Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.
Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.
A diet that contains limited amounts of fat with less than 30% of calories from all fats and less than 10% from saturated fat. Such a diet is used in control of HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. (From Bondy et al, Metabolic Control and Disease, 8th ed, pp468-70; Dorland, 27th ed)
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
A diet typical of the Mediterranean region characterized by a pattern high in fruits and vegetables, EDIBLE GRAIN and bread, potatoes, poultry, beans, nuts, olive oil and fish while low in red meat and dairy and moderate in alcohol consumption.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
A diet that contains limited amounts of protein. It is prescribed in some cases to slow the progression of renal failure. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Dietary practice of completely avoiding meat products in the DIET, consuming VEGETABLES, CEREALS, and NUTS. Some vegetarian diets called lacto-ovo also include milk and egg products.
A diet that contains limited amounts of CARBOHYDRATES. This is in distinction to a regular DIET.
A course of food intake that is high in FATS and low in CARBOHYDRATES. This diet provides sufficient PROTEINS for growth but insufficient amount of carbohydrates for the energy needs of the body. A ketogenic diet generates 80-90% of caloric requirements from fats and the remainder from proteins.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
A diet that contributes to the development and acceleration of ATHEROGENESIS.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
By adjusting the quantity and quality of food intake to improve health status of an individual. This term does not include the methods of food intake (NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT).
Nutritional physiology of animals.
Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.
The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.
Diets which become fashionable, but which are not necessarily nutritious.(Lehninger 1982, page 484)
The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.
The consumption of edible substances.
A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
A diet prescribed in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, usually limited in the amount of sugar or readily available carbohydrate. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.
Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.
A diet which is devoid of GLUTENS from WHEAT; BARLEY; RYE; and other wheat-related varieties. The diet is designed to reduce exposure to those proteins in gluten that trigger INFLAMMATION of the small intestinal mucosa in patients with CELIAC DISEASE.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Triglycerides are the most common type of fat in the body, stored in fat cells and used as energy; they are measured in blood tests to assess heart disease risk, with high levels often resulting from dietary habits, obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, and alcohol consumption.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
The contents included in all or any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
Glucose in blood.
A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.
Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Phosphorus used in foods or obtained from food. This element is a major intracellular component which plays an important role in many biochemical pathways relating to normal physiological functions. High concentrations of dietary phosphorus can cause nephrocalcinosis which is associated with impaired kidney function. Low concentrations of dietary phosphorus cause an increase in calcitriol in the blood and osteoporosis.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of proteins in the diet, characterized by adaptive enzyme changes in the liver, increase in amino acid synthetases, and diminution of urea formation, thus conserving nitrogen and reducing its loss in the urine. Growth, immune response, repair, and production of enzymes and hormones are all impaired in severe protein deficiency. Protein deficiency may also arise in the face of adequate protein intake if the protein is of poor quality (i.e., the content of one or more amino acids is inadequate and thus becomes the limiting factor in protein utilization). (From Merck Manual, 16th ed; Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p406)
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.
Acquired or learned food preferences.
An approach to nutrition based on whole cereal grains, beans, cooked vegetables and the Chinese YIN-YANG principle. It advocates a diet consisting of organic and locally grown foods, seasonal vegetables, complex carbohydrates, and fewer fats, sugars, and chemically processed foods.
Proteins which are present in or isolated from SOYBEANS.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.
Oil from ZEA MAYS or corn plant.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate and water to 1L-myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5-pentakisphosphate and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.26.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Prolamins in the endosperm of SEEDS from the Triticeae tribe which includes species of WHEAT; BARLEY; and RYE.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
A condition produced by a deficiency of CHOLINE in animals. Choline is known as a lipotropic agent because it has been shown to promote the transport of excess fat from the liver under certain conditions in laboratory animals. Combined deficiency of choline (included in the B vitamin complex) and all other methyl group donors causes liver cirrhosis in some animals. Unlike compounds normally considered as vitamins, choline does not serve as a cofactor in enzymatic reactions. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.
Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
A group of fatty acids, often of marine origin, which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position from the omega carbon. These fatty acids are believed to reduce serum triglycerides, prevent insulin resistance, improve lipid profile, prolong bleeding times, reduce platelet counts, and decrease platelet adhesiveness.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
Proteins which are present in or isolated from vegetables or vegetable products used as food. The concept is distinguished from PLANT PROTEINS which refers to non-dietary proteins from plants.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.
Oil from soybean or soybean plant.
Sodium or sodium compounds used in foods or as a food. The most frequently used compounds are sodium chloride or sodium glutamate.
F344 rats are an inbred strain of albino laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) that have been widely used in biomedical research due to their consistent and reliable genetic background, which facilitates the study of disease mechanisms and therapeutic interventions.
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
Fodder converted into succulent feed for livestock through processes of anaerobic fermentation (as in a silo).
The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.
Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.
A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.
Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.
The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Botanically, a type of single-seeded fruit in which the pericarp enclosing the seed is a hard woody shell. In common usage the term is used loosely for any hard, oil-rich kernel. Of those commonly eaten, only hazel, filbert, and chestnut are strictly nuts. Walnuts, pecans, almonds, and coconuts are really drupes. Brazil nuts, pistachios, macadamias, and cashews are really seeds with a hard shell derived from the testa rather than the pericarp.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
An element with the atomic symbol Se, atomic number 34, and atomic weight 78.96. It is an essential micronutrient for mammals and other animals but is toxic in large amounts. Selenium protects intracellular structures against oxidative damage. It is an essential component of GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.
Complexing agent for removal of traces of heavy metal ions. It acts also as a hypocalcemic agent.
The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.
A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A plant species of the family POACEAE that is widely cultivated for its edible seeds.
A numerical system of measuring the rate of BLOOD GLUCOSE generation from a particular food item as compared to a reference item, such as glucose = 100. Foods with higher glycemic index numbers create greater blood sugar swings.
Abstaining from all food.
A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.
An oily liquid extracted from the seeds of the safflower, Carthamus tinctorius. It is used as a dietary supplement in the management of HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA. It is used also in cooking, as a salad oil, and as a vehicle for medicines, paints, varnishes, etc. (Dorland, 28th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
A plant genus of the family LINACEAE that is cultivated for its fiber (manufactured into linen cloth). It contains a trypsin inhibitor and the seed is the source of LINSEED OIL.
The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
Substances which are of little or no nutritive value, but are used in the processing or storage of foods or animal feed, especially in the developed countries; includes ANTIOXIDANTS; FOOD PRESERVATIVES; FOOD COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS (both plain and LOCAL); VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS and other similarly used substances. Many of the same substances are PHARMACEUTIC AIDS when added to pharmaceuticals rather than to foods.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
A condition produced by dietary or metabolic deficiency. The term includes all diseases caused by an insufficient supply of essential nutrients, i.e., protein (or amino acids), vitamins, and minerals. It also includes an inadequacy of calories. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.
FATTY ACIDS which have the first unsaturated bond in the sixth position from the omega carbon. A typical American diet tends to contain substantially more omega-6 than OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
A plant genus of the family ARECACEAE. It is a tropical palm tree that yields a large, edible hard-shelled fruit from which oil and fiber are also obtained.
Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Animal reproductive bodies, or the contents thereof, used as food. The concept is differentiated from OVUM, the anatomic or physiologic entity.
A malabsorption syndrome that is precipitated by the ingestion of foods containing GLUTEN, such as wheat, rye, and barley. It is characterized by INFLAMMATION of the SMALL INTESTINE, loss of MICROVILLI structure, failed INTESTINAL ABSORPTION, and MALNUTRITION.
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
Oil obtained from the seeds of Gossypium herbaceum L., the cotton plant. It is used in dietary products such as oleomargarine and many cooking oils. Cottonseed oil is commonly used in soaps and cosmetics.
A fatty acid that is found in plants and involved in the formation of prostaglandins.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Fats containing one or more double bonds, as from oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid.
Raw and processed or manufactured milk and milk-derived products. These are usually from cows (bovine) but are also from goats, sheep, reindeer, and water buffalo.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN E in the diet, characterized by posterior column and spinocerebellar tract abnormalities, areflexia, ophthalmoplegia, and disturbances of gait, proprioception, and vibration. In premature infants vitamin E deficiency is associated with hemolytic anemia, thrombocytosis, edema, intraventricular hemorrhage, and increasing risk of retrolental fibroplasia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. An apparent inborn error of vitamin E metabolism, named familial isolated vitamin E deficiency, has recently been identified. (Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1181)
'Sulfur-containing amino acids' are a category of amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, that include methionine and cysteine, which contain sulfur atoms as part of their side chains, playing crucial roles in protein structure, enzyme function, and antioxidant defense.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Young, unweaned mammals. Refers to nursing animals whether nourished by their biological mother, foster mother, or bottle fed.
The fatty portion of milk, separated as a soft yellowish solid when milk or cream is churned. It is processed for cooking and table use. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.
The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
3-Phenylchromones. Isomeric form of FLAVONOIDS in which the benzene group is attached to the 3 position of the benzopyran ring instead of the 2 position.
The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.
Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.
The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.
A condition characterized by an abnormally elevated concentration of KETONE BODIES in the blood (acetonemia) or urine (acetonuria). It is a sign of DIABETES COMPLICATION, starvation, alcoholism or a mitochondrial metabolic disturbance (e.g., MAPLE SYRUP URINE DISEASE).
The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.
A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.
Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
Potassium or potassium compounds used in foods or as foods.
A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.
An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
The consumption of liquids.
Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.

Vitamin D status in different subgroups of British Asians. (1/20742)

To assess the effect of religious dietary practices and social customs on the vitamin D status of Asian immigrants, we kept records of the dietary intake and time spent out of doors of 81 Ugandan Asian men, women, and girls (9-19 years old). Sera were analysed for 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OHD3), and 28% of the subjects were found to have levels below the lower limit of normal. The (vegetarian) Hindus had the lowest dietary intakes, least time out of doors, and lowest serum 25-OHD3. The Goan (Roman Catholic) Asians, despite more pigmentation, had 25-OHD3 levels similar to those found among indigenous British people and had the most satisfactory vitamin D intakes. Among Asians, whose exposure to sunlight may be limited, dietary vitamin D becomes the major determinant of serum 25-OHD3.  (+info)

Infleuce of dietary levels of vitamin E and selenium on tissue and blood parameters in pigs. (2/20742)

Eighteen barrows approximately three weeks of age were used in a 3 X 3 factorial arrangement to investigate the effect of level of supplemental vitamin E and selenium on tissue and blood parameters. Tissue selenium concentrations increased in a quadratic manner with increased selenium intake with kidney tissue containing considerably greater concentrations than liver, heart or muscle. Supplementation of the diet caused a three-fold increase in serum selenium within the first week with a slight tendency to further increases in subsequent weeks. Serum vitamin E of unsupplemented pigs declined by fifty percent during the experiment, whereas supplemental vitamin E resulted in increased serum vitamin E. There was a considerable viration in percent peroxide hemolysis. Correlation of -0.63 between percent peroxide hemolysis and vitamin E intake and -0.85 between percent peroxide hemolysis and serum vitamin E were observed.  (+info)

Acute and chronic dose-response relationships for angiotensin, aldosterone, and arterial pressure at varying levels of sodium intake. (3/20742)

We examined the acute and chronic dose-response relationships between intravenously infused angiotensin II (A II) and the resulting changes in arterial pressure and plasma aldosterone concentration at varying levels of sodium intake. Sequential analysis of plasma aldosterone at each A II infusion rate resulted in an acute dose-related increase in plasma aldosterone which was markedly attenuated after the first 24 hours of infusion, the final level being directly related to the dose of A II and inversely related to sodium intake. A II infused at 5,15, and 23 ng/kg per min was associated with an initial increase (2nd to 8th hour) in plasma aldosterone to 2,6, and 9 times control values, respectively, in dogs receiving 40 mEq Na+/day. But, after the 1st day, aldosterone averaged only 1, 1.7, and 3 times control values for the next 2 weeks at the same rates of A II infusion. Dogs receiving 120 mEq Na+/day during A II infusion exhibited only a transient increase in plasma aldosterone during the 1st day. Sustained hypertension developed over a period of a week at all doses of A II at normal and high sodium intake, but did not occur at any dose of A II in sodium-depleted dogs. Increasing sodium intake from 40 to 120 mEq/day resulted in higher levels of hypertension, 125% compared to 140% of ocntrol values for dogs infused with A II, 5.0 ng/kg per min. We conclude that primary angiotensin-induced hypertension need not be associated with increased levels of plasma aldosterone, which appears to remain elevated only with amounts of A II greater than those required to sustain a significant degree of hypertension.  (+info)

Dietary intake and practices in the Hong Kong Chinese population. (4/20742)

OBJECTIVES: To examine dietary intake and practices of the adult Hong Kong Chinese population to provide a basis for future public health recommendations with regard to prevention of certain chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and osteoporosis. PARTICIPANTS: Age and sex stratified random sample of the Hong Kong Chinese population aged 25 to 74 years (500 men, 510 women). METHOD: A food frequency method over a one week period was used for nutrient quantification, and a separate questionnaire was used for assessment of dietary habits. Information was obtained by interview. RESULTS: Men had higher intakes of energy and higher nutrient density of vitamin D, monounsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol, but lower nutrient density of protein, many vitamins, calcium, iron, copper, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. There was an age related decrease in energy intake and other nutrients except for vitamin C, sodium, potassium, and percentage of total calorie from carbohydrate, which all increased with age. Approximately 50% of the population had a cholesterol intake of < or = 300 mg; 60% had a fat intake < or = 30% of total energy; and 85% had a percentage of energy from saturated fats < or = 10%; criteria considered desirable for cardiovascular health. Seventy eight per cent of the population had sodium intake values in the range shown to be associated with the age related rise in blood pressure with age. Mean calcium intake was lower than the FAO/WHO recommendations. The awareness of the value of wholemeal bread and polyunsaturated fat spreads was lower in this population compared with that in Australia. There was a marked difference in types of cooking oil compared with Singaporeans, the latter using more coconut/palm/mixed vegetable oils. CONCLUSION: Although the current intake pattern for cardiovascular health for fat, saturated fatty acid, and cholesterol fall within the recommended range for over 50% of the population, follow up surveys to monitor the pattern would be needed. Decreasing salt consumption, increasing calcium intake, and increasing the awareness of the health value of fibre may all be beneficial in the context of chronic disease prevention.  (+info)

Physician advice and individual behaviors about cardiovascular disease risk reduction--seven states and Puerto Rico, 1997. (5/20742)

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) (e.g., heart disease and stroke) is the leading cause of death in the United States and accounted for 959,227 deaths in 1996. Strategies to reduce the risk for heart disease and stroke include lifestyle changes (e.g., eating fewer high-fat and high-cholesterol foods) and increasing physical activity. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and the American Heart Association (AHA) recommend that, as part of a preventive health examination, all primary-care providers counsel their patients about a healthy diet and regular physical activity. AHA also recommends low-dose aspirin use as a secondary preventive measure among persons with existing CVD. To determine the prevalence of physician counseling about cardiovascular health and changes in individual behaviors, CDC analyzed data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for seven states and Puerto Rico. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicate a lower prevalence of counseling and behavior change among persons without than with a history of heart disease or stroke.  (+info)

Low calorie diet enhances renal, hemodynamic, and humoral effects of exogenous atrial natriuretic peptide in obese hypertensives. (6/20742)

The expression of the natriuretic peptide clearance receptor is abundant in human and rat adipose tissue, where it is specifically inhibited by fasting. In obese hypertensives, plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) levels were found to be lower than in obese normotensives. Therefore, the increased adipose mass might influence ANP levels and/or its biological activity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the humoral, hemodynamic, and renal effects of exogenous ANP in obese hypertensives might be enhanced by a very low calorie diet. Eight obese hypertensives received a bolus injection of ANP (0.6 mg/kg) after 2 weeks of a normal calorie/normal sodium diet, and blood pressure (BP), heart rate, ANP, cGMP, plasma renin activity, and aldosterone were evaluated for 2 hours before and after the injection. Diuresis and natriuresis were measured every 30 minutes. The patients then started a low calorie/normal sodium diet (510 kcal/150 mmol/d) for 4 days, and then the ANP injection protocol was repeated. The low calorie diet induced a slight weight loss (from 90.6+/-1.1 to 87. 7+/-1.2 kg; P<0.01), which was accompanied by increase of cGMP excretion (from 146.0+/-10.1 to 154.5+/-9.5 nmol/24 h; P<0.05) together with a reduction of BP (P<0.01 versus basal levels). ANP injection after diet was followed by an increase of ANP levels similar to that observed before diet, but plasma cGMP, diuresis, and natriuresis increased significantly only after diet. Similarly, the decrease of BP after ANP administration was significantly higher after diet (change in mean arterial pressure, -6.4+/-0.7 versus -4. 0+/-0.6 mm Hg; P<0.05) as well as that of aldosterone (P<0.01). These data show that a low calorie diet enhances the humoral, renal, and hemodynamic effects of ANP in obese hypertensives and confirm the importance of caloric intake in modulating the biological activity of ANP, suggesting that the natriuretic peptide system can play a role in the acute changes of natriuresis and diuresis associated with caloric restriction.  (+info)

Thiamine deficiency is prevalent in a selected group of urban Indonesian elderly people. (7/20742)

This cross-sectional study involved 204 elderly individuals (93 males and 111 females). Subjects were randomly recruited using a list on which all 60-75 y-old-people living in seven sub-villages in Jakarta were included. The usual food intake was estimated using semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires. Hemoglobin, plasma retinol, vitamin B-12, red blood cell folate and the percentage stimulation of erythrocyte transketolase (ETK), as an indicator of thiamine status, were analyzed. Median energy intake was below the assessed requirement. More than 75% of the subjects had iron and thiamine intakes of approximately 2/3 of the recommended daily intake, and 20.2% of the study population had folate intake of approximately 2/3 of the recommended daily intake. Intakes of vitamins A and B-12 were adequate. Biochemical assessments demonstrated that 36.6% of the subjects had low thiamine levels (ETK stimulation > 25%). The elderly men tended to have lower thiamine levels than the elderly women. The overall prevalence of anemia was 28.9%, and the elderly women were affected more than the elderly men. Low biochemical status of vitamins A, B-12 and RBC folate was found in 5.4%, 8.8 % and 2.9% of the subjects, respectively. Dietary intakes of thiamine and folate were associated with ETK stimulation and plasma vitamin B-12 concentration (r = 0.176, P = 0.012 and r = 0.77, P = 0.001), respectively. Results of this study suggest that anemia, thiamine and possibly vitamin B-12 deficiency are prevalent in the elderly living in Indonesia. Clearly, micronutrient supplementation may be beneficial for the Indonesian elderly population living in underprivileged areas.  (+info)

Metallothionein-null mice absorb less Zn from an egg-white diet, but a similar amount from solutions, although with altered intertissue Zn distribution. (8/20742)

The influence of metallothionein (MT) on Zn transfer into non-gut tissues was investigated in MT-null (MT-/-) and normal (MT+/+) mice 4 h after oral gavage of aqueous 65ZnSO4solution at doses of 154, 385, 770 and 1540 nmol Zn per mouse. Zn transfer was not significantly different between MT+/+ and MT-/- mice and was directly proportional to the oral dose (slope = 0.127, r = 0.991; 0. 146, r = 0.994, respectively). Blood 65Zn and plasma Zn concentrations increased progressively in MT-/- mice at doses >154 nmol Zn, reaching levels of 2.4% of oral dose and 60 micromol/L, respectively, at the 1540 nmol Zn dose. The corresponding values for MT+/+ mice were approximately half, 1.0% and 29 micromol/L. Intergenotypic differences were found in tissue distribution of 65Zn within the body; MT-/- mice had higher 65Zn levels in muscle, skin, heart and brain, whereas MT+/+ mice retained progressively more Zn in the liver, in conjunction with a linear increase in hepatic MT up to the highest Zn dose. MT induction in the small intestine reached its maximum at an oral dose of 385 nmol Zn and did not differ at higher doses. Absorption of a 770 nmol 65Zn dose from a solid egg-white diet was only one fourth (MT+/+) and one eighth (MT-/-) of the Zn absorption from the same dose of 65Zn in aqueous solution. MT+/+ mice had greater (P < 0.05) Zn absorption from the egg-white diet than did MT-/- mice, indicating that gut MT confers an absorptive advantage, but only when Zn is incorporated into solid food.  (+info)

A diet, in medical terms, refers to the planned and regular consumption of food and drinks. It is a balanced selection of nutrient-rich foods that an individual eats on a daily or periodic basis to meet their energy needs and maintain good health. A well-balanced diet typically includes a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and low-fat dairy products.

A diet may also be prescribed for therapeutic purposes, such as in the management of certain medical conditions like diabetes, hypertension, or obesity. In these cases, a healthcare professional may recommend specific restrictions or modifications to an individual's regular diet to help manage their condition and improve their overall health.

It is important to note that a healthy and balanced diet should be tailored to an individual's age, gender, body size, activity level, and any underlying medical conditions. Consulting with a healthcare professional, such as a registered dietitian or nutritionist, can help ensure that an individual's dietary needs are being met in a safe and effective way.

A diet that is reduced in calories or portion sizes, often specifically designed to help a person achieve weight loss. A reducing diet typically aims to create a caloric deficit, where the body takes in fewer calories than it uses, leading to a reduction in body fat stores and overall body weight. These diets may also focus on limiting certain types of foods, such as those high in sugar or unhealthy fats, while encouraging increased consumption of fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, and whole grains. It is important to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any reducing diet to ensure it is safe, appropriate, and nutritionally balanced for the individual's needs.

A high-fat diet is a type of eating plan that derives a significant proportion of its daily caloric intake from fat sources. While there is no universally agreed-upon definition for what constitutes a high-fat diet, it generally refers to diets in which total fat intake provides more than 30-35% of the total daily calories.

High-fat diets can vary widely in their specific composition and may include different types of fats, such as saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, and trans fats. Some high-fat diets emphasize the consumption of whole, unprocessed foods that are naturally high in fat, like nuts, seeds, avocados, fish, and olive oil. Others may allow for or even encourage the inclusion of processed and high-fat animal products, such as red meat, butter, and full-fat dairy.

It's important to note that not all high-fat diets are created equal, and some may be more healthful than others depending on their specific composition and the individual's overall dietary patterns. Some research suggests that high-fat diets that are low in carbohydrates and moderate in protein may offer health benefits for weight loss, blood sugar control, and cardiovascular risk factors, while other studies have raised concerns about the potential negative effects of high-fat diets on heart health and metabolic function.

As with any dietary approach, it's important to consult with a healthcare provider or registered dietitian before making significant changes to your eating habits, especially if you have any underlying medical conditions or are taking medications that may be affected by dietary changes.

A fat-restricted diet is a medical nutrition plan that limits the consumption of fats. This type of diet is often recommended for individuals who have certain medical conditions, such as obesity, high cholesterol, or certain types of liver disease. The specific amount of fat allowed on the diet may vary depending on the individual's medical needs and overall health status.

In general, a fat-restricted diet encourages the consumption of foods that are low in fat, such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins. Foods that are high in fat, such as fried foods, fatty meats, full-fat dairy products, and certain oils, are typically limited or avoided altogether.

It is important to note that a fat-restricted diet should only be followed under the guidance of a healthcare professional, such as a registered dietitian or physician, to ensure that it meets the individual's nutritional needs and medical requirements.

Animal feed refers to any substance or mixture of substances, whether processed, unprocessed, or partially processed, which is intended to be used as food for animals, including fish, without further processing. It includes ingredients such as grains, hay, straw, oilseed meals, and by-products from the milling, processing, and manufacturing industries. Animal feed can be in the form of pellets, crumbles, mash, or other forms, and is used to provide nutrients such as energy, protein, fiber, vitamins, and minerals to support the growth, reproduction, and maintenance of animals. It's important to note that animal feed must be safe, nutritious, and properly labeled to ensure the health and well-being of the animals that consume it.

A Mediterranean diet is a traditional eating pattern that is followed in Mediterranean countries such as Greece, Italy, and Spain. This diet is rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts, and olive oil, with moderate amounts of fish and poultry, and limited intake of red meat, processed foods, and added sugars. The Mediterranean diet also emphasizes the importance of social connections and physical activity, as well as mindful and enjoyable eating.

The Mediterranean diet has been associated with numerous health benefits, including reduced risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, and certain cancers, as well as improved cognitive function and longevity. These benefits are thought to be due to the combination of nutrient-dense foods, healthy fats, and lifestyle factors that characterize this dietary pattern.

It's worth noting that there is no one "Mediterranean diet," as the traditional eating patterns vary from region to region within Mediterranean countries. However, the general principles of a Mediterranean diet can be adapted and followed by individuals around the world who are looking to improve their overall health and well-being.

Dietary fats, also known as fatty acids, are a major nutrient that the body needs for energy and various functions. They are an essential component of cell membranes and hormones, and they help the body absorb certain vitamins. There are several types of dietary fats:

1. Saturated fats: These are typically solid at room temperature and are found in animal products such as meat, butter, and cheese, as well as tropical oils like coconut and palm oil. Consuming a high amount of saturated fats can raise levels of unhealthy LDL cholesterol and increase the risk of heart disease.
2. Unsaturated fats: These are typically liquid at room temperature and can be further divided into monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats. Monounsaturated fats, found in foods such as olive oil, avocados, and nuts, can help lower levels of unhealthy LDL cholesterol while maintaining levels of healthy HDL cholesterol. Polyunsaturated fats, found in foods such as fatty fish, flaxseeds, and walnuts, have similar effects on cholesterol levels and also provide essential omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids that the body cannot produce on its own.
3. Trans fats: These are unsaturated fats that have been chemically modified to be solid at room temperature. They are often found in processed foods such as baked goods, fried foods, and snack foods. Consuming trans fats can raise levels of unhealthy LDL cholesterol and lower levels of healthy HDL cholesterol, increasing the risk of heart disease.

It is recommended to limit intake of saturated and trans fats and to consume more unsaturated fats as part of a healthy diet.

A protein-restricted diet is a medical nutrition plan that limits the daily intake of protein. This type of diet may be recommended for individuals with certain kidney or liver disorders, as reducing protein intake can help decrease the workload on these organs and prevent further damage. The specific amount of protein restriction will depend on the individual's medical condition, overall health status, and prescribing healthcare professional's guidance.

It is essential to ensure that a protein-restricted diet is nutritionally adequate and balanced, providing sufficient calories, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, and minerals. A registered dietitian or nutritionist should closely supervise the implementation of such a diet to prevent potential nutrient deficiencies and other related complications. In some cases, medical supplements may be necessary to meet the individual's nutritional requirements.

Individuals on a protein-restricted diet should avoid high-protein foods like meat, poultry, fish, eggs, dairy products, legumes, and nuts. Instead, they should focus on consuming low-protein or protein-free alternatives, such as fruits, vegetables, refined grains, and specific medical food products designed for individuals with special dietary needs.

It is crucial to consult a healthcare professional before starting any new diet, particularly one that restricts essential nutrients like protein. A healthcare provider can help determine if a protein-restricted diet is appropriate and ensure it is implemented safely and effectively.

A vegetarian diet is a type of eating pattern that excludes meat, poultry, and fish, and sometimes other animal products like eggs, dairy, or honey, depending on the individual's specific dietary choices. There are several types of vegetarian diets, including:

1. Ovo-vegetarian: This diet includes vegetables, fruits, grains, nuts, seeds, dairy products, and eggs but excludes meat, poultry, and fish.
2. Lacto-vegetarian: This diet includes vegetables, fruits, grains, nuts, seeds, dairy products, and eggs but excludes meat, poultry, fish, and sometimes eggs.
3. Ovo-lacto vegetarian: This is the most common type of vegetarian diet and includes vegetables, fruits, grains, nuts, seeds, dairy products, and eggs but excludes meat, poultry, and fish.
4. Vegan: This diet excludes all animal products, including meat, poultry, fish, dairy, eggs, and sometimes honey or other bee products.
5. Fruitarian: This is a more restrictive form of veganism that includes only fruits, nuts, seeds, and other plant foods that can be harvested without killing the plant.
6. Raw vegan: This diet includes only raw fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, and other plant foods that have not been cooked or processed above 115°F (46°C).

Vegetarian diets can provide a range of health benefits, including lower risks of heart disease, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, and certain cancers. However, it is important to ensure that vegetarian diets are well-planned and nutritionally adequate to meet individual nutrient needs, particularly for nutrients like vitamin B12, iron, calcium, and omega-3 fatty acids.

A "carbohydrate-restricted diet" is a type of diet that limits the consumption of carbohydrates, one of the three main macronutrients along with protein and fat. Carbohydrates are found in a wide variety of foods, including fruits, vegetables, grains, and sweets.

In a carbohydrate-restricted diet, the consumption of these foods is limited in order to reduce the overall intake of carbohydrates. The specific amount of carbohydrates restricted can vary depending on the particular version of the diet being followed. Some carbohydrate-restricted diets may allow for the consumption of small amounts of certain types of carbohydrates, while others may strictly limit or eliminate all sources of carbohydrates.

Carbohydrate-restricted diets are often used as a treatment for conditions such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. By reducing the intake of carbohydrates, these diets can help to lower blood sugar levels, improve insulin sensitivity, and promote weight loss. However, it is important to follow a carbohydrate-restricted diet under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as it may not be suitable for everyone and can have potential side effects if not properly planned and implemented.

A ketogenic diet is a type of diet that is characterized by a significant reduction in carbohydrate intake and an increase in fat intake, with the goal of inducing a metabolic state called ketosis. In ketosis, the body shifts from using glucose (carbohydrates) as its primary source of energy to using ketones, which are produced by the liver from fatty acids.

The typical ketogenic diet consists of a daily intake of less than 50 grams of carbohydrates, with protein intake moderated and fat intake increased to make up the majority of calories. This can result in a rapid decrease in blood sugar and insulin levels, which can have various health benefits for some individuals, such as weight loss, improved blood sugar control, and reduced risk factors for heart disease.

However, it is important to note that a ketogenic diet may not be suitable for everyone, particularly those with certain medical conditions or who are taking certain medications. It is always recommended to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new diet plan.

Dietary proteins are sources of protein that come from the foods we eat. Protein is an essential nutrient for the human body, required for various bodily functions such as growth, repair, and immune function. Dietary proteins are broken down into amino acids during digestion, which are then absorbed and used to synthesize new proteins in the body.

Dietary proteins can be classified as complete or incomplete based on their essential amino acid content. Complete proteins contain all nine essential amino acids that cannot be produced by the human body and must be obtained through the diet. Examples of complete protein sources include meat, poultry, fish, eggs, dairy products, soy, and quinoa.

Incomplete proteins lack one or more essential amino acids and are typically found in plant-based foods such as grains, legumes, nuts, and seeds. However, by combining different incomplete protein sources, it is possible to obtain all the essential amino acids needed for a complete protein diet. This concept is known as complementary proteins.

It's important to note that while dietary proteins are essential for good health, excessive protein intake can have negative effects on the body, such as increased stress on the kidneys and bones. Therefore, it's recommended to consume protein in moderation as part of a balanced and varied diet.

An atherogenic diet is a type of eating pattern that can contribute to the development and progression of atherosclerosis, which is the hardening and narrowing of the arteries due to the buildup of fats, cholesterol, and other substances in the inner lining of the artery walls.

An atherogenic diet is typically high in saturated and trans fats, cholesterol, refined carbohydrates, and salt, and low in fiber, fruits, vegetables, and unsaturated fats. This type of diet can increase the levels of LDL (low-density lipoprotein) or "bad" cholesterol in the blood, which can lead to the formation of plaques in the arteries and increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, including heart attack and stroke.

Therefore, it is recommended to follow a heart-healthy diet that emphasizes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats to reduce the risk of atherosclerosis and other chronic diseases.

Body weight is the measure of the force exerted on a scale or balance by an object's mass, most commonly expressed in units such as pounds (lb) or kilograms (kg). In the context of medical definitions, body weight typically refers to an individual's total weight, which includes their skeletal muscle, fat, organs, and bodily fluids.

Healthcare professionals often use body weight as a basic indicator of overall health status, as it can provide insights into various aspects of a person's health, such as nutritional status, metabolic function, and risk factors for certain diseases. For example, being significantly underweight or overweight can increase the risk of developing conditions like malnutrition, diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.

It is important to note that body weight alone may not provide a complete picture of an individual's health, as it does not account for factors such as muscle mass, bone density, or body composition. Therefore, healthcare professionals often use additional measures, such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and blood tests, to assess overall health status more comprehensively.

Dietary carbohydrates refer to the organic compounds in food that are primarily composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms, with a general formula of Cm(H2O)n. They are one of the three main macronutrients, along with proteins and fats, that provide energy to the body.

Carbohydrates can be classified into two main categories: simple carbohydrates (also known as simple sugars) and complex carbohydrates (also known as polysaccharides).

Simple carbohydrates are made up of one or two sugar molecules, such as glucose, fructose, and lactose. They are quickly absorbed by the body and provide a rapid source of energy. Simple carbohydrates are found in foods such as fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and sweeteners like table sugar, honey, and maple syrup.

Complex carbohydrates, on the other hand, are made up of long chains of sugar molecules that take longer to break down and absorb. They provide a more sustained source of energy and are found in foods such as whole grains, legumes, starchy vegetables, and nuts.

It is recommended that adults consume between 45-65% of their daily caloric intake from carbohydrates, with a focus on complex carbohydrates and limiting added sugars.

Diet therapy is a medical treatment that involves using specific dietary modifications to manage or treat various medical conditions. This can include changing the types and amounts of food consumed, as well as adjusting the timing and frequency of meals. The goal of diet therapy is to provide the body with the necessary nutrients to support healing and maintain health while also addressing any specific dietary needs or restrictions related to a particular medical condition.

Diet therapy may be used to treat a wide range of conditions, including diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, obesity, food allergies and intolerances, gastrointestinal disorders, and kidney disease. For example, a person with diabetes may be placed on a diet that restricts sugar and simple carbohydrates to help manage their blood sugar levels, while a person with heart disease may be advised to follow a low-fat, high-fiber diet to reduce their risk of heart attack and stroke.

Diet therapy is often used in conjunction with other medical treatments, such as medication and surgery, and should be prescribed and monitored by a healthcare professional, such as a registered dietitian or a doctor who specializes in nutrition. It is important for individuals to follow their specific dietary recommendations closely in order to achieve the best possible outcomes.

"Animal nutritional physiological phenomena" is not a standardized medical or scientific term. However, it seems to refer to the processes and functions related to nutrition and physiology in animals. Here's a breakdown of the possible components:

1. Animal: This term refers to non-human living organisms that are multicellular, heterotrophic, and have a distinct nervous system.
2. Nutritional: This term pertains to the nourishment and energy requirements of an animal, including the ingestion, digestion, absorption, transportation, metabolism, and excretion of nutrients.
3. Physiological: This term refers to the functions and processes that occur within a living organism, including the interactions between different organs and systems.
4. Phenomena: This term generally means an observable fact or event.

Therefore, "animal nutritional physiological phenomena" could refer to the observable events and processes related to nutrition and physiology in animals. Examples of such phenomena include digestion, absorption, metabolism, energy production, growth, reproduction, and waste elimination.

Diet records are documents used to track and record an individual's food and beverage intake over a specific period. These records may include details such as the type and quantity of food consumed, time of consumption, and any related observations or notes. Diet records can be used for various purposes, including assessing dietary habits and patterns, identifying potential nutritional deficiencies or excesses, and developing personalized nutrition plans. They are often used in research, clinical settings, and weight management programs.

"Energy intake" is a medical term that refers to the amount of energy or calories consumed through food and drink. It is an important concept in the study of nutrition, metabolism, and energy balance, and is often used in research and clinical settings to assess an individual's dietary habits and health status.

Energy intake is typically measured in kilocalories (kcal) or joules (J), with one kcal equivalent to approximately 4.184 J. The recommended daily energy intake varies depending on factors such as age, sex, weight, height, physical activity level, and overall health status.

It's important to note that excessive energy intake, particularly when combined with a sedentary lifestyle, can lead to weight gain and an increased risk of chronic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, inadequate energy intake can lead to malnutrition, decreased immune function, and other health problems. Therefore, it's essential to maintain a balanced energy intake that meets individual nutritional needs while promoting overall health and well-being.

A diet survey is a questionnaire or interview designed to gather information about an individual's eating habits and patterns. It typically includes questions about the types and quantities of foods and beverages consumed, meal frequency and timing, and any dietary restrictions or preferences. The purpose of a diet survey is to assess an individual's nutritional intake and identify areas for improvement or intervention in order to promote health and prevent or manage chronic diseases. Diet surveys may also be used in research settings to gather data on the eating habits of larger populations.

Digestion is the complex process of breaking down food into smaller molecules that can be absorbed and utilized by the body for energy, growth, and cell repair. This process involves both mechanical and chemical actions that occur in the digestive system, which includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and accessory organs such as the pancreas, liver, and gallbladder.

The different stages of digestion are:

1. Ingestion: This is the first step in digestion, where food is taken into the mouth.
2. Mechanical digestion: This involves physically breaking down food into smaller pieces through chewing, churning, and mixing with digestive enzymes.
3. Chemical digestion: This involves breaking down food molecules into simpler forms using various enzymes and chemicals produced by the digestive system.
4. Absorption: Once the food is broken down into simple molecules, they are absorbed through the walls of the small intestine into the bloodstream and transported to different parts of the body.
5. Elimination: The undigested material that remains after absorption is moved through the large intestine and eliminated from the body as feces.

The process of digestion is essential for maintaining good health, as it provides the necessary nutrients and energy required for various bodily functions.

Diet fads refer to quickly emerging and often popular, but short-lived dieting trends or crazes that promise rapid weight loss or other health benefits. These diets usually lack scientific evidence supporting their effectiveness or safety, and they may even be harmful to some individuals. Diet fads often involve drastic restrictions in calorie intake, elimination or exclusion of certain food groups, or consumption of specific foods or combinations of foods in excessive amounts.

Examples of past diet fads include the cabbage soup diet, grapefruit diet, and cotton ball diet, among others. While some people may experience short-term weight loss on these diets, they are generally not sustainable or healthy in the long term. Moreover, diet fads can contribute to disordered eating patterns and a negative relationship with food. It is always recommended to consult with a healthcare professional or registered dietitian before starting any new diet plan to ensure it is safe, balanced, and suitable for individual health needs.

Dietary fiber, also known as roughage, is the indigestible portion of plant foods that makes up the structural framework of the plants we eat. It is composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, gums, lignins, and waxes. Dietary fiber can be classified into two categories: soluble and insoluble.

Soluble fiber dissolves in water to form a gel-like material in the gut, which can help slow down digestion, increase feelings of fullness, and lower cholesterol levels. Soluble fiber is found in foods such as oats, barley, fruits, vegetables, legumes, and nuts.

Insoluble fiber does not dissolve in water and passes through the gut intact, helping to add bulk to stools and promote regular bowel movements. Insoluble fiber is found in foods such as whole grains, bran, seeds, and the skins of fruits and vegetables.

Dietary fiber has numerous health benefits, including promoting healthy digestion, preventing constipation, reducing the risk of heart disease, controlling blood sugar levels, and aiding in weight management. The recommended daily intake of dietary fiber is 25-38 grams per day for adults, depending on age and gender.

The medical definition of "eating" refers to the process of consuming and ingesting food or nutrients into the body. This process typically involves several steps, including:

1. Food preparation: This may involve cleaning, chopping, cooking, or combining ingredients to make them ready for consumption.
2. Ingestion: The act of taking food or nutrients into the mouth and swallowing it.
3. Digestion: Once food is ingested, it travels down the esophagus and enters the stomach, where it is broken down by enzymes and acids to facilitate absorption of nutrients.
4. Absorption: Nutrients are absorbed through the walls of the small intestine and transported to cells throughout the body for use as energy or building blocks for growth and repair.
5. Elimination: Undigested food and waste products are eliminated from the body through the large intestine (colon) and rectum.

Eating is an essential function that provides the body with the nutrients it needs to maintain health, grow, and repair itself. Disorders of eating, such as anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, can have serious consequences for physical and mental health.

A sodium-restricted diet is a meal plan designed to limit the amount of sodium (salt) intake. The recommended daily sodium intake for adults is less than 2,300 milligrams (mg), but for those with certain medical conditions such as high blood pressure, heart failure, or chronic kidney disease, a lower daily sodium limit of 1,500 to 2,000 mg may be recommended.

A sodium-restricted diet typically involves avoiding processed and packaged foods, which are often high in sodium, and limiting the use of salt when cooking or at the table. Fresh fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, and whole grains are encouraged as they are naturally low in sodium. It is important to read food labels carefully, as some foods may contain hidden sources of sodium.

Adhering to a sodium-restricted diet can help manage blood pressure, reduce fluid retention, and decrease the risk of heart disease and stroke. However, it is important to consult with a healthcare provider or a registered dietitian before starting any new diet plan to ensure that it meets individual nutritional needs and medical conditions.

"Random allocation," also known as "random assignment" or "randomization," is a process used in clinical trials and other research studies to distribute participants into different intervention groups (such as experimental group vs. control group) in a way that minimizes selection bias and ensures the groups are comparable at the start of the study.

In random allocation, each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any group, and the assignment is typically made using a computer-generated randomization schedule or other objective methods. This process helps to ensure that any differences between the groups are due to the intervention being tested rather than pre-existing differences in the participants' characteristics.

A diabetic diet is a meal plan that is designed to help manage blood sugar levels in individuals with diabetes. The main focus of this diet is to consume a balanced and varied diet with appropriate portion sizes, while controlling the intake of carbohydrates, which have the greatest impact on blood sugar levels. Here are some key components of a diabetic diet:

1. Carbohydrate counting: Monitoring the amount of carbohydrates consumed at each meal and snack is essential for maintaining stable blood sugar levels. Carbohydrates should be sourced from whole foods, such as fruits, vegetables, legumes, and whole grains, rather than refined or processed products.
2. Fiber-rich foods: Foods high in fiber, like fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, and whole grains, can help slow down the absorption of carbohydrates and minimize blood sugar spikes. Aim for at least 25 to 30 grams of fiber per day.
3. Lean protein sources: Choose lean protein sources such as chicken, turkey, fish, eggs, tofu, and low-fat dairy products. Limit red meat and processed meats, which can contribute to heart disease risk.
4. Healthy fats: Opt for monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats found in foods like avocados, olive oil, nuts, seeds, and fatty fish. These healthy fats can help reduce inflammation and improve insulin sensitivity.
5. Portion control: Pay attention to serving sizes and avoid overeating, especially when consuming high-calorie or high-fat foods.
6. Regular meals: Eating regularly spaced meals throughout the day can help maintain stable blood sugar levels and prevent extreme highs and lows.
7. Limit added sugars: Reduce or eliminate added sugars in your diet, such as those found in sweets, desserts, sugary drinks, and processed foods.
8. Monitoring: Regularly monitor blood sugar levels before and after meals to understand how different foods affect your body and adjust your meal plan accordingly.
9. Personalization: A diabetic diet should be tailored to an individual's specific needs, preferences, and lifestyle. Consult with a registered dietitian or certified diabetes educator for personalized guidance.

"Formulated food" is a term used in the field of clinical nutrition to refer to foods that are specially manufactured and designed to meet the nutritional needs of specific patient populations. These foods often come in the form of shakes, bars, or pouches and are intended to be used as a sole source or supplementary source of nutrition for individuals who have difficulty meeting their nutritional needs through traditional food sources alone.

Formulated foods may be indicated for patients who have medical conditions that affect their ability to eat or digest regular food, such as dysphagia (swallowing difficulties), malabsorption syndromes, or chronic inflammatory bowel disease. They may also be used in patients who require additional nutritional support during times of illness, injury, or recovery from surgery.

Formulated foods are typically designed to provide a balance of macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats) and micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) that meet the recommended dietary intakes for specific patient populations. They may also contain additional ingredients such as fiber, probiotics, or other nutraceuticals to provide additional health benefits.

It is important to note that formulated foods should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, such as a registered dietitian or physician, to ensure that they are appropriate for an individual's specific medical and nutritional needs.

"Swine" is a common term used to refer to even-toed ungulates of the family Suidae, including domestic pigs and wild boars. However, in a medical context, "swine" often appears in the phrase "swine flu," which is a strain of influenza virus that typically infects pigs but can also cause illness in humans. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was caused by a new strain of swine-origin influenza A virus, which was commonly referred to as "swine flu." It's important to note that this virus is not transmitted through eating cooked pork products; it spreads from person to person, mainly through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "soybeans" are not a medical term. They are a type of legume that is commonly used in agriculture and food production. The medical community might discuss soybeans in the context of nutrition or allergies, but there isn't a formal medical definition for this term.

Here's some general information: Soybeans, scientifically known as Glycine max, are native to East Asia and are now grown worldwide. They are a significant source of plant-based protein and oil. Soybeans contain various nutrients, including essential amino acids, fiber, B vitamins, and minerals like calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc. They are used in various food products such as tofu, soy milk, tempeh, and miso. Additionally, soybeans are also used in the production of industrial products, including biodiesel, plastics, and inks. Some people may have allergic reactions to soybeans or soy products.

A dietary supplement is a product that contains nutrients, such as vitamins, minerals, amino acids, herbs or other botanicals, and is intended to be taken by mouth, to supplement the diet. Dietary supplements can include a wide range of products, such as vitamin and mineral supplements, herbal supplements, and sports nutrition products.

Dietary supplements are not intended to treat, diagnose, cure, or alleviate the effects of diseases. They are intended to be used as a way to add extra nutrients to the diet or to support specific health functions. It is important to note that dietary supplements are not subject to the same rigorous testing and regulations as drugs, so it is important to choose products carefully and consult with a healthcare provider if you have any questions or concerns about using them.

Nitrogen is not typically referred to as a medical term, but it is an element that is crucial to medicine and human life.

In a medical context, nitrogen is often mentioned in relation to gas analysis, respiratory therapy, or medical gases. Nitrogen (N) is a colorless, odorless, and nonreactive gas that makes up about 78% of the Earth's atmosphere. It is an essential element for various biological processes, such as the growth and maintenance of organisms, because it is a key component of amino acids, nucleic acids, and other organic compounds.

In some medical applications, nitrogen is used to displace oxygen in a mixture to create a controlled environment with reduced oxygen levels (hypoxic conditions) for therapeutic purposes, such as in certain types of hyperbaric chambers. Additionally, nitrogen gas is sometimes used in cryotherapy, where extremely low temperatures are applied to tissues to reduce pain, swelling, and inflammation.

However, it's important to note that breathing pure nitrogen can be dangerous, as it can lead to unconsciousness and even death due to lack of oxygen (asphyxiation) within minutes.

Nutritive value is a term used to describe the amount and kind of nutrients, such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water, that a food provides. It refers to the ability of a food to supply the necessary components for growth, repair, maintenance, and energy in the body. The nutritive value of a food is usually expressed in terms of its content of these various nutrients per 100 grams or per serving. Foods with high nutritive value are those that provide a significant amount of essential nutrients in relation to their calorie content.

Dietary cholesterol is a type of cholesterol that comes from the foods we eat. It is present in animal-derived products such as meat, poultry, dairy products, and eggs. While dietary cholesterol can contribute to an increase in blood cholesterol levels for some people, it's important to note that saturated and trans fats have a more significant impact on blood cholesterol levels than dietary cholesterol itself.

The American Heart Association recommends limiting dietary cholesterol intake to less than 300 milligrams per day for most people, and less than 200 milligrams per day for those with a history of heart disease or high cholesterol levels. However, individual responses to dietary cholesterol can vary, so it's essential to monitor blood cholesterol levels and adjust dietary habits accordingly.

A gluten-free diet is a diet that excludes the consumption of gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley, and rye. This type of diet is often recommended for individuals with celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, or wheat allergies. Adhering to a strict gluten-free diet can help manage symptoms, heal intestinal damage, and prevent further complications associated with these conditions.

The medical definition of 'Diet, Gluten-Free' includes:

1. Celiac Disease: An autoimmune disorder where the ingestion of gluten leads to damage in the small intestine. Following a gluten-free diet is crucial for individuals with celiac disease to prevent symptoms and associated health complications.
2. Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity (NCGS): A condition where individuals experience adverse reactions to gluten, but do not test positive for celiac disease or wheat allergy. A gluten-free diet can help alleviate symptoms in those with NCGS.
3. Wheat Allergy: An allergic reaction to proteins found in wheat, which may include gluten. Excluding gluten from the diet can help manage symptoms in individuals with wheat allergy.
4. Dermatitis Herpetiformis (DH): A skin manifestation of celiac disease characterized by an itchy, blistering rash. A gluten-free diet is often recommended to control DH symptoms and prevent intestinal damage.
5. Gluten Ataxia: A neurological disorder associated with celiac disease where gluten ingestion can cause issues with balance, coordination, and speech. A gluten-free diet may help improve these symptoms in individuals with gluten ataxia.

It is essential to consult a healthcare professional or a registered dietitian for guidance on following a gluten-free diet to ensure proper nutrition and to avoid cross-contamination from gluten sources.

Cholesterol is a type of lipid (fat) molecule that is an essential component of cell membranes and is also used to make certain hormones and vitamins in the body. It is produced by the liver and is also obtained from animal-derived foods such as meat, dairy products, and eggs.

Cholesterol does not mix with blood, so it is transported through the bloodstream by lipoproteins, which are particles made up of both lipids and proteins. There are two main types of lipoproteins that carry cholesterol: low-density lipoproteins (LDL), also known as "bad" cholesterol, and high-density lipoproteins (HDL), also known as "good" cholesterol.

High levels of LDL cholesterol in the blood can lead to a buildup of cholesterol in the walls of the arteries, increasing the risk of heart disease and stroke. On the other hand, high levels of HDL cholesterol are associated with a lower risk of these conditions because HDL helps remove LDL cholesterol from the bloodstream and transport it back to the liver for disposal.

It is important to maintain healthy levels of cholesterol through a balanced diet, regular exercise, and sometimes medication if necessary. Regular screening is also recommended to monitor cholesterol levels and prevent health complications.

Cereals, in a medical context, are not specifically defined. However, cereals are generally understood to be grasses of the family Poaceae that are cultivated for the edible components of their grain (the seed of the grass). The term "cereal" is derived from Ceres, the Roman goddess of agriculture and harvest.

The most widely consumed cereals include:

1. Wheat
2. Rice
3. Corn (Maize)
4. Barley
5. Oats
6. Millet
7. Sorghum
8. Rye

Cereals are a significant part of the human diet, providing energy in the form of carbohydrates, as well as protein, fiber, vitamins, and minerals. They can be consumed in various forms, such as whole grains, flour, flakes, or puffed cereals. Some people may have allergies or intolerances to specific cereals, like celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder that requires a gluten-free diet (wheat, barley, and rye contain gluten).

'Zea mays' is the biological name for corn or maize, which is not typically considered a medical term. However, corn or maize can have medical relevance in certain contexts. For example, cornstarch is sometimes used as a diluent for medications and is also a component of some skin products. Corn oil may be found in topical ointments and creams. In addition, some people may have allergic reactions to corn or corn-derived products. But generally speaking, 'Zea mays' itself does not have a specific medical definition.

Weaning is the process of gradually introducing an infant or young child to a new source of nutrition, such as solid foods, while simultaneously decreasing their dependence on breast milk or formula. This process can begin when the child is developmentally ready, typically around 6 months of age, and involves offering them small amounts of pureed or mashed foods to start, then gradually introducing more textured and varied foods as they become comfortable with the new diet. The weaning process should be done slowly and under the guidance of a healthcare provider to ensure that the child's nutritional needs are being met and to avoid any potential digestive issues.

Lipids are a broad group of organic compounds that are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar organic solvents. They include fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, and phospholipids. Lipids serve many important functions in the body, including energy storage, acting as structural components of cell membranes, and serving as signaling molecules. High levels of certain lipids, particularly cholesterol and triglycerides, in the blood are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

The rumen is the largest compartment of the stomach in ruminant animals, such as cows, goats, and sheep. It is a specialized fermentation chamber where microbes break down tough plant material into nutrients that the animal can absorb and use for energy and growth. The rumen contains billions of microorganisms, including bacteria, protozoa, and fungi, which help to break down cellulose and other complex carbohydrates in the plant material through fermentation.

The rumen is characterized by its large size, muscular walls, and the presence of a thick mat of partially digested food and microbes called the rumen mat or cud. The animal regurgitates the rumen contents periodically to chew it again, which helps to break down the plant material further and mix it with saliva, creating a more favorable environment for fermentation.

The rumen plays an essential role in the digestion and nutrition of ruminant animals, allowing them to thrive on a diet of low-quality plant material that would be difficult for other animals to digest.

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

Triglycerides are the most common type of fat in the body, and they're found in the food we eat. They're carried in the bloodstream to provide energy to the cells in our body. High levels of triglycerides in the blood can increase the risk of heart disease, especially in combination with other risk factors such as high LDL (bad) cholesterol, low HDL (good) cholesterol, and high blood pressure.

It's important to note that while triglycerides are a type of fat, they should not be confused with cholesterol, which is a waxy substance found in the cells of our body. Both triglycerides and cholesterol are important for maintaining good health, but high levels of either can increase the risk of heart disease.

Triglyceride levels are measured through a blood test called a lipid panel or lipid profile. A normal triglyceride level is less than 150 mg/dL. Borderline-high levels range from 150 to 199 mg/dL, high levels range from 200 to 499 mg/dL, and very high levels are 500 mg/dL or higher.

Elevated triglycerides can be caused by various factors such as obesity, physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, and certain medical conditions like diabetes, hypothyroidism, and kidney disease. Medications such as beta-blockers, steroids, and diuretics can also raise triglyceride levels.

Lifestyle changes such as losing weight, exercising regularly, eating a healthy diet low in saturated and trans fats, avoiding excessive alcohol consumption, and quitting smoking can help lower triglyceride levels. In some cases, medication may be necessary to reduce triglycerides to recommended levels.

Organ size refers to the volume or physical measurement of an organ in the body of an individual. It can be described in terms of length, width, and height or by using specialized techniques such as imaging studies (like CT scans or MRIs) to determine the volume. The size of an organ can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, body size, and overall health status. Changes in organ size may indicate various medical conditions, including growths, inflammation, or atrophy.

Nutritional requirements refer to the necessary amount of nutrients, including macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats) and micronutrients (vitamins and minerals), that an individual requires to maintain good health, support normal growth and development, and promote optimal bodily functions. These requirements vary based on factors such as age, sex, body size, pregnancy status, and physical activity level. Meeting one's nutritional requirements typically involves consuming a balanced and varied diet, with additional consideration given to any specific dietary restrictions or medical conditions that may influence nutrient needs.

Obesity is a complex disease characterized by an excess accumulation of body fat to the extent that it negatively impacts health. It's typically defined using Body Mass Index (BMI), a measure calculated from a person's weight and height. A BMI of 30 or higher is indicative of obesity. However, it's important to note that while BMI can be a useful tool for identifying obesity in populations, it does not directly measure body fat and may not accurately reflect health status in individuals. Other factors such as waist circumference, blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and blood sugar levels should also be considered when assessing health risks associated with weight.

Gastrointestinal (GI) contents refer to the physical substances within the gastrointestinal tract, which includes the stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. These contents can vary depending on the time since the last meal and the digestive process that is underway. Generally, GI contents include food, fluids, digestive enzymes, secretions, bacteria, and other waste products.

In a more specific context, GI contents may also refer to the stomach contents, which are often analyzed during autopsies or in cases of suspected poisoning or overdose. Stomach contents can provide valuable information about the type and amount of substances that have been ingested within a few hours prior to the analysis.

It is important to note that GI contents should not be confused with gastrointestinal fluids, which specifically refer to the secretions produced by the gastrointestinal tract, such as gastric juice in the stomach or bile in the small intestine.

Fatty acids are carboxylic acids with a long aliphatic chain, which are important components of lipids and are widely distributed in living organisms. They can be classified based on the length of their carbon chain, saturation level (presence or absence of double bonds), and other structural features.

The two main types of fatty acids are:

1. Saturated fatty acids: These have no double bonds in their carbon chain and are typically solid at room temperature. Examples include palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0).
2. Unsaturated fatty acids: These contain one or more double bonds in their carbon chain and can be further classified into monounsaturated (one double bond) and polyunsaturated (two or more double bonds) fatty acids. Examples of unsaturated fatty acids include oleic acid (C18:1, monounsaturated), linoleic acid (C18:2, polyunsaturated), and alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3, polyunsaturated).

Fatty acids play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as energy storage, membrane structure, and cell signaling. Some essential fatty acids cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through dietary sources.

Energy metabolism is the process by which living organisms produce and consume energy to maintain life. It involves a series of chemical reactions that convert nutrients from food, such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, into energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

The process of energy metabolism can be divided into two main categories: catabolism and anabolism. Catabolism is the breakdown of nutrients to release energy, while anabolism is the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler ones using energy.

There are three main stages of energy metabolism: glycolysis, the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle), and oxidative phosphorylation. Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell and involves the breakdown of glucose into pyruvate, producing a small amount of ATP and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). The citric acid cycle takes place in the mitochondria and involves the further breakdown of pyruvate to produce more ATP, NADH, and carbon dioxide. Oxidative phosphorylation is the final stage of energy metabolism and occurs in the inner mitochondrial membrane. It involves the transfer of electrons from NADH and other electron carriers to oxygen, which generates a proton gradient across the membrane. This gradient drives the synthesis of ATP, producing the majority of the cell's energy.

Overall, energy metabolism is a complex and essential process that allows organisms to grow, reproduce, and maintain their bodily functions. Disruptions in energy metabolism can lead to various diseases, including diabetes, obesity, and neurodegenerative disorders.

In a medical context, "meat" generally refers to the flesh of animals that is consumed as food. This includes muscle tissue, as well as fat and other tissues that are often found in meat products. However, it's worth noting that some people may have dietary restrictions or medical conditions that prevent them from consuming meat, so it's always important to consider individual preferences and needs when discussing food options.

It's also worth noting that the consumption of meat can have both positive and negative health effects. On the one hand, meat is a good source of protein, iron, vitamin B12, and other essential nutrients. On the other hand, consuming large amounts of red and processed meats has been linked to an increased risk of heart disease, stroke, and certain types of cancer. Therefore, it's generally recommended to consume meat in moderation as part of a balanced diet.

Caseins are a group of phosphoproteins found in the milk of mammals, including cows and humans. They are the major proteins in milk, making up about 80% of the total protein content. Caseins are characterized by their ability to form micelles, or tiny particles, in milk when it is mixed with calcium. This property allows caseins to help transport calcium and other minerals throughout the body.

Caseins are also known for their nutritional value, as they provide essential amino acids and are easily digestible. They are often used as ingredients in infant formula and other food products. Additionally, caseins have been studied for their potential health benefits, such as reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease and improving bone health. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits.

Body composition refers to the relative proportions of different components that make up a person's body, including fat mass, lean muscle mass, bone mass, and total body water. It is an important measure of health and fitness, as changes in body composition can indicate shifts in overall health status. For example, an increase in fat mass and decrease in lean muscle mass can be indicative of poor nutrition, sedentary behavior, or certain medical conditions.

There are several methods for measuring body composition, including:

1. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This method uses low-level electrical currents to estimate body fat percentage based on the conductivity of different tissues.
2. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This method uses low-dose X-rays to measure bone density and body composition, including lean muscle mass and fat distribution.
3. Hydrostatic weighing: This method involves submerging a person in water and measuring their weight underwater to estimate body density and fat mass.
4. Air displacement plethysmography (ADP): This method uses air displacement to measure body volume and density, which can be used to estimate body composition.

Understanding body composition can help individuals make informed decisions about their health and fitness goals, as well as provide valuable information for healthcare providers in the management of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and heart disease.

Volatile fatty acids (VFA) are a type of fatty acid that have a low molecular weight and are known for their ability to evaporate at room temperature. They are produced in the body during the breakdown of carbohydrates and proteins in the absence of oxygen, such as in the digestive tract by certain bacteria.

The most common volatile fatty acids include acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid. These compounds have various roles in the body, including providing energy to cells in the intestines, modulating immune function, and regulating the growth of certain bacteria. They are also used as precursors for the synthesis of other molecules, such as cholesterol and bile acids.

In addition to their role in the body, volatile fatty acids are also important in the food industry, where they are used as flavorings and preservatives. They are produced naturally during fermentation and aging processes, and are responsible for the distinctive flavors of foods such as yogurt, cheese, and wine.

Feeding behavior refers to the various actions and mechanisms involved in the intake of food and nutrition for the purpose of sustaining life, growth, and health. This complex process encompasses a coordinated series of activities, including:

1. Food selection: The identification, pursuit, and acquisition of appropriate food sources based on sensory cues (smell, taste, appearance) and individual preferences.
2. Preparation: The manipulation and processing of food to make it suitable for consumption, such as chewing, grinding, or chopping.
3. Ingestion: The act of transferring food from the oral cavity into the digestive system through swallowing.
4. Digestion: The mechanical and chemical breakdown of food within the gastrointestinal tract to facilitate nutrient absorption and eliminate waste products.
5. Assimilation: The uptake and utilization of absorbed nutrients by cells and tissues for energy production, growth, repair, and maintenance.
6. Elimination: The removal of undigested material and waste products from the body through defecation.

Feeding behavior is regulated by a complex interplay between neural, hormonal, and psychological factors that help maintain energy balance and ensure adequate nutrient intake. Disruptions in feeding behavior can lead to various medical conditions, such as malnutrition, obesity, eating disorders, and gastrointestinal motility disorders.

Lipid metabolism is the process by which the body breaks down and utilizes lipids (fats) for various functions, such as energy production, cell membrane formation, and hormone synthesis. This complex process involves several enzymes and pathways that regulate the digestion, absorption, transport, storage, and consumption of fats in the body.

The main types of lipids involved in metabolism include triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, and fatty acids. The breakdown of these lipids begins in the digestive system, where enzymes called lipases break down dietary fats into smaller molecules called fatty acids and glycerol. These molecules are then absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to the liver, which is the main site of lipid metabolism.

In the liver, fatty acids may be further broken down for energy production or used to synthesize new lipids. Excess fatty acids may be stored as triglycerides in specialized cells called adipocytes (fat cells) for later use. Cholesterol is also metabolized in the liver, where it may be used to synthesize bile acids, steroid hormones, and other important molecules.

Disorders of lipid metabolism can lead to a range of health problems, including obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). These conditions may be caused by genetic factors, lifestyle habits, or a combination of both. Proper diagnosis and management of lipid metabolism disorders typically involves a combination of dietary changes, exercise, and medication.

I'm happy to help! However, it seems there might be a bit of confusion here. Starch is not typically considered a medical term, but rather a nutritional and biochemical concept. Here's a brief explanation:

Starch is a complex carbohydrate that serves as the primary form of energy storage in plants. It is made up of long chains of glucose molecules and can be found in various foods such as grains, legumes, fruits, and vegetables. Amylase, an enzyme present in our saliva and digestive system, helps break down starch into simpler sugars during the digestion process so that our bodies can absorb them for energy.

I hope this clarifies any confusion! If you have any other questions or need further information on a medical topic, please don't hesitate to ask.

Blood glucose, also known as blood sugar, is the concentration of glucose in the blood. Glucose is a simple sugar that serves as the main source of energy for the body's cells. It is carried to each cell through the bloodstream and is absorbed into the cells with the help of insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas.

The normal range for blood glucose levels in humans is typically between 70 and 130 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) when fasting, and less than 180 mg/dL after meals. Levels that are consistently higher than this may indicate diabetes or other metabolic disorders.

Blood glucose levels can be measured through a variety of methods, including fingerstick blood tests, continuous glucose monitoring systems, and laboratory tests. Regular monitoring of blood glucose levels is important for people with diabetes to help manage their condition and prevent complications.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "vegetables" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is a dietary category that includes various plant-based foods, typically referring to the edible parts of herbaceous plants excluding fruit (but including seeds), such as leaves, stems, roots, tubers, and bulbs.

However, in a nutritional or clinical context, vegetables are often defined by their nutrient content. For example, they may be classified as foods that are high in certain vitamins, minerals, and fiber, and low in calories and fat. Different healthcare professionals or organizations might have slightly different definitions or classifications of what constitutes a vegetable, but there is no single medical definition for this term.

"Fortified food" is a term used in the context of nutrition and dietary guidelines. It refers to a food product that has had nutrients added to it during manufacturing to enhance its nutritional value. These added nutrients can include vitamins, minerals, proteins, or other beneficial components. The goal of fortifying foods is often to address specific nutrient deficiencies in populations or to improve the overall nutritional quality of a food product. Examples of fortified foods include certain breakfast cereals that have added vitamins and minerals, as well as plant-based milk alternatives that are fortified with calcium and vitamin D to mimic the nutritional profile of cow's milk. It is important to note that while fortified foods can be a valuable source of essential nutrients, they should not replace whole, unprocessed foods in a balanced diet.

Dietary Phosphorus is a mineral that is an essential nutrient for human health. It is required for the growth, maintenance, and repair of body tissues, including bones and teeth. Phosphorus is also necessary for the production of energy, the formation of DNA and RNA, and the regulation of various physiological processes.

In the diet, phosphorus is primarily found in protein-containing foods such as meat, poultry, fish, dairy products, legumes, and nuts. It can also be found in processed foods that contain additives such as phosphoric acid, which is used to enhance flavor or as a preservative.

The recommended daily intake of phosphorus for adults is 700 milligrams (mg) per day. However, it's important to note that excessive intake of phosphorus, particularly from supplements and fortified foods, can lead to health problems such as kidney damage and calcification of soft tissues. Therefore, it's recommended to obtain phosphorus primarily from whole foods rather than supplements.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

Protein deficiency, also known as protein-energy malnutrition (PEM), is a condition that occurs when an individual's diet fails to provide adequate amounts of protein and calories necessary for growth, maintenance, and repair of body tissues. Proteins are essential macromolecules that play critical roles in various bodily functions such as enzyme production, hormone regulation, immune response, and tissue structure.

There are two main types of protein deficiency disorders:

1. Marasmus: This is a chronic form of protein-energy malnutrition characterized by inadequate intake of both proteins and calories. It typically occurs in children from impoverished backgrounds who suffer from prolonged food deprivation. The body begins to break down its own tissues, including muscle mass, to meet energy demands, leading to severe weight loss, weakness, and delayed growth.

2. Kwashiorkor: This is an acute form of protein deficiency that primarily affects young children during weaning, when their diet transitions from breast milk to solid foods. While they may consume sufficient calories, these diets often lack adequate protein. Symptoms include edema (fluid accumulation in the abdomen and legs), distended bellies, skin lesions, hair changes, and impaired immune function.

In addition to these severe forms of protein deficiency, subclinical protein malnutrition can also occur when an individual's diet consistently provides insufficient protein levels over time. This can lead to reduced muscle mass, weakened immune function, and increased susceptibility to infections.

It is important to note that protein deficiency is relatively rare in developed countries where access to diverse food sources is generally available. However, specific populations such as elderly individuals, those with eating disorders, or those following restrictive diets may be at higher risk for developing protein deficiencies.

Adipose tissue, also known as fatty tissue, is a type of connective tissue that is composed mainly of adipocytes (fat cells). It is found throughout the body, but is particularly abundant in the abdominal cavity, beneath the skin, and around organs such as the heart and kidneys.

Adipose tissue serves several important functions in the body. One of its primary roles is to store energy in the form of fat, which can be mobilized and used as an energy source during periods of fasting or exercise. Adipose tissue also provides insulation and cushioning for the body, and produces hormones that help regulate metabolism, appetite, and reproductive function.

There are two main types of adipose tissue: white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). WAT is the more common form and is responsible for storing energy as fat. BAT, on the other hand, contains a higher number of mitochondria and is involved in heat production and energy expenditure.

Excessive accumulation of adipose tissue can lead to obesity, which is associated with an increased risk of various health problems such as diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.

Weight loss is a reduction in body weight attributed to loss of fluid, fat, muscle, or bone mass. It can be intentional through dieting and exercise or unintentional due to illness or disease. Unintentional weight loss is often a cause for concern and should be evaluated by a healthcare professional to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan. Rapid or significant weight loss can also have serious health consequences, so it's important to approach any weight loss plan in a healthy and sustainable way.

"Food habits" refer to the established patterns or behaviors that individuals develop in relation to their food choices and eating behaviors. These habits can include preferences for certain types of foods, meal timing, portion sizes, and dining experiences. Food habits are influenced by a variety of factors including cultural background, personal beliefs, taste preferences, social norms, and economic resources. They can have significant impacts on an individual's nutritional status, overall health, and quality of life.

It is important to note that while "food habits" may not be a formal medical term, it is often used in the context of nutrition and public health research and interventions to describe the behaviors related to food choices and eating patterns.

A macrobiotic diet is a type of eating plan that is based on the principles of traditional Japanese medicine and philosophy. The goal of this diet is to achieve balance and harmony between the body, mind, and environment through the consumption of whole, unprocessed foods.

The macrobiotic diet typically consists of whole grains, vegetables, beans and legumes, seaweed, and soups. Animal products are generally limited or avoided, and processed and refined foods are not permitted. The specific proportions of these food groups can vary depending on the individual's health needs and lifestyle.

The macrobiotic diet is often recommended as a way to promote overall health and well-being, and may be used to help manage chronic conditions such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. However, it is important to note that this diet may not provide all of the necessary nutrients for good health and should be followed under the guidance of a healthcare professional or a trained macrobiotic counselor.

Soybean proteins are the proteins derived from soybeans, a legume native to East Asia. Soybeans contain approximately 40% protein by weight, making them a significant source of plant-based protein. The two major types of soy protein are:

1. Soy protein isolate (SPI): This is a highly refined protein that contains at least 90% protein by weight. It is made by removing carbohydrates and fiber from defatted soy flour, leaving behind a protein-rich powder. SPI is often used as an ingredient in various food products, including meat alternatives, energy bars, and beverages.
2. Soy protein concentrate (SPC): This type of soy protein contains approximately 70% protein by weight. It is made by removing some of the carbohydrates from defatted soy flour, leaving behind a higher concentration of proteins. SPC has applications in food and industrial uses, such as in textured vegetable protein (TVP) for meat alternatives, baked goods, and functional foods.

Soy proteins are considered high-quality proteins due to their complete amino acid profile, containing all nine essential amino acids necessary for human nutrition. They also have various health benefits, such as lowering cholesterol levels, improving bone health, and promoting muscle growth and maintenance. However, it is important to note that soy protein consumption should be balanced with other protein sources to ensure a diverse intake of nutrients.

Phosphorus is an essential mineral that is required by every cell in the body for normal functioning. It is a key component of several important biomolecules, including adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is the primary source of energy for cells, and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), which are the genetic materials in cells.

Phosphorus is also a major constituent of bones and teeth, where it combines with calcium to provide strength and structure. In addition, phosphorus plays a critical role in various metabolic processes, including energy production, nerve impulse transmission, and pH regulation.

The medical definition of phosphorus refers to the chemical element with the atomic number 15 and the symbol P. It is a highly reactive non-metal that exists in several forms, including white phosphorus, red phosphorus, and black phosphorus. In the body, phosphorus is primarily found in the form of organic compounds, such as phospholipids, phosphoproteins, and nucleic acids.

Abnormal levels of phosphorus in the body can lead to various health problems. For example, high levels of phosphorus (hyperphosphatemia) can occur in patients with kidney disease or those who consume large amounts of phosphorus-rich foods, and can contribute to the development of calcification of soft tissues and cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, low levels of phosphorus (hypophosphatemia) can occur in patients with malnutrition, vitamin D deficiency, or alcoholism, and can lead to muscle weakness, bone pain, and an increased risk of infection.

Unsaturated fatty acids are a type of fatty acid that contain one or more double bonds in their carbon chain. These double bonds can be either cis or trans configurations, although the cis configuration is more common in nature. The presence of these double bonds makes unsaturated fatty acids more liquid at room temperature and less prone to spoilage than saturated fatty acids, which do not have any double bonds.

Unsaturated fatty acids can be further classified into two main categories: monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). MUFAs contain one double bond in their carbon chain, while PUFAs contain two or more.

Examples of unsaturated fatty acids include oleic acid (a MUFA found in olive oil), linoleic acid (a PUFA found in vegetable oils), and alpha-linolenic acid (an omega-3 PUFA found in flaxseed and fish). Unsaturated fatty acids are essential nutrients for the human body, as they play important roles in various physiological processes such as membrane structure, inflammation, and blood clotting. It is recommended to consume a balanced diet that includes both MUFAs and PUFAs to maintain good health.

Corn oil is a type of vegetable oil that is extracted from the germ of corn (maize). It is rich in polyunsaturated fat, particularly linoleic acid, and contains about 25% saturated fat. Corn oil has a high smoke point, making it suitable for frying and baking. It is also used as an ingredient in margarine, salad dressings, and other food products. In addition to its use as a food product, corn oil is sometimes used topically on the skin as a moisturizer or emollient.

"Inbred strains of rats" are genetically identical rodents that have been produced through many generations of brother-sister mating. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the genes at any particular locus in the genome are identical in all members of the strain.

Inbred strains of rats are widely used in biomedical research because they provide a consistent and reproducible genetic background for studying various biological phenomena, including the effects of drugs, environmental factors, and genetic mutations on health and disease. Additionally, inbred strains can be used to create genetically modified models of human diseases by introducing specific mutations into their genomes.

Some commonly used inbred strains of rats include the Wistar Kyoto (WKY), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Fischer 344 (F344) rat strains. Each strain has its own unique genetic characteristics, making them suitable for different types of research.

Dietary sucrose is a type of sugar that is commonly found in the human diet. It is a disaccharide, meaning it is composed of two monosaccharides: glucose and fructose. Sucrose is naturally occurring in many fruits and vegetables, but it is also added to a wide variety of processed foods and beverages as a sweetener.

In the body, sucrose is broken down into its component monosaccharides during digestion, which are then absorbed into the bloodstream and used for energy. While small amounts of sucrose can be part of a healthy diet, consuming large amounts of added sugars, including sucrose, has been linked to a variety of negative health outcomes, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and heart disease. Therefore, it is recommended that people limit their intake of added sugars and focus on getting their sugars from whole foods, such as fruits and vegetables.

Lactation is the process by which milk is produced and secreted from the mammary glands of female mammals, including humans, for the nourishment of their young. This physiological function is initiated during pregnancy and continues until it is deliberately stopped or weaned off. The primary purpose of lactation is to provide essential nutrients, antibodies, and other bioactive components that support the growth, development, and immune system of newborns and infants.

The process of lactation involves several hormonal and physiological changes in a woman's body. During pregnancy, the hormones estrogen and progesterone stimulate the growth and development of the mammary glands. After childbirth, the levels of these hormones drop significantly, allowing another hormone called prolactin to take over. Prolactin is responsible for triggering the production of milk in the alveoli, which are tiny sacs within the breast tissue.

Another hormone, oxytocin, plays a crucial role in the release or "let-down" of milk from the alveoli to the nipple during lactation. This reflex is initiated by suckling or thinking about the baby, which sends signals to the brain to release oxytocin. The released oxytocin then binds to receptors in the mammary glands, causing the smooth muscles around the alveoli to contract and push out the milk through the ducts and into the nipple.

Lactation is a complex and highly regulated process that ensures the optimal growth and development of newborns and infants. It provides not only essential nutrients but also various bioactive components, such as immunoglobulins, enzymes, and growth factors, which protect the infant from infections and support their immune system.

In summary, lactation is the physiological process by which milk is produced and secreted from the mammary glands of female mammals for the nourishment of their young. It involves hormonal changes, including the actions of prolactin, oxytocin, estrogen, and progesterone, to regulate the production, storage, and release of milk.

6-Phytase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of phytic acid (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate), a major storage form of phosphorus in plants, into inorganic phosphate and lower molecular weight myo-inositol phosphates. This enzymatic reaction releases phosphate and micronutrients, making them more available for absorption in the gastrointestinal tract of monogastric animals, such as pigs, poultry, and fish. The "6" in 6-Phytase refers to the position of the phosphate group that is cleaved from the myo-inositol ring. This enzyme has significant applications in animal nutrition and feed industry to improve nutrient utilization and reduce phosphorus pollution in the environment.

A cross-over study is a type of experimental design in which participants receive two or more interventions in a specific order. After a washout period, each participant receives the opposite intervention(s). The primary advantage of this design is that it controls for individual variability by allowing each participant to act as their own control.

In medical research, cross-over studies are often used to compare the efficacy or safety of two treatments. For example, a researcher might conduct a cross-over study to compare the effectiveness of two different medications for treating high blood pressure. Half of the participants would be randomly assigned to receive one medication first and then switch to the other medication after a washout period. The other half of the participants would receive the opposite order of treatments.

Cross-over studies can provide valuable insights into the relative merits of different interventions, but they also have some limitations. For example, they may not be suitable for studying conditions that are chronic or irreversible, as it may not be possible to completely reverse the effects of the first intervention before administering the second one. Additionally, carryover effects from the first intervention can confound the results if they persist into the second treatment period.

Overall, cross-over studies are a useful tool in medical research when used appropriately and with careful consideration of their limitations.

In the context of nutrition and health, minerals are inorganic elements that are essential for various bodily functions, such as nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance, and bone structure. They are required in small amounts compared to macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats) and are obtained from food and water.

Some of the major minerals include calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride, while trace minerals or microminerals are required in even smaller amounts and include iron, zinc, copper, manganese, iodine, selenium, and fluoride.

It's worth noting that the term "minerals" can also refer to geological substances found in the earth, but in medical terminology, it specifically refers to the essential inorganic elements required for human health.

Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreatic islets, primarily in response to elevated levels of glucose in the circulating blood. It plays a crucial role in regulating blood glucose levels and facilitating the uptake and utilization of glucose by peripheral tissues, such as muscle and adipose tissue, for energy production and storage. Insulin also inhibits glucose production in the liver and promotes the storage of excess glucose as glycogen or triglycerides.

Deficiency in insulin secretion or action leads to impaired glucose regulation and can result in conditions such as diabetes mellitus, characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and associated complications. Exogenous insulin is used as a replacement therapy in individuals with diabetes to help manage their blood glucose levels and prevent long-term complications.

"Gluten" is not strictly defined as a medical term, but it refers to a group of proteins found in certain grains, including wheat, barley, and rye. Gluten gives these grains their elasticity and helps them maintain their shape, making it possible to bake breads and other baked goods.

From a medical perspective, gluten is significant because some people have adverse reactions to it. The two main conditions related to gluten are celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity. In both cases, consuming gluten can lead to various symptoms such as gastrointestinal distress, fatigue, and skin rashes.

Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder where the ingestion of gluten causes damage to the small intestine lining, impairing nutrient absorption. On the other hand, non-celiac gluten sensitivity does not involve an immune response or intestinal damage but can still cause uncomfortable symptoms in some individuals.

It is essential to understand that a gluten-free diet should be medically recommended and supervised by healthcare professionals for those diagnosed with celiac disease or non-celiac gluten sensitivity, as it may lead to nutritional deficiencies if not properly managed.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

Fermentation is a metabolic process in which an organism converts carbohydrates into alcohol or organic acids using enzymes. In the absence of oxygen, certain bacteria, yeasts, and fungi convert sugars into carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and various end products, such as alcohol, lactic acid, or acetic acid. This process is commonly used in food production, such as in making bread, wine, and beer, as well as in industrial applications for the production of biofuels and chemicals.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "fruit" is not a medical term per se. It is a common term used to describe the part of a plant that develops from the ovary after flowering and contains seeds. However, in a nutritional or dietary context, "fruits" are often referred to as foods that are typically sweet and juicy, and come from plants' flowers. They are rich in fiber, vitamins, and minerals, making them an essential part of a healthy diet. But in a strict medical sense, there isn't a specific definition for "fruit."

"Food handling" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in the context of public health and food safety, it generally refers to the activities involved in the storage, preparation, and serving of food in a way that minimizes the risk of contamination and foodborne illnesses. This includes proper hygiene practices, such as handwashing and wearing gloves, separating raw and cooked foods, cooking food to the correct temperature, and refrigerating or freezing food promptly. Proper food handling is essential for ensuring the safety and quality of food in various settings, including restaurants, hospitals, schools, and homes.

"Wistar rats" are a strain of albino rats that are widely used in laboratory research. They were developed at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, USA, and were first introduced in 1906. Wistar rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not have a fixed set of genetic characteristics like inbred strains.

Wistar rats are commonly used as animal models in biomedical research because of their size, ease of handling, and relatively low cost. They are used in a wide range of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and behavioral studies. Wistar rats are also used in safety testing of drugs, medical devices, and other products.

Wistar rats are typically larger than many other rat strains, with males weighing between 500-700 grams and females weighing between 250-350 grams. They have a lifespan of approximately 2-3 years. Wistar rats are also known for their docile and friendly nature, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory setting.

Medically, "milk" is not defined. However, it is important to note that human babies are fed with breast milk, which is the secretion from the mammary glands of humans. It is rich in nutrients like proteins, fats, carbohydrates (lactose), vitamins and minerals that are essential for growth and development.

Other mammals also produce milk to feed their young. These include cows, goats, and sheep, among others. Their milk is often consumed by humans as a source of nutrition, especially in dairy products. However, the composition of these milks can vary significantly from human breast milk.

Choline deficiency is a condition that occurs when an individual's diet does not provide adequate amounts of choline, which is an essential nutrient required for various bodily functions. Choline plays a crucial role in the synthesis of phospholipids, which are critical components of cell membranes, and it also serves as a precursor to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is involved in memory, muscle control, and other nervous system functions.

Choline deficiency can lead to several health problems, including fatty liver disease, muscle damage, and cognitive impairment. Symptoms of choline deficiency may include fatigue, memory loss, cognitive decline, and peripheral neuropathy. In severe cases, it can also cause liver dysfunction and even liver failure.

It is important to note that choline deficiency is relatively rare in the general population, as many foods contain choline, including eggs, meat, fish, dairy products, and certain vegetables such as broccoli and Brussels sprouts. However, some individuals may be at higher risk of choline deficiency, including pregnant women, postmenopausal women, and those with certain genetic mutations that affect choline metabolism. In these cases, supplementation with choline may be necessary to prevent deficiency.

Intestinal absorption refers to the process by which the small intestine absorbs water, nutrients, and electrolytes from food into the bloodstream. This is a critical part of the digestive process, allowing the body to utilize the nutrients it needs and eliminate waste products. The inner wall of the small intestine contains tiny finger-like projections called villi, which increase the surface area for absorption. Nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream through the walls of the capillaries in these villi, and then transported to other parts of the body for use or storage.

Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) are a type of fatty acid that contains one double bond in its chemical structure. The presence of the double bond means that there is one less hydrogen atom, hence the term "unsaturated." In monounsaturated fats, the double bond occurs between the second and third carbon atoms in the chain, which makes them "mono"unsaturated.

MUFAs are considered to be a healthy type of fat because they can help reduce levels of harmful cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein or LDL) while maintaining levels of beneficial cholesterol (high-density lipoprotein or HDL). They have also been associated with a reduced risk of heart disease and improved insulin sensitivity.

Common sources of monounsaturated fats include olive oil, canola oil, avocados, nuts, and seeds. It is recommended to consume MUFAs as part of a balanced diet that includes a variety of nutrient-dense foods.

Dietary calcium is a type of calcium that is obtained through food sources. Calcium is an essential mineral that is necessary for many bodily functions, including bone formation and maintenance, muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and blood clotting.

The recommended daily intake of dietary calcium varies depending on age, sex, and other factors. For example, the recommended daily intake for adults aged 19-50 is 1000 mg, while women over 50 and men over 70 require 1200 mg per day.

Good dietary sources of calcium include dairy products such as milk, cheese, and yogurt; leafy green vegetables like broccoli and kale; fortified cereals and juices; and certain types of fish, such as salmon and sardines. It is important to note that some foods can inhibit the absorption of calcium, including oxalates found in spinach and rhubarb, and phytates found in whole grains and legumes.

If a person is unable to get enough calcium through their diet, they may need to take calcium supplements. However, it is important to talk to a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen, as excessive intake of calcium can lead to negative health effects.

Amino acids are organic compounds that serve as the building blocks of proteins. They consist of a central carbon atom, also known as the alpha carbon, which is bonded to an amino group (-NH2), a carboxyl group (-COOH), a hydrogen atom (H), and a variable side chain (R group). The R group can be composed of various combinations of atoms such as hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon, which determine the unique properties of each amino acid.

There are 20 standard amino acids that are encoded by the genetic code and incorporated into proteins during translation. These include:

1. Alanine (Ala)
2. Arginine (Arg)
3. Asparagine (Asn)
4. Aspartic acid (Asp)
5. Cysteine (Cys)
6. Glutamine (Gln)
7. Glutamic acid (Glu)
8. Glycine (Gly)
9. Histidine (His)
10. Isoleucine (Ile)
11. Leucine (Leu)
12. Lysine (Lys)
13. Methionine (Met)
14. Phenylalanine (Phe)
15. Proline (Pro)
16. Serine (Ser)
17. Threonine (Thr)
18. Tryptophan (Trp)
19. Tyrosine (Tyr)
20. Valine (Val)

Additionally, there are several non-standard or modified amino acids that can be incorporated into proteins through post-translational modifications, such as hydroxylation, methylation, and phosphorylation. These modifications expand the functional diversity of proteins and play crucial roles in various cellular processes.

Amino acids are essential for numerous biological functions, including protein synthesis, enzyme catalysis, neurotransmitter production, energy metabolism, and immune response regulation. Some amino acids can be synthesized by the human body (non-essential), while others must be obtained through dietary sources (essential).

Hypercholesterolemia is a medical term that describes a condition characterized by high levels of cholesterol in the blood. Specifically, it refers to an abnormally elevated level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, also known as "bad" cholesterol, which can contribute to the development of fatty deposits in the arteries called plaques. Over time, these plaques can narrow and harden the arteries, leading to atherosclerosis, a condition that increases the risk of heart disease, stroke, and other cardiovascular complications.

Hypercholesterolemia can be caused by various factors, including genetics, lifestyle choices, and underlying medical conditions. In some cases, it may not cause any symptoms until serious complications arise. Therefore, regular cholesterol screening is essential for early detection and management of hypercholesterolemia. Treatment typically involves lifestyle modifications, such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, and weight management, along with medication if necessary.

A medical definition of 'food' would be:

"Substances consumed by living organisms, usually in the form of meals, which contain necessary nutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water. These substances are broken down during digestion to provide energy, build and repair tissues, and regulate bodily functions."

It's important to note that while this is a medical definition, it also aligns with common understanding of what food is.

Omega-3 fatty acids are a type of polyunsaturated fats that are essential for human health. The "omega-3" designation refers to the location of a double bond in the chemical structure of the fatty acid, specifically three carbon atoms from the end of the molecule.

There are three main types of omega-3 fatty acids: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). EPA and DHA are primarily found in fatty fish, such as salmon, mackerel, and sardines, as well as in algae. ALA is found in plant sources, such as flaxseeds, chia seeds, walnuts, and some vegetable oils.

Omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to have numerous health benefits, including reducing inflammation, lowering the risk of heart disease, improving brain function, and supporting eye health. They are also important for fetal development during pregnancy and breastfeeding. It is recommended that adults consume at least 250-500 milligrams of combined EPA and DHA per day, although higher intakes may be beneficial for certain conditions. ALA can be converted to EPA and DHA in the body, but this process is not very efficient, so it is important to consume preformed EPA and DHA from dietary sources or supplements.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Vegetable proteins, also known as plant-based proteins, are nitrogenous organic compounds derived from plants. These proteins are composed of amino acid chains that are essential for the growth, repair, and maintenance of body tissues. Vegetable proteins can be found in a wide variety of plant sources such as legumes (e.g., beans, lentils, peas), grains (e.g., rice, wheat, corn), nuts, seeds, and vegetables.

It is important to note that while vegetable proteins are often considered "incomplete" because they may lack one or more of the essential amino acids found in animal-based proteins, consuming a variety of plant-based protein sources throughout the day can provide all the necessary amino acids for a healthy diet. Vegetarian and vegan diets that are well-planned can meet protein needs without the use of animal products.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

"Food analysis" is not a medical term per se, but it falls under the broader field of food science and nutrition. Food analysis refers to the laboratory methods and techniques used to determine the composition and quality of food products. This can include testing for nutrients (such as proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals), contaminants (like heavy metals, pesticides, or allergens), and other components that may affect the safety, quality, or authenticity of food.

The results of food analysis can be used to ensure compliance with regulatory standards, develop new food products, assess the nutritional value of diets, investigate food-borne illnesses, and monitor trends in food consumption. While not a medical definition, food analysis is an important tool for promoting public health and preventing diet-related diseases.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Zinc is an essential mineral that is vital for the functioning of over 300 enzymes and involved in various biological processes in the human body, including protein synthesis, DNA synthesis, immune function, wound healing, and cell division. It is a component of many proteins and participates in the maintenance of structural integrity and functionality of proteins. Zinc also plays a crucial role in maintaining the sense of taste and smell.

The recommended daily intake of zinc varies depending on age, sex, and life stage. Good dietary sources of zinc include red meat, poultry, seafood, beans, nuts, dairy products, and fortified cereals. Zinc deficiency can lead to various health problems, including impaired immune function, growth retardation, and developmental delays in children. On the other hand, excessive intake of zinc can also have adverse effects on health, such as nausea, vomiting, and impaired immune function.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" is not a widely recognized or established medical term. It seems to be a very specific phrase that may refer to the physiological processes and phenomena related to nutrition.

Nutrition, in a medical context, refers to the process of providing or obtaining food necessary for health and growth. Physiological phenomena, on the other hand, refer to the functional manifestations of living organisms and their parts.

So, "Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" could hypothetically refer to the various physiological processes that occur in the body in relation to nutrition, such as digestion, absorption, metabolism, transportation, and storage of nutrients. However, I would recommend consulting the specific source or context where this term was used for a more accurate definition.

Soybean oil is a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of the soybean (Glycine max). It is one of the most widely consumed cooking oils and is also used in a variety of food and non-food applications.

Medically, soybean oil is sometimes used as a vehicle for administering certain medications, particularly those that are intended to be absorbed through the skin. It is also used as a dietary supplement and has been studied for its potential health benefits, including its ability to lower cholesterol levels and reduce the risk of heart disease.

However, it's important to note that soybean oil is high in omega-6 fatty acids, which can contribute to inflammation when consumed in excess. Therefore, it should be used in moderation as part of a balanced diet.

Dietary sodium is a mineral that is primarily found in table salt (sodium chloride) and many processed foods. It is an essential nutrient for human health, playing a crucial role in maintaining fluid balance, transmitting nerve impulses, and regulating muscle contractions. However, consuming too much dietary sodium can increase blood pressure and contribute to the development of hypertension, heart disease, stroke, and kidney problems.

The recommended daily intake of dietary sodium is less than 2,300 milligrams (mg) per day for most adults, but the American Heart Association recommends no more than 1,500 mg per day for optimal heart health. It's important to note that many processed and restaurant foods contain high levels of sodium, so it's essential to read food labels and choose fresh, whole foods whenever possible to help limit dietary sodium intake.

F344 is a strain code used to designate an outbred stock of rats that has been inbreeded for over 100 generations. The F344 rats, also known as Fischer 344 rats, were originally developed at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and are now widely used in biomedical research due to their consistent and reliable genetic background.

Inbred strains, like the F344, are created by mating genetically identical individuals (siblings or parents and offspring) for many generations until a state of complete homozygosity is reached, meaning that all members of the strain have identical genomes. This genetic uniformity makes inbred strains ideal for use in studies where consistent and reproducible results are important.

F344 rats are known for their longevity, with a median lifespan of around 27-31 months, making them useful for aging research. They also have a relatively low incidence of spontaneous tumors compared to other rat strains. However, they may be more susceptible to certain types of cancer and other diseases due to their inbred status.

It's important to note that while F344 rats are often used as a standard laboratory rat strain, there can still be some genetic variation between individual animals within the same strain, particularly if they come from different suppliers or breeding colonies. Therefore, it's always important to consider the source and history of any animal model when designing experiments and interpreting results.

Methionine is an essential amino acid, which means that it cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through the diet. It plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including:

1. Protein synthesis: Methionine is one of the building blocks of proteins, helping to create new proteins and maintain the structure and function of cells.
2. Methylation: Methionine serves as a methyl group donor in various biochemical reactions, which are essential for DNA synthesis, gene regulation, and neurotransmitter production.
3. Antioxidant defense: Methionine can be converted to cysteine, which is involved in the formation of glutathione, a potent antioxidant that helps protect cells from oxidative damage.
4. Homocysteine metabolism: Methionine is involved in the conversion of homocysteine back to methionine through a process called remethylation, which is essential for maintaining normal homocysteine levels and preventing cardiovascular disease.
5. Fat metabolism: Methionine helps facilitate the breakdown and metabolism of fats in the body.

Foods rich in methionine include meat, fish, dairy products, eggs, and some nuts and seeds.

Maternal nutritional physiological phenomena refer to the various changes and processes that occur in a woman's body during pregnancy, lactation, and postpartum periods to meet the increased nutritional demands and support the growth and development of the fetus or infant. These phenomena involve complex interactions between maternal nutrition, hormonal regulation, metabolism, and physiological functions to ensure optimal pregnancy outcomes and offspring health.

Examples of maternal nutritional physiological phenomena include:

1. Adaptations in maternal nutrient metabolism: During pregnancy, the mother's body undergoes various adaptations to increase the availability of essential nutrients for fetal growth and development. For instance, there are increased absorption and utilization of glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids, as well as enhanced storage of glycogen and lipids in maternal tissues.
2. Placental transfer of nutrients: The placenta plays a crucial role in facilitating the exchange of nutrients between the mother and fetus. It selectively transports essential nutrients such as glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals from the maternal circulation to the fetal compartment while removing waste products.
3. Maternal weight gain: Pregnant women typically experience an increase in body weight due to the growth of the fetus, placenta, amniotic fluid, and maternal tissues such as the uterus and breasts. Adequate gestational weight gain is essential for ensuring optimal pregnancy outcomes and reducing the risk of adverse perinatal complications.
4. Changes in maternal hormonal regulation: Pregnancy is associated with significant changes in hormonal profiles, including increased levels of estrogen, progesterone, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and other hormones that regulate various physiological functions such as glucose metabolism, appetite regulation, and maternal-fetal immune tolerance.
5. Lactation: Following childbirth, the mother's body undergoes further adaptations to support lactation and breastfeeding. This involves the production and secretion of milk, which contains essential nutrients and bioactive components that promote infant growth, development, and immunity.
6. Nutrient requirements: Pregnancy and lactation increase women's nutritional demands for various micronutrients such as iron, calcium, folate, vitamin D, and omega-3 fatty acids. Meeting these increased nutritional needs is crucial for ensuring optimal pregnancy outcomes and supporting maternal health during the postpartum period.

Understanding these physiological adaptations and their implications for maternal and fetal health is essential for developing evidence-based interventions to promote positive pregnancy outcomes, reduce the risk of adverse perinatal complications, and support women's health throughout the reproductive lifespan.

Lipoproteins are complex particles composed of multiple proteins and lipids (fats) that play a crucial role in the transport and metabolism of fat molecules in the body. They consist of an outer shell of phospholipids, free cholesterols, and apolipoproteins, enclosing a core of triglycerides and cholesteryl esters.

There are several types of lipoproteins, including:

1. Chylomicrons: These are the largest lipoproteins and are responsible for transporting dietary lipids from the intestines to other parts of the body.
2. Very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL): Produced by the liver, VLDL particles carry triglycerides to peripheral tissues for energy storage or use.
3. Low-density lipoproteins (LDL): Often referred to as "bad cholesterol," LDL particles transport cholesterol from the liver to cells throughout the body. High levels of LDL in the blood can lead to plaque buildup in artery walls and increase the risk of heart disease.
4. High-density lipoproteins (HDL): Known as "good cholesterol," HDL particles help remove excess cholesterol from cells and transport it back to the liver for excretion or recycling. Higher levels of HDL are associated with a lower risk of heart disease.

Understanding lipoproteins and their roles in the body is essential for assessing cardiovascular health and managing risks related to heart disease and stroke.

Silage is not typically considered a medical term. It is an agricultural term that refers to fermented, moist green fodder (such as grasses, clover, or corn) that are stored in a silo and used as animal feed. However, if contaminated with harmful bacteria like Listeria or mold, it can cause foodborne illness in animals and potentially in humans who consume the contaminated silage or products made from contaminated animals.

Fats, also known as lipids, are a broad group of organic compounds that are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar organic solvents. In the body, fats serve as a major fuel source, providing twice the amount of energy per gram compared to carbohydrates and proteins. They also play crucial roles in maintaining cell membrane structure and function, serving as precursors for various signaling molecules, and assisting in the absorption and transport of fat-soluble vitamins.

There are several types of fats:

1. Saturated fats: These fats contain no double bonds between their carbon atoms and are typically solid at room temperature. They are mainly found in animal products, such as meat, dairy, and eggs, as well as in some plant-based sources like coconut oil and palm kernel oil. Consuming high amounts of saturated fats can raise levels of harmful low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in the blood, increasing the risk of heart disease.
2. Unsaturated fats: These fats contain one or more double bonds between their carbon atoms and are usually liquid at room temperature. They can be further divided into monounsaturated fats (one double bond) and polyunsaturated fats (two or more double bonds). Unsaturated fats, especially those from plant sources, tend to have beneficial effects on heart health by lowering LDL cholesterol levels and increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels.
3. Trans fats: These are unsaturated fats that have undergone a process called hydrogenation, which adds hydrogen atoms to the double bonds, making them more saturated and solid at room temperature. Partially hydrogenated trans fats are commonly found in processed foods, such as baked goods, fried foods, and snack foods. Consumption of trans fats has been linked to increased risks of heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes.
4. Omega-3 fatty acids: These are a specific type of polyunsaturated fat that is essential for human health. They cannot be synthesized by the body and must be obtained through diet. Omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to have numerous health benefits, including reducing inflammation, improving heart health, and supporting brain function.
5. Omega-6 fatty acids: These are another type of polyunsaturated fat that is essential for human health. They can be synthesized by the body but must also be obtained through diet. While omega-6 fatty acids are necessary for various bodily functions, excessive consumption can contribute to inflammation and other health issues. It is recommended to maintain a balanced ratio of omega-3 to omega-6 fatty acids in the diet.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

The cecum is the first part of the large intestine, located at the junction of the small and large intestines. It is a pouch-like structure that connects to the ileum (the last part of the small intestine) and the ascending colon (the first part of the large intestine). The cecum is where the appendix is attached. Its function is to absorb water and electrolytes, and it also serves as a site for the fermentation of certain types of dietary fiber by gut bacteria. However, the exact functions of the cecum are not fully understood.

Caloric restriction refers to a dietary regimen that involves reducing the total calorie intake while still maintaining adequate nutrition and micronutrient intake. This is often achieved by limiting the consumption of high-calorie, nutrient-poor foods and increasing the intake of nutrient-dense, low-calorie foods such as fruits, vegetables, and lean proteins.

Caloric restriction has been shown to have numerous health benefits, including increased lifespan, improved insulin sensitivity, reduced inflammation, and decreased risk of chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. It is important to note that caloric restriction should not be confused with starvation or malnutrition, which can have negative effects on health. Instead, it involves a careful balance of reducing calorie intake while still ensuring adequate nutrition and energy needs are met.

It is recommended that individuals who are considering caloric restriction consult with a healthcare professional or registered dietitian to ensure that they are following a safe and effective plan that meets their individual nutritional needs.

Fructose is a simple monosaccharide, also known as "fruit sugar." It is a naturally occurring carbohydrate that is found in fruits, vegetables, and honey. Fructose has the chemical formula C6H12O6 and is a hexose, or six-carbon sugar.

Fructose is absorbed directly into the bloodstream during digestion and is metabolized primarily in the liver. It is sweeter than other sugars such as glucose and sucrose (table sugar), which makes it a popular sweetener in many processed foods and beverages. However, consuming large amounts of fructose can have negative health effects, including increasing the risk of obesity, diabetes, and heart disease.

In the context of medicine, growth generally refers to the increase in size or mass of an organism or a specific part of the body over time. This can be quantified through various methods such as measuring height, weight, or the dimensions of particular organs or tissues. In children, normal growth is typically assessed using growth charts that plot measurements like height and weight against age to determine whether a child's growth is following a typical pattern.

Growth can be influenced by a variety of factors, including genetics, nutrition, hormonal regulation, and overall health status. Abnormalities in growth patterns may indicate underlying medical conditions or developmental disorders that require further evaluation and treatment.

Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) is a laboratory value that measures the amount of urea nitrogen in the blood. Urea nitrogen is a waste product that is formed when proteins are broken down in the liver. The kidneys filter urea nitrogen from the blood and excrete it as urine.

A high BUN level may indicate impaired kidney function, as the kidneys are not effectively removing urea nitrogen from the blood. However, BUN levels can also be affected by other factors such as dehydration, heart failure, or gastrointestinal bleeding. Therefore, BUN should be interpreted in conjunction with other laboratory values and clinical findings.

The normal range for BUN is typically between 7-20 mg/dL (milligrams per deciliter) or 2.5-7.1 mmol/L (millimoles per liter), but the reference range may vary depending on the laboratory.

In a medical context, "nuts" are typically referred to as a type of food that comes from dry fruits with one seed in them. They are often high in healthy fats, fiber, protein, and various essential nutrients. Examples include almonds, walnuts, hazelnuts, cashews, pistachios, and pecans. However, it's important to note that some people may have allergies to certain types of nuts, which can cause serious health problems.

Insulin resistance is a condition in which the body's cells become less responsive to insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates blood sugar levels. In response to this decreased sensitivity, the pancreas produces more insulin to help glucose enter the cells. However, over time, the pancreas may not be able to keep up with the increased demand for insulin, leading to high levels of glucose in the blood and potentially resulting in type 2 diabetes, prediabetes, or other health issues such as metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Insulin resistance is often associated with obesity, physical inactivity, and genetic factors.

Biological availability is a term used in pharmacology and toxicology that refers to the degree and rate at which a drug or other substance is absorbed into the bloodstream and becomes available at the site of action in the body. It is a measure of the amount of the substance that reaches the systemic circulation unchanged, after administration by any route (such as oral, intravenous, etc.).

The biological availability (F) of a drug can be calculated using the area under the curve (AUC) of the plasma concentration-time profile after extravascular and intravenous dosing, according to the following formula:

F = (AUCex/AUCiv) x (Doseiv/Doseex)

where AUCex is the AUC after extravascular dosing, AUCiv is the AUC after intravenous dosing, Doseiv is the intravenous dose, and Doseex is the extravascular dose.

Biological availability is an important consideration in drug development and therapy, as it can affect the drug's efficacy, safety, and dosage regimen. Drugs with low biological availability may require higher doses to achieve the desired therapeutic effect, while drugs with high biological availability may have a more rapid onset of action and require lower doses to avoid toxicity.

The ileum is the third and final segment of the small intestine, located between the jejunum and the cecum (the beginning of the large intestine). It plays a crucial role in nutrient absorption, particularly for vitamin B12 and bile salts. The ileum is characterized by its thin, lined walls and the presence of Peyer's patches, which are part of the immune system and help surveil for pathogens.

Nutritional status is a concept that refers to the condition of an individual in relation to their nutrient intake, absorption, metabolism, and excretion. It encompasses various aspects such as body weight, muscle mass, fat distribution, presence of any deficiencies or excesses of specific nutrients, and overall health status.

A comprehensive assessment of nutritional status typically includes a review of dietary intake, anthropometric measurements (such as height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure), laboratory tests (such as serum albumin, total protein, cholesterol levels, vitamin and mineral levels), and clinical evaluation for signs of malnutrition or overnutrition.

Malnutrition can result from inadequate intake or absorption of nutrients, increased nutrient requirements due to illness or injury, or excessive loss of nutrients due to medical conditions. On the other hand, overnutrition can lead to obesity and related health problems such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancer.

Therefore, maintaining a good nutritional status is essential for overall health and well-being, and it is an important consideration in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of various medical conditions.

LDL, or low-density lipoprotein, is often referred to as "bad" cholesterol. It is one of the lipoproteins that helps carry cholesterol throughout your body. High levels of LDL cholesterol can lead to a buildup of cholesterol in your arteries, which can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke.

Cholesterol is a type of fat (lipid) that is found in the cells of your body. Your body needs some cholesterol to function properly, but having too much can lead to health problems. LDL cholesterol is one of the two main types of cholesterol; the other is high-density lipoprotein (HDL), or "good" cholesterol.

It's important to keep your LDL cholesterol levels in a healthy range to reduce your risk of developing heart disease and stroke. A healthcare professional can help you determine what your target LDL cholesterol level should be based on your individual health status and risk factors.

The intestines, also known as the bowel, are a part of the digestive system that extends from the stomach to the anus. They are responsible for the further breakdown and absorption of nutrients from food, as well as the elimination of waste products. The intestines can be divided into two main sections: the small intestine and the large intestine.

The small intestine is a long, coiled tube that measures about 20 feet in length and is lined with tiny finger-like projections called villi, which increase its surface area and enhance nutrient absorption. The small intestine is where most of the digestion and absorption of nutrients takes place.

The large intestine, also known as the colon, is a wider tube that measures about 5 feet in length and is responsible for absorbing water and electrolytes from digested food, forming stool, and eliminating waste products from the body. The large intestine includes several regions, including the cecum, colon, rectum, and anus.

Together, the intestines play a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being by ensuring that the body receives the nutrients it needs to function properly.

Selenium is a trace element that is essential for the proper functioning of the human body. According to the medical definitions provided by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), selenium is a component of several major metabolic pathways, including thyroid hormone metabolism, antioxidant defense systems, and immune function.

Selenium is found in a variety of foods, including nuts (particularly Brazil nuts), cereals, fish, and meat. It exists in several forms, with selenomethionine being the most common form found in food. Other forms include selenocysteine, which is incorporated into proteins, and selenite and selenate, which are inorganic forms of selenium.

The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for selenium is 55 micrograms per day for adults. While selenium deficiency is rare, chronic selenium deficiency can lead to conditions such as Keshan disease, a type of cardiomyopathy, and Kaschin-Beck disease, which affects the bones and joints.

It's important to note that while selenium is essential for health, excessive intake can be harmful. High levels of selenium can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and neurological damage. The tolerable upper intake level (UL) for selenium is 400 micrograms per day for adults.

'Medicago sativa' is the scientific name for a plant species more commonly known as alfalfa. In a medical context, alfalfa is often considered a herbal supplement and its medicinal properties include being a source of vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. It has been used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of conditions such as kidney problems, asthma, arthritis, and high cholesterol levels. However, it's important to note that the effectiveness of alfalfa for these uses is not conclusively established by scientific research and its use may have potential risks or interactions with certain medications. Always consult a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen.

Phytic acid, also known as phytate in its salt form, is a natural substance found in plant-based foods such as grains, legumes, nuts, and seeds. It's a storage form of phosphorus for the plant and is often referred to as an "anti-nutrient" because it can bind to certain minerals like calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc in the gastrointestinal tract and prevent their absorption. This can potentially lead to mineral deficiencies if a diet is consistently high in phytic acid-rich foods and low in mineral-rich foods. However, it's important to note that phytic acid also has antioxidant properties and may have health benefits when consumed as part of a balanced diet.

The bioavailability of minerals from phytic acid-rich foods can be improved through various methods such as soaking, sprouting, fermenting, or cooking, which can help break down some of the phytic acid and release the bound minerals.

Food deprivation is not a medical term per se, but it is used in the field of nutrition and psychology. It generally refers to the deliberate withholding of food for a prolonged period, leading to a state of undernutrition or malnutrition. This can occur due to various reasons such as famine, starvation, anorexia nervosa, or as a result of certain medical treatments or conditions. Prolonged food deprivation can have serious consequences on physical health, including weight loss, muscle wasting, organ damage, and decreased immune function, as well as psychological effects such as depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment.

Ammonia is a colorless, pungent-smelling gas with the chemical formula NH3. It is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen and is a basic compound, meaning it has a pH greater than 7. Ammonia is naturally found in the environment and is produced by the breakdown of organic matter, such as animal waste and decomposing plants. In the medical field, ammonia is most commonly discussed in relation to its role in human metabolism and its potential toxicity.

In the body, ammonia is produced as a byproduct of protein metabolism and is typically converted to urea in the liver and excreted in the urine. However, if the liver is not functioning properly or if there is an excess of protein in the diet, ammonia can accumulate in the blood and cause a condition called hyperammonemia. Hyperammonemia can lead to serious neurological symptoms, such as confusion, seizures, and coma, and is treated by lowering the level of ammonia in the blood through medications, dietary changes, and dialysis.

"Triticum" is the genus name for a group of cereal grains that includes common wheat (T. aestivum), durum wheat (T. durum), and spelt (T. spelta). These grains are important sources of food for humans, providing carbohydrates, proteins, and various nutrients. They are used to make a variety of foods such as bread, pasta, and breakfast cereals. Triticum species are also known as "wheat" in layman's terms.

I apologize, but "sheep" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is a common animal with the scientific name Ovis aries. If you have any medical or health-related questions, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

Fatty liver, also known as hepatic steatosis, is a medical condition characterized by the abnormal accumulation of fat in the liver. The liver's primary function is to process nutrients, filter blood, and fight infections, among other tasks. When excess fat builds up in the liver cells, it can impair liver function and lead to inflammation, scarring, and even liver failure if left untreated.

Fatty liver can be caused by various factors, including alcohol consumption, obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), viral hepatitis, and certain medications or medical conditions. NAFLD is the most common cause of fatty liver in the United States and other developed countries, affecting up to 25% of the population.

Symptoms of fatty liver may include fatigue, weakness, weight loss, loss of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain or discomfort, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). However, many people with fatty liver do not experience any symptoms, making it essential to diagnose and manage the condition through regular check-ups and blood tests.

Treatment for fatty liver depends on the underlying cause. Lifestyle changes such as weight loss, exercise, and dietary modifications are often recommended for people with NAFLD or alcohol-related fatty liver disease. Medications may also be prescribed to manage related conditions such as diabetes, high cholesterol, or metabolic syndrome. In severe cases of liver damage, a liver transplant may be necessary.

Linoleic acid is an essential polyunsaturated fatty acid, specifically an omega-6 fatty acid. It is called "essential" because our bodies cannot produce it; therefore, it must be obtained through our diet. Linoleic acid is a crucial component of cell membranes and is involved in the production of prostaglandins, which are hormone-like substances that regulate various bodily functions such as inflammation, blood pressure, and muscle contraction.

Foods rich in linoleic acid include vegetable oils (such as soybean, corn, and sunflower oil), nuts, seeds, and some fruits and vegetables. It is important to maintain a balance between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in the diet, as excessive consumption of omega-6 fatty acids can contribute to inflammation and other health issues.

'Avena sativa' is the scientific name for a type of grass species known as common oat or cultivated oat. It is widely grown as a crop for its seed, which is used as a food source for both humans and animals. Oats are rich in fiber, vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants, making them a popular choice for breakfast cereals, baked goods, and animal feeds. In addition to their nutritional value, oats have also been used in traditional medicine for various purposes, such as treating skin irritation and promoting hair growth.

The Glycemic Index (GI) is a measure of how quickly a carbohydrate-containing food raises blood glucose levels, compared to a reference food (usually pure glucose). It is expressed as a percentage on a scale from 0 to 100. A food with a high GI raises blood glucose levels more rapidly and higher than a food with a low GI.

Foods are ranked based on the speed at which they cause an increase in blood sugar levels, with high GI foods causing a rapid spike and low GI foods causing a slower, more gradual rise. This can be useful for people managing diabetes or other conditions where maintaining stable blood glucose levels is important.

It's worth noting that the glycemic index of a food can vary depending on factors such as ripeness, cooking method, and the presence of fiber or fat in the meal. Therefore, it's best to consider GI values as a general guide rather than an absolute rule.

Fasting is defined in medical terms as the abstinence from food or drink for a period of time. This practice is often recommended before certain medical tests or procedures, as it helps to ensure that the results are not affected by recent eating or drinking.

In some cases, fasting may also be used as a therapeutic intervention, such as in the management of seizures or other neurological conditions. Fasting can help to lower blood sugar and insulin levels, which can have a variety of health benefits. However, it is important to note that prolonged fasting can also have negative effects on the body, including malnutrition, dehydration, and electrolyte imbalances.

Fasting is also a spiritual practice in many religions, including Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, and Hinduism. In these contexts, fasting is often seen as a way to purify the mind and body, to focus on spiritual practices, or to express devotion or mourning.

Medical Definition of Vitamin E:

Vitamin E is a fat-soluble antioxidant that plays a crucial role in protecting your body's cells from damage caused by free radicals, which are unstable molecules produced when your body breaks down food or is exposed to environmental toxins like cigarette smoke and radiation. Vitamin E is also involved in immune function, DNA repair, and other metabolic processes.

It is a collective name for a group of eight fat-soluble compounds that include four tocopherols and four tocotrienols. Alpha-tocopherol is the most biologically active form of vitamin E in humans and is the one most commonly found in supplements.

Vitamin E deficiency is rare but can occur in people with certain genetic disorders or who cannot absorb fat properly. Symptoms of deficiency include nerve and muscle damage, loss of feeling in the arms and legs, muscle weakness, and vision problems.

Food sources of vitamin E include vegetable oils (such as sunflower, safflower, and wheat germ oil), nuts and seeds (like almonds, peanuts, and sunflower seeds), and fortified foods (such as cereals and some fruit juices).

Safflower oil is a vegetable oil that is extracted from the seeds of the safflower plant (Carthamus tinctorius). It is primarily composed of unsaturated fatty acids, with a high concentration of linoleic acid (an omega-6 fatty acid) and a smaller amount of oleic acid (an omega-9 fatty acid).

Safflower oil has been used in traditional medicine for its potential health benefits, such as improving heart health, reducing inflammation, and promoting skin health. It is also commonly used as a cooking oil due to its high smoke point and light flavor. However, it is important to note that safflower oil should be consumed in moderation, as excessive intake of omega-6 fatty acids can contribute to inflammation and other health issues.

HDL (High-Density Lipoprotein) cholesterol is often referred to as "good" cholesterol. It is a type of lipoprotein that helps remove excess cholesterol from cells and carry it back to the liver, where it can be broken down and removed from the body. High levels of HDL cholesterol have been associated with a lower risk of heart disease and stroke.

The small intestine is the portion of the gastrointestinal tract that extends from the pylorus of the stomach to the beginning of the large intestine (cecum). It plays a crucial role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients from food. The small intestine is divided into three parts: the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.

1. Duodenum: This is the shortest and widest part of the small intestine, approximately 10 inches long. It receives chyme (partially digested food) from the stomach and begins the process of further digestion with the help of various enzymes and bile from the liver and pancreas.
2. Jejunum: The jejunum is the middle section, which measures about 8 feet in length. It has a large surface area due to the presence of circular folds (plicae circulares), finger-like projections called villi, and microvilli on the surface of the absorptive cells (enterocytes). These structures increase the intestinal surface area for efficient absorption of nutrients, electrolytes, and water.
3. Ileum: The ileum is the longest and final section of the small intestine, spanning about 12 feet. It continues the absorption process, mainly of vitamin B12, bile salts, and any remaining nutrients. At the end of the ileum, there is a valve called the ileocecal valve that prevents backflow of contents from the large intestine into the small intestine.

The primary function of the small intestine is to absorb the majority of nutrients, electrolytes, and water from ingested food. The mucosal lining of the small intestine contains numerous goblet cells that secrete mucus, which protects the epithelial surface and facilitates the movement of chyme through peristalsis. Additionally, the small intestine hosts a diverse community of microbiota, which contributes to various physiological functions, including digestion, immunity, and protection against pathogens.

I apologize for any confusion, but "flax" is not a medical term. It is actually a type of plant also known as Linum usitatissimum. The seeds of the flax plant are used in making linseed oil, and flax fibers are used to make linen. Flaxseeds are often consumed for their health benefits, as they are rich in omega-3 fatty acids, fiber, and lignans. If you have any questions about the use of flax or its components in a medical context, I would be happy to try to help further.

Animal husbandry is the practice of breeding and raising animals for agricultural purposes, such as for the production of meat, milk, eggs, or fiber. It involves providing proper care for the animals, including feeding, housing, health care, and breeding management. The goal of animal husbandry is to maintain healthy and productive animals while also being mindful of environmental sustainability and animal welfare.

Sucrose is a type of simple sugar, also known as a carbohydrate. It is a disaccharide, which means that it is made up of two monosaccharides: glucose and fructose. Sucrose occurs naturally in many fruits and vegetables and is often extracted and refined for use as a sweetener in food and beverages.

The chemical formula for sucrose is C12H22O11, and it has a molecular weight of 342.3 g/mol. In its pure form, sucrose is a white, odorless, crystalline solid that is highly soluble in water. It is commonly used as a reference compound for determining the sweetness of other substances, with a standard sucrose solution having a sweetness value of 1.0.

Sucrose is absorbed by the body through the small intestine and metabolized into glucose and fructose, which are then used for energy or stored as glycogen in the liver and muscles. While moderate consumption of sucrose is generally considered safe, excessive intake can contribute to weight gain, tooth decay, and other health problems.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hordeum" is not a medical term. It is actually the genus name for barley in botany. If you have any medical terms or concepts that you would like me to explain, please let me know!

Food additives are substances that are added to food or drink during manufacturing or processing to perform various functions such as preservation, coloring, flavoring, enhancing taste and texture, and increasing nutritional value. These additives can be natural or synthetic and must be approved by regulatory authorities before they can be used in food products. Examples of food additives include salt, sugar, vinegar, spices, artificial flavors, preservatives, emulsifiers, and food dyes. It is important to note that some people may have allergies or sensitivities to certain food additives, and excessive consumption of some additives may have negative health effects.

In medicine, "absorption" refers to the process by which substances, including nutrients, medications, or toxins, are taken up and assimilated into the body's tissues or bloodstream after they have been introduced into the body via various routes (such as oral, intravenous, or transdermal).

The absorption of a substance depends on several factors, including its chemical properties, the route of administration, and the presence of other substances that may affect its uptake. For example, some medications may be better absorbed when taken with food, while others may require an empty stomach for optimal absorption.

Once a substance is absorbed into the bloodstream, it can then be distributed to various tissues throughout the body, where it may exert its effects or be metabolized and eliminated by the body's detoxification systems. Understanding the process of absorption is crucial in developing effective medical treatments and determining appropriate dosages for medications.

Deficiency diseases are a group of medical conditions that occur when an individual's diet lacks essential nutrients, such as vitamins and minerals. These diseases develop because the body needs these nutrients to function correctly, and without them, various bodily functions can become impaired, leading to disease.

Deficiency diseases can manifest in many different ways, depending on which nutrient is lacking. For example:

* Vitamin A deficiency can lead to night blindness and increased susceptibility to infectious diseases.
* Vitamin C deficiency can result in scurvy, a condition characterized by fatigue, swollen gums, joint pain, and anemia.
* Vitamin D deficiency can cause rickets in children, a disease that leads to weakened bones and skeletal deformities.
* Iron deficiency can result in anemia, a condition in which the blood lacks adequate healthy red blood cells.

Preventing deficiency diseases involves eating a balanced diet that includes a variety of foods from all the major food groups. In some cases, supplements may be necessary to ensure adequate nutrient intake, especially for individuals who have restricted diets or medical conditions that affect nutrient absorption.

Essential amino acids are a group of 9 out of the 20 standard amino acids that cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through diet. They include: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine. These amino acids are essential for various biological processes such as protein synthesis, growth, and repair of body tissues. A deficiency in any of these essential amino acids can lead to impaired physical development and compromised immune function. Foods that provide all nine essential amino acids are considered complete proteins and include animal-derived products like meat, poultry, fish, eggs, and dairy, as well as soy and quinoa.

Omega-6 fatty acids are a type of polyunsaturated fats that are essential for human health. The "omega-6" designation refers to the location of a double bond in the chemical structure of the fatty acid. Specifically, the double bond is located six carbons from the omega end of the molecule.

Omega-6 fatty acids play important roles in the body, including supporting brain function, stimulating skin and hair growth, regulating metabolism, and maintaining the reproductive system. They are also involved in the production of hormones that regulate inflammation and blood clotting.

The most common omega-6 fatty acids found in the Western diet include linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA). LA is found in vegetable oils such as soybean, corn, and sunflower oil, while AA is found in animal products such as meat, poultry, and eggs.

While omega-6 fatty acids are essential for human health, it's important to maintain a balance between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. A diet that is too high in omega-6 fatty acids and low in omega-3 fatty acids can contribute to chronic inflammation and increase the risk of heart disease, cancer, and other health problems. Therefore, it's recommended to consume omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in a ratio of 2:1 to 4:1.

Antioxidants are substances that can prevent or slow damage to cells caused by free radicals, which are unstable molecules that the body produces as a reaction to environmental and other pressures. Antioxidants are able to neutralize free radicals by donating an electron to them, thus stabilizing them and preventing them from causing further damage to the cells.

Antioxidants can be found in a variety of foods, including fruits, vegetables, nuts, and grains. Some common antioxidants include vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, and selenium. Antioxidants are also available as dietary supplements.

In addition to their role in protecting cells from damage, antioxidants have been studied for their potential to prevent or treat a number of health conditions, including cancer, heart disease, and age-related macular degeneration. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks of using antioxidant supplements.

Blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the blood vessels. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and is given as two figures:

1. Systolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart pushes blood out into the arteries.
2. Diastolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart rests between beats, allowing it to fill with blood.

Normal blood pressure for adults is typically around 120/80 mmHg, although this can vary slightly depending on age, sex, and other factors. High blood pressure (hypertension) is generally considered to be a reading of 130/80 mmHg or higher, while low blood pressure (hypotension) is usually defined as a reading below 90/60 mmHg. It's important to note that blood pressure can fluctuate throughout the day and may be affected by factors such as stress, physical activity, and medication use.

Urea is not a medical condition but it is a medically relevant substance. Here's the definition:

Urea is a colorless, odorless solid that is the primary nitrogen-containing compound in the urine of mammals. It is a normal metabolic end product that is excreted by the kidneys and is also used as a fertilizer and in various industrial applications. Chemically, urea is a carbamide, consisting of two amino groups (NH2) joined by a carbon atom and having a hydrogen atom and a hydroxyl group (OH) attached to the carbon atom. Urea is produced in the liver as an end product of protein metabolism and is then eliminated from the body by the kidneys through urination. Abnormal levels of urea in the blood, known as uremia, can indicate impaired kidney function or other medical conditions.

Nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), also known as free fatty acids (FFA), refer to fatty acid molecules that are not bound to glycerol in the form of triglycerides or other esters. In the bloodstream, NEFAs are transported while bound to albumin and can serve as a source of energy for peripheral tissues. Under normal physiological conditions, NEFA levels are tightly regulated by the body; however, elevated NEFA levels have been associated with various metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, obesity, and type 2 diabetes.

Poaceae is not a medical term but a taxonomic category, specifically the family name for grasses. In a broader sense, you might be asking for a medical context where knowledge of this plant family could be relevant. For instance, certain members of the Poaceae family can cause allergies or negative reactions in some people.

In a medical definition, Poaceae would be defined as:

The family of monocotyledonous plants that includes grasses, bamboo, and sedges. These plants are characterized by narrow leaves with parallel veins, jointed stems (called "nodes" and "internodes"), and flowers arranged in spikelets. Some members of this family are important food sources for humans and animals, such as rice, wheat, corn, barley, oats, and sorghum. Other members can cause negative reactions, like skin irritation or allergies, due to their silica-based defense structures called phytoliths.

Aging is a complex, progressive and inevitable process of bodily changes over time, characterized by the accumulation of cellular damage and degenerative changes that eventually lead to increased vulnerability to disease and death. It involves various biological, genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors that contribute to the decline in physical and mental functions. The medical field studies aging through the discipline of gerontology, which aims to understand the underlying mechanisms of aging and develop interventions to promote healthy aging and extend the human healthspan.

Leptin is a hormone primarily produced and released by adipocytes, which are the fat cells in our body. It plays a crucial role in regulating energy balance and appetite by sending signals to the brain when the body has had enough food. This helps control body weight by suppressing hunger and increasing energy expenditure. Leptin also influences various metabolic processes, including glucose homeostasis, neuroendocrine function, and immune response. Defects in leptin signaling can lead to obesity and other metabolic disorders.

I could not find a medical definition specifically for "Cocos." However, Cocos is a geographical name that may refer to:

* The Cocos (Keeling) Islands, an Australian territory in the Indian Ocean.
* Cocos nucifera, the scientific name for the coconut palm tree.

There are some medical conditions related to the consumption of coconuts or exposure to the coconut palm tree, such as allergies to coconut products, but there is no specific medical term "Cocos."

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, oils are typically defined as lipid-based substances that are derived from plants or animals. They are made up of molecules called fatty acids, which can be either saturated or unsaturated. Oils are often used in medical treatments and therapies due to their ability to deliver active ingredients through the skin, as well as their moisturizing and soothing properties. Some oils, such as essential oils, are also used in aromatherapy for their potential therapeutic benefits. However, it's important to note that some oils can be toxic or irritating if ingested or applied to the skin in large amounts, so they should always be used with caution and under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Body Mass Index (BMI) is a measure used to assess whether a person has a healthy weight for their height. It's calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by the square of their height in meters. Here is the medical definition:

Body Mass Index (BMI) = weight(kg) / [height(m)]^2

According to the World Health Organization, BMI categories are defined as follows:

* Less than 18.5: Underweight
* 18.5-24.9: Normal or healthy weight
* 25.0-29.9: Overweight
* 30.0 and above: Obese

It is important to note that while BMI can be a useful tool for identifying weight issues in populations, it does have limitations when applied to individuals. For example, it may not accurately reflect body fat distribution or muscle mass, which can affect health risks associated with excess weight. Therefore, BMI should be used as one of several factors when evaluating an individual's health status and risk for chronic diseases.

In the medical context, the term "eggs" is not typically used as a formal medical definition. However, if you are referring to reproductive biology, an egg or ovum is a female reproductive cell (gamete) that, when fertilized by a male sperm, can develop into a new individual.

In humans, eggs are produced in the ovaries and are released during ovulation, usually once per month. They are much larger than sperm and contain all the genetic information necessary to create a human being, along with nutrients that help support the early stages of embryonic development.

It's worth noting that the term "eggs" is also commonly used in everyday language to refer to chicken eggs or eggs from other birds, which are not relevant to medical definitions.

Celiac disease is a genetic autoimmune disorder in which the consumption of gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley, and rye, leads to damage in the small intestine. In people with celiac disease, their immune system reacts to gluten by attacking the lining of the small intestine, leading to inflammation and destruction of the villi - finger-like projections that help absorb nutrients from food.

This damage can result in various symptoms such as diarrhea, bloating, fatigue, anemia, and malnutrition. Over time, if left untreated, celiac disease can lead to serious health complications, including osteoporosis, infertility, neurological disorders, and even certain types of cancer.

The only treatment for celiac disease is a strict gluten-free diet, which involves avoiding all foods, beverages, and products that contain gluten. With proper management, individuals with celiac disease can lead healthy lives and prevent further intestinal damage and related health complications.

Arteriosclerosis is a general term that describes the hardening and stiffening of the artery walls. It's a progressive condition that can occur as a result of aging, or it may be associated with certain risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, smoking, and a sedentary lifestyle.

The process of arteriosclerosis involves the buildup of plaque, made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances, in the inner lining of the artery walls. Over time, this buildup can cause the artery walls to thicken and harden, reducing the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the body's organs and tissues.

Arteriosclerosis can affect any of the body's arteries, but it is most commonly found in the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart, the cerebral arteries that supply blood to the brain, and the peripheral arteries that supply blood to the limbs. When arteriosclerosis affects the coronary arteries, it can lead to heart disease, angina, or heart attack. When it affects the cerebral arteries, it can lead to stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). When it affects the peripheral arteries, it can cause pain, numbness, or weakness in the limbs, and in severe cases, gangrene and amputation.

Glucose is a simple monosaccharide (or single sugar) that serves as the primary source of energy for living organisms. It's a fundamental molecule in biology, often referred to as "dextrose" or "grape sugar." Glucose has the molecular formula C6H12O6 and is vital to the functioning of cells, especially those in the brain and nervous system.

In the body, glucose is derived from the digestion of carbohydrates in food, and it's transported around the body via the bloodstream to cells where it can be used for energy. Cells convert glucose into a usable form through a process called cellular respiration, which involves a series of metabolic reactions that generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP)—the main currency of energy in cells.

Glucose is also stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen, a polysaccharide (multiple sugar) that can be broken down back into glucose when needed for energy between meals or during physical activity. Maintaining appropriate blood glucose levels is crucial for overall health, and imbalances can lead to conditions such as diabetes mellitus.

Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu (from Latin: *cuprum*) and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable, and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. Copper is found as a free element in nature, and it is also a constituent of many minerals such as chalcopyrite and bornite.

In the human body, copper is an essential trace element that plays a role in various physiological processes, including iron metabolism, energy production, antioxidant defense, and connective tissue synthesis. Copper is found in a variety of foods, such as shellfish, nuts, seeds, whole grains, and organ meats. The recommended daily intake of copper for adults is 900 micrograms (mcg) per day.

Copper deficiency can lead to anemia, neutropenia, impaired immune function, and abnormal bone development. Copper toxicity, on the other hand, can cause nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and in severe cases, liver damage and neurological symptoms. Therefore, it is important to maintain a balanced copper intake through diet and supplements if necessary.

A Nutrition Assessment is a systematic and comprehensive evaluation of an individual's nutritional status, which is carried out by healthcare professionals such as registered dietitians or nutritionists. The assessment typically involves collecting and analyzing data related to various factors that influence nutritional health, including:

1. Anthropometric measurements: These include height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, and other physical measures that can provide insights into an individual's overall health status and risk of chronic diseases.
2. Dietary intake assessment: This involves evaluating an individual's dietary patterns, food preferences, and eating habits to determine whether they are meeting their nutritional needs through their diet.
3. Biochemical assessments: These include blood tests and other laboratory measures that can provide information about an individual's nutrient status, such as serum levels of vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients.
4. Clinical assessment: This involves reviewing an individual's medical history, current medications, and any symptoms or health conditions that may be impacting their nutritional health.
5. Social and economic assessment: This includes evaluating an individual's access to food, income, education level, and other social determinants of health that can affect their ability to obtain and consume a healthy diet.

The goal of a Nutrition Assessment is to identify any nutritional risks or deficiencies and develop a personalized nutrition plan to address them. This may involve making dietary recommendations, providing education and counseling, or referring the individual to other healthcare professionals for further evaluation and treatment.

The jejunum is the middle section of the small intestine, located between the duodenum and the ileum. It is responsible for the majority of nutrient absorption that occurs in the small intestine, particularly carbohydrates, proteins, and some fats. The jejunum is characterized by its smooth muscle structure, which allows it to contract and mix food with digestive enzymes and absorb nutrients through its extensive network of finger-like projections called villi.

The jejunum is also lined with microvilli, which further increase the surface area available for absorption. Additionally, the jejunum contains numerous lymphatic vessels called lacteals, which help to absorb fats and fat-soluble vitamins into the bloodstream. Overall, the jejunum plays a critical role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients from food.

Cottonseed oil is a type of vegetable oil that is extracted from the seeds of cotton plants. It is commonly used in cooking and food manufacturing due to its mild flavor, high smoke point, and long shelf life. Cottonseed oil is also used in the production of soaps, cosmetics, and industrial lubricants.

In a medical context, cottonseed oil is not typically used as a treatment or therapy. However, it does contain various nutrients and compounds that may have potential health benefits. For example, cottonseed oil is a good source of vitamin E, which has antioxidant properties that can help protect cells from damage. It also contains essential fatty acids like linoleic acid, which are important for maintaining heart health and reducing inflammation.

It's worth noting that cottonseed oil does contain small amounts of gossypol, a naturally occurring toxin found in cotton plants. While the levels of gossypol in cottonseed oil are generally considered safe for human consumption, high doses or long-term exposure can be harmful. Therefore, it's important to consume cottonseed oil in moderation and as part of a balanced diet.

Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is a type of essential fatty acid, which means that it cannot be produced by the human body and must be obtained through diet. It is an 18-carbon fatty acid with three cis double bonds, and its chemical formula is C18:3 n-3 or 9c,12c,15c-18:3.

ALA is one of the two essential omega-3 fatty acids, along with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). ALA is found in a variety of plant sources, including flaxseeds, chia seeds, hemp seeds, walnuts, soybeans, and some vegetable oils such as canola and soybean oil.

ALA is an important precursor to EPA and DHA, which have been shown to have numerous health benefits, including reducing inflammation, improving heart health, and supporting brain function. However, the conversion of ALA to EPA and DHA is limited in humans, and it is recommended to consume foods rich in EPA and DHA directly, such as fatty fish and fish oil supplements.

Medically speaking, a deficiency in ALA can lead to various health issues, including dry skin, hair loss, poor wound healing, and increased risk of heart disease. Therefore, it is important to include adequate amounts of ALA-rich foods in the diet to maintain optimal health.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Unsaturated fats are a type of fat that are primarily found in liquid form at room temperature. They are called "unsaturated" because their chemical structure contains one or more double bonds between the carbon atoms, making them less saturated with hydrogen atoms than saturated fats.

There are two main types of unsaturated fats: monounsaturated and polyunsaturated. Monounsaturated fats contain a single double bond in their chemical structure, while polyunsaturated fats contain multiple double bonds.

Unsaturated fats are generally considered to be healthier than saturated fats because they can help lower levels of harmful cholesterol in the blood and reduce the risk of heart disease. Foods that are high in unsaturated fats include vegetable oils, nuts, seeds, avocados, and fish.

It's important to note that while unsaturated fats are generally healthier than saturated fats, they are still high in calories and should be consumed in moderation as part of a balanced diet. Additionally, some types of polyunsaturated fats, such as trans fats, can actually increase the risk of heart disease and other health problems, so it's important to choose sources of unsaturated fats carefully.

Dairy products are foods produced from the milk of animals, primarily cows but also goats, sheep, and buffalo. The term "dairy" refers to the place or process where these products are made. According to the medical definition, dairy products include a variety of foods such as:

1. Milk - This is the liquid produced by mammals to feed their young. It's rich in nutrients like calcium, protein, and vitamins A, D, and B12.
2. Cheese - Made from milk, it can vary greatly in texture, taste, and nutritional content depending on the type. Cheese is a good source of protein and calcium.
3. Yogurt - This is formed by bacterial fermentation of milk. It contains probiotics which are beneficial bacteria that can help maintain gut health.
4. Butter - Made from cream or churned milk, butter is high in fat and calories but also provides some essential nutrients like vitamin A.
5. Ice Cream - A frozen dessert made from cream, milk, sugar, and often egg yolks. While it can be a source of calcium and protein, it's also high in sugar and should be consumed in moderation.
6. Casein and Whey Proteins - These are proteins derived from milk that are often used as dietary supplements for muscle building and recovery after exercise.

Individuals who are lactose intolerant may have difficulty digesting dairy products due to the sugar lactose found in them. For such individuals, there are lactose-free versions of these products available or they can opt for plant-based alternatives like almond milk, soy milk, etc.

Vitamin E deficiency is a condition that occurs when there is a lack of sufficient vitamin E in the body. Vitamin E is a fat-soluble antioxidant that plays an essential role in maintaining the health of cell membranes, protecting them from damage caused by free radicals. It also helps to support the immune system and promotes healthy blood vessels and nerves.

Vitamin E deficiency can occur due to several reasons, including malnutrition, malabsorption disorders such as cystic fibrosis or celiac disease, premature birth, or genetic defects affecting the alpha-tocopherol transfer protein (alpha-TTP), which is responsible for transporting vitamin E from the liver to other tissues.

Symptoms of vitamin E deficiency may include:

* Neurological problems such as peripheral neuropathy, ataxia (loss of coordination), and muscle weakness
* Retinopathy (damage to the retina) leading to vision loss
* Increased susceptibility to oxidative stress and inflammation
* Impaired immune function

Vitamin E deficiency is rare in healthy individuals who consume a balanced diet, but it can occur in people with certain medical conditions or those who have undergone bariatric surgery. In these cases, supplementation may be necessary to prevent or treat vitamin E deficiency.

Sulfur-containing amino acids are a type of amino acid that contain sulfur atoms in their side chains. There are three sulfur-containing amino acids that are considered essential for human health: methionine, cysteine, and homocysteine.

Methionine is an essential amino acid, which means that it cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through the diet. It contains a sulfur atom in its side chain and plays important roles in various biological processes, including methylation reactions, protein synthesis, and detoxification.

Cysteine is a semi-essential amino acid, which means that it can be synthesized by the human body under normal conditions but may become essential during periods of growth or illness. It contains a sulfhydryl group (-SH) in its side chain, which allows it to form disulfide bonds with other cysteine residues and contribute to the stability and structure of proteins.

Homocysteine is a non-proteinogenic amino acid that is derived from methionine metabolism. It contains a sulfur atom in its side chain and has been linked to various health problems, including cardiovascular disease, when present at elevated levels in the blood.

Other sulfur-containing amino acids include taurine, which is not incorporated into proteins but plays important roles in bile acid conjugation, antioxidant defense, and neuromodulation, and cystathionine, which is an intermediate in methionine metabolism.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

"Suckling animals" refers to young mammals that are in the process of nursing from their mother's teats or nipples, typically for the purpose of obtaining milk and nutrition. This behavior is instinctual in newborn mammals and helps to establish a strong bond between the mother and offspring, as well as providing essential nutrients for growth and development.

The duration of suckling can vary widely among different species, ranging from just a few days or weeks in some animals to several months or even years in others. In many cases, suckling also helps to stimulate milk production in the mother, ensuring an adequate supply of milk for her offspring.

Examples of suckling animals include newborn humans, as well as young mammals such as puppies, kittens, piglets, lambs, calves, and fawns, among others.

I couldn't find a medical definition for the term "butter" in and of itself, as it is not a medical term. However, butter is a common food item that can be mentioned in a medical context. Butter is a dairy product made by churning fresh or fermented cream or milk to separate the fat globules from the buttermilk. It is used as a spread, cooking fat, and ingredient in various foods.

In some cases, butter may be relevant in a medical setting due to its nutritional content. Butter is high in saturated fats and cholesterol, which can contribute to an increased risk of heart disease when consumed in excess. Therefore, individuals with certain medical conditions, such as high blood cholesterol levels or a history of heart disease, may be advised to limit their intake of butter and other high-fat dairy products.

Additionally, some people may have allergies or sensitivities to dairy products, including butter, which can cause symptoms such as hives, itching, swelling, difficulty breathing, or digestive problems. In these cases, avoiding butter and other dairy products is important for managing the allergy or sensitivity.

A "knockout" mouse is a genetically engineered mouse in which one or more genes have been deleted or "knocked out" using molecular biology techniques. This allows researchers to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes, as well as potential associations with human diseases. The mice are generated by introducing targeted DNA modifications into embryonic stem cells, which are then used to create a live animal. Knockout mice have been widely used in biomedical research to investigate gene function, disease mechanisms, and potential therapeutic targets.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "life style" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It generally refers to the way an individual or group lives, including their habits, behaviors, and preferences in areas such as diet, exercise, recreation, and stress management. Some lifestyle factors can have a significant impact on health outcomes and risk for certain diseases. However, it is not a medical term with a specific clinical meaning.

Hyperlipidemias are a group of disorders characterized by an excess of lipids (fats) or lipoproteins in the blood. These include elevated levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, or both. Hyperlipidemias can be inherited (primary) or caused by other medical conditions (secondary). They are a significant risk factor for developing cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease.

There are two main types of lipids that are commonly measured in the blood: low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, often referred to as "bad" cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, known as "good" cholesterol. High levels of LDL cholesterol can lead to the formation of plaques in the arteries, which can narrow or block them and increase the risk of heart attack or stroke. On the other hand, high levels of HDL cholesterol are protective because they help remove LDL cholesterol from the bloodstream.

Triglycerides are another type of lipid that can be measured in the blood. Elevated triglyceride levels can also contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease, particularly when combined with high LDL cholesterol and low HDL cholesterol levels.

Hyperlipidemias are typically diagnosed through a blood test that measures the levels of various lipids and lipoproteins in the blood. Treatment may include lifestyle changes, such as following a healthy diet, getting regular exercise, losing weight, and quitting smoking, as well as medication to lower lipid levels if necessary.

Exercise is defined in the medical context as a physical activity that is planned, structured, and repetitive, with the primary aim of improving or maintaining one or more components of physical fitness. Components of physical fitness include cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body composition. Exercise can be classified based on its intensity (light, moderate, or vigorous), duration (length of time), and frequency (number of times per week). Common types of exercise include aerobic exercises, such as walking, jogging, cycling, and swimming; resistance exercises, such as weightlifting; flexibility exercises, such as stretching; and balance exercises. Exercise has numerous health benefits, including reducing the risk of chronic diseases, improving mental health, and enhancing overall quality of life.

Cellulose is a complex carbohydrate that is the main structural component of the cell walls of green plants, many algae, and some fungi. It is a polysaccharide consisting of long chains of beta-glucose molecules linked together by beta-1,4 glycosidic bonds. Cellulose is insoluble in water and most organic solvents, and it is resistant to digestion by humans and non-ruminant animals due to the lack of cellulase enzymes in their digestive systems. However, ruminants such as cows and sheep can digest cellulose with the help of microbes in their rumen that produce cellulase.

Cellulose has many industrial applications, including the production of paper, textiles, and building materials. It is also used as a source of dietary fiber in human food and animal feed. Cellulose-based materials are being explored for use in biomedical applications such as tissue engineering and drug delivery due to their biocompatibility and mechanical properties.

"Animal pregnancy" is not a term that is typically used in medical definitions. However, in biological terms, animal pregnancy refers to the condition where a fertilized egg (or eggs) implants and develops inside the reproductive tract of a female animal, leading to the birth of offspring (live young).

The specific details of animal pregnancy can vary widely between different species, with some animals exhibiting phenomena such as placental development, gestation periods, and hormonal changes that are similar to human pregnancy, while others may have very different reproductive strategies.

It's worth noting that the study of animal pregnancy and reproduction is an important area of biological research, as it can provide insights into fundamental mechanisms of embryonic development, genetics, and evolution.

Medical Definition of Vitamin A:

Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin that is essential for normal vision, immune function, and cell growth. It is also an antioxidant that helps protect the body's cells from damage caused by free radicals. Vitamin A can be found in two main forms: preformed vitamin A, which is found in animal products such as dairy, fish, and meat, particularly liver; and provitamin A carotenoids, which are found in plant-based foods such as fruits, vegetables, and vegetable oils.

The most active form of vitamin A is retinoic acid, which plays a critical role in the development and maintenance of the heart, lungs, kidneys, and other organs. Vitamin A deficiency can lead to night blindness, dry skin, and increased susceptibility to infections. Chronic vitamin A toxicity can cause nausea, dizziness, headaches, coma, and even death.

"Adiposity" is a medical term that refers to the condition of having an excessive amount of fat in the body. It is often used to describe obesity or being significantly overweight. Adipose tissue, which is the technical name for body fat, is important for many bodily functions, such as storing energy and insulating the body. However, an excess of adipose tissue can lead to a range of health problems, including heart disease, diabetes, and certain types of cancer.

There are different ways to measure adiposity, including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and skinfold thickness. BMI is the most commonly used method and is calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by their height in meters squared. A BMI of 30 or higher is considered obese, while a BMI between 25 and 29.9 is considered overweight. However, it's important to note that BMI may not accurately reflect adiposity in some individuals, such as those with a lot of muscle mass.

In summary, adiposity refers to the condition of having too much body fat, which can increase the risk of various health problems.

Skeletal muscle, also known as striated or voluntary muscle, is a type of muscle that is attached to bones by tendons or aponeuroses and functions to produce movements and support the posture of the body. It is composed of long, multinucleated fibers that are arranged in parallel bundles and are characterized by alternating light and dark bands, giving them a striped appearance under a microscope. Skeletal muscle is under voluntary control, meaning that it is consciously activated through signals from the nervous system. It is responsible for activities such as walking, running, jumping, and lifting objects.

Vitamins are organic substances that are essential in small quantities for the normal growth, development, and maintenance of life in humans. They are required for various biochemical functions in the body such as energy production, blood clotting, immune function, and making DNA.

Unlike macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats), vitamins do not provide energy but they play a crucial role in energy metabolism. Humans require 13 essential vitamins, which can be divided into two categories: fat-soluble and water-soluble.

Fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K) are stored in the body's fat tissues and liver, and can stay in the body for a longer period of time. Water-soluble vitamins (B-complex vitamins and vitamin C) are not stored in the body and need to be replenished regularly through diet or supplementation.

Deficiency of vitamins can lead to various health problems, while excessive intake of certain fat-soluble vitamins can also be harmful due to toxicity. Therefore, it is important to maintain a balanced diet that provides all the essential vitamins in adequate amounts.

In the context of medicine, iron is an essential micromineral and key component of various proteins and enzymes. It plays a crucial role in oxygen transport, DNA synthesis, and energy production within the body. Iron exists in two main forms: heme and non-heme. Heme iron is derived from hemoglobin and myoglobin in animal products, while non-heme iron comes from plant sources and supplements.

The recommended daily allowance (RDA) for iron varies depending on age, sex, and life stage:

* For men aged 19-50 years, the RDA is 8 mg/day
* For women aged 19-50 years, the RDA is 18 mg/day
* During pregnancy, the RDA increases to 27 mg/day
* During lactation, the RDA for breastfeeding mothers is 9 mg/day

Iron deficiency can lead to anemia, characterized by fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath. Excessive iron intake may result in iron overload, causing damage to organs such as the liver and heart. Balanced iron levels are essential for maintaining optimal health.

Isoflavones are a type of plant-derived compounds called phytoestrogens, which have a chemical structure similar to human estrogen. They are found in various plants, particularly in soybeans and soy products. Isoflavones can act as weak estrogens or anti-estrogens in the body, depending on the levels of natural hormones present. These compounds have been studied for their potential health benefits, including reducing menopausal symptoms, improving cardiovascular health, and preventing certain types of cancer. However, more research is needed to fully understand their effects and safety.

The postprandial period is the time frame following a meal, during which the body is engaged in the process of digestion, absorption, and assimilation of nutrients. In a medical context, this term generally refers to the few hours after eating when the body is responding to the ingested food, particularly in terms of changes in metabolism and insulin levels.

The postprandial period can be of specific interest in the study and management of conditions such as diabetes, where understanding how the body handles glucose during this time can inform treatment decisions and strategies for maintaining healthy blood sugar levels.

Linoleic acid is a type of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) that is essential for human health. It is one of the two essential fatty acids, meaning that it cannot be produced by the body and must be obtained through diet.

Linoleic acid is a member of the omega-6 fatty acid family and has a chemical structure with two double bonds at the sixth and ninth carbon atoms from the methyl end of the molecule. It is found in various plant sources, such as vegetable oils (e.g., soybean, corn, safflower, and sunflower oils), nuts, seeds, and whole grains.

Linoleic acid plays a crucial role in maintaining the fluidity and function of cell membranes, producing eicosanoids (hormone-like substances that regulate various bodily functions), and supporting skin health. However, excessive intake of linoleic acid can lead to an imbalance between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids, which may contribute to inflammation and chronic diseases. Therefore, it is recommended to maintain a balanced diet with appropriate amounts of both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids.

The duodenum is the first part of the small intestine, immediately following the stomach. It is a C-shaped structure that is about 10-12 inches long and is responsible for continuing the digestion process that begins in the stomach. The duodenum receives partially digested food from the stomach through the pyloric valve and mixes it with digestive enzymes and bile produced by the pancreas and liver, respectively. These enzymes help break down proteins, fats, and carbohydrates into smaller molecules, allowing for efficient absorption in the remaining sections of the small intestine.

Ketosis is a metabolic state characterized by an elevated level of ketone bodies in the blood or tissues. Ketone bodies are alternative energy sources that are produced when the body breaks down fat for fuel, particularly when glucose levels are low or when carbohydrate intake is restricted. This condition often occurs during fasting, starvation, or high-fat, low-carbohydrate diets like the ketogenic diet. In a clinical setting, ketosis may be associated with diabetes management and monitoring. However, it's important to note that extreme or uncontrolled ketosis can lead to a dangerous condition called diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), which requires immediate medical attention.

Litter size is a term used in veterinary medicine, particularly in relation to breeding of animals. It refers to the number of offspring that are born to an animal during one pregnancy. For example, in the case of dogs or cats, it would be the number of kittens or puppies born in a single litter. The size of the litter can vary widely depending on the species, breed, age, and health status of the parent animals.

Atherosclerosis is a medical condition characterized by the buildup of plaques, made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances found in the blood, on the inner walls of the arteries. This process gradually narrows and hardens the arteries, reducing the flow of oxygen-rich blood to various parts of the body. Atherosclerosis can affect any artery in the body, including those that supply blood to the heart (coronary arteries), brain, limbs, and other organs. The progressive narrowing and hardening of the arteries can lead to serious complications such as coronary artery disease, carotid artery disease, peripheral artery disease, and aneurysms, which can result in heart attacks, strokes, or even death if left untreated.

The exact cause of atherosclerosis is not fully understood, but it is believed to be associated with several risk factors, including high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, smoking, diabetes, obesity, physical inactivity, and a family history of the condition. Atherosclerosis can often progress without any symptoms for many years, but as the disease advances, it can lead to various signs and symptoms depending on which arteries are affected. Treatment typically involves lifestyle changes, medications, and, in some cases, surgical procedures to restore blood flow.

The intestinal mucosa is the innermost layer of the intestines, which comes into direct contact with digested food and microbes. It is a specialized epithelial tissue that plays crucial roles in nutrient absorption, barrier function, and immune defense. The intestinal mucosa is composed of several cell types, including absorptive enterocytes, mucus-secreting goblet cells, hormone-producing enteroendocrine cells, and immune cells such as lymphocytes and macrophages.

The surface of the intestinal mucosa is covered by a single layer of epithelial cells, which are joined together by tight junctions to form a protective barrier against harmful substances and microorganisms. This barrier also allows for the selective absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream. The intestinal mucosa also contains numerous lymphoid follicles, known as Peyer's patches, which are involved in immune surveillance and defense against pathogens.

In addition to its role in absorption and immunity, the intestinal mucosa is also capable of producing hormones that regulate digestion and metabolism. Dysfunction of the intestinal mucosa can lead to various gastrointestinal disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and food allergies.

The colon, also known as the large intestine, is a part of the digestive system in humans and other vertebrates. It is an organ that eliminates waste from the body and is located between the small intestine and the rectum. The main function of the colon is to absorb water and electrolytes from digested food, forming and storing feces until they are eliminated through the anus.

The colon is divided into several regions, including the cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, and anus. The walls of the colon contain a layer of muscle that helps to move waste material through the organ by a process called peristalsis.

The inner surface of the colon is lined with mucous membrane, which secretes mucus to lubricate the passage of feces. The colon also contains a large population of bacteria, known as the gut microbiota, which play an important role in digestion and immunity.

The digestive system is a complex network of organs and glands that work together to break down food into nutrients, which are then absorbed and utilized by the body for energy, growth, and cell repair. The physiological phenomena associated with the digestive system include:

1. Ingestion: This is the process of taking in food through the mouth.
2. Mechanical digestion: This involves the physical breakdown of food into smaller pieces through processes such as chewing, churning, and segmentation.
3. Chemical digestion: This involves the chemical breakdown of food molecules into simpler forms that can be absorbed by the body. This is achieved through the action of enzymes produced by the mouth, stomach, pancreas, and small intestine.
4. Motility: This refers to the movement of food through the digestive tract, which is achieved through a series of coordinated muscle contractions called peristalsis.
5. Secretion: This involves the production and release of various digestive juices and enzymes by glands such as the salivary glands, gastric glands, pancreas, and liver.
6. Absorption: This is the process of absorbing nutrients from the digested food into the bloodstream through the walls of the small intestine.
7. Defecation: This is the final process of eliminating undigested food and waste products from the body through the rectum and anus.

Overall, the coordinated functioning of these physiological phenomena ensures the proper digestion and absorption of nutrients, maintaining the health and well-being of the individual.

Dietary Potassium is a mineral and an essential electrolyte that is required in the human body for various physiological processes. It is primarily obtained through dietary sources. The recommended daily intake of potassium for adults is 4700 milligrams (mg).

Potassium plays a crucial role in maintaining normal blood pressure, heart function, and muscle and nerve activity. It also helps to balance the body's fluids and prevent kidney stones. Foods that are rich in dietary potassium include fruits such as bananas, oranges, and melons; vegetables such as leafy greens, potatoes, and tomatoes; legumes such as beans and lentils; dairy products such as milk and yogurt; and nuts and seeds.

It is important to maintain a balanced intake of dietary potassium, as both deficiency and excess can have negative health consequences. A deficiency in potassium can lead to muscle weakness, fatigue, and heart arrhythmias, while an excess can cause hyperkalemia, which can result in serious cardiac complications.

Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a protein involved in the metabolism of lipids, particularly cholesterol. It is produced primarily by the liver and is a component of several types of lipoproteins, including very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL).

ApoE plays a crucial role in the transport and uptake of lipids in the body. It binds to specific receptors on cell surfaces, facilitating the delivery of lipids to cells for energy metabolism or storage. ApoE also helps to clear cholesterol from the bloodstream and is involved in the repair and maintenance of tissues.

There are three major isoforms of ApoE, designated ApoE2, ApoE3, and ApoE4, which differ from each other by only a few amino acids. These genetic variations can have significant effects on an individual's risk for developing certain diseases, particularly cardiovascular disease and Alzheimer's disease. For example, individuals who inherit the ApoE4 allele have an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, while those with the ApoE2 allele may have a reduced risk.

In summary, Apolipoprotein E is a protein involved in lipid metabolism and transport, and genetic variations in this protein can influence an individual's risk for certain diseases.

Edible plants are those that can be safely consumed by humans and other animals as a source of nutrition. They have various parts (such as fruits, vegetables, seeds, roots, stems, and leaves) that can be used for food after being harvested and prepared properly. Some edible plants have been cultivated and domesticated for agricultural purposes, while others are gathered from the wild. It is important to note that not all plants are safe to eat, and some may even be toxic or deadly if consumed. Proper identification and knowledge of preparation methods are crucial before consuming any plant material.

Carcinogens are agents (substances or mixtures of substances) that can cause cancer. They may be naturally occurring or man-made. Carcinogens can increase the risk of cancer by altering cellular DNA, disrupting cellular function, or promoting cell growth. Examples of carcinogens include certain chemicals found in tobacco smoke, asbestos, UV radiation from the sun, and some viruses.

It's important to note that not all exposures to carcinogens will result in cancer, and the risk typically depends on factors such as the level and duration of exposure, individual genetic susceptibility, and lifestyle choices. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies carcinogens into different groups based on the strength of evidence linking them to cancer:

Group 1: Carcinogenic to humans
Group 2A: Probably carcinogenic to humans
Group 2B: Possibly carcinogenic to humans
Group 3: Not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans
Group 4: Probably not carcinogenic to humans

This information is based on medical research and may be subject to change as new studies become available. Always consult a healthcare professional for medical advice.

The term "drinking" is commonly used to refer to the consumption of beverages, but in a medical context, it usually refers to the consumption of alcoholic drinks. According to the Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary, "drinking" is defined as:

1. The act or habit of swallowing liquid (such as water, juice, or alcohol)
2. The ingestion of alcoholic beverages

It's important to note that while moderate drinking may not pose significant health risks for some individuals, excessive or binge drinking can lead to a range of negative health consequences, including addiction, liver disease, heart disease, and increased risk of injury or violence.

Bile acids and salts are naturally occurring steroidal compounds that play a crucial role in the digestion and absorption of lipids (fats) in the body. They are produced in the liver from cholesterol and then conjugated with glycine or taurine to form bile acids, which are subsequently converted into bile salts by the addition of a sodium or potassium ion.

Bile acids and salts are stored in the gallbladder and released into the small intestine during digestion, where they help emulsify fats, allowing them to be broken down into smaller molecules that can be absorbed by the body. They also aid in the elimination of waste products from the liver and help regulate cholesterol metabolism.

Abnormalities in bile acid synthesis or transport can lead to various medical conditions, such as cholestatic liver diseases, gallstones, and diarrhea. Therefore, understanding the role of bile acids and salts in the body is essential for diagnosing and treating these disorders.

"Newborn animals" refers to the very young offspring of animals that have recently been born. In medical terminology, newborns are often referred to as "neonates," and they are classified as such from birth until about 28 days of age. During this time period, newborn animals are particularly vulnerable and require close monitoring and care to ensure their survival and healthy development.

The specific needs of newborn animals can vary widely depending on the species, but generally, they require warmth, nutrition, hydration, and protection from harm. In many cases, newborns are unable to regulate their own body temperature or feed themselves, so they rely heavily on their mothers for care and support.

In medical settings, newborn animals may be examined and treated by veterinarians to ensure that they are healthy and receiving the care they need. This can include providing medical interventions such as feeding tubes, antibiotics, or other treatments as needed to address any health issues that arise. Overall, the care and support of newborn animals is an important aspect of animal medicine and conservation efforts.

Lipotropic agents are substances that help to promote the breakdown and removal of fats from the liver. They are often used in weight loss supplements because they can help to speed up the metabolism of fat and prevent the accumulation of excess fat in the liver. Some common lipotropic agents include methionine, choline, inositol, and betaine. These compounds work by increasing the production of lecithin, which helps to emulsify fats in the liver and facilitate their transport out of the body. Additionally, lipotropic agents can also help to protect the liver from damage caused by toxins such as alcohol and drugs.

Oral administration is a route of giving medications or other substances by mouth. This can be in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids, pastes, or other forms that can be swallowed. Once ingested, the substance is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract and enters the bloodstream to reach its intended target site in the body. Oral administration is a common and convenient route of medication delivery, but it may not be appropriate for all substances or in certain situations, such as when rapid onset of action is required or when the patient has difficulty swallowing.

Look up Diet, diet, diệt, diët, or DIET in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Diet may refer to: Diet (nutrition), the sum of the ... Aqua Teen Hunger Force The Diet (cartoon), a Beetle Bailey animated short "Diet", a 2020 single by Peakboy DIET, an open-source ... with Diet All pages with titles containing Diet This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Diet. If an ... the Diet of the Weimar Republic, from 1919 to 1933 Reichstag (Nazi Germany), (Reichstag), the Diet of Nazi Germany, from 1933 ...
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Montignac's diet was followed by the South Beach Diet that also used the GI principle, and Michael Mosley's 5:2 diet ... Diabetic diet Glycemic efficacy Glycemic index#Weight control Glycemic load Insulin index List of diets Low glycemic index diet ... The Montignac diet is a high-protein low-carbohydrate fad diet that was popular in the 1990s, mainly in Europe. It was invented ... Although a review concluded that low glycemic index diets do not achieve greater weight loss than low-fat diets, the former ...
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"No one recommends these diets for anyone, let alone everyone." The Stigler diet has been much ridiculed for its lack of variety ... The diet question originally asked in what quantities a 154-pound (70 kg) male would have to consume 77 different foods in ... The Stigler diet is an optimization problem named for George Stigler, a 1982 Nobel laureate in economics, who posed the ... The Stigler diet question is a linear programming problem. Lacking any sophisticated method of solving such a problem, Stigler ...
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People have promoted the "Okinawa diet", despite the fact that the diet alone is unlikely to solely explain high life ... Although the traditional Japanese diet usually includes large quantities of rice, the traditional Okinawa diet consisted of ... The Okinawa diet had only 30% of the sugar and 15% of the grains of the average Japanese dietary intake. Okinawan cuisine ... The traditional diet of the islanders contained sweet potato, green-leafy or root vegetables, and soy foods, such as miso soup ...
A renal diet is a diet aimed at keeping levels of fluids, electrolytes, and minerals balanced in the body in individuals with ... The restrictiveness of a renal diet depends on the severity of the patient's kidney disease, and the diet should be undertaken ... The diet may help limit the buildup of waste products within the body and reduce strain on the kidneys, as well as reduce blood ... Diet modification is recommended in those diagnosed with CKD stage 3-5 or GFR ...
A macrobiotic diet (or macrobiotics) is a fad diet based on ideas about types of food drawn from Zen Buddhism. The diet tries ... The macrobiotic diet is a type of fad diet. Most macrobiotic diets are not nutritionally sound. Fish provides vitamin B12 in a ... Diet Therapy (12th ed.). Cengage Learning. p. 43. ISBN 978-1-305-94582-1. The macrobiotic diet is a system of 10 diet plans, ... The macrobiotic diet is associated with Zen Buddhism and is based on the idea of balancing yin and yang. The diet proposes ten ...
... diet and the Mediterranean diet. Both the DASH diet and the Mediterranean diet have been shown to improve cognition; however, ... worked to create the MIND diet. Like the DASH and Mediterranean diets, the MIND diet emphasizes the intake of fresh fruit, ... The MIND diet is fairly new; the first article describing the diet and its efficacy was published in 2015. This initial study ... The MIND diet also was effective at moderate adherence levels. The study also found that the MIND diet adherence was more ...
A healthy diet is a diet that maintains or improves overall health. A healthy diet provides the body with essential nutrition: ... "Why and How the Indo-Mediterranean Diet May Be Superior to Other Diets: The Role of Antioxidants in the Diet". Nutrients. 14 (4 ... The optimal diet contains no consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (moving from "typical Western diet" of 500 g/day to 0 g/ ... The DASH diet (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) is a diet promoted by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute ( ...
Diet of Augsburg Diet of Nuremberg Diet of Regensburg Diet of Speyer Diet of Worms After the Second Peace of Thorn of 1466, a ... "diet" in English, as in "the Diet of Dalmatia" (Dalmatinski sabor), "the Croatian Diet" (Hrvatski sabor), "the Hungarian- ... Croatian Diet" (Ugarsko-hrvatski sabor), or Diet of Bosnia (Bosansko-hercegovački sabor). The Diet of Hungary, customarily ... "Diet (meeting)" . New International Encyclopedia. 1905. "Diet" . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911. "Diet (meeting)" . ...
The mushroom diet of M-plan diet type has been criticized as a fad diet not based on scientific data; the results of following ... Mushroom diet is an umbrella term for diets with significant amounts of mushrooms. A mushroom-only diet for humans is ... Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Diets, Fad diets). ... a fad diet called M-plan diet) Higher mushroom consumption is associated with reduced breast cancer risk and reduction in mean ...
The CRON-diet (Calorie Restriction with Optimal Nutrition) is a nutrient-rich, reduced calorie diet developed by Roy Walford, ... She wrote that Walford had written a book about the diet called Beyond the 120 Year Diet, in which a "typical dinner" consisted ... Other names include CR-diet, Longevity diet, and Anti-Aging Plan. The Walfords and Delaney, among others, founded the CR ... CRON-description Archived 2008-02-09 at the Wayback Machine CRON-diet as a life-extension diet Turner, Christopher (2010). "The ...
Kitty and Robert Rosati authors of The Rice Diet Solution describe their diet as a "low-sodium, good-carb, detox diet". It is ... The Rice Diet Solution at WebMD The Rice House Healthcare Program home page (CS1 errors: periodical ignored, Diets, Fad diets, ... documenting the benefits of his diet." Kempner described his diet as "a monotonous and tasteless diet which would never become ... The rice diet has influenced some contemporary advocates of the plant-based diet. For example, physician John A. McDougall has ...
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The Ninja diet was a form of military rations historically consumed by ninjas. The types of rations consumed included ...
The Diet was thus a relic of the estate power rather than an absolutist instrument and even by the 1830s, the diet was again a ... At the end of its existence in 1848, the diet had 214 members. The diet met at Prague Castle until 1801. From 1801 he was based ... Despite these limitations, the Diet and its committees, like the Diets in Austria, remained an effective means of political co- ... The Bohemian Diet (Czech: Český zemský sněm, German: Böhmischer Landtag) was the parliament of the Kingdom of Bohemia within ...
Road diets are usually successful on roads carrying fewer than 19,000 vehicles per day. Road diets can succeed at volumes up to ... "Road Diet Guide - Car Free America". Car Free America. Retrieved 31 October 2017. How's That Diet Working: Performance of ... road diet type. San Jose, California has implemented several road diets since November 2011, when the City Council unanimously ... A typical road diet technique is to reduce the number of lanes on a roadway cross-section. One of the most common applications ...
A terrestrial diet was also supported by the 1922 gut content study, which found conifer needles and twigs, seeds, and fruits ... Lull and Wright eliminated the soft plants as the primary choice of diet, and eliminated grasses on the grounds that the beak ... As a result, the study determined that the hadrosaur diet was probably made of leaves and lacked the bulkier items such as ... The diet of hadrosaurid dinosaurs remains a subject of debate among paleontologists, especially regarding whether hadrosaurids ...
The Paleolithic diet, Paleo diet, caveman diet, or stone-age diet is a modern fad diet consisting of foods thought by its ... "The Paleo diet (also known as the Paleolithic Diet, the Caveman diet and the Stone Age Diet) is a diet where only foods ... The paleolithic or paleo diet is also sometimes referred to as the caveman or stone-age diet. The basis of the diet is a re- ... Diets with a paleolithic nutrition pattern have some similarities to traditional ethnic diets such as the Mediterranean diet ...
... may refer to: Prussian estates (1370s-1848) Prussian Landtag (1848-1933) This disambiguation page lists articles ... associated with the title Prussian Diet. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to ...
A monotrophic diet (also known as the mono diet or single-food diet) is a type of diet that involves eating only one food item ... Beef A stricter type of carnivore diet known as the lion diet or all meat diet that has been promoted by Jordan Peterson ... Diet (nutrition) List of diets Guthrie HA (1986). Introductory Nutrition. Mosby. p. 446. ISBN 0-8016-2038-4. "Ultimate Guide to ... Milk In the 1920s, the milk diet fad was popularized by physical culturist Bernarr Macfadden. He advertised the diet as a ...
The Paleolithic diet is claimed to be based on the human ancestral diet. Other similar diets include the ketogenic diet being ... Dieting books, Fad diets, French inventions, Health in France, High-protein diets, Low-carbohydrate diets). ... The Dukan Diet is a high-protein low-carbohydrate fad diet devised by Pierre Dukan. The Dukan diet is a high-protein, low- ... "Dukan diet 'tops list of worst celeb diets'". NHS. 17 November 2011. "Dukan diet guide". Tuesday, 5 November 2019 Chang, Juju; ...
A sattvic diet is sometimes referred to as a yogic diet in modern literature. A sattvic diet shares the qualities of sattva, ... Sattvic diet is a diet based on foods that contain one of the three yogic qualities (guna) known as sattva. In this system of ... This is one reason yogis often follow a vegetarian diet. A sattvic diet is a regimen that places emphasis on seasonal foods, ... make no mention of sattvic diet.[according to whom?] In Yoga diet context, the virtue of Mitahara is one where the yogi is ...
... is an American brand of no-calorie soft drinks that was originally distributed by the RC Cola company. Diet Rite was ... In the early 1960s The Paris Sisters sang a jingle for a Diet Rite television commercial, with the line "Stay thin with the ... It became the first major diet soda in the United States to use neither aspartame nor saccharin as a sweetener. In 2005, "Pure ... In the 1990s, several fruit-flavored varieties of Diet Rite were introduced. In 2000, the line was reformulated yet again, this ...
Special Diets Among Adults: United States, 2015-2018. *Breakfast Intake Among Children and Adolescents: United States, 2015- ...
You may also need a bland diet after stomach or intestinal surgery. ... You may also need a bland diet after stomach or intestinal surgery. ... A bland diet can be used alongside lifestyle changes to help address the symptoms of ulcers, heartburn, GERD, nausea, and ... A bland diet can be used alongside lifestyle changes to help address the symptoms of ulcers, heartburn, GERD, nausea, and ...
The goal of the travelers diarrhea diet is to make your symptoms better and prevent you from getting dehydrated. ...
For weight loss diets, see Dieting. For animal diets, see List of feeding behaviours. For other uses, see Diet (disambiguation) ... The human diet can vary widely.. In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism.[1] The word diet ... Main articles: Dieting, Diet food, and Weight management. A particular diet may be chosen to promote weight loss or weight gain ... See also: Sustainable diet, Low-carbon diet, and Plant-based diet. Agriculture is a driver of environmental degradation, such ...
The authors hypothesized that the DASH diet and reduced sodium intake would control stage 1 hypertension and reduce high-normal ... of persons consuming the DASH/lower sodium diet. Both the DASH diet and reduced sodium intake improved BP control. ... Adults with systolic BP 120-159 mm Hg and diastolic BP 80-95 mm Hg were randomly assigned to receive the DASH diet or a typical ... Previous reports have dealt with mean BP changes with the DASH dietary pattern and/or a reduced sodium intake diet without ...
Bananas, rice, applesauce, and toast diet. *. A banana, rice, applesauce, and toast (BRAT) diet was introduced in the United ... Diet. Breastfed infants with acute diarrhea should be continued on breast milk without any need for interruption. In fact, ... However, no evidence shows that this diet is useful, and its poor protein content may be a contraindication; therefore, it is ... A strong body of evidence now suggests that resuming the prediarrhea diet is perfectly safe and must be encouraged, obviously ...
Diet Behavior & Nutrition (Y_DBQ) Data File: Y_DBQ.xpt First Published: February , 2015. Last Revised: NA ... Title: Diet Behavior & Nutrition (Y_DBQ ). Contact Number: 1-866-441-NCHS. Years of Content: 2012. First Published: February , ... The Diet Behavior and Nutrition (variable name prefix DBQ) section provides personal interview data on various dietary behavior ...
Learn more about how to safely eat a low carb diet here. ... Eating a low carb diet can be an effective weight management ... Below are frequently asked questions relating to low carb diets.. What food can I eat on a low carb diet?. Eating a varied diet ... Many people find following a low carb diet challenging, particularly at the beginning of the diet. The following low carb diet ... There are many different types of low carbohydrate diets, including the paleo, keto, and Atkins diets. These diets vary in ...
WebMD chooses the 10 best diets for high cholesterol. ... 7. The Engine 2 Diet. This is a plant-based diet created by a ... 6. Flexitarian Diet. Like the idea of eating a mostly vegetarian diet, but with room for small portions of meat, fish, and ... Oldways: "Mediterranean Diet Pyramid.". Mayo Clinic: "The Mayo Clinic Diet: A weight-loss program for life," "Cholesterol: Top ... 5. Vegetarian or Vegan Diet. These plant-based diets could do a lot for your cholesterol, if you choose your foods wisely. ...
The pegan diet is a combination of the popular paleo and vegan diets. It focuses on whole foods that are sustainably raised and ... The "pegan" diet is a hybrid, combining the paleo diet -- which focuses on whole foods that might have been hunted or gathered ... The Pegan Diet: What to Know Medically Reviewed by Melinda Ratini, MS, DO on August 10, 2022 ... Get Diet and Fitness Tips In Your Inbox. Eat better and exercise smarter. Sign up for the Food & Fitness newsletter.. *. Food ...
The Super Keto Diet - Download as a PDF or view online for free ... The Super Keto Diet! by Ja Ma. The Super Keto Diet!. Ja Ma•13. ... The Super Keto Diet *2. Keto Diet: The Step by Step Keto Cookbook to Gain Ketosis Keto Grilled Chicken and Avocado Salad ... Dukan Diet Recipe: Grilled Chicken Salad with Mustard Vinaigrette.pdf by Dukan Diet Recipe: Grilled Chicken Salad with Mustard ... Similar to The Super Keto Diet (. 20. ). The best keto diet! by jamshedalikhan10. ...
The ketogenic diet is a high fat, moderate protein, low carbohydrate eating pattern, which differs from general, healthful ... Diet Trends * What is the Ketogenic Diet? What is the Ketogenic Diet?. Contributors: Barbara Gordon, RDN, LD. Published: May 15 ... So, is it a miracle diet or just the latest fad? How the Keto Diet Works. The ketogenic diet is a high fat, moderate protein, ... With the keto diet, the ketones provide an alternative source of energy. Unlike a full fast, the keto diet helps to maintain ...
Its hard to follow a proper military diet. Heres our fitness experts advice on how to stay lean. ... Protein Diet Healthy Diet Staying In Shape motivation military Nutrition Do Eggs Deserve a Spot in Your Diet? Heres What the ... Military Diet. How To Stay Fit When Youre In Combat. James Fell ... What Is the Lion Diet and Is It Ever a Good Idea? ... Readers: Make sure you check back tomorrow, when I outline Step 3 and give some more detailed military diet advice to First Lt ...
... warding off mild and moderate depression with an anti-inflammatory diet, exercise and activities such as yoga and meditation, ... Diet plays a huge role. The mainstream diet, which is heavy in industrialized food-like stuff, is strongly pro-inflammatory. It ... And if thats deficient in the diet, as it is generally in the North American diet, brain health suffers. ... Combating Depression With Meditation, Diet In his book Spontaneous Happiness, Dr. Andrew Weil writes of an integrative ...
... healthier and happier after a 10-week junk-food diet. ... a Diet Mr Dew drink. - half a serving of Doritos Cool Ranch ... Junk-food diet proves fat success. Leaner, healthier and happier after a 10-week junk-food diet. ... Junk food diet: associate professor Mark Haub. Photo: Facebook. After eating sponge cakes, biscuits, some raw vegetables and ... Gill said the experiment followed a global trend to take diets to the extreme which started with the Super Size Me documentary ...
Imagine a diet plan that saw through to the core of your being and beyond, that took into account not just the foibles and ... Diet Advice. I filled out a diet survey from Sciona, a company whose website promises "professional genetic screening" that ... Companies offering "DNA diets" promise customized, expensive diets that fit right in with the current idea of personal service ... Imagine a diet plan that saw through to the core of your being and beyond, that took into account not just the foibles and ...
The alkalinity of diets rich in potassium-usually a reflection of heavy fruit and vegetable consumption-helps preserve muscle. ... How scientists are shifting their search for links between diet and dementia By Cassandra Willyard. July 5, 2022. ... finds that diets rich in potassium appear to protect muscle. And fruits and veggies are a primo source of dietary potassium. ...
Yo-yo dieting patterns. The keto diet can also lead to yo-yo dieting, because people have difficulty staying on the restrictive ... "Keto is not a great long-term diet, as it is not a balanced diet," Rahnama said. "A diet that is devoid of fruit and vegetables ... The keto diet requires adhering to an extremely low-carb, high-fat diet in order to put your body into a metabolic state called ... The Keto Diet Is Gaining Popularity, But Is It Safe?. The keto diet is becoming a trend among people looking for quick, ...
The Center for Applied Nutrition focuses on research of IBD-AID diet and how it can influence the composition of the microbiota ... The diet is an evolving pattern of foods, expanding as we learn more from our research. We welcome patients and professionals ... Q: What is the Anti-Inflammatory Diet for IBD?. The IBD-AID is founded on the principles of nutrition and the immune system, ... This diet helps to restore balance between helpful and harmful bacteria while promoting good nutrition. The IBD-AID has three ...
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Eating a Mediterranean-style diet reduces the risk of developing Alzheimers disease, a study suggests. ... US researchers looked at the diet and health of 2,200 people over four years. The more people kept to a Mediterranean diet, the ... This large study in a leading journal adds to the growing weight of evidence that diet and lifestyle are very important risk ... Eating a "Mediterranean-style" healthy diet significantly reduces the risk of developing Alzheimers disease, a study has ...
If youre a vampire thats been feeding on less than healthy human blood, perhaps its time to "re-vamp" your diet. Read More , ...
... This is a list of Hispanic HANES Diet Practices Dataset Names: CC37.HSPHANES.DIET ...
Intensive diet and exercise can slash pain and improve function and walking speed in older adults with osteoarthritis of the ... In addition, participants in the diet/exercise group improved their functional status by 47%, compared with 30% in the diet- ... "Both exercise and diet are a great way to improve pain and function," he said, "but what was really unique in this study was ... At the end of the study, participants in the diet-only group lost an average of 9.5% of their baseline weight, and those in the ...
Learn the causes, symptoms, signs, diagnosis, treatment, diet, and prognosis of prediabetes. ... There are a variety of type 2 diabetes diet eating plans such as the Mediterranean diet, Paleo diet, ADA Diabetes Diet, and ... Type 2 Diabetes Diet Plan. A type 2 diabetes diet or a type 2 diabetic diet is important for blood sugar (glucose) control in ... The easiest way to choose quality carbohydrates is by following a low glycemic index diet. With a low glycemic index diet, you ...
Kooti, W., et al. (2014). The effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of celery on lipid profile of rats fed a high fat diet [ ... Learn more about the link between cancer and a persons diet.. Blood pressure. Some practitioners of Chinese medicine use ... Meanwhile, the 2016 Cochrane review noted that people who follow a high-fiber diet appear to have lower total and LDL ... in mice concluded that apigenin and apigenin-rich diets reduced the expression of certain inflammatory proteins. In this way, ...
... a healthy diabetes diet is the essence to healthy living along with exercise, of course. ... A controlled diabetes diet may seem like a drag and bore, but a good cook can add life to a diet. Time to call up mom and ... Also, pulses with husk and sprouts are a healthy option and should form a part of the diet.. Pulses are important in the diet ... The diabetes diet for Indians includes carbohydrates, proteins and fats. As always, a balanced and planned diet can build and ...
Some of the diet and nutrition related concerns and factors affecting patients with this condition include:- ... Diet is an important measure in the management of rheumatoid arthritis patients. ... Diet is an important measure in the management of rheumatoid arthritis patients. Some of the diet and nutrition related ... In diet antioxidants are obtained from vitamin C, vitamin E and β-carotene. These agents are found in high amounts in fruit and ...
A dietitian and diabetes educator explains how diet and lifestyle changes can help control prediabetes. ... Diet for Prediabetes - What foods should I eat?. People with prediabetes have fasting blood sugar levels that are elevated, but ... "All foods can fit in the meal plan, and patients should steer clear of fad diets and other strategies that promise quick fixes ... With that in mind, she regards the Mediterranean diet as the gold standard for people with prediabetes, with its emphasis on ...
  • The ketogenic (keto) diet is a high-fat, low-carb eating plan. (slideshare.net)
  • What is the Ketogenic Diet? (eatright.org)
  • The internet is filled with stories of how everyone from movie stars to ordinary people have shed stubborn pounds with the ketogenic diet. (eatright.org)
  • The ketogenic diet is a high fat, moderate protein, low carbohydrate eating pattern, which differs from general, healthful eating recommendations. (eatright.org)
  • For our bodies, a ketogenic diet is actually a partial fast. (eatright.org)
  • The ketogenic diet can definitely result in a drop in libido when starting the diet, as the dieter will be experiencing symptoms of carb withdrawal and potentially the keto flu," noted Dr. Nancy P. Rahnama, a bariatric and internal medicine doctor based in California. (healthline.com)
  • They fed mice ketogenic diets and high-fat diets and then tested their metabolisms and sugar responses. (healthline.com)
  • Although ketogenic diets are known to be healthy, our findings indicate that there may be an increased risk of insulin resistance with this type of diet that may lead to type 2 diabetes," said Christian Wolfrum, PhD, a professor at ETH Zurich and co-author of the research. (healthline.com)
  • Phinney said that people struggle to follow a ketogenic diet if they have type 2 diabetes because they don't find it sustainable. (healthline.com)
  • Following a ketogenic nutrition plan can be difficult, which can be due to confusion around what constitutes a well-formulated ketogenic diet. (healthline.com)
  • If medicine doesn't control seizures in epilepsy , sometimes doctors prescribe a ketogenic (or keto ) diet. (kidshealth.org)
  • A ketogenic (kee-toe-JEN-ik) diet is a strict diet that can reduce, and sometimes stop, seizures . (kidshealth.org)
  • A ketogenic diet is high in fat, low in carbohydrates, and includes just enough protein for a child to grow. (kidshealth.org)
  • Who Needs a Ketogenic Diet? (kidshealth.org)
  • The ketogenic diet isn't a quick, easy fix. (kidshealth.org)
  • Following the ketogenic diet requires regular follow-up with your doctor and dietitian. (kidshealth.org)
  • These are the primary source of energy during a ketogenic diet. (adherents.com)
  • Another key feature of a ketogenic diet pill is the presence of Caprylic acid. (adherents.com)
  • The key to a successful ketogenic diet is getting enough MCTs. (adherents.com)
  • In case you are thinking about starting up around the Ketogenic diet plan, you will want in order to know the advantages and cons. (pbase.com)
  • The Ketogenic diet is just a method associated with eating where a person eat high healthy proteins, low fat, and incredibly low carbohydrates. (pbase.com)
  • So, what are many of the advantages to following typically the Ketogenic diet? (pbase.com)
  • Another advantage is usually that the ketogenic diet plan lets you eat more than others would be allowed. (pbase.com)
  • While these usually are all legitimate rewards of a ketogenic diet, one of the main disadvantages to this sort of diet is the difficulty regarding maintaining a ketogenic diet. (pbase.com)
  • In summary, ketogenic diet program pros are very positive. (pbase.com)
  • Your best bet is always to speak to your physician before beginning a ketogenic diet. (pbase.com)
  • It seems like everyone is praising the keto diet these days. (healthline.com)
  • Eating a "Mediterranean-style" healthy diet significantly reduces the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, a study has suggested. (bbc.co.uk)
  • The more people kept to a Mediterranean diet, the less likely they were to develop Alzheimer's, according to the Annals of Neurology study. (bbc.co.uk)
  • The Mediterranean diet - rich in fruit, vegetables and cereals with some fish and alcohol and very little dairy and meat - has been cited as being generally good for health for some time. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Their food intake was given a "Mediterranean Diet score" of between zero and nine. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Compared to the third of people who scored worst on the Mediterranean diet scores, those in the mid-ranking group had a 15% to 21% lower risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, and those with the highest score had a 39% to 40% lower risk. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Dr Nicholas Scarmeas, who led the research, said: "Higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with a reduction in risk for Alzheimer's disease. (bbc.co.uk)
  • With that in mind, she regards the Mediterranean diet as the gold standard for people with prediabetes, with its emphasis on whole grains, lean protein and healthy fats. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Eating more of the right foods and adopting a "MediterAsian" diet (combining the best of Mediterranean and Asian diets) can promote fat loss and improve our metabolism in as little as 21 days. (penguin.co.uk)
  • Like most experts, rheumatologist Larry Edwards, MD, a professor of medicine at the University of Florida and chair of the Gout Education Society, thinks the best eating plans for gout and overall health are the Mediterranean diet and DASH diet . (arthritis.org)
  • MINNEAPOLIS - A new study shows that older people who followed a Mediterranean diet retained more brain volume over a three-year period than those who did not follow the diet as closely. (eurekalert.org)
  • The Mediterranean diet includes large amounts of fruits, vegetables, olive oil, beans and cereal grains such as wheat and rice, moderate amounts of fish, dairy and wine, and limited red meat and poultry. (eurekalert.org)
  • This study adds to the body of evidence that suggests the Mediterranean diet has a positive impact on brain health. (eurekalert.org)
  • These measurements were compared to how closely participants followed the Mediterranean diet. (eurekalert.org)
  • The participants varied in how closely their dietary habits followed the Mediterranean diet principles. (eurekalert.org)
  • People who didn't follow as closely to the Mediterranean diet were more likely to have a higher loss of total brain volume over the three years than people who followed the diet more closely. (eurekalert.org)
  • There was no relationship between grey matter volume or cortical thickness and the Mediterranean diet. (eurekalert.org)
  • It's possible that other components of the Mediterranean diet are responsible for this relationship, or that it's due to all of the components in combination," Luciano said. (eurekalert.org)
  • Newswise - According to a recent analysis of data from two major eye disease studies, adherence to the Mediterranean diet - high in vegetables, whole grains, fish, and olive oil - correlates with higher cognitive function. (newswise.com)
  • The researchers examined the effects of nine components of the Mediterranean diet on cognition. (newswise.com)
  • They assessed diet with a questionnaire that asked participants their average consumption of each Mediterranean diet component over the previous year. (newswise.com)
  • Participants with the greatest adherence to the Mediterranean diet had the lowest risk of cognitive impairment. (newswise.com)
  • The numerical differences in cognitive function scores between participants with the highest versus lowest adherence to a Mediterranean diet were relatively small, meaning that individuals likely won't see a difference in daily function. (newswise.com)
  • The benefits of close adherence to a Mediterranean diet were similar for people with and without the ApoE gene, meaning that the effects of diet on cognition are independent of genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease. (newswise.com)
  • Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and cognitive function in the Age-Related Eye Disease Studies 1 & 2. (newswise.com)
  • The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern, which emphasizes fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products, as well as a reduced sodium intake diet, both significantly lower BP in persons with stage 1 hypertension and in those with high-normal BP. (medscape.com)
  • As we get older, eating a healthy diet including fresh fruit and vegetables, getting our blood pressure and cholesterol checked regularly, taking exercise and watching our weight may all turn out to be important ways of reducing our risk of developing dementia in later life. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Diabetologist, Dr. Sanjiv Bhambani with Moolchand Medcity suggests "A diabetes diet should be high on fiber, must contain milk without cream, buttermilk, fresh seasonal fruits, green vegetables, etc. (indiatimes.com)
  • He adds that a diabetes diet should "have at least two seasonal fruits and three vegetables in a diet plan. (indiatimes.com)
  • High fiber vegetables such as peas, beans, broccoli and spinach /leafy vegetables should be included in one's diet. (indiatimes.com)
  • Iron is obtained in diet from red meats, poultry and fish and from green leafy vegetables, legumes and seeds. (news-medical.net)
  • Diets rich in fruits, vegetables and whole grain cereals may reduce a person's risk of stroke, especially in individuals with high blood pressure, according to a study in the Sept. 22 issue of Circulation: Journal of the American Heart Association. (sciencedaily.com)
  • This beneficial effect appears to be due to the high potassium content of these diets, but other components of fruits and vegetables may also contribute to the reduced risk of stroke," says Alberto Ascherio, M.D., Dr.P.H., lead author of the study and associate professor of nutrition and epidemiology at Harvard School of Public Health. (sciencedaily.com)
  • The major difference between the diets of the two groups was in their consumption of fruits and vegetables -- about nine servings daily in the highest potassium group compared with four in the lowest. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Eat diet high in fruits and vegetables, they say, and consider a multivitamin if you're still worried about it. (lifehacker.com)
  • In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism . (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] The word diet often implies the use of specific intake of nutrition for health or weight-management reasons (with the two often being related). (wikipedia.org)
  • People on a balanced vegetarian or vegan diet can obtain adequate nutrition, but may need to specifically focus on consuming specific nutrients, such as protein , iron , calcium , zinc , and vitamin B 12 . (wikipedia.org)
  • The Diet Behavior and Nutrition (variable name prefix DBQ) section provides personal interview data on various dietary behavior and nutrition related topics. (cdc.gov)
  • The pegan principle is a nutrient-rich diet that consists of about 75% plant-based foods, with the remaining 25% of your nutrition from animal sources. (webmd.com)
  • An American professor of nutrition has undergone a 10-week diet of biscuits, cakes and other high-sugar, fat-laden junk food and has lived to tell a tale of weight loss, deeper sleep and better general health. (smh.com.au)
  • I recently filled out a diet survey devised by one of the most ambitious of the new companies and got my score from the director of diet and nutrition. (technologyreview.com)
  • A new study by researchers at the federal Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, at Tufts University in Boston, finds that diets rich in potassium appear to protect muscle. (sciencenews.org)
  • This diet helps to restore balance between helpful and harmful bacteria while promoting good nutrition. (umassmed.edu)
  • Let's get a diabetes diet for Indians from the experts in nutrition and diabetology. (indiatimes.com)
  • Country progress in creating enabling policy environments for promoting healthy diets and nutrition. (who.int)
  • The team of researchers compared healthy and gout-exacerbating diet and found that there was a variation of only 0.3 percent in the uric acid levels. (news-medical.net)
  • Your doctor may recommend getting your serum uric acid (SUA) level below 6 mg/dL by changing your diet and taking urate-lowering medicine. (arthritis.org)
  • Maintaining a balanced diet, low in uric acid, is critical for lowering the risk of a gout attack. (arthritis.org)
  • While the data do not prove a causal relationship, there is strong support for a stroke- preventive effect from diets rich in potassium, magnesium and cereal fiber. (sciencedaily.com)
  • For most people, the keto diet requires making big shifts in how they usually eat. (eatright.org)
  • The keto diet requires adhering to an extremely low-carb, high-fat diet in order to put your body into a metabolic state called ketosis . (healthline.com)
  • Changing a person's dietary intake, or "going on a diet", can change the energy balance, and increase or decrease the amount of fat stored by the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • The authors hypothesized that the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet and reduced sodium intake would control stage 1 hypertension and reduce high-normal blood pressure (BP) to optimal levels. (medscape.com)
  • Both the DASH diet and reduced sodium intake improved BP control. (medscape.com)
  • Previous reports have dealt with mean BP changes with the DASH dietary pattern and/or a reduced sodium intake diet without other changes in dietary pattern. (medscape.com)
  • Given the observed BP changes, we hypothesized that the DASH dietary pattern, a control diet with a reduced sodium intake, and both combined (compared with a typical American diet) would lead to improved BP control in DASH-Sodium study participants who were hypertensive upon study entry. (medscape.com)
  • Celery is also a good source of fiber, and results of a 2016 Cochrane review suggested that people with a high fiber intake may have lower blood pressure than those on a low fiber diet. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Diabetes diet for Indians should have the ratio of 60:20:20 for carbs, fats and proteins , the doctor explains, "Per day calorie intake should be between 1,500-1,800 calories with a proportion of 60:20:20 between carbohydrates, fats and proteins, respectively. (indiatimes.com)
  • To reduce body weight intake portions may be reduced, high fat foods may be eliminated from diet and high fat foods may be substituted with lower-fat versions. (news-medical.net)
  • The keto diet can be hard for some kids and teens to follow due to the restrictions and the need for higher protein intake to grow. (kidshealth.org)
  • A lot of people in the world would severely limit their carbohydrate intake when dieting. (pbase.com)
  • What can you eat on a low-carb diet? (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Low carb diets limit the number of carbohydrates a person eats. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Some people may find that low carb diets aid weight management, but others may find them unsustainable long-term. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • However, a low carb diet is not a one-size-fits-all means of weight loss and may not be suitable for everyone. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Anyone considering a low carb diet should speak with a doctor before starting. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This article covers different low carb food options and tips for creating a sustainable diet plan. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Typically, a low carb diet involves a person getting less than 26% of their total calorie from carbohydrates. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Many people find following a low carb diet challenging, particularly at the beginning of the diet. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The following low carb diet tips might help people stick to their diet and may help them lose weight successfully. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • When eating a low carb diet, it is important to choose foods that have a lower carb count but a high nutritional value per serving. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Anyone following a low carb diet could try mapping out their week and plan all meals before heading to the grocery store. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This helps the body avoid fat-burning plateaus that can develop after weeks of low carb dieting. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Once the withdrawal and flu-like symptoms have passed, and the dieter has adapted to the lower-carb lifestyle, the libido will most likely reset and potentially be better than prior as a result of weight loss from the diet," she said. (healthline.com)
  • For many people with prediabetes, it can be reversed with exercise in combination with eating a low-carb diet (low- glycemic index diet ). (medicinenet.com)
  • The keto diet is a low-carb, high-fat diet plan that causes the body to burn fat instead of carbohydrates - a process known as ketosis. (healthline.com)
  • What happens is the liver becomes insulin resistant, which he thinks is reversible when the person switches back to a high-carb, low-, or medium-fat diet. (healthline.com)
  • The study in mice is at odds with some previous research on the benefits of low-carb diets. (healthline.com)
  • Previous short-term studies have shown that low-carb diets - including the keto diet - can improve glucose control in people with type 2 diabetes and lower the amount of medications they need, noted Dr. Reshmi Srinath, director of the weight and metabolism management program at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York. (healthline.com)
  • She said that short-term use of low-carb diets in people with diabetes has to be closely monitored by doctors. (healthline.com)
  • Early twenty-first-century dietary recommendations run a broad gamut, from the ultra-low-fat Pritikin program, most recently championed by Dean Ornish, to the 30:30:40 (protein:fat:carbohydrate) Zone diet of Barry Sears, to the low-carb, high-fat-and-protein Atkins diet. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Planning meals in advance can help people stick to the diet. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Meal prep can help people stick to their diet plan and save time in busier periods. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Many doctors use this as a go-to diet for people with high cholesterol. (webmd.com)
  • Plus, there are both short-term and long-term health risks for all people associated with the keto diet. (eatright.org)
  • She pointed out that the diet was originally developed for a medical purpose to aid people with epilepsy. (healthline.com)
  • Most people already know about the keto flu, which can happen when you start the diet. (healthline.com)
  • The keto diet can also lead to yo-yo dieting, because people have difficulty staying on the restrictive diet permanently. (healthline.com)
  • There are few long-term studies on the keto diet, which may be because it's difficult to follow, so people aren't staying on it for a long time. (healthline.com)
  • US researchers looked at the diet and health of 2,200 people over four years. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Meanwhile, the 2016 Cochrane review noted that people who follow a high-fiber diet appear to have lower total and LDL cholesterol levels than those who consume less fiber. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Cutting 100 calories a day-the equivalent of a Granny Smith apple-is a dieting strategy that most people can sustain for a lifetime, he says. (oprah.com)
  • A gluten-free diet is also popular among people who haven't been diagnosed with a gluten-related medical condition. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Though many people claim the keto diet to be a game changer or a lifesaver, a newly released study raises questions about its ability to cause type 2 diabetes. (healthline.com)
  • But diet alone is not enough to stop gout flares for most people, he says. (arthritis.org)
  • Others, including Hyon Choi, MD, an internationally noted gout expert, and rheumatologist with the University of British Columbia and Vancouver General Hospital and epidemiologist at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, think some people can be helped by diet alone, especially if they have a single mild attack. (arthritis.org)
  • Some people stay on a keto diet for years. (kidshealth.org)
  • Many people think that if a diet is good for treating a condition then it should be good for preventing it. (vetinfo.com)
  • We see this "short-cut" diet phenomenon also among some people who want to be vegetarian. (livescience.com)
  • To do vegetarianism right, you'd have to learn how to cook lentils, beans, grains and other staples of a vegetarian diet, and that's too consuming for many people. (livescience.com)
  • Somehow, people who were already promoting a certain diet-whichever diet that may have been-have concluded that their favorite diet gives special protection against COVID-19. (lifehacker.com)
  • Another pro is usually that people who else go on this sort of diet slim down faster than all those that don't. (pbase.com)
  • These plant-based diets could do a lot for your cholesterol , if you choose your foods wisely. (webmd.com)
  • Some studies show that plant-based diets can lower weight and reduce bad cholesterol in your body. (webmd.com)
  • Cleveland Clinic: "What You Should Know About Plant-Based Diets," "13 of the Best Vegetarian and Vegan Protein Sources. (webmd.com)
  • On a keto diet, carbs from all sources are severely restricted. (eatright.org)
  • Why does the Keto diet restrict carbs? (eatright.org)
  • But adding carbs to a diet high in fats is definitely a bad idea, he said. (healthline.com)
  • The IBD-AID diet emphasizes avoidance of certain carbohydrates that are pro-inflammatory which may be disturbing the normal gut flora. (umassmed.edu)
  • The diabetes diet for Indians includes carbohydrates, proteins and fats. (indiatimes.com)
  • However , as a result of my diet regime, I am able to eat even more high-quality carbohydrates just like potatoes, brown rice, and even special potatoes. (pbase.com)
  • The diet provided just 10% of its calories from carbohydrates and utilized medium-chain triglycerides derived from coconut oil as the main energy source. (medscape.com)
  • That's one of the questions my next guest, Dr. Andrew Weil, addresses in his new book "Spontaneous Happiness," and instead of taking medications to treat mild or moderate depression, Dr. Weil recommends a few alternatives, like meditation, daily exercise and what he calls anti-inflammatory diet. (npr.org)
  • Q: What is the Anti-Inflammatory Diet for IBD? (umassmed.edu)
  • Retrieved on December 06, 2023 from https://www.news-medical.net/news/20181011/Genes-cause-gout-not-diet.aspx. (news-medical.net)
  • A bland diet includes foods that are soft, not very spicy, and low in fiber. (medlineplus.gov)
  • But many agree that a plant-based diet that focuses on fruits and veggies that are high in fiber and low in starch can boost your overall health and lower your risk of certain diseases. (webmd.com)
  • Because we recognize the importance of soluble fiber (which is a prebiotic), we promote steel-cut oats on the diet. (umassmed.edu)
  • Men without high blood pressure whose diets were high in magnesium and cereal fiber also had a reduced risk of stroke when compared to men who ate lower levels of these nutrients. (sciencedaily.com)
  • The most convincing evidence is from studies that show diets low in fiber and high in processed meats increase cancer risk. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Some studies report that a diet high in fiber reduces the risk of cancer, especially colorectal cancer, but these reports controversial. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Most trials are in simulated flight conditions and have a high risk of bias, including studies looking at the effectiveness of Centella asiatica , elderberry, echinacea, pinokinase, and diets containing various levels of fiber, fluids, or macronutrients. (cdc.gov)
  • Dietary recommendations exist for many different countries, and they usually emphasise a balanced diet which is culturally appropriate. (wikipedia.org)
  • A nutritionist can be consulted to help you review your diet and suggest dietary and lifestyle changes. (medicinenet.com)
  • I am simply in the process of illustrating that foods deemed to wreck diets, cause obesity, lead to diabetes, etc... do not - in and of themselves - do that,' he said on his Facebook profile page after four days and a 3.2-kilogram loss. (smh.com.au)
  • The researchers say they didn't evaluate if the diet causes obesity after long-term use. (healthline.com)
  • Obesity, regardless of the type of diet, increases the risk of many cancers. (msdmanuals.com)
  • With the keto diet, the ketones provide an alternative source of energy. (eatright.org)
  • The Modified Atkins Diet is a less-restrictive alternative that still allows the patient to make ketones to help control seizures. (kidshealth.org)
  • Because ketones can be converted from fat into energy, MCTs and beta-hydroxybutyrate can help you achieve a keto diet plan without a lot of sacrifices. (adherents.com)
  • [2] Specific diets, such as the DASH diet , can be used in treatment and management of chronic conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adults with systolic BP 120-159 mm Hg and diastolic BP 80-95 mm Hg were randomly assigned to receive the DASH diet or a typical American (control) diet, consuming three different sodium intakes (higher=142 mmol/d, intermediate=107 mmol/d, and lower=65 mmol/d) for 30 days each. (medscape.com)
  • The maximum BP control rate (84%) was achieved with the DASH/lower sodium diet. (medscape.com)
  • BP became normal or optimal in 71% of persons consuming the control/lower sodium diet and 77% of persons consuming the DASH/lower sodium diet. (medscape.com)
  • A healthy diet can improve and maintain health, which can include aspects of mental and physical health. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exclusionary diets are diets with certain groups or specific types of food avoided, either due to health considerations or by choice. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has many of the health benefits of a vegetarian diet but room for flexibility. (webmd.com)
  • Are There Health Benefits to the Pegan Diet? (webmd.com)
  • No in-depth studies have looked at the health effects and possible benefits of the pegan diet. (webmd.com)
  • And research finds that including whole grains and legumes in your daily diet might improve your overall health. (webmd.com)
  • Long term health risks of the keto diet include kidney stones, liver disease and deficiencies of vitamins and minerals. (eatright.org)
  • A considerable body of research has shown that diets high in saturated fat may increase the risk for heart disease and other chronic health problems. (eatright.org)
  • Imagine a diet plan that saw through to the core of your being and beyond, that took into account not just the foibles and little secrets no one else knows about (it's awfully easy to dispose of incriminating Wendy's bags and 3 Musketeers wrappers) but even the secrets that you don't know - secrets that can help keep you alive longer and in better health. (technologyreview.com)
  • As always, a balanced and planned diet can build and improve personal health . (indiatimes.com)
  • The claimed benefits of the diet are improved health, weight loss and increased energy, but more research is needed. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Gerald Grandl, PhD, co-author of the study and professor at the German Research Center for Environmental Health , said that insulin resistance and the keto diet have been studied before. (healthline.com)
  • A healthy diet helps maintain and improve the health of an individual. (hubpages.com)
  • To any who are looking to diet to lose weight, please do so in a healthy manner and not risk your health for pounds you can lose in a much healthier alternative. (hubpages.com)
  • But with the research I have done to find a healthy diet that improves my health and helps me achieve my goal, there are so many diets out there. (hubpages.com)
  • But at a population level, the effects clearly show that cognition and neural health depend on diet. (newswise.com)
  • Now the health police tell us we can't drink Diet Coke," captures the tone on many of the diet blogs. (livescience.com)
  • Studies on diet soda have been flawed, because researchers have discounted one important fact: Those drinking diet soda likely drink it not because they are health nuts but because they have a certain health condition. (livescience.com)
  • Inside addition to these types of challenges, there will be also the potential for significant health complications that will could develop as being a direct result associated with employing this diet. (pbase.com)
  • Although this kind of type of diet regime does require the great deal associated with discipline, the positive aspects it can experience on your general health and energy levels make this well worth the effort. (pbase.com)
  • Your provider can refer you to a dietitian or nutritionist to help you plan a healthy diet. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Understanding the links between genes, specific nutrients, and a range of diseases - from diabetes and heart disease to less obvious diseases like some cancers and neurodegenerative syndromes - will result in a diet plan tailored to your very own gene profile. (technologyreview.com)
  • All foods can fit in the meal plan, and patients should steer clear of fad diets and other strategies that promise quick fixes, since their claims are not supported. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Rooted in new science, Eat to Beat Your Diet offers a simple plan providing leading research on how supplements, sleep and exercise can help us defend the body against excess fat. (penguin.co.uk)
  • Dr. Mehmet Oz has teamed up with Dr. Michael Roizen to develop a diet plan that they say really works. (oprah.com)
  • Breakfast is also a key component to Dr. Oz's diet plan. (oprah.com)
  • A gluten-free diet is an eating plan that excludes foods containing gluten. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Some of the other normal benefits associated with this diet plan include better legislation of your blood sugar levels. (pbase.com)
  • Will you be following Khloe's diet plan? (okmagazine.com)
  • Together, the foods in this diet decrease bowel inflammation, aid in the repair of the gut, and help to restore balance to the immune system. (umassmed.edu)
  • A Nordic diet may help reduce the expression of inflammation-associated genes in abdominal fat tissue independent of body weight changes, according to research. (foodnavigator.com)
  • Food Insight: "What is the Pegan Diet? (webmd.com)
  • Leaner, healthier and happier after a 10-week junk-food diet. (smh.com.au)
  • Junk food diet: associate professor Mark Haub. (smh.com.au)
  • Perhaps because I write about food and am a restaurant critic, I eat a very peculiar and imbalanced diet (or perhaps I am simply peculiar and imbalanced, which is common in the food-writer game). (technologyreview.com)
  • There are several diabetes diets published online, which include exotic ingredients and food items. (indiatimes.com)
  • Following a gluten-free diet requires paying careful attention to food selections, the ingredients found in foods, and their nutritional content. (mayoclinic.org)
  • An unhealthy diet includes overeating of food high in fat and grease content, dairy products, food that are highly enhanced (MSG as an example), sweets, etc. (hubpages.com)
  • An unhealthy diet is impacted by the poor choices towards food choices as well as lifestyle. (hubpages.com)
  • But how much does food really matter and what diet should you follow? (arthritis.org)
  • Whatever your eating style, our genius food expert teases, tricks, and makes over your diet without ever making you feel deprived. (oprah.com)
  • and an entrepreneur in her early 50s whose diet is admirably healthy other than a penchant for snacking-and see if food behavior expert Brian Wansink, PhD, could gently get them to improve their eating habits. (oprah.com)
  • I want to be able to give my Poms a good balanced diet while at the same time seeing to it that they are not fed food that will cause renal and/or liver failure in the long term. (vetinfo.com)
  • Check out some of Khloe's hot Dos and Don'ts diet tips! (okmagazine.com)
  • Like the idea of eating a mostly vegetarian diet , but with room for small portions of meat, fish, and poultry? (webmd.com)
  • The pegan diet focuses on eating "clean. (webmd.com)
  • It's a good idea to talk to a professional before you change up your daily meals, especially if you're not used to eating a plant-heavy diet. (webmd.com)
  • It makes an important contribution by suggesting that a strong adherence to a healthy diet can reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease by as much as 40%, emphasising the importance of healthy eating. (bbc.co.uk)
  • The goal is to shrink your waist down to the ideal size-32 and a half inches for women and 35 inches for men-and make eating so easy, you never realize you're dieting! (oprah.com)
  • In our study, eating habits were measured before brain volume was, which suggests that the diet may be able to provide long-term protection to the brain," said Luciano. (eurekalert.org)
  • Toddlers and older children can follow the keto diet by eating foods made from special recipes. (kidshealth.org)
  • Not eating a specific diet. (lifehacker.com)
  • A person eating a normal diet requires no additional folate. (msdmanuals.com)
  • For weight loss diets, see Dieting . (wikipedia.org)
  • A particular diet may be chosen to promote weight loss or weight gain. (wikipedia.org)
  • [2] The terms "healthy diet" and "diet for weight management" ( dieting ) are often related, as the two promote healthy weight management. (wikipedia.org)
  • [9] Conversely, if a person is underweight due to illness or malnutrition , they may change their diet to promote weight gain. (wikipedia.org)
  • You can lower your cholesterol while losing weight, lowering your blood pressure, getting stronger, and boosting your energy with this diet, which is based on the hit TV show. (webmd.com)
  • Any change in your diet usually results in weight loss. (smh.com.au)
  • Professor Clive Ballard, director of research at the UK's Alzheimer's Society, said: "This large study in a leading journal adds to the growing weight of evidence that diet and lifestyle are very important risk factors for Alzheimer's disease. (bbc.co.uk)
  • The 18-month Intensive Diet and Exercise for Arthritis (IDEA) trial was designed to evaluate the impact of intensive weight loss with or without exercise on disease progression. (medscape.com)
  • Both exercise and diet are a great way to improve pain and function," he said, "but what was really unique in this study was the observation that patients who lost weight had less pain associated with just the weight loss, not even any exercise. (medscape.com)
  • Building on this groundbreaking work, Dr Li now brings us Eat to Beat Your Diet , a revolutionary, science-based approach to weight loss. (penguin.co.uk)
  • They noticed that dieters who cut 400 calories a day ended up yo-yo dieting and regaining weight. (oprah.com)
  • Adding MCT oil to your diet might help you lose weight by lowering your insulin resistance, allowing you to eat less, while keeping glucose levels under control. (adherents.com)
  • A 43-year-old woman in the United States returns to her physician complaining of weight gain after the initial weight loss she achieved with lifestyle modification in the form of diet and exercise. (medscape.com)
  • The objective of the current work is to ask for the role of diets in the body weight. (bvsalud.org)
  • It has been believed for centuries that a diet rich in red meat and wine is associated with gout. (news-medical.net)
  • Scientists have now shown that genetics could be the culprit behind causation of gout and diet has little do with gout exacerbation. (news-medical.net)
  • What Role Does Diet Play in Gout Management? (arthritis.org)
  • Changing your diet alone isn't enough to stop gout attacks. (arthritis.org)
  • Once the body is in ketosis - burning fat instead of glucose - the keto diet is working. (healthline.com)
  • Pulses are important in the diet as their effect on blood glucose is less than that of most other carbohydrate containing foods. (indiatimes.com)
  • If trying to go keto causes you to yo-yo and go off and on diets, that has impacts related to weigh fluctuations and increased mortality risk," added Sharon Palmer, a dietitian from California. (healthline.com)
  • Please check with a trained dietitian to see which phase of the diet you should be starting in or if you have any other questions. (umassmed.edu)
  • Tara Seymour, an advanced practice clinical dietitian and diabetes educator at Johns Hopkins, provides guidance on how a healthy diet and lifestyle can control - and even help reverse - prediabetes. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The keto diet is prescribed by a doctor in coordination with a dietitian . (kidshealth.org)
  • If the keto diet seems too restrictive for your child, talk to your doctor and dietitian to see if this diet is a possibility. (kidshealth.org)
  • For diabetics, a healthy diabetes diet is the essence to healthy living along with exercise, of course. (indiatimes.com)
  • Additionally, the high-fat content of the diet was mostly from high amounts of vegetable shortening, which isn't recommended for humans because it's been shown to boost blood sugar and may harm the liver. (healthline.com)
  • But what makes up a diabetes diet for Indians? (indiatimes.com)
  • We move now to nutritionist Rekha Sharma to look for elaborate answers to diabetes diet for Indians. (indiatimes.com)
  • Rekha Sharma, President and Director of Indian Dietetic Association shares some major diabetes diet pointers that one should follow at home or at a restaurant. (indiatimes.com)
  • A controlled diabetes diet may seem like a drag and bore, but a good cook can add life to a diet. (indiatimes.com)
  • Time to call up mom and experiment with diabetes diets! (indiatimes.com)
  • The Journal of Physiology published the research, which said following the diet in its early phases could boost the risk for type 2 diabetes. (healthline.com)
  • Dr. Stephen Phinney , co-founder and chief medical officer at Virta, a program that claims to reverse type 2 diabetes by drawing on ketosis, said there are no human studies that indicate a well-formulated keto diet causes type 2 diabetes. (healthline.com)
  • If you are on a bland diet, you should not eat spicy, fried, or raw foods. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The "pegan" diet is a hybrid, combining the paleo diet -- which focuses on whole foods that might have been hunted or gathered, like fruits, veggies, meats, and nuts -- and the vegan diet , in which you eat only plant-based foods. (webmd.com)
  • The diet also limits processed foods. (webmd.com)
  • Twinkies sponge cake was among the foods Mark Haub enjoyed during his diet. (smh.com.au)
  • Foods that contain lactose, wheat, refined sugar (sucrose), and corn are avoided in all phases of the diet. (umassmed.edu)
  • If you are currently experiencing a flare or any bleeding, you should select foods from the Phase 1 portion of the diet. (umassmed.edu)
  • Diet for Prediabetes - What foods should I eat? (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Researchers chose foods for the list of 131 that provided a comprehensive assessment of each individual's diet. (sciencedaily.com)
  • A bland diet can be used alongside lifestyle changes to help address the symptoms of ulcers, heartburn, GERD , nausea, and vomiting. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The goal of the traveler's diarrhea diet is to make your symptoms better and prevent you from getting dehydrated . (medlineplus.gov)
  • A gluten-free diet is essential for managing signs and symptoms of celiac disease and other medical conditions associated with gluten. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Has any one else been placed on a low sodium diet by their baby doctor? (medhelp.org)
  • I was told I have high blood pressure and just as a caution I should go on a low sodium diet. (medhelp.org)
  • n Breads and rolls, cold cuts/cured meats, and pizza are top contributors of sodium in the American diet. (cdc.gov)
  • Are Other Versions of the Keto Diet Less Restrictive? (kidshealth.org)
  • What I'm hearing is that it is best to feed dogs a diet mostly of meat because that is high quality protein which dogs do readily digest and are therefore much better for the kidneys and liver to handle. (vetinfo.com)
  • Feeding all meat, or nearly all meat diets to dogs almost inevitably leads to feeding an improperly balanced diet, especially in the calcium and phosphorous ratios. (vetinfo.com)
  • The fats consumed in diet are broken down into 4 different types of fatty acids - saturated, trans, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated. (news-medical.net)
  • Nutritional genomics - or nutritional genetics, or nutrigenomics - examines your diet and your genes to determine how they interact. (technologyreview.com)
  • To follow a gluten-free diet, you must avoid wheat and some other grains while choosing substitutes that provide nutrients for a healthy diet. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Keeping a balanced meal with the appropriate amount of nutrients is part of having a healthy diet. (hubpages.com)
  • Having a healthy diet means that your body is receiving the required nutrients it needs to flourish. (hubpages.com)
  • Kids on the diet need to be followed closely by their keto team, who will make sure that kids follow the diet, get the nutrients they need, and monitor their seizures. (kidshealth.org)
  • With the start of the keto diet, the body switches from using sugar as a source of energy to using the body's stored fat," Rahnama explained. (healthline.com)
  • In the book YOU: On a Diet , Dr. Oz and Dr. Roizen explain why the body stores blubber and how cutting just 100 calories a day can help you lose a pound per month! (oprah.com)
  • They found that keto diets don't allow the body to properly use insulin, so blood sugar isn't properly controlled. (healthline.com)
  • They called for additional research to better understand how keto diets affect the body. (healthline.com)
  • Some doctors actually encourage dieters to drink diet soda to cut calories instead of recommending zero-calorie water or tea. (livescience.com)
  • Gluten and dairy are big no-nos on this diet. (webmd.com)
  • Given this, you could make a case for not including dairy products in a diet that you were formulating. (vetinfo.com)
  • Alzheimer's experts said the research added to evidence that a healthy diet could have a protective effect. (bbc.co.uk)
  • She said that genetics playing a major role was no surprise but what was surprising was the almost 100 fold difference in causation between genetics and diet. (news-medical.net)
  • Diet vs. Genetics? (arthritis.org)
  • Exposure: Based on the American Heart Association's recommendations for cardiovascular prevention, a modified healthy lifestyle score was the sum of 4 components addressing use of smoking tobacco, physical activity, diet, and control of systolic. (lu.se)
  • Two servings of milk in a daily diet is a good option. (indiatimes.com)
  • He also pointed out some limitations of the study, which include the diet only being used for three days. (healthline.com)
  • Diet is an important measure in the management of rheumatoid arthritis patients. (news-medical.net)
  • For workflow management, DIET uses an additional entity called MA DAG. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the major drawbacks to this particular diet is the fact that this can take approximately six weeks with regard to your metabolism to begin reaching it is maximum level. (pbase.com)
  • The high fat nature of the keto diet is very controversial. (eatright.org)
  • A 2014 study in rodents found that celery extract reduced levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or "bad" cholesterol , in rats that consumed a high-fat diet. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • High-fat diets cause coronary heart disease , but consider the "French paradox": the French consume at least as much saturated fat as do Americans, but they have considerably fewer heart attacks and other manifestations of coronary artery disease . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Researchers from the University of Florida have published a study evaluating a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet in the treatment of glioblastoma brain tumors. (medscape.com)
  • The study showed that the modified high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet increased the life expectancy of the mice by 50% compared with the control group, while also reducing tumor progression by a similar amount. (medscape.com)