Diatomaceous Earth: A form of SILICON DIOXIDE composed of skeletons of prehistoric aquatic plants which is used for its ABSORPTION quality, taking up 1.5-4 times its weight in water. The microscopic sharp edges are useful for insect control but can also be an inhalation hazard. It has been used in baked goods and animal feed. Kieselguhr is German for flint + earthy sediment.Cimicidae: A family of wingless, blood-sucking insects of the suborder HETEROPTERA, including the bedbugs and related forms. Cimex (BEDBUGS), Heamatosiphon, and Oeciacus are medically important genera. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Quartz: Quartz (SiO2). A glassy or crystalline form of silicon dioxide. Many colored varieties are semiprecious stones. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Boric Acids: Inorganic and organic derivatives of boric acid either B(OH)3 or, preferably H3BO3.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Moths: Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.Ajuga: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE that contains cyasterone, ajugasterone, 20-hydroxyecdysone, 8-acetylharpagide (an iridoid glycoside).Pest Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous plants, insects, or other animals. This includes control of plants that serve as habitats or food sources for animal pests.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Fumigation: The application of smoke, vapor, or gas for the purpose of disinfecting or destroying pests or microorganisms.Triacetoneamine-N-Oxyl: Cyclic N-oxide radical functioning as a spin label and radiation-sensitizing agent.Gardening: Cultivation of PLANTS; (FRUIT; VEGETABLES; MEDICINAL HERBS) on small plots of ground or in containers.PaperAluminum Oxide: An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.PaintBentonite: A colloidal, hydrated aluminum silicate that swells 12 times its dry size when added to water.Biological Oxygen Demand Analysis: Testing for the amount of biodegradable organic material in a water sample by measuring the quantity of oxygen consumed by biodegradation of those materials over a specific time period.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Beauty: Characteristics or attributes of persons or things which elicit pleasurable feelings.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Geological Phenomena: The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.Exobiology: The interdisciplinary science that studies evolutionary biology, including the origin and evolution of the major elements required for life, their processing in the interstellar medium and in protostellar systems. This field also includes the study of chemical evolution and the subsequent interactions between evolving biota and planetary evolution as well as the field of biology that deals with the study of extraterrestrial life.San FranciscoDietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Pyrantel: A depolarizing neuromuscular-blocking agent, that causes persistent nicotinic activation resulting in spastic paralysis of susceptible nematodes. It is a drug of second-choice after benzimidazoles for treatment of ascariasis, hookworm, and pinworm infections, being effective after a single dose. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p920)Nematode Infections: Infections by nematodes, general or unspecified.Mytilus: A genus of marine mussels in the family MYTILIDAE, class BIVALVIA. The species MYTILUS EDULIS is the highly edible common mussel.Bedbugs: Bugs of the family CIMICIDAE, genus Cimex. They are flattened, oval, reddish insects which inhabit houses, wallpaper, furniture, and beds. C. lectularius, of temperate regions, is the common bedbug that attacks humans and is frequently a serious pest in houses, hotels, barracks, and other living quarters. Experiments have shown that bedbugs can transmit a variety of diseases, but they are not normal vectors under natural conditions. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p272)Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Nymph: The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.Sensilla: Collective name for a group of external MECHANORECEPTORS and chemoreceptors manifesting as sensory structures in ARTHROPODS. They include cuticular projections (setae, hairs, bristles), pores, and slits.Food Coloring Agents: Natural or synthetic dyes used as coloring agents in processed foods.Sodium Nitrite: Nitrous acid sodium salt. Used in many industrial processes, in meat curing, coloring, and preserving, and as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES. It is used therapeutically as an antidote in cyanide poisoning. The compound is toxic and mutagenic and will react in vivo with secondary or tertiary amines thereby producing highly carcinogenic nitrosamines.Bell Palsy: A syndrome characterized by the acute onset of unilateral FACIAL PARALYSIS which progresses over a 2-5 day period. Weakness of the orbicularis oculi muscle and resulting incomplete eye closure may be associated with corneal injury. Pain behind the ear often precedes the onset of paralysis. This condition may be associated with HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN infection of the facial nerve. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1376)Chromium: A trace element that plays a role in glucose metabolism. It has the atomic symbol Cr, atomic number 24, and atomic weight 52. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP85-002,1985), chromium and some of its compounds have been listed as known carcinogens.Chromates: Salts of chromic acid containing the CrO(2-)4 radical.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Carcinogens, Environmental: Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.Chitosan: Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.WeldingFiltration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Earth (Planet): Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Cholesteatoma, Middle Ear: A mass of KERATIN-producing squamous EPITHELIUM that resembles an inverted (suck-in) bag of skin in the MIDDLE EAR. It arises from the eardrum (TYMPANIC MEMBRANE) and grows into the MIDDLE EAR causing erosion of EAR OSSICLES and MASTOID that contains the INNER EAR.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Gliotoxin: A fungal toxin produced by various species of Trichoderma, Gladiocladium fimbriatum, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Penicillium. It is used as an immunosuppressive agent.Funeral Rites: Those customs and ceremonies pertaining to the dead.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.

Antioxidant protection of lipoproteins containing estrogens: in vitro evidence for low- and high-density lipoproteins as estrogen carriers. (1/38)

Some recent studies have reported that low-density lipoprotein (LDL) isolated from estrogen-treated postmenopausal women exhibited increased oxidation resistance ex vivo. However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for this effect are not clear. We explored the possibility that lipophilic derivatives of 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) could be incorporated into LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles inhibiting lipoprotein oxidation. Introduction of small amounts of esterified E(2) into lipoproteins by means of incubation of free E(2) and E(2) 17-stearate in plasma did not result in any antioxidant effect. Using an artificial transfer system (Celite dispersion), larger amounts of E(2) esters could be incorporated into lipoproteins. Concentrations ranging between 0.27 and 1.38 molecules/LDL particle for E(2) 17-stearate and between 0.36 and 1.93 molecules/LDL particle for E(2) 17-oleate resulted in increased Cu(2+)-induced oxidation resistance of LDL as indicated by statistically significant lag time prolongations. Significant prolongations of lag times were also observed for HDL following incorporation of E(2) esters using Celite as transfer system. Our results suggest that free E(2) can be esterified and incorporated into lipoproteins during incubation in plasma. However, incorporation of supraphysiologic concentrations of E(2) esters into lipoproteins by means of the artificial transfer system was required in order to reduce their oxidation susceptibility.  (+info)

In vitro and in vivo tests for determination of the pathogenicity of quartz, diatomaceous earth, mordenite and clinoptilolite. (2/38)

The effects of samples of crystalline quartz, diatomaceous earth, mordenite and clinoptilolite were investigated in vitro (as concerns erythrocyte haemolysis and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release from peritoneal macrophages) and in vivo (on LDH, protein and phospholipids in rat bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and phospholipids in rat lung tissue). The respirable mineral samples were instilled intratracheally. Determinations in the BAL were carried out after 15, 60 and 180 days, and in the lung tissue after 90, 180 and 360 days. Quartz DQ and quartz FQ induced acute, subacute and chronic inflammation and progressive fibrosis. However, due to the Al2O3 contamination on the surface of the particles quartz FQ caused a delayed response in vivo. Diatomaceous earth produced acute/subacute inflammation that gradually became more moderate after 60 days. Clinoptilolite was inert, whereas the other zeolite sample, mordenite, was cytotoxic in vivo. The reason for this was presumably the needle and rod-shaped particles in the mordenite samples. The investigation revealed that different in vitro and in vivo methods canprovide valuable data concerning the pulmonary toxicity of minerals.  (+info)

Isolation of repeated and self-complementary sequences from E. coli DNA. (3/38)

We have used the single-strand specific nuclease from Neurospora crassa and chromatography on methylated albumin-kieselguhr to purify and characterize repeated and self-complementary sequences from Escherichia coli DNA. Approximately 0.5% of the genome renatures spontaneously at zero time and another 2% renatures somewhat more rapidly than the total DNA. The early renaturing DNA has a base composition and a Tm similar to the total DNA and contains on the average 100 base pairs; the self-complementary DNA also has a base composition like E. coli but contains a mean of 170 base pairs. No evidence was obtained for the presence of a highly redundant sequence.  (+info)

Crystalline silica exposure and lung cancer mortality in diatomaceous earth industry workers: a quantitative risk assessment. (4/38)

OBJECTIVE: To use various exposure-response models to estimate the risk of mortality from lung cancer due to occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica dust. METHODS: Data from a cohort mortality study of 2342 white male California diatomaceous earth mining and processing workers exposed to crystalline silica dust (mainly cristobalite) were reanalyzed with Poisson regression and Cox's proportional hazards models. Internal and external adjustments were used to control for potential confounding from the effects of time since first observation, calendar time, age, and Hispanic ethnicity. Cubic smoothing spline models were used to assess the fit of the models. Exposures were lagged by 10 years. Evaluations of the fit of the models were performed by comparing their deviances. Lifetime risks of lung cancer were estimated up to age 85 with an actuarial approach that accounted for competing causes of death. RESULTS: Exposure to respirable crystalline silica dust was a significant predictor (p<0.05) in nearly all of the models evaluated and the linear relative rate model with a 10 year exposure lag seemed to give the best fit in the Poisson regression analysis. For those who died of lung cancer the linear relative rate model predicted rate ratios for mortality from lung cancer of about 1.6 for the mean cumulative exposure to respirable silica compared with no exposure. The excess lifetime risk (to age 85) of mortality from lung cancer for white men exposed for 45 years and with a 10 year lag period at the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard of about 0.05 mg/m(3) for respirable cristobalite dust is 19/1000 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 5/1000 to 46/1000). CONCLUSIONS: There was a significant risk of mortality from lung cancer that increased with cumulative exposure to respirable crystalline silica dust. The predicted number of deaths from lung cancer suggests that current occupational health standards may not be adequately protecting workers from the risk of lung cancer.  (+info)

The effects of aprotinin on thromboelastography with three different activators. (5/38)

BACKGROUND: Thromboelastography is used for assessment of hemostasis. Adherence to thromboelastography-guided algorithms and aprotinin administration each decrease bleeding and blood product usage after cardiac surgery. Aprotinin, through inhibition of kallikrein, causes prolongation of the celite-activated clotting time and the activated partial thromboplastin ratio. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of aprotinin on the thromboelastography trace. METHODS: Three activators were used in the thromboelastography: celite (which is widely established), kaolin, and tissue factor. Assessment was performed on blood from volunteers and from patients before and after cardiac surgery. RESULTS: The tissue factor-activated thromboelastography trace was unaffected by the addition of aprotinin. When celite and kaolin were used as activators in the presence of aprotinin, the reaction time (time to clot formation) of the thromboelastography trace was prolonged (P < 0.0001) and the maximum amplitude (clot strength) was decreased (P < 0.05). With celite as an activator, the addition of aprotinin decreased (P < 0.05) the thromboelastography alpha angle (rate of clot extension). The reaction time of the celite-activated trace correlated with the activated partial thromboplastin ratio (P < 0.01). The reaction time of the tissue factor-activated trace correlated with the international normalized ratio (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The thromboelastography trace is altered in the presence of aprotinin when celite and kaolin are used as activators but not when tissue factor is the activator.  (+info)

Rapid and simple determination of histamine-N-methyl transferase activity by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. (6/38)

A rapid, simple and low-cost assay method of histamine-N-methyltransferase activity was developed. Methylhistamine, which was separated from the enzymatic reaction system on reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography using an ion-paired chromatographic technique, was detected spectrophotometrically at 226 nm. The mobile phase used for the separation of methylhistamine was 0.05M NH4H2PO4 (pH 3.0) containing 2 mM of sodium octanesulfonate. The new assay technique could detect methylhistamine as an enzyme activity product of histamine-N-methyltransferase in the brain and kidney of rats. Chloropheniramine maleate, an antihistamine, activated the histamine-N-methyltransferase. Whether neurotransmitter or neuromodulator, the role of histamine in the brain has not yet been made clear. Therefore, the present method could be applicable for the enzymatic investigation of histamine metabolism in central nervous system or inflammatory reactions.  (+info)

Incorporation of horseradish peroxidase in a Kieselguhr membrane and the application to a mediator-free hydrogen peroxide sensor. (7/38)

Horseradish peroxidase was incorporated in a kieselguhr membrane. The electron-transfer process of the enzyme was examined by cyclic voltammetry. It was observed that the electron-transfer reactivity of horseradish peroxidase was greatly enhanced, and that direct electrochemistry was accordingly feasible. Using the merits of the direct electron-transfer reactivity of horseradish peroxidase and its specific enzymatic catalysis towards hydrogen peroxide, an unmediated hydrogen peroxide biosensor was constructed. The calibration plot of this hydrogen peroxide sensor was linear in the range of 2.0 x 10(-6) mol/L - 6.5 x 10(-4) mol/L. The relative standard deviation was 4.1% for 6 successive determinations at a concentration of 1.0 x 10(-4) mol/L. The detection limit was 1.0 x 10(-6) mol/L.  (+info)

Evaluation of a new point-of-care celite-activated clotting time analyzer in different clinical settings. The i-STAT celite-activated clotting time test. (8/38)

BACKGROUND: Activated clotting time (ACT) is used to monitor heparin therapy during cardiopulmonary bypass, interventional cardiology, and hemodialysis. Traditionally, ACT is performed by use of the Hemochron system. Recently, a new device, the i-STAT system, has been introduced to measure ACT. The aim of this study was to correlate the performances of these two systems and to compare ACT values with heparin levels. METHODS: One hundred sixty-five samples from 29 patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass or hemodialysis were assayed in duplicate with two Hemochron and two i-STAT devices. Heparin levels were determined by anti-factor Xa assay. RESULTS: The Hemochron ACT ranged from 88 to 1,028 s, and the i-STAT ACT ranged from 80 to 786 s. Heparin plasma levels ranged from 0.01 to 10.8 U/mL. Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean difference between the two methods of 24 +/- 101 s. Strong relationships between anti-factor Xa activity and Hemochron ACTs (r2 = 0.69, P < 0.001) and i-STAT ACTs (r2 = 0.79, P < 0.001) were observed. During cardiac surgery, significant correlations were found: Hemochron, r2 = 0.61, P < 0.001 and i-STAT, r2 = 0.74, P < 0.001. During hemodialysis, relationships between anti-factor Xa activity and ACTs were found: Hemochron, r2 = 0.62, P < 0.001 and i-STAT, r2 = 0.55, P < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: During cardiopulmonary bypass procedure and hemodialysis, i-STAT provides measurements of clotting time quite similar to Hemochron ACT, which were significantly correlated with heparin levels.  (+info)

  • Will feeding Diatomaceous Earth help control internal parasites in goats, and will feeding kelp to them prevent Vitamin B deficiency? (ncat.org)
  • 2017 Global Diatomaceous Earth Market Report is a professional and in-depth research report on the world's major regional market conditions of the Diatomaceous Earth Market, focusing on the main regions and the main countries (North America, Europe, China, Japan, Southeast Asia and India). (whatech.com)
  • Quantification of historical dust exposures in the diatomaceous earth industry. (cdc.gov)
  • Quantitative estimates of dust exposure in a diatomaceous earth (DE) mining and milling operation have been derived based on air sampling records for the period 1948-1988. (cdc.gov)
  • It seems that both orthoboric acid dust and diatomaceous earth are effective ant killers. (domyownpestcontrol.com)
  • If you're looking for a supplement blend, you may want to try Paratrex® , which uses diatomaceous earth and natural herbs to flush toxic and harmful organisms out of your body. (globalhealingcenter.com)
  • It is not the only real think you need to do to eradicate these pests from your home, although diatomaceous earth could possibly be the primary killer in your arsenal. (wordpress.com)
  • Mr. Mullin also mentioned that he ships large quantities of Fossil Flour - a diatomaceous additive for livestock feed - to dairymen, kennel owners and many other customers who find it an excellent method of pest control. (motherearthnews.com)
  • Diatomaceous Earth, which is composed mainly of silicon dioxide, is now becoming more recognized as playing a key role in anti-aging, by preventing and curing the serious diseases that appear linked to the regions of the body where there is a Silicon deficiency. (wordpress.com)
  • Diatomaceous Earth can be used as a digestive aid to help cleanse the body of toxins. (leaf.tv)
  • Diatomaceous Earth is Mother Nature's solution without harming the natural environment, animals or people. (diatomaceous.org)
  • For over 60 years, Diatomaceous Earth has been added to feeds of livestock, deer, birds, exotic animals and domestic pets. (arbico-organics.com)
  • Would it be effective/advisable to mix diatomaceous earth with orthoboric acid to treat ants? (domyownpestcontrol.com)
  • We would recommend using diatomaceous earth inside the wall voids and cracks and crevices if the white footed ants are there. (domyownpestcontrol.com)
  • It's in lots of grain based foods because lots of grains are stored with diatomaceous earth to keep the bugs from eating the grain! (richsoil.com)
  • According to Wolf Creek Ranch website, Diatomaceous Earth is 85 percent Amorphous Silica. (leaf.tv)
  • Duster bulbs are also an effective method for applying diatomaceous earth into cracks and other difficult-to-reach areas. (ehow.com)
  • Diatomaceous earth is super cheap, non toxic, and generally more effective than anything the pesticide companies have to offer - so it kinda cuts into their profit margins a bit. (richsoil.com)
  • Diatomaceous earth is just a very effective way to kill bed bugs. (wordpress.com)
  • If you don't want to use diatomaceous earth for some reason, you can spray Greenbug for Pets on your dog. (sfgate.com)