Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Diarrhea, Infantile: DIARRHEA occurring in infants from newborn to 24-months old.Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine Viral: A group of viruses in the genus PESTIVIRUS, causing diarrhea, fever, oral ulcerations, hemorrhagic syndrome, and various necrotic lesions among cattle and other domestic animals. The two species (genotypes), BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 , exhibit antigenic and pathological differences. The historical designation, BVDV, consisted of both (then unrecognized) genotypes.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Bovine Virus Diarrhea-Mucosal Disease: Acute disease of cattle caused by the bovine viral diarrhea viruses (DIARRHEA VIRUSES, BOVINE VIRAL). Often mouth ulcerations are the only sign but fever, diarrhea, drop in milk yield, and loss of appetite are also seen. Severity of clinical disease varies and is strain dependent. Outbreaks are characterized by low morbidity and high mortality.Diarrhea Virus 1, Bovine Viral: A species of PESTIVIRUS causing systemic infections (BOVINE VIRUS DIARRHEA-MUCOSAL DISEASE) in cattle and some other cloven-hoofed animals. There are several strains and two biotypes: cytopathic (rare) and non-cytopathic. Infections range from clinically inapparent to severe, but do not correlate with biotypes.Antidiarrheals: Miscellaneous agents found useful in the symptomatic treatment of diarrhea. They have no effect on the agent(s) that cause diarrhea, but merely alleviate the condition.Diarrhea Virus 2, Bovine Viral: A species of PESTIVIRUS causing systemic infections including BOVINE VIRUS DIARRHEA-MUCOSAL DISEASE and BOVINE HEMORRHAGIC SYNDROME in cattle and some other cloven-hoofed animals. There are several strains and two biotypes: cytopathic (rare) and non-cytopathic. The severity of disease appears to be strain dependent. Cytopathogenic effects do not correlate with virulence as non-cytopathic BVDV-2 is associated only with Hemorrhagic Disease, Bovine.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Dysentery: Acute inflammation of the intestine associated with infectious DIARRHEA of various etiologies, generally acquired by eating contaminated food containing TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL derived from BACTERIA or other microorganisms. Dysentery is characterized initially by watery FECES then by bloody mucoid stools. It is often associated with ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and DEHYDRATION.Clostridium difficile: A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.Loperamide: One of the long-acting synthetic ANTIDIARRHEALS; it is not significantly absorbed from the gut, and has no effect on the adrenergic system or central nervous system, but may antagonize histamine and interfere with acetylcholine release locally.Pestivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE, also known as mucosal disease virus group, which is not arthropod-borne. Transmission is by direct and indirect contact, and by transplacental and congenital transmission. Species include BORDER DISEASE VIRUS, bovine viral diarrhea virus (DIARRHEA VIRUS, BOVINE VIRAL), and CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing acute enteritis in swine. Infections have been seen mostly in Europe, where it is endemic, and in China.Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI that produce or contain at least one member of either heat-labile or heat-stable ENTEROTOXINS. The organisms colonize the mucosal surface of the small intestine and elaborate their enterotoxins causing DIARRHEA. They are mainly associated with tropical and developing countries and affect susceptible travelers to those places.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Enterotoxins: Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.Gastroenteritis: INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.Cryptosporidiosis: Intestinal infection with organisms of the genus CRYPTOSPORIDIUM. It occurs in both animals and humans. Symptoms include severe DIARRHEA.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Mamastrovirus: A genus of small, circular RNA viruses in the family ASTROVIRIDAE. They cause GASTROENTERITIS and are found in the stools of several vertebrates including humans. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route and there are at least eight human serotypes. The type species is Human astrovirus.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Clostridium Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM.Astroviridae Infections: Infections with ASTROVIRUS, causing gastroenteritis in human infants, calves, lambs, and piglets.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Dysentery, Bacillary: DYSENTERY caused by gram-negative rod-shaped enteric bacteria (ENTEROBACTERIACEAE), most often by the genus SHIGELLA. Shigella dysentery, Shigellosis, is classified into subgroups according to syndrome severity and the infectious species. Group A: SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE (severest); Group B: SHIGELLA FLEXNERI; Group C: SHIGELLA BOYDII; and Group D: SHIGELLA SONNEI (mildest).Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Shigella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that ferments sugar without gas production. Its organisms are intestinal pathogens of man and other primates and cause bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).Cryptosporidium: A genus of coccidian parasites of the family CRYPTOSPORIDIIDAE, found in the intestinal epithelium of many vertebrates including humans.Fluid Therapy: Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.Rehydration Solutions: Fluids restored to the body in order to maintain normal water-electrolyte balance.BangladeshEnteritis: Inflammation of any segment of the SMALL INTESTINE.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Microsporidiosis: Infections with FUNGI of the phylum MICROSPORIDIA.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Isosporiasis: Infection with parasitic protozoa of the genus ISOSPORA, producing intestinal disease. It is caused by ingestion of oocysts and can produce tissue cysts.Camptothecin: An alkaloid isolated from the stem wood of the Chinese tree, Camptotheca acuminata. This compound selectively inhibits the nuclear enzyme DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE I. Several semisynthetic analogs of camptothecin have demonstrated antitumor activity.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Pestivirus Infections: Infections with viruses of the genus PESTIVIRUS, family FLAVIVIRIDAE.Caliciviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by CALICIVIRIDAE. They include HEPATITIS E; VESICULAR EXANTHEMA OF SWINE; acute respiratory infections in felines, rabbit hemorrhagic disease, and some cases of gastroenteritis in humans.Intestinal Diseases: Pathological processes in any segment of the INTESTINE from DUODENUM to RECTUM.Cholera: An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.Cyclospora: A genus of coccidian parasites in the family EIMERIIDAE. Cyclospora cayetanensis is pathogenic in humans, probably transmitted via the fecal-oral route, and causes nausea and diarrhea.Campylobacter Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CAMPYLOBACTER.Dehydration: The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Probiotics: Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Gastrointestinal Diseases: Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Colitis, Microscopic: A condition characterized by chronic watery DIARRHEA of unknown origin, a normal COLONOSCOPY but abnormal histopathology on BIOPSY. This syndrome was first described in 1980 by Read and associates. Subtypes include COLLAGENOUS COLITIS and LYMPHOCYTIC COLITIS. Both have similar clinical symptoms and are distinguishable only by histology.Norovirus: A genus in the family CALICIVIRIDAE, associated with epidemic GASTROENTERITIS in humans. The type species, NORWALK VIRUS, contains multiple strains.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Giardiasis: An infection of the SMALL INTESTINE caused by the flagellated protozoan GIARDIA LAMBLIA. It is spread via contaminated food and water and by direct person-to-person contact.Cyclosporiasis: Infection with parasitic protozoa of the genus CYCLOSPORA. It is distributed globally and causes a diarrheal illness. Transmission is waterborne.MexicoProtozoan Infections: Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.Germ-Free Life: Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.Rotavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.Giardia lamblia: A species of parasitic EUKARYOTES that attaches itself to the intestinal mucosa and feeds on mucous secretions. The organism is roughly pear-shaped and motility is somewhat erratic, with a slow oscillation about the long axis.GuatemalaIntestinal Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.Colostrum: The thin, yellow, serous fluid secreted by the mammary glands during pregnancy and immediately postpartum before lactation begins. It consists of immunologically active substances, white blood cells, water, protein, fat, and carbohydrates.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Torovirus: A genus of the family CORONAVIRIDAE characterized by enveloped, peplomer-bearing particles containing an elongated tubular nucleocapsid with helical symmetry. Toroviruses have been found in association with enteric infections in horses (Berne virus), cattle (Breda virus), swine, and humans. Transmission probably takes place via the fecal-oral route.Malabsorption Syndromes: General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.Vomiting: The forcible expulsion of the contents of the STOMACH through the MOUTH.Ileum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.Caliciviridae: A family of RNA viruses infecting a broad range of animals. Most individual species are restricted to their natural hosts. They possess a characteristic six-pointed starlike shape whose surfaces have cup-shaped (chalice) indentions. Transmission is by contaminated food, water, fomites, and occasionally aerosolization of secretions. Genera include LAGOVIRUS; NORWALK-LIKE VIRUSES; SAPPORO-LIKE VIRUSES; and VESIVIRUS.Coronavirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by the CORONAVIRUS genus. Some specifics include transmissible enteritis of turkeys (ENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF TURKEYS); FELINE INFECTIOUS PERITONITIS; and transmissible gastroenteritis of swine (GASTROENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF SWINE).Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Torovirus Infections: Infections with viruses of the genus TOROVIRUS, family CORONAVIRIDAE.Vibrio cholerae: The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.Coccidia: A subclass of protozoans commonly parasitic in the epithelial cells of the intestinal tract but also found in the liver and other organs. Its organisms are found in both vertebrates and higher invertebrates and comprise two orders: EIMERIIDA and EUCOCCIDIIDA.Aeromonas: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs singly, in pairs, or in short chains. Its organisms are found in fresh water and sewage and are pathogenic to humans, frogs, and fish.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Dysentery, Amebic: DYSENTERY caused by intestinal amebic infection, chiefly with ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA. This condition may be associated with amebic infection of the LIVER and other distant sites.Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli: Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI characterized by attaching-and-effacing histopathology. These strains of bacteria intimately adhere to the epithelial cell membrane and show effacement of microvilli. In developed countries they are associated with INFANTILE DIARRHEA and infantile GASTROENTERITIS and, in contrast to ETEC strains, do not produce ENDOTOXINS.Enterocytozoon: A genus of parasitic FUNGI in the family Enterocytozoonidae, which infects humans. Enterocytozoon bieneusi has been found in the intestines of patients with AIDS.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Colitis, Lymphocytic: A subtype of MICROSCOPIC COLITIS, characterized by chronic watery DIARRHEA of unknown origin, a normal COLONOSCOPY but abnormal histopathology on BIOPSY. Microscopic examination of biopsy samples taken from the COLON show infiltration of LYMPHOCYTES in the superficial EPITHELIUM and the underlying connective tissue (lamina propria).Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Coccidiosis: Protozoan infection found in animals and man. It is caused by several different genera of COCCIDIA.Sanitation: The development and establishment of environmental conditions favorable to the health of the public.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Colitis: Inflammation of the COLON section of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE), usually with symptoms such as DIARRHEA (often with blood and mucus), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and FEVER.Colitis, Collagenous: A subtype of MICROSCOPIC COLITIS, characterized by chronic watery DIARRHEA of unknown origin, a normal COLONOSCOPY but abnormal histopathology on BIOPSY. Microscopic examination of biopsy samples taken from the COLON show larger-than-normal band of subepithelial COLLAGEN.Egypt: A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Camelids, New World: Ruminant mammals of South America. They are related to camels.Campylobacter: A genus of bacteria found in the reproductive organs, intestinal tract, and oral cavity of animals and man. Some species are pathogenic.Maximum Tolerated Dose: The highest dose of a biologically active agent given during a chronic study that will not reduce longevity from effects other than carcinogenicity. (from Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Animals, Suckling: Young, unweaned mammals. Refers to nursing animals whether nourished by their biological mother, foster mother, or bottle fed.Coronavirus, Bovine: A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting neonatal calves, presenting as acute diarrhea, and frequently leading to death.Jejunum: The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.Parasitic Diseases: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.Zinc Sulfate: A compound given in the treatment of conditions associated with zinc deficiency such as acrodermatitis enteropathica. Externally, zinc sulfate is used as an astringent in lotions and eye drops. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Microsporida: An order of parasitic FUNGI found mostly in ARTHROPODS; FISHES; and in some VERTEBRATES including humans. It comprises two suborders: Pansporoblastina and APANSPOROBLASTINA.

A case of canine salmonellosis due to Salmonella infantis. (1/6219)

A 7-year-old male dog kept outdoors manifested severe watery diarrhea with generalized weakness. Salmonella Infantis was isolated from a fecal sample and the dog recovered soon after medication with ampicillin, to which the isolate was highly sensitive. The present case was diagnosed as S. Infantis infection. Due to the importance of Salmonella in public health, soil samples were collected from the garden where the dog was kept and were examined for Salmonella, Some of them were positive for S. Infantis, however, no Salmonella was isolated from any soil samples collected after thorough disinfection of the surrounded environment.  (+info)

High turnover rate of Escherichia coli strains in the intestinal flora of infants in Pakistan. (2/6219)

The Escherichia coli flora of infants in developed countries is dominated by one or a few strains which persist for prolonged periods of time, but no longitudinal studies have been performed in developing countries. To this end, we studied the rectal enterobacterial flora in 22 home-delivered Pakistani infants during their first 6 months of life. Three colonies were isolated and species typed on each of 11 sampling occasions. E. coli isolates were strain typed using electromorphic typing of cytoplasmic enzymes, and their O serogroups were determined. There was a very rapid turnover of enterobacterial strains in the rectal flora of individual infants. On average, 8.5 different E. coli strains were found per infant, and several biotypes of other enterobacteria. Less than 50% of the infants were colonized with E. coli from their mothers, but strains of maternal origin were four times more likely to persists in the infants' flora than other E. coli strains. Enterobacteria other than E. coli were always of non-maternal origin, and Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella pneumoniae biotypes recovered from contaminated feeds were later identified in the infants' rectal flora. An early colonization with klebsiella or enterobacter was significantly associated with diarrhoea during the neonatal period, although these bacteria were not likely to be the cause of the disease. The results suggest that poor hygienic conditions result in an unstable and diverse enterobacterial flora, which may influence infant health.  (+info)

In vitro activities of cephalosporins and quinolones against Escherichia coli strains isolated from diarrheic dairy calves. (3/6219)

The in vitro activities of several cephalosporins and quinolones against 195 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from diary calves affected by neonatal diarrhea were determined. One hundred thirty-seven of these strains produced one or more potential virulence factors (F5, F41, F17, cytotoxic necrotizing factor, verotoxin, and the eae gene), but the remaining 58 strains did not produce any of these factors. From 11 to 18% of the E. coli strains were resistant to cephalothin, nalidixic acid, enoxacin, and enrofloxacin. However, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, and cefquinome were highly effective against the E. coli isolates tested. Some significant differences (P < 0.05) in resistance to quinolones between the strains producing potential virulence factors and nonfimbriated, nontoxigenic, eae-negative strains were found. Thus, eae-positive, necrotoxigenic, and verotoxigenic (except for nalidixic acid) E. coli strains were significantly more sensitive to nalidixic acid, enoxacin, and enrofloxacin than nonfimbriated, nontoxigenic, eae-negative strains. Moreover, eae-positive strains were significantly more sensitive to enoxacin and enrofloxacin than F5-positive strains. Thus, the result of this study suggest that the bovine E. coli strains that produce some potential virulence factors are more sensitive to quinolones than those that do not express these factors.  (+info)

A high-Mr glycoprotein fraction from cow's milk potent in inhibiting replication of human rotavirus in vitro. (4/6219)

Rotavirus is the major cause of infectious diarrhea in infants and young children all over the world. We have found that a high-M(r) glycoprotein fraction from cow's milk is potent in inhibiting replication of human rotaviruses in vitro. Since the activity seems to be unique and specific, this fraction may be useful as a novel agent for treatment or prevention of rotavirus diarrhea.  (+info)

Cryptosporidium, enterocytozoon, and cyclospora infections in pediatric and adult patients with diarrhea in Tanzania. (5/6219)

Cryptosporidiosis, microsporidiosis, and cyclosporiasis were studied in four groups of Tanzanian inpatients: adults with AIDS-associated diarrhea, children with chronic diarrhea (of whom 23 of 59 were positive [+] for human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]), children with acute diarrhea (of whom 15 of 55 were HIV+), and HIV control children without diarrhea. Cryptosporidium was identified in specimens from 6/86 adults, 5/59 children with chronic diarrhea (3/5, HIV+), 7/55 children with acute diarrhea (0/7, HIV+), and 0/20 control children. Among children with acute diarrhea, 7/7 with cryptosporidiosis were malnourished, compared with 10/48 without cryptosporidiosis (P < .01). Enterocytozoon was identified in specimens from 3/86 adults, 2/59 children with chronic diarrhea (1 HIV+), 0/55 children with acute diarrhea, and 4/20 control children. All four controls were underweight (P < .01). Cyclospora was identified in specimens from one adult and one child with acute diarrhea (HIV-). Thus, Cryptosporidium was the most frequent and Cyclospora the least frequent pathogen identified. Cryptosporidium and Enterocytozoon were associated with malnutrition. Asymptomatic fecal shedding of Enterocytozoon in otherwise healthy, HIV children has not been described previously.  (+info)

Rotavirus G-type restriction, persistence, and herd type specificity in Swedish cattle herds. (6/6219)

G-typing of rotavirus strains enables the study of molecular epidemiology and gathering of information to promote disease prevention and control. Rotavirus strains in fecal specimens from neonatal calves in Swedish cattle herds were therefore characterized by using G1 to -4-, G6-, G8-, and G10-specific primers in reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. Fecal samples were collected from one dairy herd (herd A) for 4 consecutive years and from 41 beef and dairy herds (herd B) experiencing calf diarrhea outbreaks. Altogether, 1, 700 samples were analyzed by group A rotavirus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and 98 rotavirus-positive specimens were selected for G-typing by RT-PCR. The effect of herd type, time, geographic region, and clinical symptoms on the G-type distribution was evaluated. Altogether (herds A and B), G10 was found in 59 (60. 2%) fecal specimens, G6 was found in 30 (30.6%) specimens, G3 was found in 1 (1.0%) specimen, and G8 was found in 1 (1.0%) specimen. Seven (7.1%) fecal specimens were not typeable. Herd type specificity in the G-type distribution was demonstrated in the herds in herd B. In the 6 beef suckler herds, only G6 was detected, while rotavirus strains from the 35 dairy herds were predominantly (54%) G10. The G-type distribution was restricted in herds A and B. Twenty-nine of 30 strains from herd A were characterized as G10. In the vast majority of herds in herd B, a single G-type was identified. The serotype G10 and the electropherotype persisted over time in herd A. No characteristic G-type variation in the geographic distribution of cattle herds in herd B was obvious. There was no difference in the G-type distributions between the strains from clinically and subclinically rotavirus-infected calves in dairy herd A. The results from this study strongly indicate a pronounced stability in the rotavirus G-type distribution in Swedish cattle herds, which emphasizes the importance of continuous preventive measures for control of neonatal calf diarrhea. A future bovine rotavirus vaccine in Sweden should contain G10 and G6 strains.  (+info)

Phase I study of a weekly schedule of irinotecan, high-dose leucovorin, and infusional fluorouracil as first-line chemotherapy in patients with advanced colorectal cancer. (7/6219)

PURPOSE: To determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) of a weekly schedule of irinotecan (CPT-11), leucovorin (LV), and a 24-hour infusion of fluorouracil (5-FU24h) as first-line chemotherapy in advanced colorectal cancer and to assess preliminary data on the antitumor activity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-six patients with measurable metastatic colorectal cancer were entered onto this phase I study. In the first six dose levels, fixed doses of CPT-11 (80 mg/m2) and LV (500 mg/m2) in combination with escalated doses of 5-FU24h ranging from 1.8 to 2.6 g/m2 were administered on a weekly-times-four (dose levels 1 to 4) or weekly-times-six (dose levels 5 to 6) schedule. The dose of CPT-11 was then increased to 100 mg/m2 (dose level 7). RESULTS: Seventy-nine cycles of 5-FU24h/LV with CPT-11 were administered in an outpatient setting. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed during the first cycle at dose levels 1 to 6, but diarrhea of grade 4 (National Cancer Institute common toxicity criteria) was observed in three patients after multiple treatment cycles. Other nonhematologic and hematologic side effects, specifically alopecia and neutropenia, did not exceed grade 2. With the escalation of CPT-11 to 100 mg/m2 (dose level 7), diarrhea of grade 3 or higher was observed in four of six patients during the first cycle; thus, the MTD was achieved. Sixteen of 25 response-assessable patients (64%; 95% confidence interval, 45% to 83%) achieved an objective response. CONCLUSION: The recommended doses for further studies are CPT-11 80 mg/m2, LV 500 mg/m2, and 5-FU24h 2.6 g/m2 given on a weekly-times-six schedule followed by a 1-week rest period. The addition of CPT-11 to 5-FU24h/LV seems to improve the therapeutic efficacy in terms of tumor response with manageable toxicity.  (+info)

Organization of biogenesis genes for aggregative adherence fimbria II defines a virulence gene cluster in enteroaggregative Escherichia coli. (8/6219)

Several virulence-related genes have been described for prototype enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) strain 042, which has been shown to cause diarrhea in human volunteers. Among these factors are the enterotoxins Pet and EAST and the fimbrial antigen aggregative adherence fimbria II (AAF/II), all of which are encoded on the 65-MDa virulence plasmid pAA2. Using nucleotide sequence analysis and insertional mutagenesis, we have found that the genes required for the expression of each of these factors, as well as the transcriptional activator of fimbrial expression AggR, map to a distinct cluster on the pAA2 plasmid map. The cluster is 23 kb in length and includes two regions required for expression of the AAF/II fimbria. These fimbrial biogenesis genes feature a unique organization in which the chaperone, subunit, and transcriptional activator lie in one cluster, whereas the second, unlinked cluster comprises a silent chaperone gene, usher, and invasin reminiscent of Dr family fimbrial clusters. This plasmid-borne virulence locus may represent an important set of virulence determinants in EAEC strains.  (+info)

  • Antibiotics, while rarely used, may be recommended in a few cases such as those who have bloody diarrhea and a high fever, those with severe diarrhea following travelling, and those who grow specific bacteria or parasites in their stool. (wikipedia.org)
  • I will usually do a stool sample in a clearly ill child, or diarrhea that doesn't improve with a few days of Zinc and ORS. (mediwell.co.za)
  • The symptomps are just the regular symtopmps of diarrhea - loose stool, more than usual frequency of bowel movement, and a low-grade fever - when the child is being administered an antibiotic. (settleinelpaso.com)
  • Diarrhea caused by some bacteria, such as E. coli, salmonella, and shigella, is frequently accompanied by high-grade fever and blood in the stool. (quicklyte.com)
  • IMODIUM ® Complete is the first and only anti-diarrheal solution with a unique, dual-action formula designed to effectively relieve diarrhea PLUS painful cramps, gas, and bloating. (imodium.ca)
  • IMODIUM ® Complete Caplets contain loperamide and simethicone which relieve diarrhea PLUS gas, cramps and bloating. (imodium.ca)
  • Blood or mucus in the diarrhea, significant abdominal pain, or high fever suggests a more serious cause, such as cholera , characterized by a rapid onset of weakness and torrents of watery diarrhea with flecks of mucus (described as "rice water" stools). (wikipedia.org)
  • Remember, if you have diarrhea* or are experiencing a bout of travelers' diarrhea, Pepto can help you out. (pepto-bismol.com)
  • Before going over how to treat diarrhea, lets first discuss prevention. (quickcare.org)
  • When it comes to prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children, parents need to speak with older children about their poop - there is no other option. (settleinelpaso.com)
  • Depending on the cause of the diarrhea, fever may occur as well. (quickcare.org)
  • If diarrhea does not stop in a day or two, or if you're running a fever over one hundred degrees Fahrenheit, you may need to see a doctor. (quickcare.org)
  • Infant diarrhea causes disinterest in eating and sometimes even baby fever . (mybabiesplanet.com)
  • Infants and children are especially likely to get dehydrated from diarrhea, and this can be really dangerous. (stlukes-stl.com)
  • Treatment to replace fluids: Your child's doctor likely will advise to take steps to replace the fluids and salts lost during an extended bout of diarrhea. (columbiadoctors.org)
  • If your diarrhea is occurring frequently, you may benefit from using an over the counter medicine such as Imodium AD® to help stop the frequency to allow your body to absorb fluids and re-hydrate. (wellstreet.com)
  • Your child probably won't each much if it suffers from diarrhea and it will also lose a lot of fluids through poop. (mybabiesplanet.com)
  • The diarrhea is watery AND your child also throws up clear fluids three or more times. (rivertownpediatrics.com)
  • Understanding the diarrhea causes is important to determining the best way to treat diarrhea and which medications to prescribe. (quickcare.org)
  • If so, take a look below to learn more about how to handle and treat diarrhea . (wellstreet.com)
  • Feed this for 4 to 5 days to settle things down and if the diarrhea resolves gradually add his original food back in increasing amounts over 4 to 5 days until he's back on his regular diet. (vetinfo.com)
  • Parasites in kittens are the most common reason for diarrhea . (vetinfo.com)
  • Protozoal parasites can also lead to diarrhea so make sure you discuss these with your veterinarian as well. (vetinfo.com)
  • Diarrhea can be caused by a variety of microbes, or parasites, but most often it is caused by viruses. (quicklyte.com)
  • Osmotic diarrhea occurs when too much water is drawn into the bowels. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a person drinks solutions with excessive sugar or excessive salt, these can draw water from the body into the bowel and cause osmotic diarrhea. (wikipedia.org)
  • Osmotic diarrhea can also be the result of maldigestion (e.g., pancreatic disease or coeliac disease), in which the nutrients are left in the lumen to pull in water. (wikipedia.org)
  • If diarrhea occurs longer, there might be a larger and more serious underlying problem that requires a trip to the doctor's office. (wellstreet.com)
  • Diarrhea is a sudden increase in the number and looseness of stools (bowel movements). (childrensmn.org)
  • Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to worsened immunity the gastrointestinal tract is more easily influenced by pathogens which can lead to diarrhea. (fertilitypedia.org)
  • Cat has diarrhea-how much imodium? (vetinfo.com)
  • IMODIUM ® Quick Dissolve tablets dissolve instantly on your tongue for fast, effective relief of diarrhea. (imodium.ca)
  • IMODIUM ® LIQUI-GEL ® Capsules, IMODIUM ® Quick Dissolve Tablets, and IMODIUM ® Calming Liquid contain loperamide to relieve diarrhea. (imodium.ca)
Traveler's diarrhea - Wikipedia
Traveler's diarrhea - Wikipedia (en.wikipedia.org)
Gene might underlie travelers' diarrhea | Science News
Gene might underlie travelers' diarrhea | Science News (sciencenews.org)
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What Are the Causes of Black Diarrhea? | Livestrong.com (livestrong.com)
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Burning Poop: What Causes Diarrhea From Spicy Food? | Livestrong.com (livestrong.com)
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Quiz: Diarrhea in Adults - Merck Manuals Consumer Version (merckmanuals.com)
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Etiology of acute diarrhea in the elderly in China: A six-year observational study (journals.plos.org)
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How to Care for Your Pets After You're Gone | All About Pets | Diarrhea in dogs, Dog friends, Dog shedding (pinterest.com)
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Slide 131 - A Simple Solution to curb the effects of diarrhoea in infants and young children - Rehydration Project
Slide 131 - A Simple Solution to curb the effects of diarrhoea in infants and young children - Rehydration Project (rehydrate.org)
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