. Bacteria for use against soil-inhabiting insects ... The book presents the perspectives of an international group of experts in the fields of invertebrate pathology, including ... Manual of Techniques in Invertebrate Pathology, Second Edition, describes a wide range of techniques used in the identification ...
Molecular mechanisms of biomineralization in marine invertebrates. Understanding marine biomineralization has many tangible ... time by diet: F(5,82)=15.98; Sc. couchii, assay: F(3,87)=1.32, time: F(3,87)=43.58, diet: F(4,87)=63.25,time by diet: F(5,87)= ... diet and a time by diet interaction (ANOVA: Sp. bombifrons, assay: F(3,82)=8.45, time: F(3,82)=440.24, diet: F(2,82)=469.35, ... diet: F(4,78)=7.46, P,0.0001), tadpole CORT varied in diet-dependent manner by 7 days after feeding began (time by diet ...
We are your Premium Source of Aquarium Supplies for Reef, Saltwater, Marine, and Freshwater Aquarium - Buy Invertebrate, Coral ... and Free Shipping on Invertebrate Food - Coral Food - Phytoplankton. ... Invertebrate Food - Coral Food - Phytoplankton - At AquaCave, we offer Best Prices, 5% Back, ... Phyto2 AZOX Macro Diet, 8oz.A nutritious diet scientifically designed for the nutritional needs of both Photosynthetic and Non- ...
MarineSnow Plantkton Diet [473 mL] Food for filter-feeding marine invertebrates that feed on particulate and dissolved organic ... Nutritionally balanced diet for corals, sponges, anemones, gorgonians, feather dusters, clams and other fine filter feeders. It ... Kent Marine Zoe is a superior vitamin complex for marine fish, invertebrates and desirable algae. Contains high dosages of ... carbohydrates and lipids for a broad range of filter-feeding marine invertebrates.…. ...
Methane Consuming Microorganisms Exhibit a Strange Diet Biology Deep Sea Worms Eat Archaea, May Play a Role in Greenhouse Gas ... Sunken Wood Can Develop into Habitats for Microorganisms and Invertebrates TOPICS:EcologyMax Planck InstituteMicrobiology ... Be the first to comment on "Sunken Wood Can Develop into Habitats for Microorganisms and Invertebrates". ... Institute have shown how sunken wood can develop into attractive habitats for a variety of microorganisms and invertebrates due ...
As with the other US Plusiotus species, larvae do best on a diet of rotten wood alone. Adults feed on Juniper and live short ... Larvae grow well on a diet of well-rotted hardwood. Most races can take less than a year to raise to adults.. ...
Diet. Small aquatic invertebrates. Diet probably varies with season. Eats many insects and their larvae, especially on breeding ...
Description: small marine invertebrates. Habitats: warm, shallow tropical waters. Diet: zooplankton, small fish. Cool fact: In ...
primary diet animals. invertebrates trophic level carnivore Found in 20 classifications. See all 20 approved classifications in ...
However, some species have diets that are more unusual. Army ants may prey on reptiles, birds, or even small mammals. ... https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/invertebrates/group/ants.html © 1996-2015 National Geographic Society, © 2015- 2019 ...
Diets of these beetles vary from species to species. Some consume live plants and are considered agricultural pests. Some eat ... https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/invertebrates/group/scarabs.html © 1996-2015 National Geographic Society, © 2015- ... But the most well-known diet item is consumed by the scarabs called dung beetles. These beetles subsist entirely on the ...
Diet: Probably includes invertebrates and fishes.. Shark bite: Found on muddy, sandy, or rocky bottoms, collared carpetsharks ... Diet: Probably includes small fishes and bottom invertebrates.. Shark bite: Longtailed carpetsharks often occur in tidepools on ... Diet: Mainly bivalves and sea-snails, but also crabs, shrimps, and small bony fishes.. Shark bite: The zebra shark has a ... Diet: Small fishes, crabs, shrimps, cuttlefish, and sea anemones. Shark bite: The name "blind shark" comes from one of this ...
Diet Conservation status Dama gazelle Gazella dama French: Gazelle dama. Large body, reddish brown coat. Face, bottom, and rump ... They will occasionally eat invertebrates.. reproductive biology. Polygamous. Mating season is December to November in the wild ... Diet Conservation status Dibatag Ammodorcas clarkei English: Clarkes gazelle. Upperparts are grayish fawn, rump and undersides ... Feeding ecology and diet. Antilopinae are herbivorous, but a few will take a small amount of meat if it is available. Their ...
primary diet animals. invertebrates. invertebrates trophic level carnivore parental care No Paternal Care. No Paternal Care ...
... a group of invertebrate animals composed of about 200 described species, or of the class Cubozoa (approximately 20 species). ... Jellyfish, any planktonic marine member of the class Scyphozoa (phylum Cnidaria), a group of invertebrate animals composed of ...
Diet Omnivore Reef Compatible Yes Water Conditions 72-78° F, dKH 8-12, pH 8.1-8.4, sg 1.023-1.025 ... Home > Marine Invertebrates & Plants > Popular Value Packs, Marine Invertebrates > Cerith Snail Due to variations within ... Like other invertebrates, the Cerith Snail is sensitive to high nitrate levels and copper based medications. It also requires a ...
... is one of many algae and detritus-eating ornamental invertebrates available at LiveAquaria® for your saltwater marine aquarium. ... Diet Omnivore Reef Compatible Yes Water Conditions 72-78° F, dKH 8-12, pH 8.1-8.4, sg 1.023-1.025 ... Home > Marine Invertebrates & Plants > Popular Value Packs, Marine Invertebrates > Cerith Snail Please Note: Due to variations ... Like other invertebrates, the Cerith Snail is sensitive to high nitrate levels and copper based medications. It also requires a ...
diet includes animals. invertebrates. invertebrates. more trophic level herbivore primary diet fruit. fruit. plants ...
primary diet animals. animals. invertebrates. more diet includes fish. vertebrates. vertebrates trophic level omnivore ... although in captivity some have also been observed eating invertebrates (2). ...
The higher plant material and invertebrate %BPI and %FO in the mixed sex summer diet compared to the diet of denning females ... Galloway seasonal diet comparison. Although the diet of denning females and the mixed sex summer population diet in Galloway ... In the diet of mixed sex martens in Galloway in 2014, plant material and invertebrate %FO were equally highest (37.3% and 35.5 ... Large mammal %BPI was still low, but plant material and invertebrate %BPI was the lowest (Fig. 2). The diet of denning females ...
... ... Nwaogu , C J , Galema , A , Cresswell , W , Dietz , M W & Tieleman , B I 2020 , A fruit diet rather than invertebrate diet ... 2. To test the effect of diet on life history traits, we tested how diet composition affects innate immune function, body mass ... 1. Diet alteration may lead to nutrient limitations even in the absence of food limitation, and this may affect physiological ...
Invertebrates. Learning processes appear to play a relatively small role in food selection by invertebrates. Diets are largely ... Invertebrates. One of the few invertebrates in which the physiology of feeding behaviour has been extensively studied is the ... Most vertebrates appear to take a varied diet whenever possible.. Responses to encountered food. Diet selection in adult ... Food searching and diet. The general type of food taken is often determined by the innate search method of the animal and the ...
Diet: Lancer dragonets eat small bottom-dwelling invertebrates.. Behavior and reproduction: Lancer dragonets take advantage of ... DIET. Dragonets and their relatives eat small, bottom-dwelling invertebrates, or animals without backbones. Larger species eat ...
Fungi in Diet of Vertebrates. Fungi in Diet of Invertebrates. Influence of Faunal Grazing on Decomposition. Influence of Faunal ... Influence of Invertebrate Grazing on Fungal Pathogens. Specific Fungal-Faunal Interactions. Fungal-Faunal Interactions in ... modern methods of following food chains in fungal-invertebrate trophic interactions, and the physiology of nutrient uptake by ...
G. Diets, Culture Media, Food Supplements. Vol. 2. Food Habits of and Diets for Invertebrates and Vertebrates. Zoo diets. ... G. Diets, Culture Media, Food Supplements. Vol. 1. Dits for Mammals. Cleveland, OH: CRC Press, 1977. 645 pp. CRC Handbook ... G. Diets, Culture Media, Food Supplements. Vol. 4. Culture Media for Cells, Organs and Embryos. Cleveland, OH: CRC Press, 1977 ... G. Diets, Culture Media, Food Supplements. Vol. 3. Culture Media for Microorganisms and Plants. Cleveland, OH: CRC Press, 1978 ...
A calcium-rich diet of algae and dried seaweed should be given to ensure its best of health. These Zebra Stripe Turbo Snails ... Please select from the available Invertebrate Species below. You may also click here to browse the category. ...
  • Although Spea larvae performed equally well on either diet, shrimp-fed Scaphiopus larvae experienced reduced growth and developmental rates, as well as elevated levels of the stress hormone corticosterone when compared with those that ate the ancestral detritus diet. (biologists.org)
  • We investigated the physiological changes associated with the transition to a novel diet in spadefoot toad larvae (Pelobatoidea). (biologists.org)
  • It also explains initial handling and diagnosis of diseased invertebrates, basic techniques in insect virology, and bioassay of bacterial entomopathogens against insect larvae. (elsevier.com)
  • Cadmium sulfate and zinc sulate salts in graded concentration were fed to silkworm larvae using an artificial diet. (osti.gov)
  • I. Effects of cadmium and zinc on silkworm larvae, Bombyx mori L} author = {Miyoshi, T, Miyazawa, F, and Shimizu, O} abstractNote = {Cadmium sulfate and zinc sulate salts in graded concentration were fed to silkworm larvae using an artificial diet. (osti.gov)
  • Their diet consists of some larger insects, their eggs and larvae. (birdforum.net)
  • Here, we describe the microbiota of the midgut of H. illucens larvae, showing the effect of different diets and midgut regions in shaping microbial load and diversity. (asm.org)
  • However, diet reconstruction using isotopic techniques requires a priori knowledge of trophic enrichment factors (TEFs), which can vary relative to diet quality and among animal species. (usgs.gov)
  • The book also includes expanded coverage of the role of fungi in suppressive soils, aquatic and marine fungi, modern methods of following food chains in fungal-invertebrate trophic interactions, and the physiology of nutrient uptake by mycorrhizae. (routledge.com)
  • Intensive sampling of 8 lakes indicated that habitat-specific bioaccumulation in invertebrates (of similar trophic level) may result from spatial variation in aqueous MeHg concentration or from more efficient uptake of aqueous MeHg into the pelagic food web. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A premium algae blend provides the invertebrates with trace elements and carbohydrates rich in energy in a form only found in the ocean. (aquacave.com)
  • Kent Marine Zoe is a superior vitamin complex for marine fish, invertebrates and desirable algae. (aquariumsupplies.ca)
  • A calcium-rich diet of algae and dried seaweed should be given to ensure its best of health. (saltwaterfish.com)
  • Invertebrate preference varies by waterfowl species, but in general snails, crustaceans, and insects are important invertebrate groups for reproducing ducks. (fws.gov)
  • Their diet is composed mostly of fish, amphibians (frogs), crustaceans (crayfish and crabs), muskrats, and other small mammals. (epa.gov)
  • Freshwater stingrays eat crustaceans and other invertebrates. (si.edu)
  • Their diet consists of insects, small crustaceans and other invertebrates. (npolar.no)
  • The diet consists of insects and water snails. (hubpages.com)
  • Animals without backbones (known as invertebrates) include insects, snails and worms. (teara.govt.nz)
  • Small aquatic invertebrates. (audubon.org)
  • Coumaphos is highly toxic to birds and aquatic invertebrates and moderately toxic to fish. (cdc.gov)
  • Mammals were considered to be of concern for pesticide exposures through aquatic bioaccumulation if their diets incorporated freshwater aquatic animals. (epa.gov)
  • At the Smithsonian's National Zoo, the stingrays eat shrimp, earthworms, smelt and an aquatic omnivore gel diet. (si.edu)
  • We, therefore, suggest that there are differences in the diet of denning female martens compared to mixed sex spring populations and that future translocations should consider abundances of anurans in Galloway, and even more importantly than before, small mammals and birds across Great Britain. (springer.com)
  • Our results are unique because they show a reversible effect of diet composition on wild adult birds whose immune systems are presumably fully developed and adapted to wild conditions - demonstrating a short-term consequence of diet alteration on life history traits. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • All natural and captive diets listed in this document are based primarily on the Spring-Summer diet of these birds. (snowcrest.net)
  • Closely related species often specialize on different types of prey, but little is known about the fitness consequences of making an evolutionary transition to a novel diet. (biologists.org)
  • Although this ecological scenario suggests potential fitness benefits to be gained from a carnivorous diet, especially when resources are limited, multiple characteristics are needed to sense, obtain, digest and assimilate nutrients from such prey. (biologists.org)
  • We compared our results with other Scottish studies and found that carrion frequency of occurrence and biomass of prey ingested differed most significantly between the regional mixed sex spring diets and the diet of denning females in Galloway. (springer.com)
  • benthic prey may constitute entire winter diet. (iucnredlist.org)
  • Some prey on other invertebrates. (teara.govt.nz)
  • Almost all native fish prey on invertebrates or other fish. (teara.govt.nz)
  • Scientists from the Max Planck Institute have shown how sunken wood can develop into attractive habitats for a variety of microorganisms and invertebrates due to the activity of bacteria, which produce hydrogen sulfide during wood degradation. (scitechdaily.com)
  • A team of Max Planck researchers from Germany now showed how sunken wood can develop into attractive habitats for a variety of microorganisms and invertebrates. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Extensive deposits of barnacle shell form major structural habitats for other invertebrates in the Sea. (sdsu.edu)
  • Animals that lack backbones are known as invertebrates. (marinebio.org)
  • These toxins are thought to be derived from their diet, and may function both to deter predators and protect the bird from parasites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Probably includes invertebrates and fishes. (pbs.org)
  • its carnivorous diet includes invertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Yorkshire-based fish nutrition innovator has launched its first range of invertebrate diets to satisfy the dietary needs of corals and anemones which are not met through photosynthesis. (practicalfishkeeping.co.uk)
  • Also in the invertebrate range is the Anemone Pellet, developed to suit the passive feeding mechanisms of carnivorous anemones by mimicking larger particles of food or fish. (practicalfishkeeping.co.uk)
  • Mother-pup vibrissae TEF values during gestation and nursing were near zero for δ 13 C and averaged 0.8 and 1.6‰, respectively, for δ 15 N. In contrast, vibrissa-fish/invertebrate TEFs averaged 3.3 (± 0.3 SD) and 3.7‰ (±0.3) for lipid-free δ 13 C and δ 15 N, respectively. (usgs.gov)
  • Discussion in ' Freshwater Fish and Invertebrates ' started by Cagaryfishguy , Apr 11, 2017 . (fishlore.com)
  • Made from real marine fish and invertebrate eggs and treated with vitamin boosters, Marine Frenzy will stir your fish into a feeding frenzy while giving them great nutrition. (aquacave.com)
  • Primarily small fish, some invertebrates. (tn.gov)
  • Trends in forage fish populations in Northern Hudson Bay since 1981, as determined from the diet of nestling thick-billed murres Uria lomvia. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • We suggest that the observed changes in diet composition reflect changes in the relative abundance of the fish species involved and that the decline in arctic cod and increase in capelin and sandlance were associated with a general warming of Hudson Bay waters, the result of ongoing climate change in the region. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Sandbar sharks feed on bottom-dwelling fish and invertebrates. (chesapeakebay.net)
  • Some introduced fish are common in freshwater systems, where they compete for food - for instance, they eat invertebrates that are a food source for galaxiids. (teara.govt.nz)
  • Major item in diet of several fish and eared grebes. (sdsu.edu)
  • Dragonets and their relatives eat small, bottom-dwelling invertebrates, or animals without backbones. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Lancer dragonets eat small bottom-dwelling invertebrates. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It occasionally feeds on invertebrates and small vertebrates. (iucnredlist.org)
  • It also eats other small invertebrates and sometimes will even other eat small frogs. (enchantedlearning.com)
  • Habitat-specific bioaccumulation of methylmercury in invertebrates of small mid-latitude lakes in North America. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Their diet consists of copepods, cnidarians and other small invertebrates. (softschools.com)
  • Darnell, R. M.: Food habits of fishes and larger invertebrates of Lake Ponchartrain, Louisiana, an estuarine community. (springer.com)
  • Earthworms are abundant in the diet in some areas (Peterson and Yates 1980). (iucnredlist.org)
  • The turtle's diet includes anurans, tadpoles, invertebrates and carrion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cuban treefrogs have been recorded preying upon native animals including invertebrates, frogs, snakes, and mammals. (usgs.gov)
  • By examining the diet of the CTF, a known predator of native frogs, better predictions may be made of the impacts on native species and ecosystems. (usgs.gov)
  • We hypothesize that the transition to a carnivorous diet in spadefoot tadpoles may have been associated with the inability of tadpoles to ingest or acquire nutrients from such a diet, thus causing nutrient stress that can have negative fitness consequences. (biologists.org)
  • At AquaCave, we offer some of the best selection & best prices on Invertebrate, Liquid Coral Food, Reef Food, Phytoplankton for you marine, reef, and freshwater aquarium. (aquacave.com)
  • Freshwater invertebrates range from tiny animals that can barely be seen with the naked eye (such as planktonic rotifers) to quite large crayfish (kōura) and mussels (kākahi), a traditional food source for Māori. (teara.govt.nz)
  • New Zealand's freshwater invertebrates are quite distinctive, and many species are not found elsewhere. (teara.govt.nz)
  • 2. To test the effect of diet on life history traits, we tested how diet composition affects innate immune function, body mass and moult separately and in combination with each other, and then used path analyses to generate hypotheses about the mechanistic connections between immunity and body mass under different diet composition. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • Path analyses indicated that diet composition was most likely to affect body mass and immune indices directly and independently from each other. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • Only haptoglobin concentration was indirectly linked to diet composition via body mass. 5. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • We demonstrated a causal effect of diet composition on innate immune function, body mass and moult: bulbuls were in better condition when fed on fruits than invertebrates, confirming that innate immunity is nutrient specific. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • Trends in the composition of nestling thick-billed murre diets were analyzed for the period 1980-2002 on the basis of observations of food delivered to nestlings at two breeding colonies in northern Hudson Bay. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • With the recent establishment of Cuban treefrogs outside of Florida, comparative life history data such as diet composition and reproductive development does not exist. (usgs.gov)
  • We fed 40 wild-caught bulbuls ad libitum on fruits or invertebrates for 24 weeks, switching half of each group between treatments after 12 weeks. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • The diet is made up of fruits, seeds and invertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The book presents the perspectives of an international group of experts in the fields of invertebrate pathology, including microbiology, mycology, virology, nematology, biological control, and integrated pest management. (elsevier.com)
  • In common with other warblers this species feeds on a diet of insects, spiders and other invertebrates. (hubpages.com)
  • Because they are so diverse and plentiful, invertebrates are ideal indicators of water quality and habitat health. (teara.govt.nz)
  • Venus flytraps have a unique diet, especially for a plant, and some interesting adaptations that help them survive in their habitat. (study.com)
  • Jellyfish , any planktonic marine member of the class Scyphozoa (phylum Cnidaria), a group of invertebrate animals composed of about 200 described species, or of the class Cubozoa (approximately 20 species). (britannica.com)
  • Likewise, we show that growth is also diminished on protein-rich diets and that this can be mechanistically explained by means of a metabolic penalty that arises when animals use protein for energy generation. (frontiersin.org)
  • The rats are primarily herbivorous, feeding on fallen fruit, seeds and leaves, digging for roots and tubers and stripping bark from saplings (4), although in captivity some have also been observed eating invertebrates (2). (eol.org)
  • seeds, and some invertebrates . (animalinfo.org)
  • Like other invertebrates, the Cerith Snail is sensitive to high nitrate levels and copper based medications. (liveaquaria.com)
  • Nearly all baby songbirds are fed a primarily insect diet. (snowcrest.net)
  • Invertebrate MeHg concentrations were primarily correlated with water pH, and after controlling for this influence, pelagic zooplankton had significantly higher MeHg concentrations than littoral primary consumers but lower MeHg than littoral secondary consumers. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Some other invertebrates rely on a numbers game, releasing thousands of eggs that each have only a limited chance of survival. (teara.govt.nz)
  • individual omission of all these 11 amino acids leads aphids to decreased body weight and even no reproduction on the cysteine-, isoleucine-, methionine- or tryptophan-free diet ( 3 ). (asm.org)
  • Food for filter-feeding marine invertebrates that feed on particulate and dissolved organic matter, phytoplankton and zooplankton. (aquariumsupplies.ca)
  • A concentrated complex of aquacultured, naturally-occurring phytoplankton that provides necessary proteins, carbohydrates and lipids for a broad range of filter-feeding marine invertebrates. (aquariumsupplies.ca)
  • Their diet consisted of marine bivalves , brachiopods , and other invertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insects, Marine Invertebrates, Garbage. (officialusa.com)
  • Some invertebrate phyla have only one species, while others like Arthropoda include more than 83% of all described animal species with over a million species. (marinebio.org)
  • The invertebrate diets include a unique soft LPS Coral Pellet and two micronised flake products for SPS and soft corals, all of which contain an advanced blend of amino acids to facilitate polyp extension to feed corals as they would in the wild by trapping suspended matter. (practicalfishkeeping.co.uk)
  • General morphology and ultrastructure of representatives of 11 major taxonomic groups of invertebrates are demonstrated in this portfolio of images and brief descriptions. (sdsu.edu)
  • Outside the breeding season they will supplement their diet with fruit and berries. (hubpages.com)
  • 1. Diet alteration may lead to nutrient limitations even in the absence of food limitation, and this may affect physiological functions, including immunity. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • Adult Maintenance Diet plus mealworms, commercial wild bird seed mix, and natural food items as available. (snowcrest.net)
  • Invertebrates are the planet's biggest source of biodiversity and can be found on every level of the food chain and in every ecosystem on the planet. (fws.gov)
  • This paper aims to identify the patterns of food and feeding of S. commersonnii and present a comprehensive account of its feeding ecology, especially the ontogenetic variation in diet preferences. (hindawi.com)
  • Estimated intakes from diet and water have not exceeded recommended intake limits (U.S.EPA, 2000). (cdc.gov)