Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Clostridium difficile: A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.Clostridium Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM.Clostridium botulinum: A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.Diarrhea, Infantile: DIARRHEA occurring in infants from newborn to 24-months old.Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous: An acute inflammation of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA that is characterized by the presence of pseudomembranes or plaques in the SMALL INTESTINE (pseudomembranous enteritis) and the LARGE INTESTINE (pseudomembranous colitis). It is commonly associated with antibiotic therapy and CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE colonization.Clostridium acetobutylicum: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, used for the industrial production of SOLVENTS.Clostridium thermocellum: A species of gram-positive, thermophilic, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridaceae. It degrades and ferments CELLOBIOSE and CELLULOSE to ETHANOL in the CELLULOSOME.Clostridium tetani: The cause of TETANUS in humans and domestic animals. It is a common inhabitant of human and horse intestines as well as soil. Two components make up its potent exotoxin activity, a neurotoxin and a hemolytic toxin.Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine Viral: A group of viruses in the genus PESTIVIRUS, causing diarrhea, fever, oral ulcerations, hemorrhagic syndrome, and various necrotic lesions among cattle and other domestic animals. The two species (genotypes), BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 , exhibit antigenic and pathological differences. The historical designation, BVDV, consisted of both (then unrecognized) genotypes.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Botulinum Toxins: Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.Clostridium sordellii: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, found in INTESTINES and SOIL.Enterotoxins: Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.Clostridium butyricum: Type species of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM, a gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is used as a source of PROBIOTICS.Clostridium septicum: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. Infections have a strong association with malignancies and also with GAS GANGRENE.Clostridium beijerinckii: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, capable of solventogenesis, and isolated from SOIL, infected WOUNDS, fermenting OLIVES, and spoiled CANDY.Botulism: A disease caused by potent protein NEUROTOXINS produced by CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM which interfere with the presynaptic release of ACETYLCHOLINE at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Clinical features include abdominal pain, vomiting, acute PARALYSIS (including respiratory paralysis), blurred vision, and DIPLOPIA. Botulism may be classified into several subtypes (e.g., food-borne, infant, wound, and others). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1208)Ribotyping: RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM analysis of rRNA genes that is used for differentiating between species or strains.Spores, Bacterial: Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.Clostridium botulinum type A: Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces BOTULINUM TOXINS, TYPE A which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.Bovine Virus Diarrhea-Mucosal Disease: Acute disease of cattle caused by the bovine viral diarrhea viruses (DIARRHEA VIRUSES, BOVINE VIRAL). Often mouth ulcerations are the only sign but fever, diarrhea, drop in milk yield, and loss of appetite are also seen. Severity of clinical disease varies and is strain dependent. Outbreaks are characterized by low morbidity and high mortality.Clostridium cellulolyticum: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is a cellulolytic, mesophilic species isolated from decayed GRASS.Antidiarrheals: Miscellaneous agents found useful in the symptomatic treatment of diarrhea. They have no effect on the agent(s) that cause diarrhea, but merely alleviate the condition.Diarrhea Virus 1, Bovine Viral: A species of PESTIVIRUS causing systemic infections (BOVINE VIRUS DIARRHEA-MUCOSAL DISEASE) in cattle and some other cloven-hoofed animals. There are several strains and two biotypes: cytopathic (rare) and non-cytopathic. Infections range from clinically inapparent to severe, but do not correlate with biotypes.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Clostridium cellulovorans: A species of gram-positive, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It produces CELLULOSOMES which are involved in plant CELL WALL degradation.Clostridium chauvoei: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae isolated from infected CATTLE; SHEEP; and other animals. It causes blackleg in cattle and sheep and is transmitted through soil-borne spores.Cellulase: An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.Butanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of butanol (C4H9OH).Gas Gangrene: A severe condition resulting from bacteria invading healthy muscle from adjacent traumatized muscle or soft tissue. The infection originates in a wound contaminated with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM. C. perfringens accounts for the majority of cases (over eighty percent), while C. noyvi, C. septicum, and C. histolyticum cause most of the other cases.Clostridium botulinum type E: Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type E which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cytotoxins: Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.Diarrhea Virus 2, Bovine Viral: A species of PESTIVIRUS causing systemic infections including BOVINE VIRUS DIARRHEA-MUCOSAL DISEASE and BOVINE HEMORRHAGIC SYNDROME in cattle and some other cloven-hoofed animals. There are several strains and two biotypes: cytopathic (rare) and non-cytopathic. The severity of disease appears to be strain dependent. Cytopathogenic effects do not correlate with virulence as non-cytopathic BVDV-2 is associated only with Hemorrhagic Disease, Bovine.Enteritis: Inflammation of any segment of the SMALL INTESTINE.Clostridium kluyveri: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is distinctive for its ability to ferment ETHANOL to caproic acid.Spores: The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Clostridium histolyticum: A species of gram-positive, strongly proteolytic bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It contains several forms of COLLAGENASE whose action can lead to GAS GANGRENE in humans and HORSES.Antitoxins: Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Toxins, Biological: Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.Bacteria, AnaerobicADP Ribose Transferases: Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.Enterotoxemia: Disease caused by the liberation of exotoxins of CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS in the intestines of sheep, goats, cattle, foals, and piglets. Type B enterotoxemia in lambs is lamb dysentery; type C enterotoxemia in mature sheep produces "struck", and in calves, lambs and piglets it produces hemorrhagic enterotoxemia; type D enterotoxemia in sheep and goats is pulpy-kidney disease or overeating disease.Metronidazole: A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Dysentery: Acute inflammation of the intestine associated with infectious DIARRHEA of various etiologies, generally acquired by eating contaminated food containing TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL derived from BACTERIA or other microorganisms. Dysentery is characterized initially by watery FECES then by bloody mucoid stools. It is often associated with ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and DEHYDRATION.Clostridium botulinum type B: Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type B which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Cellulosomes: Extracellular structures found in a variety of microorganisms. They contain CELLULASES and play an important role in the digestion of CELLULOSE.Clostridium tyrobutyricum: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae responsible for spoilage of some CHEESE via FERMENTATION of BUTYRIC ACID.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Clostridium botulinum type D: Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type D which is neurotoxic to ANIMALS, especially CATTLE, but not humans.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Clostridium botulinum type F: Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type F which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Gastroenteritis: INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.Foodborne Diseases: Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.Germ-Free Life: Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Loperamide: One of the long-acting synthetic ANTIDIARRHEALS; it is not significantly absorbed from the gut, and has no effect on the adrenergic system or central nervous system, but may antagonize histamine and interfere with acetylcholine release locally.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Pestivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE, also known as mucosal disease virus group, which is not arthropod-borne. Transmission is by direct and indirect contact, and by transplacental and congenital transmission. Species include BORDER DISEASE VIRUS, bovine viral diarrhea virus (DIARRHEA VIRUS, BOVINE VIRAL), and CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Cellobiose: A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in beta (1-4) glycosidic linkage. Obtained from the partial hydrolysis of cellulose.Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing acute enteritis in swine. Infections have been seen mostly in Europe, where it is endemic, and in China.Toxoids: Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI that produce or contain at least one member of either heat-labile or heat-stable ENTEROTOXINS. The organisms colonize the mucosal surface of the small intestine and elaborate their enterotoxins causing DIARRHEA. They are mainly associated with tropical and developing countries and affect susceptible travelers to those places.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Food Preservation: Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.Cecum: The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.Ferredoxins: Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons, usually at a low potential, to flavoproteins; the iron is not present as in heme. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Rubredoxins: A class of iron-sulfur proteins that contains one iron coordinated to the sulfur atom of four cysteine residues. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Vancomycin: Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cryptosporidiosis: Intestinal infection with organisms of the genus CRYPTOSPORIDIUM. It occurs in both animals and humans. Symptoms include severe DIARRHEA.Probiotics: Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)Clostridium sticklandii: A species of gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae frequently used for the study of ENZYMES.Mamastrovirus: A genus of small, circular RNA viruses in the family ASTROVIRIDAE. They cause GASTROENTERITIS and are found in the stools of several vertebrates including humans. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route and there are at least eight human serotypes. The type species is Human astrovirus.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Botulinum Antitoxin: Antiserum given therapeutically in BOTULISM.Clindamycin: An antibacterial agent that is a semisynthetic analog of LINCOMYCIN.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Enterocolitis: Inflammation of the MUCOSA of both the SMALL INTESTINE and the LARGE INTESTINE. Etiology includes ISCHEMIA, infections, allergic, and immune responses.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Ileum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.Eubacterium: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Clostridium botulinum type C: Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type C which is neurotoxic to ANIMALS, especially CATTLE, but not humans. It causes dissociation of ACTIN FILAMENTS.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Clostridium tertium: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, causing BACTEREMIA in humans and ANIMALS.Astroviridae Infections: Infections with ASTROVIRUS, causing gastroenteritis in human infants, calves, lambs, and piglets.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Shigella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that ferments sugar without gas production. Its organisms are intestinal pathogens of man and other primates and cause bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.Dysentery, Bacillary: DYSENTERY caused by gram-negative rod-shaped enteric bacteria (ENTEROBACTERIACEAE), most often by the genus SHIGELLA. Shigella dysentery, Shigellosis, is classified into subgroups according to syndrome severity and the infectious species. Group A: SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE (severest); Group B: SHIGELLA FLEXNERI; Group C: SHIGELLA BOYDII; and Group D: SHIGELLA SONNEI (mildest).Intestinal Diseases: Pathological processes in any segment of the INTESTINE from DUODENUM to RECTUM.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Clostridium bifermentans: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that ferments both CARBOHYDRATES and AMINO ACIDS.Gastrointestinal Diseases: Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Acetone: A colorless liquid used as a solvent and an antiseptic. It is one of the ketone bodies produced during ketoacidosis.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Neurotoxins: Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Cryptosporidium: A genus of coccidian parasites of the family CRYPTOSPORIDIIDAE, found in the intestinal epithelium of many vertebrates including humans.Fluid Therapy: Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Peptostreptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of humans. Its organisms are opportunistic pathogens causing bacteremias and soft tissue infections.Bacteroides: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.Rehydration Solutions: Fluids restored to the body in order to maintain normal water-electrolyte balance.Xylosidases: A group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha- or beta-xylosidic linkages. EC 3.2.1.8 catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC 3.2.1.32 catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC 3.2.1.37 catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans; and EC 3.2.1.72 catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans. Other xylosidases have been identified that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha-xylosidic bonds.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rifamycins: A group of ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS characterized by a chromophoric naphthohydroquinone group spanned by an aliphatic bridge not previously found in other known ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS. They have been isolated from fermentation broths of Streptomyces mediterranei.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Colitis: Inflammation of the COLON section of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE), usually with symptoms such as DIARRHEA (often with blood and mucus), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and FEVER.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.BangladeshClostridium symbiosum: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. Its GLUTAMATE DEHYDROGENASE is commonly used in research.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Lethal Dose 50: The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.Botulinum Toxins, Type A: A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Bifidobacterium: A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.Microsporidiosis: Infections with FUNGI of the phylum MICROSPORIDIA.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Isosporiasis: Infection with parasitic protozoa of the genus ISOSPORA, producing intestinal disease. It is caused by ingestion of oocysts and can produce tissue cysts.Camptothecin: An alkaloid isolated from the stem wood of the Chinese tree, Camptotheca acuminata. This compound selectively inhibits the nuclear enzyme DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE I. Several semisynthetic analogs of camptothecin have demonstrated antitumor activity.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Horse Diseases: Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Peptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of the mouth, upper respiratory tract, and large intestine in humans. Its organisms cause infections of soft tissues and bacteremias.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Food Packaging: Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Glycoside HydrolasesPestivirus Infections: Infections with viruses of the genus PESTIVIRUS, family FLAVIVIRIDAE.Norovirus: A genus in the family CALICIVIRIDAE, associated with epidemic GASTROENTERITIS in humans. The type species, NORWALK VIRUS, contains multiple strains.Claudin-4: A claudin subtype that takes part in maintaining the barrier-forming property of TIGHT JUNCTIONS. Claudin-4 is found associated with CLAUDIN-8 in the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT where it may play a role in paracellular chloride ion reabsorption.Caliciviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by CALICIVIRIDAE. They include HEPATITIS E; VESICULAR EXANTHEMA OF SWINE; acute respiratory infections in felines, rabbit hemorrhagic disease, and some cases of gastroenteritis in humans.Digestive System: A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Cholera: An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Cyclospora: A genus of coccidian parasites in the family EIMERIIDAE. Cyclospora cayetanensis is pathogenic in humans, probably transmitted via the fecal-oral route, and causes nausea and diarrhea.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Campylobacter Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CAMPYLOBACTER.Cellulose 1,4-beta-Cellobiosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE and cellotetraose. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing ends of beta-D-glucosides with release of CELLOBIOSE.Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases: Enzymes which catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in XYLANS.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Caco-2 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.Type C Phospholipases: A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 3.1.4.3), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.Metagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Dehydration: The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Multienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Xylans: Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.Fusobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of humans and other animals. No endospores are formed. Some species are pathogenic and occur in various purulent or gangrenous infections.Coenzyme A-Transferases: Enzymes which transfer coenzyme A moieties from acyl- or acetyl-CoA to various carboxylic acceptors forming a thiol ester. Enzymes in this group are instrumental in ketone body metabolism and utilization of acetoacetate in mitochondria. EC 2.8.3.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD)[edit]. Tolevamer was designed to bind the enterotoxins rather than attack ... In early 2008, a noninferiority study versus vancomycin or metronidazole for Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) ... sulfonate was investigated by Genzyme as a toxin binding agent for the treatment of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea ... Medscape.com: Tolevamer Less Effective Than Standard Therapies for C difficile-Associated Diarrhea ...
... is also useful in treating post-vagotomy diarrhea. Colestyramine can be helpful in the treatment of Clostridium ... idiopathic form of bile acid diarrhea is a common cause of chronic functional diarrhea, often misdiagnosed as diarrhea- ... Postcholecystectomy diarrhea: what relieves it?". J Fam Pract. 60 (10): 632c-d. PMID 21977493. George, J. D.; Magowan, J. (1971 ... When this section is removed, the bile acids pass into the large bowel and cause diarrhea due to stimulation of chloride/fluid ...
Side effects include nausea, diarrhea, and allergic reactions including anaphylaxis. Clostridium difficile diarrhea may also ...
... in 25 years approved to treat certain types of diarrhea (i.e., Clostridium difficile induced diarrhea) in adults. But sales of ...
Clostridium difficile is a nosocomial pathogen that causes diarrheal disease worldwide. Diarrhea caused by C. difficile can be ... Gerding DN, Johnson S, Peterson LR, Mulligan ME, Silva J (1995). "Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea and colitis". ... Gifford AH, Kirkland KB (December 2006). "Risk factors for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea on an adult hematology- ... "Epidemics of diarrhea caused by a clindamycin-resistant strain of Clostridium difficile in four hospitals". New England Journal ...
Nelson RL, Suda KJ, Evans CT (March 2017). "Antibiotic treatment for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea in adults". The ... placebo-controlled pilot study to assess the ability of rifaximin to prevent recurrent diarrhoea in patients with Clostridium ... "Interruption of recurrent Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea episodes by serial therapy with vancomycin and rifaximin". ... Rifaximin is active against Clostridium difficile.[6] Interactions[edit]. Rifaximin is not significantly absorbed from the gut ...
Other side effects may include Clostridium difficile diarrhea. It is not recommended in people who have had previous ... Gastrointestinal symptoms, including diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain, were reported in fewer than 2% of patients ...
For the treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD), the drug won an FDA advisory panel's unanimous approval ... Nordqvist, Christian (27 May 2011). "Dificid (fidaxomicin) approved for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea". Medical ... Louie, T. J.; Emery, J.; Krulicki, W.; Byrne, B.; Mah, M. (2008). "OPT-80 Eliminates Clostridium difficile and is Sparing of ... The target use is for treatment of Clostridium difficile infection. Fidaxomicin is available in a 200 mg tablet that is ...
Thomas C, Stevenson M, Riley TV (June 2003). "Antibiotics and hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea: a ... Wells CL, Wilkins TD (1996). "Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea, Pseudomembranous Colitis, and Clostridium difficile". In Baron S ... After necropsy, Clostridium cadaveris was present, and is proposed as another possible causative agent in some cases of fatal ... Clostridium difficile toxins isolated in the horse have a genotype like the current human "epidemic strain", which is ...
Toxigenic Clostridium difficile is an important cause of diarrhea that occurs more often in the elderly.[17] Infants can carry ... The most common organisms are Campylobacter, Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringens, and Salmonella.[86] A large number ... diarrhea. DNA virus. Adenovirus Adenovirus infection. RNA virus. Rotavirus. Norovirus. Astrovirus. Coronavirus. ... these drugs are discouraged in people with bloody diarrhea or diarrhea that is complicated by fever.[75] Loperamide, an opioid ...
The most common side effects to be expected in ten percent of users are diarrhea and rash. Less common side effects can be ... Serious side effects may include Clostridium difficile colitis or anaphylaxis. While usable in those with kidney problems, the ... Common side effects include rash, nausea, and diarrhea. It should not be used in people who are allergic to penicillin. ...
Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, rash, and diarrhea. Severe allergic reactions and Clostridium difficile diarrhea ... It is used for urinary tract infections, MRSA skin infections, travelers' diarrhea, respiratory tract infections, and cholera, ...
Clostridium species are a potential cause of diarrhea in dogs. Associated species include C. perfringens and C. difficile. ... Signs include diarrhea, vomiting, and weight loss. Tapeworms* are also common and in the dog are usually Dipylidium caninum, ... Signs include vomiting, diarrhea, and weight loss. Treatment is with dietary modification and use of medications such as ... There are usually no symptoms, but diarrhea and weight loss may occur. Leishmaniasis* is spread by the sandfly, and in the dog ...
Starr J (2005). "Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea: diagnosis and treatment". BMJ. 331 (7515): 498-501. doi:10.1136/ ... Thomas C, Stevenson M, Riley TV (2003). "Antibiotics and hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea: a ... Overgrowth of Clostridium difficile, which is inherently resistant to clindamycin, results in the production of a toxin that ... Common side effects include nausea, diarrhea, rash, and pain at the site of injection. It increases the risk of hospital- ...
Serious side effects may include allergic reactions and Clostridium difficile diarrhea. It is not recommended in people with a ... Adverse drug reactions include diarrhea, dyspepsia, nausea and vomiting. Hypersensitivity reactions like skin rashes, urticaria ... Common side effects include diarrhea, abdominal pain, and nausea. ...
Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea is a serious adverse effect of ciprofloxacin and other fluoroquinolones; it is ... Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and rash.[2] Ciprofloxacin increases the risk of tendon rupture and ... Clostridium innocuum and Enterococcus faecium strains have developed resistance to ciprofloxacin to varying degrees.[41] ... diarrhea (1.6%), abnormal liver function tests (1.3%), vomiting (1%), and rash (1%). Other adverse events occurred at rates of ...
"Antimotility Agents for the Treatment of Clostridium difficile Diarrhea and Colitis" (PDF). CID 2009:48. Woo Kyun Bae; Youn ... Traveler's diarrhea Infectious diarrhea Hoonmo L. Koo; Diana C. Koo; Daniel M. Musher; Herbert L. DuPont. " ... In diarrhea caused by invasive pathogens such as Salmonella, Shigella, and Campylobacter, the use of such agents has generally ... Antimotility agents are drugs used to alleviate the symptoms of diarrhea. These include loperamide (Imodium), diphenoxylate ...
Allergic reactions or infections with Clostridium difficile, a cause of diarrhea, are also possible. Use during pregnancy or ... Gastrointestinal disturbances include nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, diarrhea being most common. Hypersensitivity reactions ... Pseudomembranous colitis and Clostridium difficile have been reported with use of cefalexin. Signs and symptoms of an allergic ... Common side effects include stomach upset and diarrhea. ...
The most common adverse reaction is diarrhea (7-11%). One other side effect is inhibition of platelets (thrombocytopenia). ... Serious side effects include Clostridium difficile infection and allergic reactions including anaphylaxis. Those who are ... Common side effects include headache, trouble sleeping, rash, nausea, constipation, and diarrhea. ...
Serious side effects may include liver problems or Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea. It is unclear if use during ...
Of the most common are Chlamydia infection, Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD), and tuberculosis (TB). Using ... Chlamydia infection Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea Trachoma Tuberculosis Leprosy Buruli ulcer "Rifalazil - 129791-92 ... "Rifalazil Treats and Prevents Relapse of Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrhea in Hamsters". Antimicrobial Agents and ...
Common side effects include nausea, diarrhea, and pain at the site of injection. Other side effects may include Clostridium ... The most common side effects of imipenem are diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, skin rash, pruritus, and injection-site reactions. ... Diarrhea Rash Fever Facial swelling Difficulty breathing Unusual bleeding Seizures This medicine is passed through breast milk ... difficile diarrhea and allergic reactions including anaphylaxis. It is unclear if use during pregnancy is safe for the baby. ...
1998). "Clostridium-difficile-associated diarrhea treated with homologous feces". Tidsskr nor Laegeforen. 118 (7): 1027-1030. ... Tvede M, Rask-Madsen J (1989). "Bacteriotherapy for chronic relapsing Clostridium difficile diarrhoea in six patients". Lancet ... Persky SE, Brandt LJ (2000). "Treatment of recurrent Clostridium-difficile-associated diarrhea by administration of donated ... 2008). "Decreased diversity of the fecal microbiome in recurrent Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea". J Infect Dis. 197 ...
In cases where diarrhoea is present, replenishing fluids lost is recommended, and in cases with prolonged or severe diarrhoea ... Other less common pathogens include Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium difficile and Staphylococcus aureus. ... This makes it the most common cause of severe childhood diarrhoea and diarrhea-related deaths in the world. It selectively ... The net result of these changes is induced diarrhoea. Enteritis necroticans is an often fatal illness, caused by β-toxin of ...
Metronidazole is usually given to people who have diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile bacteria. C. difficile is one of the ... most common microorganisms that cause diarrhea and can lead to complications such as colon inflammation and even more severely ...
Itchiness, swelling of the tongue, vomiting, diarrhea, hives, trouble breathing, low blood pressure[1]. ... Clostridium perfringens. *Escherichia coli O104:H4. *Escherichia coli O157:H7. *Hepatitis A ... diarrhea, hives, trouble breathing, or low blood pressure.[1] This typically occurs within minutes to several hours of exposure ... but can present solely with abdominal pain and occasional diarrhea. ...
... diarrhea and inappetence in pigs of all ages. Mortality in young piglets is generally less common than in transmissible ... Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a highly contagious disease characterized by vomiting, ... absence of agent, villous atrophy) clostridia, cryptosporidia and coccidia (no blood or necrosis of the small intestinal ... Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus outbreak reported in Iowa. Progress fighting Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus topic at World ...
... is metronidazole prescribed for.metronidazole and side effects.acute metronidazole allergies.canine diarrhea clostridium ... metronidazole mites.metronidazole in cat.cats metronidazole diarrhea.metrogel metronidazole gel.canine metronidazole dosing. ...
Clostridium difficile is the leading infectious cause of nosocomial diarrhea.[1] There has been an increase in the incidence of ... Refractory Clostridium difficile-associated Diarrhea. Shilpa Grover, MD; Matthew J. Hamilton , MD; David L. Carr-Locke MD, FRCP ... The patients diarrhea persisted, now 3 weeks after initiation of treatment. She began to develop worsening pulmonary edema and ... Treatment with oral metronidazole was initiated; however, her diarrhea persisted after 6 days of treatment and she was admitted ...
Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea is the most common cause of antibiotic associated diarrhoea in hospital ... Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea is a serious condition with a mortality of up to 25% in frail elderly people.1 It ... Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in a region of Quebec from 1991 to 2003: a changing pattern of disease severity. CMAJ ... Clostridium difficile pilot study: effects of probiotic supplementation on the incidence of C difficile diarrhoea. Int ...
OBJECTIVE: Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea is a major problem in adults. The present study was conducted to assess ... Clostridium Difficile-Associated Diarrhea in 200 Canadian Children. Véronique Morinville1 and Jane McDonald2 ... RESULTS: Two hundred patients with a diagnosis of C difficile-associated diarrhea were identified between February 2000 and ... The symptoms of C difficile-associated diarrhea included bloody stools in 12.5% and frequent watery stools in 79%. ...
Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea: current strategies for diagnosis and therapy.. Moyenuddin M1, Williamson JC, Ohl CA. ... Clostridium difficile, a spore-forming toxigenic bacterium, is one of the most common causes of infectious diarrhea and colitis ... If the first assay is negative and C. difficile-associated diarrhea is strongly suspected, a second assay may be performed. Ten ... Clinical presentation varies from asymptomatic colonization to mild diarrhea to severe colitis. The mainstay of diagnosis is ...
Chronic diarrhea, bile acids, and Clostridia Julian R.F. Walters1,2 and Julian R. Marchesi1,3 1Division of Digestive Diseases, ... This BA diarrhea (BAD) results from increased hepatic synthesis of BAs, with impaired negative feedback regulation by the ileal ... They identified associations between fecal bacterial BA metabolism and specific microbiota, especially Clostridium scindens. ... loss causes symptoms in a large proportion of people diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea, a common functional ...
Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea is the most common cause of health-care-associated diarrhea resulting in a spectrum ... Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea (CDAD) is the most common cause of healthcare-associated diarrhoea and results in a ... Univariate and multivariate analysis of risk factors for severe clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea: Importance of co- ... What is the risk factor for severe clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea?. World Journal of Gastroenterology ...
Five cases of diarrhoea caused by C. perfringens serotype 41 occurred during a 9-week period, an … ... Enterotoxigenic strains of Clostridium perfringens have recently been implicated in some cases of antibiotic-associated ... diarrhoea. We present here the results of an epidemiological study of this disease. ... Epidemiology of Diarrhoea Caused by Enterotoxigenic Clostridium Perfringens J Med Microbiol. 1985 Dec;20(3):363-72. doi: ...
Microbiota Restoration Therapy for Recurrent Clostridium Difficile-associated Diarrhea. Official Title ICMJE A Phase 2 Open- ... Microbiota Restoration Therapy for Recurrent Clostridium Difficile-associated Diarrhea (PUNCH CD). This study has been ... as a treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD), which is the primary symptom of recurrent ... Duodenal infusion of donor feces for recurrent Clostridium difficile. N Engl J Med. 2013 Jan 31;368(5):407-15. doi: 10.1056/ ...
Clostridium difficile is the bacteria most often associated with outbreaks of diarrhea and colitis in hospital patients. The C ... Clostridium Difficile (C. Diff): Antibiotic Associated Diarrhea What is it? ... Clostridium Difficile (C. Diff): Antibiotic Associated Diarrhea. Ver en español Clostridium Difficile (C. Diff): Antibiotic ... Clostridium difficile is the bacteria most often associated with outbreaks of diarrhea and colitis in hospital patients. The C ...
New life-saving treatments for Vaccines Clostridium Difficile-associated Diarrhea in clinical trial on Clostridium difficle ... Learn about a study of an investigational vaccine for people who may be at risk of Clostridium difficile (C. diff). ... C. diff can cause frequent diarrhea, abdominal pain, and inflammation of the colon which, when severe, can be life threatening. ...
A hospital outbreak of diarrhea due to an emerging epidemic strain of Clostridium difficile.. Kazakova SV1, Ware K, Baughman B ... Increased Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) in a hospital and an affiliated long-term care facility continued ...
Learn more about the Clostridium Difficile-Associated Diarrhea Treatment with Fidaxomicin - Phase IIa clinical study at ... Clostridium Difficile-Associated Diarrhea Treatment with Fidaxomicin - Phase IIa. Study to Determine the Safety, Tolerability ... Clostridium Difficile-Associated Diarrhea Treatment with Fidaxomicin - Phase IIa. *Influenza Treatment in Immunocompromised ... Pharmacokinetics of Fidaxomicin Oral Suspension or Tablets in Pediatric Subjects with Clostridium Difficile-associated Diarrhea ...
I enjoyed reading Kyne and Kellys therapy update concerning treatments for recurrent Clostridium difficile diarrhoea (Gut 2001 ... Association between antibody response to toxin A and protection against recurrent Clostridium difficile diarrhoea. Lancet2001; ... C difficile diarrhoea recurred after two separate courses of metronidazole and a further week of vancomycin. Diarrhoea resolved ... Diarrhoea recurred after initial courses of metronidazole and vancomycin. Diarrhoea resolved with two infusions of ...
Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a bacterium that can cause diarrhea that does not improve.1 Symptoms include watery ... A hospital outbreak of diarrhea due to an emerging epidemic strain of Clostridium difficile. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(22):2518 ... Seek immediate care if you use PPIs and develop diarrhea that does not improve. This may be a sign of Clostridium difficile- ... Proton pump inhibitor therapy is a risk factor for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2006;24( ...
... and Healthcare Burden of Nosocomial Clostridium Difficile-Associated Diarrhea in Canadian Hospitals - Volume 23 Issue 3 - Mark ... Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea and length of hospital stay. J Hosp Infect 1995;31:241-244. ... Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea and colitis. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1995;16:459-477. ... Nosocomial Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in Canada: the results of the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance ...
A Study of CB-183,315 in Patients With Clostridium Difficile Associated Diarrhea. The safety and scientific validity of this ...
Efficacy and Safety of Cadazolid Versus Vancomycin in Subjects With Clostridium Difficile - Associated Diarrhea. The safety and ... Resolution of Diarrhea (... Description Resolution of Diarrhea (ROD) is defined as no more than 3 unformed bowel movements per ... Subjects with Clostridium difficile... Subjects with CDAD received oral va... Arm/Group Description Subjects with Clostridium ... No additional antimicrobial treatment active against Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) or fecal microbiota ...
A Clostridia-rich microbiota enhances bile acid excretion in diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. ... A Clostridia-rich microbiota enhances bile acid excretion in diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. ... Inhibition of Clostridium species with vancomycin yielded opposite results. Clostridia-derived BAs suppressed the intestinal ... Furthermore, colonization with Clostridia-rich IBS-D fecal microbiota or C. scindens individually enhanced serum C4 and hepatic ...
Review title/source: Probiotics for the prevention of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in adults and children. ... such as Clostridium difficile, can then colonize and contribute to a range of symptoms such as diarrhea. Probiotics are ... objectives were to evaluate the safety and efficacy of probiotics for preventing Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea ( ... Probiotics for the Prevention of Clostridium difficile-associated Diarrhea A recent systematic review article, which included ...
... treatment and outcomes associated with Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea in a Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Fifty- ... Mody, L.R., Smith, S.M. and Dever, L.L. (2001) Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrhea in a VA Medical Center: Clustering of ... Gifford, A.H. and Kirkland, K.B. (2006) Risk Factors for Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrhea on an Adult Hematology- ... Characteristics, Treatment, and Outcomes Associated with Clostridium difficile Associated Diarrhea in a Veterans Affairs ...
An electron microscopic investigation was performed on 28 Clostridium difficile strains isolated from 15 antibiotic-associated ... diarrhea cases and from 13 healthy infants. Through the use of supernatants of the cultures induced by mitomycin C (1 or 3 ... Electron microscopic investigation of lysogeny of Clostridium difficile strains isolated from antibiotic-associated diarrhea ... microscopic investigation was performed on 28 Clostridium difficile strains isolated from 15 antibiotic-associated diarrhea ...
Probiotics for the Prevention of Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrhea Probiotics for the Prevention of Clostridium ... Probiotics for the Prevention of Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrhea. Ann Intern Med. 2013;158:706. doi: 10.7326/0003- ... Probiotics for the Prevention of Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrhea: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis ... Probiotics for the Prevention of Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrhea David Louis Keller, MD, MS ...
  • Epithelial cells at the tips and sides of the villi are infected and can shed virus without being destroyed, but, by the onset of diarrhea, epithelial cell shedding has already begun. (wattagnet.com)
  • They identified associations between fecal bacterial BA metabolism and specific microbiota, especially Clostridium scindens. (jci.org)
  • In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the Clostridia-rich microbiota contributes to excessive BA excretion in IBS-D patients, which provides a mechanistic hypothesis with testable clinical implications. (jci.org)
  • Culture-independent high-density Roche 454 pyrosequencing was used to survey the distal gut microbiota for 39 individuals with CDI, 36 subjects with C. difficile -negative nosocomial diarrhea (CDN), and 40 healthy control subjects. (asm.org)
  • Eight weeks after this antibiotic treatment, while at a rehabilitation center, frequent watery diarrhea developed, with approximately 15 watery bowel movements per day mixed with blood. (medscape.com)
  • In July 2009, the owner of a 1,500-sow, farrow-to-finish farm that farrows weekly and has offsite nursery and finishers reported that 20% of the litters were experiencing a watery diarrhea at 1-2 days of age across all sow parities. (nationalhogfarmer.com)
  • In children, the most prevalent symptom of a CDI is watery diarrhea with at least three bowel movements a day for two or more days, which may be accompanied by fever, loss of appetite, nausea, and/or abdominal pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The overall goal of this study, which will be carried out as part of a medical doctoral (M.D.) thesis, is to investigate the occurrence of C. difficile in symptomatic patients with diarrhoea, in healthy controls and in selected animals in Bamako, Mali. (sareco.org)