Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
Shortened forms of written words or phrases used for brevity.
Computer processing of a language with rules that reflect and describe current usage rather than prescribed usage.
A research and development program initiated by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE to build knowledge sources for the purpose of aiding the development of systems that help health professionals retrieve and integrate biomedical information. The knowledge sources can be used to link disparate information systems to overcome retrieval problems caused by differences in terminology and the scattering of relevant information across many databases. The three knowledge sources are the Metathesaurus, the Semantic Network, and the Specialist Lexicon.
Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.
Personal names, given or surname, as cultural characteristics, as ethnological or religious patterns, as indications of the geographic distribution of families and inbreeding, etc. Analysis of isonymy, the quality of having the same or similar names, is useful in the study of population genetics. NAMES is used also for the history of names or name changes of corporate bodies, such as medical societies, universities, hospitals, government agencies, etc.
Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Terms or expressions which provide the major means of access by subject to the bibliographic unit.
The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).
In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)
Use of sophisticated analysis tools to sort through, organize, examine, and combine large sets of information.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Specific languages used to prepare computer programs.
The relationships between symbols and their meanings.
Software designed to store, manipulate, manage, and control data for specific uses.
Data processing largely performed by automatic means.
The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Information application based on a variety of coding methods to minimize the amount of data to be stored, retrieved, or transmitted. Data compression can be applied to various forms of data, such as images and signals. It is used to reduce costs and increase efficiency in the maintenance of large volumes of data.
The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A standardized nomenclature for clinical drugs and drug delivery devices. It links its names to many of the drug vocabularies commonly used in pharmacy management.
The ability to speak, read, or write several languages or many languages with some facility. Bilingualism is the most common form. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
Organized collections of computer records, standardized in format and content, that are stored in any of a variety of computer-readable modes. They are the basic sets of data from which computer-readable files are created. (from ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Controlled vocabulary of clinical terms produced by the International Health Terminology Standards Development Organisation (IHTSDO).
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
Conversion from one language to another language.
Computer-based systems for input, storage, display, retrieval, and printing of information contained in a patient's medical record.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of references and citations to books, articles, publications, etc., generally on a single subject or specialized subject area. Databases can operate through automated files, libraries, or computer disks. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, FACTUAL which is used for collections of data and facts apart from bibliographic references to them.
Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.
A definite pathologic process with a characteristic set of signs and symptoms. It may affect the whole body or any of its parts, and its etiology, pathology, and prognosis may be known or unknown.
Integrated, computer-assisted systems designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information concerned with the administrative and clinical aspects of providing medical services within the hospital.
Systematic organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of specialized information, especially of a scientific or technical nature (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983). It often involves authenticating or validating information.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods. It is a saprophytic, marine organism which is often isolated from spoiling fish.
Systems where the input data enter the computer directly from the point of origin (usually a terminal or workstation) and/or in which output data are transmitted directly to that terminal point of origin. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)
Systems developed for collecting reports from government agencies, manufacturers, hospitals, physicians, and other sources on adverse drug reactions.
Specifications and instructions applied to the software.
The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.

Homonyms and synonyms in the Dictionary of Interfaces in Proteins (DIP). (1/14)

MOTIVATION: Should reports on molecular mimicry in particular cases, e.g. responsible for cross-reactivity, be considered as accidental or as a general principle in protein evolution? To answer this question, two types of similarity have to be considered: those in homologues (synonyms) and resemblance between patches from unrelated proteins (homonyms). RESULTS: All interfaces from known protein structures were collected in a comprehensive data bank [Dictionary of Interfaces in Proteins (DIP)]. A fast, sequence-independent, three-dimensional superposition procedure was developed to search automatically for geometrically similar surface areas. Surprisingly, we found a large number of structurally similar interfaces on the surface of unrelated proteins. Even patches from different types of secondary structure were found resembling each other. The putative functional meaning of homonyms is demonstrated with striking examples.  (+info)

Dictionary-driven protein annotation. (2/14)

Computational methods seeking to automatically determine the properties (functional, structural, physicochemical, etc.) of a protein directly from the sequence have long been the focus of numerous research groups. With the advent of advanced sequencing methods and systems, the number of amino acid sequences that are being deposited in the public databases has been increasing steadily. This has in turn generated a renewed demand for automated approaches that can annotate individual sequences and complete genomes quickly, exhaustively and objectively. In this paper, we present one such approach that is centered around and exploits the Bio-Dictionary, a collection of amino acid patterns that completely covers the natural sequence space and can capture functional and structural signals that have been reused during evolution, within and across protein families. Our annotation approach also makes use of a weighted, position-specific scoring scheme that is unaffected by the over-representation of well-conserved proteins and protein fragments in the databases used. For a given query sequence, the method permits one to determine, in a single pass, the following: local and global similarities between the query and any protein already present in a public database; the likeness of the query to all available archaeal/ bacterial/eukaryotic/viral sequences in the database as a function of amino acid position within the query; the character of secondary structure of the query as a function of amino acid position within the query; the cytoplasmic, transmembrane or extracellular behavior of the query; the nature and position of binding domains, active sites, post-translationally modified sites, signal peptides, etc. In terms of performance, the proposed method is exhaustive, objective and allows for the rapid annotation of individual sequences and full genomes. Annotation examples are presented and discussed in Results, including individual queries and complete genomes that were released publicly after we built the Bio-Dictionary that is used in our experiments. Finally, we have computed the annotations of more than 70 complete genomes and made them available on the World Wide Web at http://cbcsrv.watson.ibm.com/Annotations/.  (+info)

Protein names precisely peeled off free text. (3/14)

MOTIVATION: Automatically identifying protein names from the scientific literature is a pre-requisite for the increasing demand in data-mining this wealth of information. Existing approaches are based on dictionaries, rules and machine-learning. Here, we introduced a novel system that combines a pre-processing dictionary- and rule-based filtering step with several separately trained support vector machines (SVMs) to identify protein names in the MEDLINE abstracts. RESULTS: Our new tagging-system NLProt is capable of extracting protein names with a precision (accuracy) of 75% at a recall (coverage) of 76% after training on a corpus, which was used before by other groups and contains 200 annotated abstracts. For our estimate of sustained performance, we considered partially identified names as false positives. One important issue frequently ignored in the literature is the redundancy in evaluation sets. We suggested some guidelines for removing overly inadequate overlaps between training and testing sets. Applying these new guidelines, our program appeared to significantly out-perform other methods tagging protein names. NLProt was so successful due to the SVM-building blocks that succeeded in utilizing the local context of protein names in the scientific literature. We challenge that our system may constitute the most general and precise method for tagging protein names. AVAILABILITY: http://cubic.bioc.columbia.edu/services/nlprot/  (+info)

MinSet: a general approach to derive maximally representative database subsets by using fragment dictionaries and its application to the SCOP database. (4/14)

MOTIVATION: The size of current protein databases is a challenge for many Bioinformatics applications, both in terms of processing speed and information redundancy. It may be therefore desirable to efficiently reduce the database of interest to a maximally representative subset. RESULTS: The MinSet method employs a combination of a Suffix Tree and a Genetic Algorithm for the generation, selection and assessment of database subsets. The approach is generally applicable to any type of string-encoded data, allowing for a drastic reduction of the database size whilst retaining most of the information contained in the original set. We demonstrate the performance of the method on a database of protein domain structures encoded as strings. We used the SCOP40 domain database by translating protein structures into character strings by means of a structural alphabet and by extracting optimized subsets according to an entropy score that is based on a constant-length fragment dictionary. Therefore, optimized subsets are maximally representative for the distribution and range of local structures. Subsets containing only 10% of the SCOP structure classes show a coverage of >90% for fragments of length 1-4. AVAILABILITY: http://mathbio.nimr.mrc.ac.uk/~jkleinj/MinSet. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.  (+info)

ChEBI: a database and ontology for chemical entities of biological interest. (5/14)

Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) is a freely available dictionary of molecular entities focused on 'small' chemical compounds. The molecular entities in question are either natural products or synthetic products used to intervene in the processes of living organisms. Genome-encoded macromolecules (nucleic acids, proteins and peptides derived from proteins by cleavage) are not as a rule included in ChEBI. In addition to molecular entities, ChEBI contains groups (parts of molecular entities) and classes of entities. ChEBI includes an ontological classification, whereby the relationships between molecular entities or classes of entities and their parents and/or children are specified. ChEBI is available online at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/  (+info)

Remediation of the protein data bank archive. (6/14)

The Worldwide Protein Data Bank (wwPDB; wwpdb.org) is the international collaboration that manages the deposition, processing and distribution of the PDB archive. The online PDB archive at ftp://ftp.wwpdb.org is the repository for the coordinates and related information for more than 47 000 structures, including proteins, nucleic acids and large macromolecular complexes that have been determined using X-ray crystallography, NMR and electron microscopy techniques. The members of the wwPDB-RCSB PDB (USA), MSD-EBI (Europe), PDBj (Japan) and BMRB (USA)-have remediated this archive to address inconsistencies that have been introduced over the years. The scope and methods used in this project are presented.  (+info)

Detection of IUPAC and IUPAC-like chemical names. (7/14)

 (+info)

SuperSite: dictionary of metabolite and drug binding sites in proteins. (8/14)

 (+info)

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The Environmental Industrys Worldwide Telephone Directory. Business To Business Yellow Pages with over 350,000 listings worldwide.
Provied information about Paclitaxel(Molecular Formula: C47H51NO14, CAS Registry Number:33069-62-4 ) ,Boiling Point,Melting Point,Molecular Structure,Risk Codes on vvchem.com
Provied information about (2R)-2-[(1S)-1,2-dihydroxyethyl]-3,4-dihydroxy-2H-furan-5-one(Molecular Formula: C6H8O6, CAS Registry Number:50-81-7 ) ,Boiling Point,Melting Point,Molecular Structure,Risk Codes on vvchem.com
Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) is a freely available dictionary of molecular entities focused on small chemical compounds.
Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) is a freely available dictionary of molecular entities focused on small chemical compounds.
Dictionary of Inorganic and Organometallic Compounds (DIOC) Online is a subset of The Chapman & Hall/CRC Chemical Database and includes all compounds contained in two of Chapman & Hall/CRCs printed chemical dictionaries, Dictionary of Inorganic Compounds (Main Work and Supplements) and Dictionary of Organometallic Compounds (Second Edition and Supplements). It includes descriptive and numerical data on chemical, physical and biological properties of more than 106,000 compounds; systematic and common names of compounds; literature references; structure diagrams and their associated connection tables ...
A molecular entity formed by loose association involving two or more component molecular entities. The bonding between the components is normally weaker than in a covalent bond.
The Browse feature allows the user to explore the content of the wwPDB chemical dictionary in a number of categories. Menus are provided to select amino acids, nucleotides, selected top-selling pharmaceuticals, and common aromatic ring systems. Searches are performed by finding structures containing a SMILES pattern or by comparison to a chemical fingerprint. The chemical fingerprint consists of 1000 individual chemical features such as the presence of common functional groups or ring systems. Fingerprints are considered similar if their Tanimoto similarity score is greater than 0.8. Within your query results are links to the chemical component listing, downloadable coordinates, and clickable links to search for further analogs by similar name, similar SMILES string, or similar chemical formula.. To measure similarity or distance in chemical space we precompute a chemical fingerprint for each chemical component in our dictionary. Our chemical fingerprint was developed by Christian Laggner for ...
Source:http://linkedlifedata.com/resource/umls/id/C0023779 MSH: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackhs Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed),CSP: any of a class of hydrophobic biochemicals including fats, long- chain fatty acids, steroids, oils, and waxes.,CHV: a general name for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water.,CHV: a general name for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water.,NCI: A class of hydrocarbon-containing organic compounds. Lipids are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar solvents and play important roles in living organisms: these roles include functioning as energy storage molecules, serving as structural ...
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackhs Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499 ...
The results from crystallographic studies of small molecules of biological interest have enriched the knowledgebase widely used in various areas of molecular sciences. This includes, but is not limited to, understanding biomacromolecular interactions, crystal and molecular engineering, structure based drug design, computational chemistry and molecular modelling, and the design of novel functional materials.. Editors: Dr Simon Coles, Prof Packianathan Thomas Muthiah. ...
Address to the Plenary Session and to the Study Week on the Subject Macromolecules of Biological Interest with Special Reference to Nuclear... Read more ...
opt= 3DMet= ATCCode= ATCCode_prefix= ATCCode_suffix= ATC_Supplemental= ATCvet= Abbreviations= Beilstein= CASNo1= CASNo1_Comment= CASNo1_Ref= CASNo2= CASNo2_Comment= CASNo2_Ref= CASNo3= CASNo3_Comment= CASNo3_Ref= CASNo4= CASNo4_Comment= CASNo4_Ref= CASNo5= CASNo5_Comment= CASNo5_Ref= CASNo= CASNoOther= CASNo_Comment= CASNo_Ref= ChEBI1= ChEBI1_Comment= ChEBI1_Ref= ChEBI2= ChEBI2_Comment= ChEBI2_Ref= ChEBI3= ChEBI3_Comment= ChEBI3_Ref= ChEBI4= ChEBI4_Comment= ChEBI4_Ref= ChEBI5= ChEBI5_Comment= ChEBI5_Ref= ChEBI= ChEBIOther= ChEBI_Comment= ChEBI_Ref= ChEMBL1= ChEMBL1_Comment= ChEMBL1_Ref= ChEMBL2= ChEMBL2_Comment= ChEMBL2_Ref= ChEMBL3= ChEMBL3_Comment= ChEMBL3_Ref= ChEMBL4= ChEMBL4_Comment= ChEMBL4_Ref= ChEMBL5= ChEMBL5_Comment= ChEMBL5_Ref= ChEMBL= ChEMBLOther= ChEMBL_Comment= ChEMBL_Ref= ChemSpiderID1= ChemSpiderID1_Comment= ChemSpiderID1_Ref= ChemSpiderID2= ChemSpiderID2_Comment= ChemSpiderID2_Ref= ChemSpiderID3= ChemSpiderID3_Comment= ChemSpiderID3_Ref= ChemSpiderID4= ChemSpiderID4_Comment= ...
Gene targets of RNAi reagents which are identified as hit in a RNAi screening and flagged as active in the corresponding PubChem BioAssay ...
A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawleys Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851) . ...
A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawleys Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)
Hettne KM, Williams AJ, van Mulligen EM, Kleinjans J, Tkachenko V, Kors JA. (2010). Automatic vs. manual curation of a multi-source chemical dictionary: the impact on text mining. J Cheminform 2 (1): 3. PMID 20331846. doi:10.1186/1758-2946-2-3. edit ...
The formula for this fluid is : 1 part - Benzyl Benzoate 3 parts - Salicylic Methyl Ester -------------------------------------------------------------------- My chemical dictionary shows the following : -------------------------------------------------------------------- *** Benzyl Benzoate *** Water-white liquid which freezes readily, supercools easily Sharp, burning taste with a faint aromatic odor Insoluble in water and glycerin Soluble in alcohol, chloroform and ether Combustible Low toxicity Refractive Index : 1.568-1.569 at 20 degrees Celsius Uses : Fixative and solvent for musk in perfumes and flavors External medicine Plasticizer (an organic compound added to a high polymer to facilitate processing and to increase the flexibility and toughness of the final product by internal modification (solvation) of the polymer molecule, i.e. a softener) Miticide (kills mites, small animals of the spider class) -------------------------------------------------------------------- I could find no ...
Organic compounds that have the general formula R-SO-R. They are obtained by oxidation of mercaptans (analogous to the ketones). (From Hackhs Chemical Dictionary, 4th ed ...
The Australian SuperSite Network (SuperSites) seeks to understand how key ecosystems will respond to future environmental change by setting up a nationally consistent network of multidisciplinary and intensive ecosystem observatories.
The Concise Oxford English Dictionary (officially titled The Concise Oxford Dictionary until 2002, and widely abbreviated COD or COED) is probably the best-known of the smaller Oxford dictionaries. Buy a discounted Paperback of Concise Medical Dictionary online from Australias leading online bookstore. $26.50. C $58.75. Written by a team of medical experts, all entries have been revised and updated for this new edition to reflect the very latest in medical knowledge and practice. The text has been fully revised and updated for this new edition to reflect the very latest in medical kwledge and practice. Concise Medical Dictionary 10th Edition and Publisher OUP Oxford. Buy Concise Oxford English Dictionary 10th Revised edition by Pearsall, Judy (ISBN: 9780198605720) from Amazons Book Store. Written by a team of medical experts, this market-leading illustrated dictionary contains 12,400 authoritative entries covering all aspects of medical science. The latest edition of the Concise Oxford ...
John Jamiesons Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish Language (1808) was the first complete dictionary of Scots and is a landmark in the development of historical lexicography. This book is the first full‐scale study of Jamiesons work on both the Dictionary and the later Supplement of 1825. Using Jamiesons correspondence and surviving manuscript sources, it traces the evolution of the Dictionary project, from Jamiesons early linguistic fieldwork to the production and promotion of the Dictionary over twenty years later. It discusses Jamiesons editorial methods and examines in detail the content of the Dictionary, highlighting Jamiesons pioneering of the historical method, as well as his innovative use of contemporary and popular sources. It also reveals how Jamieson continually revised and updated his text, aided by a growing number of contributors and specialist consultants - among them Sir Walter Scott - and describes how his work was supplemented by later editors, ensuring that the
Download The Dictionary System for free. The application Dictionary System (DS) is a web application designed for creation of one-way bilingual dictionaries or encyclopaedias offering a working environment for creation of a dictionary and a web page which enables the general public to search in the dictionary. It is so-called DWS application (Dictionary Writing System) or DPS (Dictionary Production / Publishing System).
Data dictionaries serve to identify and describe STAR File data items which are exchanged and archived. When STAR Files are written or read, dictionaries can play an important supplementary role of validating individual items and checking the overall conformance of the data structure. A STAR File dictionary contains definitions for each data item. These definitions are composed of a sequence of data attributes which, individually and collectively, specify the properties of an item. These attributes are considered to be the vocabulary of a STAR File dictionary definition language (DDL). This chapter describes the concepts and specification of the STAR File DDL dictionaries used to define the data items for core crystallographic, powder diffraction, modulated-structures and electron-density applications. For these applications, it discusses the purpose of data dictionaries, the structure of a DDL dictionary file, the function of DDL attributes and the specification of DDL attributes. ...
Greetings VIPErs,. I am looking for molar absorptivity (or molar extinction coefficient) data for a handful of inorganic compounds (in solution), as a function of wavelength in the UV/visible spectrum. Can you help?. The compounds are Co(NO3)2, CoCl2, K2CrO7, AuCl3, K2CrO4, NiCl2, CuSO4, and KMnO4.. I have tried the following online resources without success: the CRC Handbook, the NIST Chemical WebBook, the Combined Chemical Dictionary, PubChem, SciFinder, and Google.. I would greatly appreciate your suggestions for resources that may have these data! If the search is to no avail, I will probably resort to tracking down a UV/vis spectrophotometer (and the various chemicals) and taking the measurements myself, but I would hugely appreciate a more reliable source, in addition to not having to do this.. Many thanks! ...
Acronym Finder. http://www.acronymfinder.com The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Co; 2000. Dictionary.com. http://www.dictionary.com Merriam-Websters Collegiate Dictionary. 11th ed. Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster Inc; 2003. http://www.m-w.com/dictionary.htm OneLook. http://www.onelook.com Oxford Dictionaries Online. http://www.askoxford.com yourDictionary.com. http://www.yourdictionary.com |
Acronym Finder. http://www.acronymfinder.com The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Co; 2000. Dictionary.com. http://www.dictionary.com Merriam-Websters Collegiate Dictionary. 11th ed. Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster Inc; 2003. http://www.m-w.com/dictionary.htm OneLook. http://www.onelook.com Oxford Dictionaries Online. http://www.askoxford.com yourDictionary.com. http://www.yourdictionary.com |
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Sorbitol is a polyhydric alcohol with about half the sweetness of sucrose. Sorbitol occurs naturally and is also produced synthetically from glucose. It was formerly used as a diuretic and may still be used as a laxative and in irrigating solutions for some surgical procedures. It is also used in many manufacturing processes, as a pharmaceutical aid, and in several research applications. Ascorbic acid fermentation; in solution form for moisture-conditioning of cosmetic creams and lotions, toothpaste, tobacco, gelatin; bodying agent for paper, textiles, and liquid pharmaceuticals; softener for candy; sugar crystallization inhibitor; surfactants; urethane resins and rigid foams; plasticizer, stabilizer for vinyl resins; food additive (sweetener, humectant, emulsifier, thickener, anticaking agent); dietary supplement. (Hawleys Condensed Chemical Dictionary) Biological Source: Occurs widely in plants ranging from algae to the higher orders. Fruits of the plant family Rosaceae, which include apples, ...
Alicyclic hydrocarbons in which three or more of the carbon atoms in each molecule are united in a ring structure and each of the ring carbon atoms is joined to two hydrogen atoms or alkyl groups. The simplest members are cyclopropane (C3H6), cyclobutane (C4H8), cyclohexane (C6H12), and derivatives of these such as methylcyclohexane (C6H11CH3). (From Sax, et al., Hawleys Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed ...
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This Dictionary (CDCH) is an abridgment of the 8-volume Dictionary of Classical Hebrew (DCH), the first volume of which appeared in 1993. The DCH was the first dictionary of the Classical Hebrew language ever to be published. Unlike other dictionaries of the ancient Hebrew language, which cover only the texts of the Hebrew Bible, either exclusively or principally, DCH records the language of all texts written in Hebrew from the earliest times down to the end of the second century CE. That is to say, it includes not only the words used in the Hebrew Bible, but also those found in the Hebrew Book of Ben Sira (Ecclesiasticus), the Dead Sea Scrolls, and all the ancient Hebrew inscriptions. The CDCH thus contains not only the c. 8400 Hebrew words found in the standard dictionaries, but also a further 3340+ words (540 from the Dead Sea Scrolls, 680 from other ancient Hebrew literature, and 2120+ proposed words for the Hebrew Bible not previously recognized by dictionaries). All the words in the
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Decongestants (0) see Nasal Decongestants. Defoaming Agents (0) see Antifoaming Agents. Defoliants, Chemical (3) • Herbicides that remove leaves from trees and growing plants. They may be either organic or inorganic. Several of the more persistent types have been used in military operations and many are toxic. (From Hawleys Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed) MeSH. Delayed-Action Preparations (3) • Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology. MeSH. Dental Disinfectants (1) • Chemicals especially for use on instruments to destroy pathogenic organisms. (Boucher, Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed) MeSH. Dental Materials (25) • Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc. MeSH. Dental Polishes (0) see Dentifrices. Dentifrices (1) • Any preparations used for cleansing teeth; they usually contain an abrasive, detergent, binder and flavoring agent and may exist in the form of ...
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Chemical changes affect crystallinity.[2] Mechanisms of chemical change, such as the uptake of F− or CO3− may cause ... Oxford English Dictionary. *^ Wilson, L. and M. Pollard, "Here today, gone tomorrow? Integrated experimentation and geochemical ... The hydrolytic activity plays a key role in the mineral phase transformations that exposes the collagen to accelerated chemical ... Specifically, diagenesis "is the cumulative physical, chemical and biological environment; these processes will modify an ...
Grant, Julius (1969). "Francium". Hackh's Chemical Dictionary. McGraw-Hill. pp. 279-280. ISBN 978-0-07-024067-4. .. ... Francium (Fr) (Chemical element) at the Encyclopædia Britannica. *Francium at The Periodic Table of Videos (University of ... 2005). Chemical Elements, in Van Nostrand's Encyclopedia of Chemistry. New York: Wiley-Interscience. p. 332. ISBN 978-0-471- ... Francium is a chemical element with the symbol Fr and atomic number 87. Prior to its discovery, it was referred to as eka- ...
"Australian Dictionary of Biography.. *^ Saltzman, M. D. (1986). "The development of physical organic chemistry in the United ... Nye, Mary Jo (1994). From Chemical Philosophy to Theoretical Chemistry. University of California Press. pp. 197-198. ISBN 978-0 ... Ingold, Christopher K. (1934). "Principles of an Electronic Theory of Organic Reactions". Chemical Reviews. 15: 238-274. doi: ... States and the United Kingdom: 1919-1939, parallels and contrasts". Journal of Chemical Education. 63 (7): 588. doi:10.1021/ ...
Dictionary of chemical formulas. Hidden categories: *Articles lacking sources from December 2009 ...
wolfram on Oxford Dictionaries. *^ "Tungsten". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005.. ( ... Chemical compounds[edit]. See also: Category:Tungsten compounds.. Tungsten forms chemical compounds in oxidation states from - ... List of chemical elements naming controversies. References[edit]. *^ Meija, J.; et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements ... Tungsten, or wolfram,[7][8] is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74. The name tungsten ...
"Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford Dictionaries. April 2010. Retrieved 20 December 2012.. . See also "Predeterminism". Collins English ... McKewan, Jaclyn (2009). "Evolution, Chemical". In H. James Birx". Predeterminism. Encyclopedia of Time: Science, Philosophy, ... "Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. Retrieved 20 December 2012.. See for example Ormond, A.T. (1894). " ... A. Pabl Iannone (2001). "determinism". Dictionary of World Philosophy. Taylor & Francis. p. 194. ISBN 978-0-415-17995-9. ...
Emulsifier, a chemical which allows oil and water to mix. References. *^ "oil". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford ... "Online Etymology Dictionary.. *^ "The Linear B word e-ra-wo". Palaeolexicon. Word study tool of ancient languages.. "e-ra3-wo" ... A Latin Dictionary on Perseus Project. *^ ἔλαιον. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek-English Lexicon at the Perseus ... Chemical feedstock. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding ...
"Chemical Innovation. 31 (9): IBC.. *^ "Stylus - Define Stylus at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.com.. ... Merriam-Webster Dictionary *^ "pen." Word Histories and Mysteries. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2004. Credo Reference. Web. 13 ...
Auerbach, C (1966). "Chemical induction of recessive lethals in Neurospora crassa". Microbial Genetics Bulletin. 17: 5.. ... Haines, Catharine (2001). International Women in Science: A Biographical Dictionary to 1950. California: ABC-CLIO, Inc. ISBN 1- ... Auerbach, C.; Robson, J. M.; Carr, J. G. (1947). "Chemical Production of Mutations". Science. 105: 243-247. doi:10.1126/science ... Auerbach, C (1967). "The chemical production of mutations". Science. 158: 1141-1147. doi:10.1126/science.158.3805.1141.. ...
Chemical compound. Phosphoric acid, also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V) acid, is a weak acid with the chemical ... "Ingredient dictionary: P". Cosmetic ingredient dictionary. Paula's Choice. Archived from the original on 18 January 2008. ... Wet chemical etching. umd.edu. *^ Wolf, S.; R. N. Tauber (1986). Silicon processing for the VLSI era: Volume 1 - Process ... Five Star Chemicals. Retrieved 17 August 2015.. *^ Tucker KL, Morita K, Qiao N, Hannan MT, Cupples LA, Kiel DP (1 October 2006 ...
"Monier Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary". Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries.. *^ Liddell, Henry George & Scott, Robert ... Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences. 4 (2): 598. ISSN 0975-8585.. ... "Online Etymological Dictionary.. *^ "Acorus americanus - Sweet Flag". Rook.Org. 14 April 2004. Archived from the original on 25 ... "Online Etymological Dictionary. Retrieved 9 July 2013.. *^ Avadhani, Mythili; et al. (2013). "The Sweetness and Bitterness of ...
"Online Etymology Dictionary.. *^ Richards, Robert J. (2002). The Romantic Conception of Life: Science and Philosophy in the Age ... Chemical reactions that are responsible for its structure and function are tuned to extract energy from substances that act as ... Look up biology in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.. Wikiversity has learning resources about Biology at The School of Biology ... In this process, molecules of chemical substances that constitute food play two roles; first, they contain energy that can be ...
Lewis RA, Hawley GG (2016). Larrañaga MD, Lewis RJ, Lewis R (eds.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. John Wiley & Sons. ... "Journal of the Chemical Society, Transactions. 107: 1025. doi:10.1039/CT9150701025.. *^ Allen AH, Sadler SS, Lathrop EC, ... "Collins English Dictionary - Complete and Unabridged. (1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003). Retrieved 27 January 2015.. ... Oxford English Dictionary Online, article "Yohimbe", senses 1 and 2, respectively; Merriam-Webster Online, article "Yohimbe", ...
The Condensed Chemical Dictionary. New York: Chemical Catalog Company. 1920: 492 [2008-08-12].. 引文使用过时参数coauthors (帮助) ... Exploring Chemical Elements and their Compounds. New York: TAB Books. 1992: 150-152. ISBN 0-8306-3018-X.. ... Russian Chemical Reviews. 1992, 61 (10): 990-998. Bibcode:1992RuCRv..61..990M. doi:10.1070/RC1992v061n10ABEH001011.. ... NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. September 2005 [2008-08-03].. ...
Chemical feedstock[edit]. Glycine is an intermediate in the synthesis of a variety of chemical products. It is used in the ... "Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved 2015-12-06.. *^ Cahours, A. (1858). "Recherches sur les acides amidés" [Investigations into ... "Glycine , Definition of glycine in English by Oxford Dictionaries".. *^ Plimmer, R.H.A. (1912) [1908]. Plimmer, R.H.A.; Hopkins ... It is the simplest amino acid (since carbamic acid is unstable), with the chemical formula NH2‐CH2‐COOH. Glycine is one of the ...
The second classification, chemical weathering, involves the direct effect of atmospheric chemicals or biologically produced ... Look up weathering in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Weathering. ... often transforming them when water interacts with minerals to create various chemical reactions. Chemical weathering is a ... Chemical weathering is enhanced by such geological agents as the presence of water and oxygen, as well as by such biological ...
Dienestrol Hexestrol Methestrol J. Elks (14 November 2014). The Dictionary of Drugs: Chemical Data: Chemical Data, Structures ... 133-. ISBN 978-1-4757-2085-3. I.K. Morton; Judith M. Hall (6 December 2012). Concise Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents: ...
All of the chemical components of litmus are likely to be the same as those of the related mixture known as orcein, but in ... Chemical reactions other than acid-base can also cause a color change to litmus paper. For instance, chlorine gas turns blue ... Look up litmus in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.. Litmus powder. Chemical structure of 7-hydroxyphenoxazone, the chromophore ...
"Journal of Chemical Education. 84 (10): 1727. Bibcode:2007JChEd..84.1727M. doi:10.1021/ed084p1727. Retrieved 22 February 2013. ... "Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005.. (Subscription or UK public library membership ... Chemical laboratories. *laboratory glassware such as the beaker or reagent bottle. *Analytical devices as HPLC or ... Many schools and businesses employ safety, health, and environmental specialists, such as a Chemical Hygiene Officer (CHO) to ...
Chemical laboratories. *laboratory glassware such as the beaker or reagent bottle. *Analytical devices as HPLC or ... "Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press.. (Subscription or participating institution membership ... Many schools and businesses employ safety, health, and environmental specialists, such as a Chemical Hygiene Officer (CHO) to ... Inspections and audits like also be conducted on a regular basis to assess hazards due to chemical handling and storage, ...
Its chemical equation for water-softening is given below:. Ca2+ (aq) + Na2B4O7 (aq) → CaB4O7 (s)↓ + 2 Na+ (aq). Mg2+ (aq) + Na2 ... "Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005.. (Subscription or UK public library membership ... Indian Journal of Chemical Technology. New Delhi: Council of Scientific and Industrial Research. 12 (4). ISSN 0975-0991.. ... "Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005.. (Subscription or UK public library membership ...
... changes the chemical, physical, and mechanical properties of the workpiece. An example of a chemical change is ... Bard, Allan; Inzelt, György; Scholz, Fritz (2012). "Haring-Blum Cell". Electrochemical Dictionary. Springer. p. 444. doi: ... Wendt, Hartmut; Gerhard, Kreyse (1999). Electrochemical Engineering: Science and Technology in Chemical and Other Industries. ... Additionally, non-metal chemicals such as carbonates and phosphates may be added to increase conductivity. ...
Stedman's Medical Dictionary, Wolters-Kluwer, retrieved 11 April 2019.. *^ Broecker F, Wegner E, Seco BM, Kaplonek P, Bräutigam ... "ACS Chemical Biology. 14 (12): 2720-2728. doi:10.1021/acschembio.9b00642. PMC 6929054. PMID 31692324.. ... "Latin Dictionary and Grammar Aid. Retrieved 16 March 2013{{inconsistent citations}}. CS1 maint: postscript (link) ...
Look up sodium hydroxide in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.. *International Chemical Safety Card 0360 ... "Examples of Common Laboratory Chemicals and their Hazard Class".. *^ a b c d Cetin Kurt, Jürgen Bittner. "Sodium Hydroxide". ... However, because of the high incidence and intensity of chemical burns, manufacturers of chemical relaxers use other alkaline ... a b c Thorpe, Thomas Edward, ed., A Dictionary of Applied Chemistry (London, England: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1913), vol. 5, ...
As such, this is a type of targeted therapy which uses the physical, chemical and biological properties of the ... Editor, Elizabeth A. Martin, (2014). A dictionary of nursing (6th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199666379. ... Volkert, Wynn A.; Hoffman, Timothy J. (1999). "Therapeutic Radiopharmaceuticals". Chemical Reviews. 99 (9): 2269-2292. doi: ...
ズルチン標準品-Dulcin Standard (Japanese), Wako Pure Chemical Industries *^ Bender, David A. (2005). A Dictionary of Food and ... Goldsmith, R.H. (1987). "A tale of two sweeteners". Journal of Chemical Education. 64 (11): 954-955. doi:10.1021/ed064p954.. ... Environmental pollution: a survey emphasizing physical and chemical principles. Holt, Rinehart and Winston Inc., New York. ...
Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 1969, page 95.. External links[edit]. *. Media related to Alpha and beta carbon at Wikimedia ... Chemical transformations affected by the conversion to either an enolate or an enol, in general, lead to the α-carbon acting as ...
1997). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary (13th ed.). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons. p. 13.. ... "Chemical & Engineering News. 89 (2): 2. 2011-01-10.. *^ a b National Fire Protection Association (1978). Fire Protection Guide ... "Chemical & Engineering News. 89 (2): 2. 2011-01-10.. *^ Sax, N. I. (1975). Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials (4th ed ... Bretherick, L. (1990). Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann. pp. 453, 1104.. ...
2002). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary (14th Edition). John Wiley & Sons. http://www.knovel.com/knovel2/Toc.jsp?BookID= ... These hydrates have the chemical formula Co(NO3)2·nH2O, where n = 0, 2, 4, 6. ...
"Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved November 25, 2013.. *^ "Amphigen - definition of Amphigen by the Free Online Dictionary, ... Chemical[edit]. Oxygen, sulfur, and selenium are nonmetals, and tellurium is a metalloid, meaning that its chemical properties ... The chalcogens (/ˈkælkədʒɪnz/) are the chemical elements in group 16 of the periodic table. This group is also known as the ... "Online Etymology Dictionary". Retrieved November 25, 2013.. *^ Krebs, Robert E. (2006). The History And Use of Our Earth's ...
Bailey, Martha J. (1994). American Women in Science:A Biographical Dictionary. ABC-CLIO, Inc. ISBN 0-87436-740-9.. .mw-parser- ... Stassinos, Elizabeth (1997). "Marriage as Mystery Writ Symbiotically: The Benedicts' Unpublished "Chemical Detective Story" of ...
Federico Caligaris-Cappio; Manlio Ferrarini (1997). Human B Cell Populations (Chemical Immunology) (v. 67). S. Karger AG ( ... "Plasma cell" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary. External links[edit]. *Educational Resource on the Biology of Immunoglobulins ...
For some common chemicals (mainly in biochemistry), keto or oxo refer to the ketone functional group. The term oxo is used ... "Online Etymology Dictionary.. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes ... Mendham, J.; Denney, R. C.; Barnes, J. D.; Thomas, M. J. K. (2000), Vogel's Quantitative Chemical Analysis (6th ed.), New York ... Since aldehydes resonate at similar chemical shifts, multiple resonance experiments are employed to definitively distinguish ...
These include depression, food allergies, ingestion of certain chemicals, bulimia, anorexia nervosa, pituitary gland ... Look up eating in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.. Wikiquote has quotations related to: Eating. ...
manual curation of a multi-source chemical dictionary: the impact on text mining". J Cheminform 2 (1): 3. PMID 20331846. doi: ... Online medical dictionary. *David L. Nelson, Michael M. Cox (2005). Principles of Biochemistry (4th izd.). New York: W. H. ...
Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885-1900.. *^ William H. Huffman, Robert Fludd and the End of the ... Allen G. Debus (2002), The Chemical Philosophy. Further reading[edit]. *Allen G. Debus, The English Paracelsians, New York: ... Tita French Baumlin, "Robert Fludd," The Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 281: British Rhetoricians and Logicians, 1500 ... In it Fludd argued from a Platonist point of view; and he claims that the hermetic or "chemical" approach is deeper than the ...
"The Skeptics Dictionary (Online ed.). Archived from the original on 2013-09-27.. 2013-09-27. ... "Biology-based" as coined by NCCIH may refer to chemicals from a nonbiological source, such as use of the poison lead in ... "The short and irreverent e-dition of The Skeptic's Dictionary - part 1 - sCAM - so-called complementary and alternative ... changing social attitudes about not using chemicals and challenging the establishment and authority of any kind, sensitivity to ...
Chemical cements vary in abundance but are predominantly found in sandstones. The two major types, are silicate based and ... Look up clast in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.. A thin section of a clast (sand grain), derived from a basalt scoria. ... Composition includes the chemical and mineralogic make-up of the single or varied fragments and the cementing material (matrix ... The cement that is produced may or may not have the same chemical composition as the sediment. In sandstones, framework grains ...
Look up Gascony in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.. *Old flag. Given to the Gascons by Pope Clement III during the Third ... chemicals. *aerospace industry. *wood products and packaging. *food processing. *metallurgy. References[edit]. *^ Juan José ...
The sugars are then stored as starch, further processed by chemical synthesis into more complex organic molecules such as ... Look up leaf in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Leaf&oldid= ... Leaves also function to store chemical energy and water (especially in succulents) and may become specialized organs serving ... chemicals which hinder the digestion of proteins and have an unpleasant taste. Animals that are specialized to eat leaves are ...
"Define Comet at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 2016-01-02.. *^ Zubritsky, Elizabeth; Neal-Jones, Nancy (11 August ... "RELEASE 14-038 - NASA's 3-D Study of Comets Reveals Chemical Factory at Work". NASA. Retrieved 2014-08-12 ...
"transistor". American Heritage Dictionary (3rd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 1992.. *^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1956". ... "Nanofluidic transistor, the basis of future chemical processors". Berkeley.edu. Archived from the original on July 2, 2012 ...
... or more are considered to be deep chemical peels.[32] Medium-strength and deep-strength chemical peels are more effective for ... ", "vulgar"". Oxford English Dictionary (CD-ROM) (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2009.. ... Chemical peels can be used to reduce the appearance of acne scars.[32] Mild peels include those using glycolic acid, lactic ... Rasmusson GH (1986). Chemical Control of Androgen Action. Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry. 21. pp. 179-188. doi:10.1016/ ...
Dictionaries and scholars have offered a variety of definitions. The Merriam-Webster Learner's Dictionary offers a definition ... Kurzweil is also known for his history of the universe in six epochs: (1) the physical/chemical epoch, (2) the life epoch, (3) ... "Dictionary.com. 2016. Retrieved November 7, 2016.. *^ "Intute: Science, Engineering and Technology". Intute. Archived from the ... Crabb, George (1823). Universal Technological Dictionary, or Familiar Explanation of the Terms Used in All Arts and Sciences. ...
manual curation of a multi-source chemical dictionary: the impact on text mining". J Cheminform 2 (1): 3. PMID 20331846. doi: ... "Estimation of Aqueous Solubility of Chemical Compounds Using E-State Indices". Chem Inf. Comput. Sci. 41: 1488-1493. PMID ...
The Oxford Dictionary of Foreign Words and Phrases. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1997. p. 375. ISBN 0-19-860236-7. .. ... Maturation is caused by physical and chemical factors such as oxygen supply, the broad application of external heat, nitrogen ... The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 2011. p. 1546. ISBN 978-0-547- ...
"internal medicine" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary *^ Fowler, H.W. (1994). A Dictionary of Modern English Usage (Wordsworth ... especially the structure and function of their chemical components. ... "Oxford Dictionaries Online. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 8 Nov 2014.. *^ Etymology: Latin: medicina, from ars medicina " ... "Medicine" Online Etymology Dictionary *^ WHO Dept. of Essential Drugs and Medicines Policy (2002). "Traditional medicine: ...
Historical dictionary of women's ... Retrieved 2011-04-18.. *^ Duke, Benjamin (2009). The History of Modern Japanese Education ... 1979: Jenny Patrick became the first African-American woman in the United States to earn a Ph.D. in chemical engineering, which ... Historical Dictionary of Women's Education in the United States (1998) online. *Gordon, Lynn D. Gender and Higher Education in ...
Although a nonspecialist dictionary might define radiography quite narrowly as "taking X-ray images", this has long been only ... Yu SB, Watson AD (September 1999). "Metal-Based X-ray Contrast Media". Chemical Reviews. 99 (9): 2353-78. doi:10.1021/cr980441p ...
6 GJ is about the chemical energy of combusting 1 barrel (159 l) of crude oil.[12] 2 GJ is about the Planck energy unit.. ... American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Online Edition (2009). Houghton Mifflin Co., hosted by Yahoo! Education. ... The American Heritage Dictionary, Second College Edition (1985). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., p. 691. ... McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Physics, Fifth Edition (1997). McGraw-Hill, Inc., p. 224. ...
Journal of Chemical Education. American Chemical Society. 80 (8): 952-961. Bibcode:2003JChEd..80..952J. doi:10.1021/ed080p952. ... "Oxford English Dictionary (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005.. (Subscription or UK public library membership ... Physical and chemicalEdit. The physical and chemical properties of the alkali metals can be readily explained by their having ... Connelly, Neil G.; Geiger, William E. (1996). "Chemical Redox Agents for Organometallic Chemistry". Chemical Reviews. 96 (2): ...
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A chemical mechanism in the pollen is active in many species to avoid selfing. Two notable exceptions are exclusive self ... Merriam-Webster, Merriam-Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Merriam-Webster.. *^ "Article 18". ICBN.. *^ "Brassicaceae". The ... Parasitoid wasps that feed on such insect herbivores are attracted to the chemical compounds released by the plants, and thus ... to its secretion of allelopathic chemicals. These inhibit the germination of most competing plants and kill beneficial soil ...
Umberto Quattrocchi (2012). CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants. Common Names, Scientific Names, Eponyms, ... Chemical Recreations, John Joseph Griffin, 1834, p. 279 External links[edit]. *Wayne's Word: "Logwood and Brazilwood, Trees ...
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Interglot translation dictionary. "Ballena asesina". interglot.com. Retrieved 15 January 2016.. *. "Introduction to Cetacea: ... High levels of organic chemicals accumulate in these animals since they are high in the food chain. They have large reserves of ... "whale , Origin and meaning of whale by Online Etymology Dictionary". www.etymonline.com. Retrieved 18 March 2018.. ... Skeat, Walter W. (1898). An Etymological Dictionary of the English Language (3 ed.). Clarendon Press. p. 704.. ...
... but it has a strong unpleasant odor because of hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan and other chemicals.[citation needed] ...
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Chemical castration is the practice of suppressing sexual desire, usually in men who are convicted sex offenders, by means of ... Tech & Science dictionary chemical castration [kem-i-kuh l kas-trey-shuh n] ... This is not meant to be a formal definition of chemical castration like most terms we define on Dictionary.com, but is rather ... What does chemical castration mean?. Chemical castration is the practice of suppressing sexual desire, usually in men who are ...
Comprehensively cross-referenced and complemented by over 60 line drawings, this dictionary is the most authoritative of its ... Over 3,200 entriesThis dictionary provides definitions and explanations for chemical engineering terms in areas including: ... A Dictionary of Chemical Engineering Carl Schaschke Over 3,200 entries. This dictionary provides definitions and explanations ... Bilingual dictionaries Classical studies Encyclopedias English Dictionaries and Thesauri History Language reference Law ...
Comprehensively cross-referenced and complemented by over 60 line drawings, this dictionary is the most authoritative of its ... Over 3,200 entriesThis dictionary provides definitions and explanations for chemical engineering terms in areas including: ... A Dictionary of Chemical Engineering Carl Schaschke Over 3,200 entries. This dictionary provides definitions and explanations ... Professor Carl Schaschke is a chemical engineer having worked first at BNFL at Sellafield in Cumbria. After then completing a ...
Dictionary of chemical components (ligands, small molecules and monomers) referred in PDB entries and maintained by the wwPDB ...
Physico-chemical synonyms, Physico-chemical pronunciation, Physico-chemical translation, English dictionary definition of ... n. Scientific analysis of the properties and behavior of chemical systems primarily by physical theory and technique, as, for ... Physico-chemical - definition of Physico-chemical by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/Physico-chemical ... such as physico-chemical properties of the test chemical or the potential for little or no exposure to the test chemical by a ...
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... Diamidophenol. (See Amidol.) ... prev: Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 23 ... next: Encyclopedic Dictionary And Glossary Of Photographic And Chemical Terms. Part 25 ...
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What is the meaning of OPTICO-CHEMICAL? How do you use OPTICO-CHEMICAL in a sentence? What are synonyms for OPTICO-CHEMICAL? ... Of or relating to the effects which chemical properties and changes have on optical phenomena such as the absorption, ... Oxford English and Spanish Dictionary, Synonyms, and Spanish to English Translator. UK Dictionary. US Dictionary. Synonyms. ... What is the definition of OPTICO-CHEMICAL? ...
Dictionaries conform to a dictionary specification which also imposes machine validation on the dictionaries. Each dictionary ... Dictionaries. In a similar way, a dictionary ecology [13] has developed supporting an extensible set of concepts in CML ... The dictionary approach was inspired by the CIF dictionaries [1] from the International Union of Crystallography (IUCr) and has ... Within the dictionaries and the unit collections, every entry has a unique ID and when combined with the dictionary URI ...
  • The branch of chemistry that is concerned with the physical structure of chemical compounds, the amount of energy they have, the way they react with other compounds, and the bonds that hold their atoms together. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Wendelin Jan Stark, a professor from the ETH Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, said that the new chemical defense mechanism is composed of several sandwich-like layers of plastic and when the surface is damaged, hot foam is sprayed in the face of the attacker. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Ideal for researchers in both academic and corporate settings, the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics Enhanced Web Version has several interactive tools and features and is designed to help users access trusted chemical and physical data in a seamless manner. (chemnetbase.com)
  • Spanning the breadth of chemistry this database provides access to chemical, physical and structural data on more than 655,000 compounds. (chemnetbase.com)
  • Institute for Polymer Research Researcher Department Research Charles Burns, chemical Compatibility of polymer blends MCIC engineering plasticization of polymers surface properties Scott Collins, chemisty Polymerization of ethylene and MCIC propylene by soluble and supported Ziegler-Natta catalysts, chemistry of catalyst supports Kenneth chemical Polymerization kinetics and O'Driscoll, FCIC engineering thermodynamics, detailed chemistry modelling of the free radical home- and co-polymerizations of vinyl monomers. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The design allows for an indefinitely large number of dictionaries created by communities within chemistry who recognise a common semantic approach and who are prepared to create the appropriate dictionaries. (springeropen.com)
  • However, there are some controversies regarding this definition mainly because the large number of chemical substances reported in chemistry literature need to be indexed. (ais-life.eu)
  • A Dictionary of Chemistry is a popular and authoritative guide to all aspects of its discipline. (oup.com)
  • I am confident that the dictionary of carbohydrates will become a desk reference book for many researchers working in the field of chemistry and biochemistry of carbohydrates, glycobiology, and biotechnology, and in various fields of analytical and bioorganic chemistry. (routledge.com)
  • A chemical substance may well be defined as "any material with a definite chemical composition" in an introductory general chemistry textbook. (wikipedia.org)
  • An explanatory dictionary of the apparatus and instruments employed in the various operations of philosophical and experimental chemistry. (hathitrust.org)
  • First published in 1821 under title: Dictionary of the apparatus and instruments employed in operative and experimental chemistry. (hathitrust.org)
  • A dictionary of chemistry and mineralogy, with an account of the processes employed in many of the most important chemical manufactures. (hathitrust.org)
  • A dictionary of chemistry and mineralogy, with an account of the processes employed in many of the most important chemical manufactures to which are added a description of chemical apparatus, and various useful tables of weights and measures, chemical instruments, &c. &c. (hathitrust.org)
  • Provides full-text access to chemistry journals from the American Chemical Society. (emory.edu)
  • Developed with the intention of delivering access to structure-based chemistry data via the internet the ChemSpider platform hosts over 26 million unique chemical compounds aggregated from over 400 data sources and provides an environment for the community to both annotate and curate these existing data as well as deposit new data to the system. (slideshare.net)
  • Much of chemistry is chemical structure-based - where and how could we host these data? (slideshare.net)
  • This is not meant to be a formal definition of chemical castration like most terms we define on Dictionary.com, but is rather an informal word summary that hopefully touches upon the key aspects of the meaning and usage of chemical castration that will help our users expand their word mastery. (dictionary.com)
  • The particular advantage of this up-to-date dictionary is that it is remarkably easy to use because every definition of the 25,000 words and word groups has been written in the 850 words of the Basic English word list, which represents the key ideas we express with our language. (basic-english.org)
  • [4] According to this definition a chemical substance can either be a pure chemical element or a pure chemical compound. (wikipedia.org)
  • Presenting over 15,000 entries with accurate, up-to-date and concise information on more than 57,000 compounds, the Dictionary of Drugs is a one-stop resource for the medicinal chemist. (chemnetbase.com)
  • Two highly respected titles, the Dictionary of Inorganic Compounds and the Dictionary of Organometallic Compounds have been brought together into this single, structure-searchable database of over 107,000 compounds. (chemnetbase.com)
  • It contains the top 25,000 most commonly cited compounds in Chemical Abstracts (excluding polymers and biologicals) in Chapman & Hall chemical dictionary format. (chemnetbase.com)
  • The dictionary stores information about monomers which represent the constitutive building blocks of biological macromolecules (amino acids, nucleic acids and saccharides) and about numerous organic/inorganic compounds commonly found in macromolecular crystallography. (nih.gov)
  • These chemicals are often referred to as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and some researchers believe they may contribute to breast cancer risk by mimicking or disrupting the effects of the body's natural estrogen. (motherjones.com)
  • Pharmacological and chemical synonyms : a collection of names of drugs, pesticides and other compounds drawn from the medical literature of the world / compiled by E. E. J. Marler. (who.int)
  • An easy-to-use reference source for all scientists working with carbohydrates, the Dictionary of Carbohydrates with CD-ROM, Second Edition builds on the success of its previous edition by providing a substantially increased number of compounds. (routledge.com)
  • With 24,000 compounds, it represents a much enlarged and revised new edition of the dictionary first published in 1998. (routledge.com)
  • [3] Chemical substances can be chemical elements , chemical compounds , ions or alloys . (wikipedia.org)
  • The concept of a "chemical substance" became firmly established in the late eighteenth century after work by the chemist Joseph Proust on the composition of some pure chemical compounds such as basic copper carbonate . (wikipedia.org)
  • The information was previously available from the Dictionary of Analytical Reagents , Dictionary of Carbohydrates , Dictionary of Inorganic and Organometallic Compounds , Dictionary of Natural Products , Dictionary of Organic Compounds , and Dictionary of Drugs . (emory.edu)
  • The acids were first recognized as a group of compounds on a chemical basis in the 16th century. (routledge.com)
  • This complete update and revision of the renowned First Edition provides immediate access to vital information on approximately 5000 hazardous chemicals and compounds commonly used in industry, manufacturing, laboratories, and the workplace. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • The BioCreative CHEMDNER challenge invites the development of systems for the automatic recognition of chemicals in text (CEM task) and for ranking the recognized compounds at the document level (CDI task). (biomedcentral.com)
  • We investigated an ensemble approach where dictionary-based named entity recognition is used along with grammar-based recognizers to extract compounds from text. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To rank the different compounds found in a text, we used a term confidence score based on the normalized ratio of the term frequencies in chemical and non-chemical journals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The NCI Drug Dictionary contains technical definitions and synonyms for drugs/agents used to treat patients with cancer or conditions related to cancer. (cancer.gov)
  • Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search-ad free! (merriam-webster.com)
  • The Basic Dictionary of Science reveals the language of science to the general reader and student, explaining the most recent terms and phrases with precise definitions and exceptional clarity. (basic-english.org)
  • Chemical gastropathy was recommended as the preferred term to synonyms such as chemical gastritis, type C gastritis and reactive gastropathy, and refers to endoscopic and histological changes caused by chemical injury to the gastric mucosa. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Organic-chemical drugs and their synonyms (an international survey / Martin Negwer. (who.int)
  • Each entry contains a wealth of information which includes: names and synonyms, molecular formulae, chemical structures, accurate mass, UV spectra, extensive source data, physical properties, uses and key literature citations. (routledge.com)
  • Entries feature a concise review of toxicity and other hazards, including a helpful 1-to-3 hazard rating, important reference information such as chemical synonyms and CAS, NIOSH, and DOT number identifiers, standards for exposure limits, and general physical properties. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • So, we then turn to the dictionary to check the meanings for the entire list of new synonyms and, after much flipping back and forth between thesaurus and dictionary, finally decide upon an alternative. (textbookx.com)
  • noun a chemical element (symbol Zn) with an atomic number of 30. (wordnik.com)
  • A wide variety of these chemical substances are produced by endocrine cells, most of which are in glands. (ikonet.com)
  • In law, "chemical substances" may include both pure substances and mixtures with a defined composition or manufacturing process. (ais-life.eu)
  • ChemIDplus indexes more than 368,000 records for chemical substances cited in the National Library of Medicine (NLM) databases. (umn.edu)
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  • Chemical substances are often called 'pure' to set them apart from mixtures . (wikipedia.org)
  • Other chemical substances commonly encountered in pure form are diamond (carbon), gold , table salt ( sodium chloride ) and refined sugar ( sucrose ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical substances exist as solids , liquids , gases , or plasma , and may change between these phases of matter with changes in temperature or pressure . (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical substances may be combined or converted to others by means of chemical reactions . (wikipedia.org)
  • A gateway to searching all chemical substances, reactions, and references indexed by Chemical Abstracts Service from 1907 to present. (emory.edu)
  • By means of chemical symbols, or formulas, the composition of the most complicated substances can be very easily expressed, and that, too, in a very small compass. (google.com.mx)
  • Phenol", Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 15th Edition. (wikipedia.org)
  • It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Dictionary_of_chemical_formulas/C40-C49" . (chemeurope.com)
  • Webster's New World College Dictionary, 4th Ed. (onelook.com)
  • He has contributed to several other reference books, including the Oxford Dictionary of Physics. (oup.com)
  • But now, The Oxford Dictionary and Thesaurus offers a thoroughly integrated blend of entries from the dictionary and the thesaurus. (textbookx.com)
  • Oxford's American dictionary staff, along with an international team of lexicographers, have drawn on the unparalleled lexical resources of Oxford University Press, the world's most respected authority on English language and dictionaries, to make The Oxford Dictionary and Thesaurus the most wide-ranging resource available. (textbookx.com)
  • No American dictionary or thesaurus offers as much as The Oxford Dictionary and Thesaurus. (textbookx.com)
  • Philip D. Morehead is the editor of The New American Webster Handy College Dictionary and The New American Rogets College Thesaurus and the author of the New American Crossword Puzzle Dictionary and The New American International Dictionary of Music . (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Free online dictionary/thesaurus and more. (memidex.com)
  • This unified approach, treating meanings and related words within the same entry, makes it easy to find -- in one place -- an abundance of information about words, and provides a far more thorough analysis of the variety and nuances of our language than is possible in a dictionary or thesaurus alone. (textbookx.com)
  • It not only combines an up-to-date and thoroughly reliable dictionary of American English with full thesaurus coverage, but it also provides a unique global perspective of English, the lingua franca of the late twentieth century. (textbookx.com)
  • It also describes the modifications the building blocks undergo as a result of chemical reactions and the links required for polymer formation. (nih.gov)
  • TOXLINE, a subfile of the National Library of Medicine database covering the toxicological, pharmacological, biochemical, and physiological effects of drugs and other chemicals in such areas as drug reactions, air pollution, chemical carcinogenesis , food contamination, water treatment and more. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • the study of the rates of chemical reactions. (drugs.com)
  • Adverse reactions to processed foods and their chemical contaminants, and to indoor and outdoor air pollution with petrochemicals, are becoming more and more widespread and so far these reactions are being misdiagnosed by mainstream medical practitioners and so are not treated effectively. (todayinsci.com)
  • A precipitate is solid matter thrown down from a state of solution by the action of heat, light or chemical reagent . (chestofbooks.com)
  • Covers analytical procedures and specifications for the most important reagents used in analytical work, and validated methods for testing the purity of reagent chemicals. (umn.edu)
  • those in need of a first-rate biology dictionary would do well to acquire this one. (nhbs.com)
  • The starting material for this chemical defense is a harmless molecule commonly present in the leaf. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Commonly used in the chemical analysis of metals. (photonics.com)
  • Perhaps the best way to enable dictionary search is through integration into the search field of your browser. (eudict.com)
  • Afterwards, you simply type the chosen keyword in the address bar to start the search in the chosen dictionary. (eudict.com)
  • MPA remained one of the major drugs in chemical castration , joined by others in later years as the science progressed. (dictionary.com)
  • See also nuclear, biological, and chemical defense. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Aside from chemical synapse, other types of biological synapses are electrical synapse and immunological synapse . (biology-online.org)
  • [1] It is any chemical, physical, or biological change undergone by a sediment after its initial deposition, after its lithification. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in practice, no substance is entirely pure, and chemical purity is specified according to the intended use of the chemical. (ais-life.eu)
  • Outside of historic practices, surgical castration- chemical castration 's precursor in controlling sex hormones, involving the physical removal of the testicles-was sometimes used in the early 20th-century eugenics movement to sterilize people who scientists thought had undesirable traits for society. (dictionary.com)
  • Scientific analysis of the properties and behavior of chemical systems primarily by physical theory and technique, as, for example, the thermodynamic analysis of macroscopic chemical phenomena. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • To produce these and other semiconductor devices, semiconductor process engineers rely heavily on interconnected physical and chemical processes. (ais-life.eu)
  • [2] It cannot be separated into components by physical separation methods, i.e., without breaking chemical bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chemical injury caused by the substance itself may result in tissue destruction and an inflammatory reaction (which leads to more swelling, which may further compromise the tissue perfusion). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Steam and liquid water are two different forms of the same chemical substance, water. (ais-life.eu)
  • chemical substance produced by a living organism, generally a microorganism, that is detrimental to other microorganisms. (memidex.com)
  • A chemical substance [1] , also known as a pure substance , is a form of matter that has constant chemical composition and characteristic properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • [5] The chemical substance index published by CAS also includes several alloys of uncertain composition. (wikipedia.org)
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