Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine Viral
Bovine Virus Diarrhea-Mucosal Disease
Diarrhea Virus 1, Bovine Viral
Diarrhea Virus 2, Bovine Viral
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli
Drug Administration Schedule
Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols
Maximum Tolerated Dose
A case of canine salmonellosis due to Salmonella infantis. (1/6219)A 7-year-old male dog kept outdoors manifested severe watery diarrhea with generalized weakness. Salmonella Infantis was isolated from a fecal sample and the dog recovered soon after medication with ampicillin, to which the isolate was highly sensitive. The present case was diagnosed as S. Infantis infection. Due to the importance of Salmonella in public health, soil samples were collected from the garden where the dog was kept and were examined for Salmonella, Some of them were positive for S. Infantis, however, no Salmonella was isolated from any soil samples collected after thorough disinfection of the surrounded environment. (+info)
High turnover rate of Escherichia coli strains in the intestinal flora of infants in Pakistan. (2/6219)The Escherichia coli flora of infants in developed countries is dominated by one or a few strains which persist for prolonged periods of time, but no longitudinal studies have been performed in developing countries. To this end, we studied the rectal enterobacterial flora in 22 home-delivered Pakistani infants during their first 6 months of life. Three colonies were isolated and species typed on each of 11 sampling occasions. E. coli isolates were strain typed using electromorphic typing of cytoplasmic enzymes, and their O serogroups were determined. There was a very rapid turnover of enterobacterial strains in the rectal flora of individual infants. On average, 8.5 different E. coli strains were found per infant, and several biotypes of other enterobacteria. Less than 50% of the infants were colonized with E. coli from their mothers, but strains of maternal origin were four times more likely to persists in the infants' flora than other E. coli strains. Enterobacteria other than E. coli were always of non-maternal origin, and Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella pneumoniae biotypes recovered from contaminated feeds were later identified in the infants' rectal flora. An early colonization with klebsiella or enterobacter was significantly associated with diarrhoea during the neonatal period, although these bacteria were not likely to be the cause of the disease. The results suggest that poor hygienic conditions result in an unstable and diverse enterobacterial flora, which may influence infant health. (+info)
In vitro activities of cephalosporins and quinolones against Escherichia coli strains isolated from diarrheic dairy calves. (3/6219)The in vitro activities of several cephalosporins and quinolones against 195 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from diary calves affected by neonatal diarrhea were determined. One hundred thirty-seven of these strains produced one or more potential virulence factors (F5, F41, F17, cytotoxic necrotizing factor, verotoxin, and the eae gene), but the remaining 58 strains did not produce any of these factors. From 11 to 18% of the E. coli strains were resistant to cephalothin, nalidixic acid, enoxacin, and enrofloxacin. However, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, and cefquinome were highly effective against the E. coli isolates tested. Some significant differences (P < 0.05) in resistance to quinolones between the strains producing potential virulence factors and nonfimbriated, nontoxigenic, eae-negative strains were found. Thus, eae-positive, necrotoxigenic, and verotoxigenic (except for nalidixic acid) E. coli strains were significantly more sensitive to nalidixic acid, enoxacin, and enrofloxacin than nonfimbriated, nontoxigenic, eae-negative strains. Moreover, eae-positive strains were significantly more sensitive to enoxacin and enrofloxacin than F5-positive strains. Thus, the result of this study suggest that the bovine E. coli strains that produce some potential virulence factors are more sensitive to quinolones than those that do not express these factors. (+info)
A high-Mr glycoprotein fraction from cow's milk potent in inhibiting replication of human rotavirus in vitro. (4/6219)Rotavirus is the major cause of infectious diarrhea in infants and young children all over the world. We have found that a high-M(r) glycoprotein fraction from cow's milk is potent in inhibiting replication of human rotaviruses in vitro. Since the activity seems to be unique and specific, this fraction may be useful as a novel agent for treatment or prevention of rotavirus diarrhea. (+info)
Cryptosporidium, enterocytozoon, and cyclospora infections in pediatric and adult patients with diarrhea in Tanzania. (5/6219)Cryptosporidiosis, microsporidiosis, and cyclosporiasis were studied in four groups of Tanzanian inpatients: adults with AIDS-associated diarrhea, children with chronic diarrhea (of whom 23 of 59 were positive [+] for human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]), children with acute diarrhea (of whom 15 of 55 were HIV+), and HIV control children without diarrhea. Cryptosporidium was identified in specimens from 6/86 adults, 5/59 children with chronic diarrhea (3/5, HIV+), 7/55 children with acute diarrhea (0/7, HIV+), and 0/20 control children. Among children with acute diarrhea, 7/7 with cryptosporidiosis were malnourished, compared with 10/48 without cryptosporidiosis (P < .01). Enterocytozoon was identified in specimens from 3/86 adults, 2/59 children with chronic diarrhea (1 HIV+), 0/55 children with acute diarrhea, and 4/20 control children. All four controls were underweight (P < .01). Cyclospora was identified in specimens from one adult and one child with acute diarrhea (HIV-). Thus, Cryptosporidium was the most frequent and Cyclospora the least frequent pathogen identified. Cryptosporidium and Enterocytozoon were associated with malnutrition. Asymptomatic fecal shedding of Enterocytozoon in otherwise healthy, HIV children has not been described previously. (+info)
Rotavirus G-type restriction, persistence, and herd type specificity in Swedish cattle herds. (6/6219)G-typing of rotavirus strains enables the study of molecular epidemiology and gathering of information to promote disease prevention and control. Rotavirus strains in fecal specimens from neonatal calves in Swedish cattle herds were therefore characterized by using G1 to -4-, G6-, G8-, and G10-specific primers in reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. Fecal samples were collected from one dairy herd (herd A) for 4 consecutive years and from 41 beef and dairy herds (herd B) experiencing calf diarrhea outbreaks. Altogether, 1, 700 samples were analyzed by group A rotavirus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and 98 rotavirus-positive specimens were selected for G-typing by RT-PCR. The effect of herd type, time, geographic region, and clinical symptoms on the G-type distribution was evaluated. Altogether (herds A and B), G10 was found in 59 (60. 2%) fecal specimens, G6 was found in 30 (30.6%) specimens, G3 was found in 1 (1.0%) specimen, and G8 was found in 1 (1.0%) specimen. Seven (7.1%) fecal specimens were not typeable. Herd type specificity in the G-type distribution was demonstrated in the herds in herd B. In the 6 beef suckler herds, only G6 was detected, while rotavirus strains from the 35 dairy herds were predominantly (54%) G10. The G-type distribution was restricted in herds A and B. Twenty-nine of 30 strains from herd A were characterized as G10. In the vast majority of herds in herd B, a single G-type was identified. The serotype G10 and the electropherotype persisted over time in herd A. No characteristic G-type variation in the geographic distribution of cattle herds in herd B was obvious. There was no difference in the G-type distributions between the strains from clinically and subclinically rotavirus-infected calves in dairy herd A. The results from this study strongly indicate a pronounced stability in the rotavirus G-type distribution in Swedish cattle herds, which emphasizes the importance of continuous preventive measures for control of neonatal calf diarrhea. A future bovine rotavirus vaccine in Sweden should contain G10 and G6 strains. (+info)
Phase I study of a weekly schedule of irinotecan, high-dose leucovorin, and infusional fluorouracil as first-line chemotherapy in patients with advanced colorectal cancer. (7/6219)PURPOSE: To determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) of a weekly schedule of irinotecan (CPT-11), leucovorin (LV), and a 24-hour infusion of fluorouracil (5-FU24h) as first-line chemotherapy in advanced colorectal cancer and to assess preliminary data on the antitumor activity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-six patients with measurable metastatic colorectal cancer were entered onto this phase I study. In the first six dose levels, fixed doses of CPT-11 (80 mg/m2) and LV (500 mg/m2) in combination with escalated doses of 5-FU24h ranging from 1.8 to 2.6 g/m2 were administered on a weekly-times-four (dose levels 1 to 4) or weekly-times-six (dose levels 5 to 6) schedule. The dose of CPT-11 was then increased to 100 mg/m2 (dose level 7). RESULTS: Seventy-nine cycles of 5-FU24h/LV with CPT-11 were administered in an outpatient setting. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed during the first cycle at dose levels 1 to 6, but diarrhea of grade 4 (National Cancer Institute common toxicity criteria) was observed in three patients after multiple treatment cycles. Other nonhematologic and hematologic side effects, specifically alopecia and neutropenia, did not exceed grade 2. With the escalation of CPT-11 to 100 mg/m2 (dose level 7), diarrhea of grade 3 or higher was observed in four of six patients during the first cycle; thus, the MTD was achieved. Sixteen of 25 response-assessable patients (64%; 95% confidence interval, 45% to 83%) achieved an objective response. CONCLUSION: The recommended doses for further studies are CPT-11 80 mg/m2, LV 500 mg/m2, and 5-FU24h 2.6 g/m2 given on a weekly-times-six schedule followed by a 1-week rest period. The addition of CPT-11 to 5-FU24h/LV seems to improve the therapeutic efficacy in terms of tumor response with manageable toxicity. (+info)
Organization of biogenesis genes for aggregative adherence fimbria II defines a virulence gene cluster in enteroaggregative Escherichia coli. (8/6219)Several virulence-related genes have been described for prototype enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) strain 042, which has been shown to cause diarrhea in human volunteers. Among these factors are the enterotoxins Pet and EAST and the fimbrial antigen aggregative adherence fimbria II (AAF/II), all of which are encoded on the 65-MDa virulence plasmid pAA2. Using nucleotide sequence analysis and insertional mutagenesis, we have found that the genes required for the expression of each of these factors, as well as the transcriptional activator of fimbrial expression AggR, map to a distinct cluster on the pAA2 plasmid map. The cluster is 23 kb in length and includes two regions required for expression of the AAF/II fimbria. These fimbrial biogenesis genes feature a unique organization in which the chaperone, subunit, and transcriptional activator lie in one cluster, whereas the second, unlinked cluster comprises a silent chaperone gene, usher, and invasin reminiscent of Dr family fimbrial clusters. This plasmid-borne virulence locus may represent an important set of virulence determinants in EAEC strains. (+info)
There are several types of diarrhea, including:
1. Acute diarrhea: This type of diarrhea is short-term and usually resolves on its own within a few days. It can be caused by a viral or bacterial infection, food poisoning, or medication side effects.
2. Chronic diarrhea: This type of diarrhea persists for more than 4 weeks and can be caused by a variety of conditions, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), or celiac disease.
3. Diarrhea-predominant IBS: This type of diarrhea is characterized by frequent, loose stools and abdominal pain or discomfort. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including stress, hormonal changes, and certain foods.
4. Infectious diarrhea: This type of diarrhea is caused by a bacterial, viral, or parasitic infection and can be spread through contaminated food and water, close contact with an infected person, or by consuming contaminated food.
Symptoms of diarrhea may include:
* Frequent, loose, and watery stools
* Abdominal cramps and pain
* Bloating and gas
* Nausea and vomiting
* Fever and chills
* Fatigue and weakness
Diagnosis of diarrhea is typically made through a physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests to rule out other potential causes of the symptoms. Treatment for diarrhea depends on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, anti-diarrheal medications, fluid replacement, and dietary changes. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat any complications.
Prevention of diarrhea includes:
* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and thoroughly, especially after using the bathroom or before preparing food
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Properly storing and cooking food to prevent contamination
* Drinking safe water and avoiding contaminated water sources
* Avoiding raw or undercooked meat, poultry, and seafood
* Getting vaccinated against infections that can cause diarrhea
Complications of diarrhea can include:
* Dehydration: Diarrhea can lead to a loss of fluids and electrolytes, which can cause dehydration. Severe dehydration can be life-threatening and requires immediate medical attention.
* Electrolyte imbalance: Diarrhea can also cause an imbalance of electrolytes in the body, which can lead to serious complications.
* Inflammation of the intestines: Prolonged diarrhea can cause inflammation of the intestines, which can lead to abdominal pain and other complications.
* Infections: Diarrhea can be a symptom of an infection, such as a bacterial or viral infection. If left untreated, these infections can lead to serious complications.
* Malnutrition: Prolonged diarrhea can lead to malnutrition and weight loss, which can have long-term effects on health and development.
Treatment of diarrhea will depend on the underlying cause, but may include:
* Fluid replacement: Drinking plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration and replace lost electrolytes.
* Anti-diarrheal medications: Over-the-counter or prescription medications to slow down bowel movements and reduce diarrhea.
* Antibiotics: If the diarrhea is caused by a bacterial infection, antibiotics may be prescribed to treat the infection.
* Rest: Getting plenty of rest to allow the body to recover from the illness.
* Dietary changes: Avoiding certain foods or making dietary changes to help manage symptoms and prevent future episodes of diarrhea.
It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any of the following:
* Severe diarrhea that lasts for more than 3 days
* Diarrhea that is accompanied by fever, blood in the stool, or abdominal pain
* Diarrhea that is severe enough to cause dehydration or electrolyte imbalances
* Diarrhea that is not responding to treatment
Prevention of diarrhea includes:
* Good hand hygiene: Washing your hands frequently, especially after using the bathroom or before preparing food.
* Safe food handling: Cooking and storing food properly to prevent contamination.
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick.
* Getting vaccinated against infections that can cause diarrhea, such as rotavirus.
Overall, while diarrhea can be uncomfortable and disruptive, it is usually a minor illness that can be treated at home with over-the-counter medications and plenty of fluids. However, if you experience severe or persistent diarrhea, it is important to seek medical attention to rule out any underlying conditions that may require more formal treatment.
Infantile diarrhea is a common problem in infants and young children. It is characterized by frequent, loose, and watery stools that may be accompanied by vomiting, fever, and abdominal pain. The condition can be caused by a variety of factors, including viral or bacterial infections, allergies, and intestinal malabsorption disorders.
Signs and Symptoms:
1. Frequent, loose, and watery stools (more than 3-4 per day)
3. Fever (temperature >100.4°F or 38°C)
4. Abdominal pain
5. Blood in the stool
6. Dehydration (signs include dry mouth, decreased urine output, sunken eyes, and dry diaper)
1. Stool culture to identify the causative agent
2. Blood tests to check for electrolytes and signs of dehydration
3. X-ray or ultrasound abdomen to rule out any intestinal obstruction
4. Other tests such as urine analysis, blood glucose, and liver function tests may be done based on the severity of the diarrhea and the child's overall condition.
1. Fluid replacement: Replacing lost fluids with oral rehydration solutions such as Pedialyte or Gatorade is essential to prevent dehydration.
2. Antibiotics: If the diarrhea is caused by a bacterial infection, antibiotics may be prescribed to treat the infection.
3. Dietary modifications: Breastfeeding should be continued or initiated in infants under 6 months old. For formula-fed infants, a special formula that is easier to digest may be recommended. Solid foods should be introduced gradually.
4. Medications: Anti-diarrheal medications such as loperamide may be given to help slow down bowel movements and reduce the frequency of stools.
5. Hospitalization: In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor the child's condition and provide intravenous fluids if oral rehydration is not effective.
1. Dehydration: Prolonged diarrhea can lead to dehydration, which can cause serious complications such as seizures, brain damage, and even death if left untreated.
2. Electrolyte imbalance: Diarrhea can cause an imbalance of electrolytes in the body, leading to muscle cramps, weakness, and heart problems.
3. Infection: Diarrhea can be a sign of an underlying infection, which can lead to more severe complications if left untreated.
4. Malnutrition: Prolonged diarrhea can lead to malnutrition and weight loss, especially in children who are not getting enough nutrients.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease: Repeated episodes of diarrhea can lead to inflammatory bowel disease, such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis.
1. Hand washing: Frequent hand washing is essential to prevent the spread of infection and diarrhea-causing bacteria.
2. Food safety: Ensure that food is cooked and stored properly to avoid contamination and infection.
3. Vaccination: Vaccines are available for some types of diarrhea-causing infections, such as rotavirus, which can help prevent severe diarrhea in children.
4. Breastfeeding: Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life can help protect infants against diarrhea and other infections.
5. Probiotics: Probiotics are beneficial bacteria that can help maintain a healthy gut microbiome and prevent diarrhea.
1. Oral rehydration therapy: ORS or other oral rehydration solutions can help replace lost fluids and electrolytes.
2. Antibiotics: Antibiotics may be prescribed to treat diarrhea caused by bacterial infections.
3. Anti-diarrheal medications: Over-the-counter anti-diarrheal medications such as loperamide can help slow down bowel movements and reduce diarrhea.
4. Probiotics: Probiotic supplements or probiotic-rich foods like yogurt can help restore the balance of gut bacteria and treat diarrhea.
5. IV fluids: In severe cases of diarrhea, IV fluids may be necessary to prevent dehydration and electrolyte imbalances.
It's important to note that while these remedies can help alleviate symptoms, they may not address the underlying cause of the diarrhea. If diarrhea persists or worsens, medical attention should be sought. A healthcare professional can diagnose and treat any underlying conditions or infections causing the diarrhea.
The disease is typically transmitted through close contact with infected animals, and can be spread through respiratory droplets, contaminated feces, or contaminated surfaces. The virus can also be transmitted from dam to fetus during pregnancy, causing congenital BVD.
BVD-MD is characterized by acute diarrhea, vomiting, and fever, as well as mucosal lesions in the gastrointestinal tract. In severe cases, it can lead to dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and even death.
Diagnosis of BVD-MD is typically made through a combination of clinical signs, laboratory tests such as PCR or ELISA, and histopathological examination of tissue samples. There is no specific treatment for the disease, but supportive care such as fluids, electrolytes, and antibiotics may be provided to manage symptoms.
Prevention of BVD-MD includes vaccination of animals at risk, strict biosecurity measures, and separation of infected animals from healthy ones. Control programs should also include testing of animals for the presence of the virus and monitoring of herds for signs of the disease.
Here are some common types of E. coli infections:
1. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): E. coli is a leading cause of UTIs, which occur when bacteria enter the urinary tract and cause inflammation. Symptoms include frequent urination, burning during urination, and cloudy or strong-smelling urine.
2. Diarrheal infections: E. coli can cause diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever if consumed through contaminated food or water. In severe cases, this type of infection can lead to dehydration and even death, particularly in young children and the elderly.
3. Septicemia (bloodstream infections): If E. coli bacteria enter the bloodstream, they can cause septicemia, a life-threatening condition that requires immediate medical attention. Symptoms include fever, chills, rapid heart rate, and low blood pressure.
4. Meningitis: In rare cases, E. coli infections can spread to the meninges, the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, causing meningitis. This is a serious condition that requires prompt treatment with antibiotics and supportive care.
5. Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS): E. coli infections can sometimes cause HUS, a condition where the bacteria destroy red blood cells, leading to anemia, kidney failure, and other complications. HUS is most common in young children and can be fatal if not treated promptly.
Preventing E. coli infections primarily involves practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly, especially after using the bathroom or before handling food. It's also essential to cook meat thoroughly, especially ground beef, to avoid cross-contamination with other foods. Avoiding unpasteurized dairy products and drinking contaminated water can also help prevent E. coli infections.
If you suspect an E. coli infection, seek medical attention immediately. Your healthcare provider may perform a urine test or a stool culture to confirm the diagnosis and determine the appropriate treatment. In mild cases, symptoms may resolve on their own within a few days, but antibiotics may be necessary for more severe infections. It's essential to stay hydrated and follow your healthcare provider's recommendations to ensure a full recovery.
1. Bacterial dysentery: This type of dysentery is caused by bacteria such as Shigella or Salmonella and is typically spread through contaminated food or water. Symptoms include diarrhea, fever, abdominal cramps, and blood in the stool.
2. Amebic dysentery: This type of dysentery is caused by a parasite called Entamoeba histolytica and is typically spread through contaminated food or water. Symptoms include diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain, and blood in the stool.
Dysentery can be diagnosed through a physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as stool samples or blood tests. Treatment typically involves antibiotics for bacterial dysentery and antiparasitic medication for amebic dysentery. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage symptoms and prevent complications such as dehydration and electrolyte imbalances.
Prevention measures for dysentery include:
* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Avoiding contaminated food and water
* Properly storing and preparing food to prevent bacterial growth
* Avoiding risky behaviors such as anal sex, which can increase the risk of contracting amebic dysentery.
The prognosis for dysentery is generally good if treated promptly and effectively. However, if left untreated, it can lead to serious complications such as dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and potentially life-threatening infections.
Cattle diseases refer to any health issues that affect cattle, including bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections, as well as genetic disorders and environmental factors. These diseases can have a significant impact on the health and productivity of cattle, as well as the livelihoods of farmers and ranchers who rely on them for their livelihood.
Types of Cattle Diseases
There are many different types of cattle diseases, including:
1. Bacterial diseases, such as brucellosis, anthrax, and botulism.
2. Viral diseases, such as bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) and bluetongue.
3. Parasitic diseases, such as heartwater and gapeworm.
4. Genetic disorders, such as polledness and cleft palate.
5. Environmental factors, such as heat stress and nutritional deficiencies.
Symptoms of Cattle Diseases
The symptoms of cattle diseases can vary depending on the specific disease, but may include:
1. Fever and respiratory problems
2. Diarrhea and vomiting
3. Weight loss and depression
4. Swelling and pain in joints or limbs
5. Discharge from the eyes or nose
6. Coughing or difficulty breathing
7. Lameness or reluctance to move
8. Changes in behavior, such as aggression or lethargy
Diagnosis and Treatment of Cattle Diseases
Diagnosing cattle diseases can be challenging, as the symptoms may be similar for different conditions. However, veterinarians use a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and medical history to make a diagnosis. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disease and may include antibiotics, vaccines, anti-inflammatory drugs, and supportive care such as fluids and nutritional supplements.
Prevention of Cattle Diseases
Preventing cattle diseases is essential for maintaining the health and productivity of your herd. Some preventative measures include:
1. Proper nutrition and hydration
2. Regular vaccinations and parasite control
3. Sanitary living conditions and frequent cleaning
4. Monitoring for signs of illness and seeking prompt veterinary care if symptoms arise
5. Implementing biosecurity measures such as isolating sick animals and quarantining new animals before introduction to the herd.
It is important to work closely with a veterinarian to develop a comprehensive health plan for your cattle herd, as they can provide guidance on vaccination schedules, parasite control methods, and disease prevention strategies tailored to your specific needs.
Cattle diseases can have a significant impact on the productivity and profitability of your herd, as well as the overall health of your animals. It is essential to be aware of the common cattle diseases, their symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention methods to ensure the health and well-being of your herd.
By working closely with a veterinarian and implementing preventative measures such as proper nutrition and sanitary living conditions, you can help protect your cattle from disease and maintain a productive and profitable herd. Remember, prevention is key when it comes to managing cattle diseases.
Gastroenteritis can be classified into different types based on the cause:
Viral gastroenteritis - This is the most common type of gastroenteritis and is caused by norovirus or rotavirus.
Bacterial gastroenteritis - This type is caused by bacteria such as salmonella, E. coli, or campylobacter.
Parasitic gastroenteritis - This is caused by parasites such as giardia or cryptosporidium.
Foodborne gastroenteritis - This type is caused by consuming contaminated food or water.
Gastroenteritis can be treated with antibiotics for bacterial infections, anti-diarrheal medications, and hydration therapy to prevent dehydration. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.
Prevention measures include proper hand washing, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, and avoiding contaminated food and water. Vaccines are also available for some types of gastroenteritis such as rotavirus.
Cryptosporidium (genus name) is derived from the Greek words "kruptos" (meaning hidden) and "sporos" (meaning seed), referring to the parasite's ability to hide within host cells. The specific species of Cryptosporidium that infect humans is known as C. parvum.
1. The CDC has reported an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in a community with a contaminated water supply.
2. The patient was diagnosed with cryptosporidiosis after experiencing severe diarrhea and vomiting for several days.
3. The researchers are studying the effectiveness of antimicrobial medications against cryptosporidiosis in immunocompromised individuals.
A disease that affects pigs, including viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections, as well as genetic disorders and nutritional deficiencies. Some common swine diseases include:
1. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS): A highly contagious viral disease that can cause reproductive failure, respiratory problems, and death.
2. Swine Influenza: A viral infection similar to human influenza, which can cause fever, coughing, and pneumonia in pigs.
3. Erysipelas: A bacterial infection that causes high fever, loss of appetite, and skin lesions in pigs.
4. Actinobacillosis: A bacterial infection that can cause pneumonia, arthritis, and abscesses in pigs.
5. Parasitic infections: Such as gastrointestinal parasites like roundworms and tapeworms, which can cause diarrhea, anemia, and weight loss in pigs.
6. Scrapie: A degenerative neurological disorder that affects pigs and other animals, causing confusion, aggression, and eventually death.
7. Nutritional deficiencies: Such as a lack of vitamin E or selenium, which can cause a range of health problems in pigs, including muscular dystrophy and anemia.
8. Genetic disorders: Such as achondroplasia, a condition that causes dwarfism and deformities in pigs.
9. Environmental diseases: Such as heat stress, which can cause a range of health problems in pigs, including respiratory distress and death.
It's important to note that many swine diseases have similar symptoms, making accurate diagnosis by a veterinarian essential for effective treatment and control.
Some common types of Clostridium infections include:
* Clostridium difficile (C. diff) infection: This is a common type of diarrheal disease that can occur after taking antibiotics, especially in people who are hospitalized or living in long-term care facilities.
* Gas gangrene: This is a severe and potentially life-threatening infection that occurs when Clostridium bacteria infect damaged tissue, causing gas to build up in the affected area.
* Tetanus: This is a serious neurological infection caused by the bacterium Clostridium tetani, which can enter the body through open wounds or puncture wounds.
* Botulism: This is a potentially fatal illness caused by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, which can be contracted through contaminated food or wounds.
Clostridium infections can cause a range of symptoms, including diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain, and swelling or redness in the affected area. Treatment depends on the type of infection and may include antibiotics, surgery, or supportive care to manage symptoms.
Prevention measures for Clostridium infections include proper hand hygiene, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, and practicing safe food handling practices to prevent the spread of botulism and other clostridial infections. Vaccines are also available for some types of clostridial infections, such as tetanus and botulism.
In summary, Clostridium infections are a diverse group of bacterial infections that can cause a range of illnesses, from mild to severe and life-threatening. Proper prevention and treatment measures are essential to avoid the potential complications of these infections.
Astrovirirus infections can affect people of all ages, but they are most common in children under the age of 5 and older adults. Symptoms of astrovirirus infection typically begin within 24 to 48 hours after exposure and can last for several days. In some cases, astrovirirus infections can lead to more severe complications, such as dehydration, especially in young children and older adults.
There are no specific treatments for astrovirirus infections, but symptoms can be managed with supportive care, such as fluid replacement and over-the-counter medications to relieve fever and diarrhea. Prevention measures include practicing good hygiene, avoiding close contact with individuals who are sick, and ensuring proper food handling and preparation.
Astroviridae infections can be diagnosed through laboratory tests, such as a stool sample or a blood test, which can detect the presence of astrovirus antigens or genetic material. Treatment is primarily focused on managing symptoms and preventing complications, rather than targeting the virus itself.
Astroviridae infections are common and can be a significant cause of gastrointestinal illness in individuals of all ages. While they are generally self-limiting, they can lead to serious complications in certain populations, such as young children and older adults. Therefore, early diagnosis and supportive care are important to prevent dehydration and other complications.
The diagnosis of bacillary dysentery is based on a combination of clinical findings and laboratory tests, such as fecal cultures or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, which can shorten the duration of diarrhea and reduce the risk of complications. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage dehydration and other complications.
Prevention measures include maintaining good hygiene practices, such as washing hands after using the bathroom or before handling food, and avoiding contaminated water or food. Vaccines are also available for some types of Shigella infections.
Symptoms of enteritis may include diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. In severe cases, the condition can lead to dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and even death if left untreated.
The diagnosis of enteritis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as endoscopy, imaging studies, and laboratory tests (e.g., blood tests, stool cultures). Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the condition and may include antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, and supportive care to manage symptoms.
The symptoms of microsporidiosis vary depending on the site of infection and the severity of the disease. In some cases, microsporidiosis may be asymptomatic or present with mild symptoms such as fever, headache, fatigue, and muscle aches. In more severe cases, microsporidiosis can cause significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in individuals with compromised immune systems, such as those living with HIV/AIDS or undergoing immunosuppressive therapy following an organ transplant.
Microsporidiosis is diagnosed through a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory testing, and histopathological examination of tissue samples. Treatment of microsporidiosis typically involves antimicrobial medications, such as azole antifungals or polyene macrolide antibiotics. In severe cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to remove infected tissues or repair damaged organs.
Preventive measures for microsporidiosis include avoiding exposure to contaminated water or food, practicing good hygiene, and avoiding close contact with individuals who are infected with microsporidia. Vaccines against microsporidia are not available, but research is ongoing to develop effective vaccine candidates.
In summary, microsporidiosis is a disease caused by microsporidia that can affect various parts of the body and cause a range of symptoms. Diagnosis and treatment of microsporidiosis are challenging due to the difficulty in identifying the parasite and the lack of effective treatments. Prevention of microsporidiosis primarily relies on avoiding exposure to contaminated sources and practicing good hygiene.
The infection is caused by ingesting contaminated food or water that contains the oocysts of the parasite. The oocysts then sporulate in the intestine and produce mature trophozoites, which penetrate the intestinal walls and cause inflammation.
Isosporiasis is diagnosed by examining stool samples for the presence of the parasite's oocysts or by identifying the characteristic morphology of the trophozoites in a biopsy specimen. Treatment typically involves antiparasitic drugs such as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or pentavalent antimonials.
Isosporiasis is a rare disease in developed countries but is more common in resource-poor settings where sanitation and hygiene are poor. Prevention measures include improving access to clean water, promoting proper hygiene practices, and reducing the risk of food contamination.
There are several types of pestivirus infections, including:
1. Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD): This is one of the most common pestivirus infections in cattle, and it can cause a range of symptoms, including diarrhea, fever, and weight loss.
2. Border disease: This is a serious pestivirus infection that affects sheep and goats, and it can cause severe symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, and death.
3. Maedi-visna: This is a progressive pestivirus infection that affects sheep and goats, and it can cause weight loss, anemia, and death.
4. Sumatran sheep virus: This is a rare pestivirus infection that affects sheep and goats in Indonesia, and it can cause severe symptoms such as fever, vomiting, and diarrhea.
Pestivirus infections are transmitted through direct contact with infected animals or contaminated feces and urine. They can also be spread through blood transfusions and contaminated needles.
Diagnosis of pestivirus infections is typically made through a combination of clinical signs, laboratory tests, and serology. Treatment is primarily supportive, and may include antibiotics for secondary bacterial infections.
Prevention of pestivirus infections includes vaccination, strict biosecurity measures, and proper handling and disposal of animal waste.
In summary, pestivirus infections are a group of viral diseases that can affect cattle and other ruminants, causing a range of symptoms and potentially leading to severe illness and death. Diagnosis is made through laboratory tests and serology, and treatment is primarily supportive. Prevention includes vaccination, biosecurity measures, and proper waste handling.
The main symptoms of Caliciviridae infections are:
* Stomach cramps
These infections can be diagnosed through laboratory tests, such as viral culture or PCR (polymerase chain reaction) test. There is no specific treatment for Caliciviridae infections, but symptoms can be managed with fluids, rest, and over-the-counter medications to control fever and alleviate discomfort. Prevention includes practicing good hygiene, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, and following proper food handling and preparation techniques.
Word origin: Caliciviridae is derived from the Latin word "calix," meaning "cup" or "goblet," referring to the shape of the viruses' capsid (protein shell).
1. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): A chronic condition characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits.
2. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): A group of chronic conditions that cause inflammation in the digestive tract, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
3. Diverticulosis: A condition in which small pouches form in the wall of the intestine, often causing abdominal pain and changes in bowel habits.
4. Intestinal obstruction: A blockage that prevents food, fluids, and gas from passing through the intestine, often causing abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting.
5. Intestinal ischemia: A reduction in blood flow to the intestine, which can cause damage to the tissues and lead to life-threatening complications.
6. Intestinal cancer: Cancer that develops in the small intestine or large intestine, often causing symptoms such as abdominal pain, weight loss, and rectal bleeding.
7. Gastrointestinal infections: Infections caused by viruses, bacteria, or parasites that affect the gastrointestinal tract, often causing symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.
8. Intestinal motility disorders: Disorders that affect the movement of food through the intestine, often causing symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and constipation.
9. Malabsorption: A condition in which the body is unable to properly absorb nutrients from food, often caused by conditions such as celiac disease or pancreatic insufficiency.
10. Intestinal pseudo-obstruction: A condition in which the intestine becomes narrowed or blocked, often causing symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and constipation.
These are just a few examples of the many potential complications that can occur when the gastrointestinal system is not functioning properly. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any persistent or severe symptoms in order to receive proper diagnosis and treatment.
The symptoms of cholera include:
1. Diarrhea: Cholera causes profuse, watery diarrhea that can last for several days.
2. Dehydration: The loss of fluids and electrolytes due to diarrhea can lead to severe dehydration, which can be life-threatening if not treated promptly.
3. Nausea and vomiting: Cholera patients may experience nausea and vomiting, especially in the early stages of the disease.
4. Abdominal cramps: The abdomen may become tender and painful due to the inflammation caused by the bacteria.
5. Low-grade fever: Some patients with cholera may experience a mild fever, typically less than 102°F (39°C).
Cholera is spread through the fecal-oral route, which means that it is transmitted when someone ingests food or water contaminated with the bacteria. The disease can also be spread by direct contact with infected fecal matter, such as through poor hygiene practices or inadequate waste disposal.
There are several ways to diagnose cholera, including:
1. Stool test: A stool sample can be tested for the presence of Vibrio cholerae using a microscope or a rapid diagnostic test (RDT).
2. Blood test: A blood test can detect the presence of antibodies against Vibrio cholerae, which can indicate that the patient has been infected with the bacteria.
3. Physical examination: A healthcare provider may perform a physical examination to look for signs of dehydration and other symptoms of cholera.
Treatment of cholera typically involves replacing lost fluids and electrolytes through oral rehydration therapy (ORT) or intravenous fluids. Antibiotics may also be given to shorten the duration of diarrhea and reduce the risk of complications. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide more intensive treatment.
Prevention of cholera involves maintaining good hygiene practices, such as washing hands with soap and water, and avoiding consumption of contaminated food and water. Vaccines are also available to protect against cholera, particularly for people living in areas where the disease is common.
In conclusion, cholera is a highly infectious disease that can cause severe dehydration and even death if left untreated. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical to preventing complications and reducing the risk of transmission. Prevention measures such as vaccination and good hygiene practices can also help control the spread of the disease.
Symptoms of campylobacter infections include:
* Diarrhea (often bloody)
* Abdominal pain and cramping
* Nausea and vomiting
* Muscle pain
Transmission of campylobacter infections can occur through the fecal-oral route, contaminated food or water, or direct contact with an infected animal or person. Risk factors for developing a campylobacter infection include eating undercooked poultry, unpasteurized dairy products, and untreated water.
Diagnosis of campylobacter infections typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory testing, and medical imaging. Laboratory tests may include culture isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or immunological assays to detect the presence of Campylobacter bacteria.
Treatment of campylobacter infections typically involves antibiotics such as macrolides, fluoroquinolones, and ceftriaxone. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications such as dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, or sepsis.
Prevention of campylobacter infections includes proper handling and cooking of food, especially poultry, good hygiene practices, and safe water consumption. Vaccines are also being developed to prevent campylobacter infections in animals and humans.
Overall, campylobacter infections can cause a wide range of illnesses, from mild to severe, and proper diagnosis, treatment, and prevention measures are essential to reduce the risk of complications and death.
There are many potential causes of dehydration, including:
* Not drinking enough fluids
* Diarrhea or vomiting
* Sweating excessively
* Diabetes (when the body cannot properly regulate blood sugar levels)
* Certain medications
* Poor nutrition
* Poor sleep
To diagnose dehydration, a healthcare provider will typically perform a physical examination and ask questions about the patient's symptoms and medical history. They may also order blood tests or other diagnostic tests to rule out other conditions that may be causing the symptoms.
Treatment for dehydration usually involves drinking plenty of fluids, such as water or electrolyte-rich drinks like sports drinks. In severe cases, intravenous fluids may be necessary. If the underlying cause of the dehydration is a medical condition, such as diabetes or an infection, treatment will focus on managing that condition.
Preventing dehydration is important for maintaining good health. This can be done by:
* Drinking enough fluids throughout the day
* Avoiding caffeine and alcohol, which can act as diuretics and increase urine production
* Eating a balanced diet that includes plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains
* Avoiding excessive sweating by dressing appropriately for the weather and taking breaks in cool, shaded areas when necessary
* Managing medical conditions like diabetes and kidney disease properly.
In severe cases of dehydration, complications can include seizures, organ failure, and even death. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
Examples of acute diseases include:
1. Common cold and flu
2. Pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Appendicitis and other abdominal emergencies
4. Heart attacks and strokes
5. Asthma attacks and allergic reactions
6. Skin infections and cellulitis
7. Urinary tract infections
8. Sinusitis and meningitis
9. Gastroenteritis and food poisoning
10. Sprains, strains, and fractures.
Acute diseases can be treated effectively with antibiotics, medications, or other therapies. However, if left untreated, they can lead to chronic conditions or complications that may require long-term care. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
Types of Gastrointestinal Diseases:
1. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): A common condition characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel movements.
2. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): A group of chronic conditions that cause inflammation in the digestive tract, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
3. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD): A condition in which stomach acid flows back into the esophagus, causing heartburn and other symptoms.
4. Peptic Ulcer Disease: A condition characterized by ulcers in the lining of the stomach or duodenum.
5. Diverticulitis: A condition in which small pouches form in the wall of the colon and become inflamed.
6. Gastritis: Inflammation of the stomach lining, often caused by infection or excessive alcohol consumption.
7. Esophagitis: Inflammation of the esophagus, often caused by acid reflux or infection.
8. Rectal Bleeding: Hemorrhage from the rectum, which can be a symptom of various conditions such as hemorrhoids, anal fissures, or inflammatory bowel disease.
9. Functional Dyspepsia: A condition characterized by recurring symptoms of epigastric pain, bloating, nausea, and belching.
10. Celiac Disease: An autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to react to gluten, leading to inflammation and damage in the small intestine.
Causes of Gastrointestinal Diseases:
1. Infection: Viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections can cause gastrointestinal diseases.
2. Autoimmune Disorders: Conditions such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis occur when the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in the GI tract.
3. Diet: Consuming a diet high in processed foods, sugar, and unhealthy fats can contribute to gastrointestinal diseases.
4. Genetics: Certain genetic factors can increase the risk of developing certain gastrointestinal diseases.
5. Lifestyle Factors: Smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, stress, and lack of physical activity can all contribute to gastrointestinal diseases.
6. Radiation Therapy: Exposure to radiation therapy can damage the GI tract and increase the risk of developing certain gastrointestinal diseases.
7. Medications: Certain medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and corticosteroids can cause gastrointestinal side effects.
There are two main types of microscopic colitis:
1. Lymphocytic colitis: This type is characterized by an excessive growth of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) in the colon, which can cause damage to the colonic mucosa and lead to symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, and weight loss.
2. Collagenous colitis: This type is characterized by the deposition of a substance called collagen in the colon, which can cause inflammation and scarring. Symptoms are similar to those of lymphocytic colitis.
The exact cause of microscopic colitis is not known, but it is believed to be related to an abnormal immune response to normal gut bacteria. It is more common in women than men and typically affects people between the ages of 40 and 70.
Symptoms of microscopic colitis can include diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss, and fatigue. The condition is usually diagnosed with a colonoscopy and biopsy, which can show inflammation and abnormal cells in the colon. Treatment typically involves medications such as corticosteroids or immunosuppressants to reduce inflammation and manage symptoms. In some cases, dietary changes or avoiding certain foods that may trigger symptoms may also be recommended.
Giardiasis is a disease caused by the protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis, which is found in contaminated water, food, or direct contact with infected individuals. The parasite enters the small intestine and feeds on the mucosal lining, causing inflammation, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps.
Giardiasis is a common disease worldwide, affecting approximately 500 million people annually, with higher prevalence in developing countries. In the United States, it is estimated that over 1.5 million people are infected each year, with the highest incidence rates found among children and travelers to endemic areas.
The symptoms of giardiasis can vary in severity but typically include:
* Diarrhea (sometimes bloody)
* Abdominal cramps
* Weight loss
* Nausea and vomiting
In some cases, the infection can lead to more severe complications such as:
* Malabsorption (deficiency of essential nutrients)
* Inflammation of the intestine
* Rectal prolapse
The diagnosis of giardiasis is based on a combination of clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, and medical history. The most common diagnostic techniques include:
* Microscopic examination of stool samples for the presence of Giardia eggs or trophozoites
* Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect antigens or antibodies against Giardia in stool or blood samples
* Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect the parasite's DNA in stool samples
The treatment of giardiasis typically involves the use of antiparasitic drugs, such as metronidazole or tinidazole. These medications are effective against the parasite and can be administered orally or intravenously, depending on the severity of the infection. The duration of treatment varies depending on the individual case, but it is generally between 5-10 days.
Preventing giardiasis involves avoiding exposure to contaminated water or food sources. Some measures that can be taken to prevent the infection include:
* Avoiding consumption of untreated water, especially when traveling to areas with poor sanitation
* Avoiding contact with people who have diarrhea or are infected with Giardia
* Properly storing and cooking food to kill any parasites that may be present
* Avoiding raw or undercooked meat, especially pork and wild game
* Washing hands frequently, especially before eating or preparing food
It is important to note that giardiasis can be a recurring infection, so it is important to take preventive measures consistently.
Cyclosporiasis is diagnosed through a combination of clinical evaluation and laboratory tests, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and microscopic examination of stool samples. Treatment typically involves the use of antiparasitic medications such as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or albendazole.
Prevention measures for cyclosporiasis include proper food handling and preparation practices, as well as avoiding consumption of untreated water. In areas where the infection is common, boiling or chlorination of water can also help reduce the risk of transmission.
In conclusion, cyclosporiasis is a parasitic infection caused by Cyclospora cayetanensis that is transmitted through contaminated food and water. It can cause a range of symptoms including diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, and fever. Diagnosis is made through laboratory tests, and treatment typically involves antiparasitic medications. Prevention measures include proper food handling and preparation practices, as well as avoiding consumption of untreated water.
Some common types of protozoan infections include:
1. Malaria: Caused by the Plasmodium parasite, which is transmitted through the bite of an infected mosquito.
2. Giardiasis: Caused by the Giardia parasite, which can be found in contaminated food and water or spread through close contact with an infected person.
3. Amoebiasis: Caused by the Entamoeba parasite, which can infect the intestines and cause symptoms such as diarrhea and abdominal pain.
4. Toxoplasmosis: Caused by the Toxoplasma parasite, which can be spread through contact with contaminated soil or cat feces.
5. Cryptosporidiosis: Caused by the Cryptosporidium parasite, which can be found in contaminated water and can cause symptoms such as diarrhea and stomach cramps.
Protozoan infections are typically treated with antiparasitic medications, and early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Some common types of intestinal diseases, parasitic include:
1. Amoebiasis: This is an infection caused by the amoeba Entamoeba histolytica, which can cause diarrhea, abdominal pain, and fever.
2. Giardiasis: This is an infection caused by the parasite Giardia duodenalis, which can cause diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and weight loss.
3. Cryptosporidiosis: This is an infection caused by the parasite Cryptosporidium parvum, which can cause diarrhea, abdominal pain, and fever.
4. Isosporiasis: This is an infection caused by the parasite Isospora belli, which can cause diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and weight loss.
5. Tapeworm infections: These are infections caused by tapeworms, such as Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm) and Dipylidium caninum (dog tapeworm), which can cause abdominal pain, diarrhea, and weight loss.
6. Strongyloidiasis: This is an infection caused by the parasite Strongyloides stercoralis, which can cause diarrhea, abdominal pain, and fatigue.
Intestinal diseases, parasitic can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as stool samples or blood tests. Treatment depends on the specific type of infection and may include antiparasitic medications, anti-diarrheal medications, and supportive care to manage symptoms.
There are several types of malabsorption syndromes, including:
1. Celiac disease: An autoimmune disorder that damages the lining of the small intestine and interferes with nutrient absorption.
2. Crohn's disease: An inflammatory bowel disease that can damage the small intestine and lead to malabsorption.
3. Whipple's disease: A bacterial infection that causes inflammation and damage to the small intestine.
4. Giant cell enteropathy: An immune-mediated disorder that damages the small intestine and interferes with nutrient absorption.
5. Postoperative malabsorption: Malabsorption that occurs after surgery on the small intestine.
6. Pancreatic insufficiency: A condition in which the pancreas is unable to produce enough digestive enzymes to break down food properly.
7. Bacterial overgrowth: An overgrowth of bacteria in the small intestine can interfere with nutrient absorption.
8. Food allergies or intolerances: Certain foods can cause an immune response or irritation to the small intestine, leading to malabsorption.
The symptoms of malabsorption syndromes vary depending on the specific disorder and the severity of the condition. Common symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss, and nutrient deficiencies. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the malabsorption and may involve dietary changes, medication, or surgery.
Vomiting can be caused by a variety of factors, such as:
1. Infection: Viral or bacterial infections can inflame the stomach and intestines, leading to vomiting.
2. Food poisoning: Consuming contaminated or spoiled food can cause vomiting.
3. Motion sickness: Traveling by car, boat, plane, or other modes of transportation can cause motion sickness, which leads to vomiting.
4. Alcohol or drug overconsumption: Drinking too much alcohol or taking certain medications can irritate the stomach and cause vomiting.
5. Pregnancy: Hormonal changes during pregnancy can cause nausea and vomiting, especially during the first trimester.
6. Other conditions: Vomiting can also be a symptom of other medical conditions such as appendicitis, pancreatitis, and migraines.
When someone is vomiting, they may experience:
1. Nausea: A feeling of queasiness or sickness in the stomach.
2. Abdominal pain: Crampy or sharp pain in the abdomen.
3. Diarrhea: Loose, watery stools.
4. Dehydration: Loss of fluids and electrolytes.
5. Headache: A throbbing headache can occur due to dehydration.
6. Fatigue: Weakness and exhaustion.
Treatment for vomiting depends on the underlying cause, but may include:
1. Fluid replacement: Drinking fluids to replenish lost electrolytes and prevent dehydration.
2. Medications: Anti-inflammatory drugs or antibiotics may be prescribed to treat infections or other conditions causing vomiting.
3. Rest: Resting the body and avoiding strenuous activities.
4. Dietary changes: Avoiding certain foods or substances that trigger vomiting.
5. Hospitalization: In severe cases of vomiting, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat underlying conditions.
It is important to seek medical attention if the following symptoms occur with vomiting:
1. Severe abdominal pain.
2. Fever above 101.5°F (38.6°C).
3. Blood in vomit or stools.
4. Signs of dehydration, such as excessive thirst, dark urine, or dizziness.
5. Vomiting that lasts for more than 2 days.
6. Frequent vomiting with no relief.
Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that can cause a range of respiratory illnesses, from the common cold to severe diseases such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). Coronavirus infections are caused by one of the four subtypes of coronaviruses: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta.
The symptoms of coronavirus infections can range from mild to severe and may include:
* Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
* Chest tightness or discomfort
* Sore throat
* Runny nose or stuffy nose
* Body aches or muscle pains
* Nausea or vomiting
In severe cases, coronavirus infections can lead to pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and even death. The virus is primarily spread through close contact with an infected person, such as touching, shaking hands, or kissing. It can also be spread by touching contaminated surfaces and objects, such as door handles, light switches, and countertops.
There are several ways to diagnose coronavirus infections, including:
* Physical examination and medical history
* Chest X-ray or CT scan
* Blood tests
* Nucleic acid test (NAT)
Treatment for coronavirus infections is primarily focused on relieving symptoms and supporting the body's immune system. This may include:
* Antiviral medications
* Oxygen therapy
* Pain relief medication
* Rest and hydration
Prevention is key to avoiding coronavirus infections, and this includes:
* Washing hands frequently with soap and water
* Using alcohol-based hand sanitizers
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing
* Staying home when sick
There are also several vaccines currently being developed to protect against coronavirus infections, but these are not yet widely available. It is important to follow the guidance of public health authorities and take precautions to prevent the spread of the virus.
Torovirus infections are typically transmitted through the fecal-oral route, meaning that they are spread through contaminated food or water that has been infected with the virus. The virus can also be spread through contact with an infected person's vomit or feces.
The symptoms of torovirus infections can vary depending on the species of the virus and the individual's age and health status. In general, HTV infections tend to cause more severe symptoms than BTV infections. Symptoms of HTV infection can include:
* Abdominal pain
* Muscle aches
In severe cases, HTV infection can lead to complications such as dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and bacterial superinfections. BTV infections are typically less severe and may only cause mild symptoms such as fever and diarrhea.
Torovirus infections are diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) or ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Treatment for torovirus infections is primarily focused on managing symptoms and preventing complications. Antiviral medications may be used in severe cases, but their effectiveness is limited.
Prevention of torovirus infections involves good hygiene practices such as washing hands regularly, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, and ensuring that food and water are handled safely. Vaccines are also available for cattle to protect against BTV infection, but there is currently no vaccine available for humans.
In summary, torovirus infections can cause a range of symptoms from mild to severe and can lead to complications such as dehydration and bacterial superinfections. Diagnosis is made through laboratory tests, and treatment is focused on managing symptoms and preventing complications. Prevention involves good hygiene practices and vaccination of cattle.
In severe cases, the infection can spread to other parts of the body, such as the liver or brain, and can cause life-threatening complications. The disease is typically spread through contaminated food or water, and can be diagnosed with a stool sample or blood test. Treatment typically involves antiparasitic medication and supportive care to manage symptoms.
Prevention measures include proper hand washing, safe drinking water, and good sanitation practices. Dysentery, Amebic is a significant public health problem in developing countries where access to clean water and sanitation is limited.
LC can be challenging to diagnose, as it can resemble other conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The diagnosis of LC is based on the combination of clinical symptoms, endoscopic findings, and histopathological features. Endoscopy can help to identify characteristic signs such as erythema, edema, and ulceration in the colonic mucosa, while histopathology can confirm the presence of lymphocytic infiltrates.
There are several risk factors that have been associated with the development of LC, including age (it is more common in older adults), gender (females are more commonly affected than males), and a family history of autoimmune disorders. The exact cause of LC remains unknown, but it is thought to involve an abnormal immune response to enteric bacteria or other antigens in the colon.
Treatment for LC typically involves immunosuppressive medications such as corticosteroids, which can help to reduce inflammation and alleviate symptoms. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove affected portions of the colon. Management of LC also includes lifestyle modifications such as dietary changes and stress reduction techniques, which can help to improve symptoms and quality of life.
The prognosis for LC is generally good, with most patients experiencing improvement in symptoms within a few months of treatment. However, some patients may experience persistent symptoms or develop complications such as colonic strictures or fistulas, which can impact long-term outcomes. Therefore, ongoing monitoring and management are essential to prevent these complications and ensure the best possible outcome for patients with LC.
In summary, LC is a chronic inflammatory condition that affects the colon and is characterized by symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, and rectal bleeding. While the exact cause of LC remains unknown, it is thought to involve an abnormal immune response to enteric bacteria or other antigens in the colon. Treatment typically involves immunosuppressive medications and lifestyle modifications, and management requires ongoing monitoring and attention to prevent complications and ensure the best possible outcome for patients with LC.
Eimeria species are obligate intracellular parasites that infect the epithelial cells lining the intestinal tract of animals, causing damage to the gut mucosa and leading to diarrhea, vomiting, weight loss, and even death. The disease can be acute or chronic, depending on the severity of the infection and the host's immune response.
There are several species of Eimeria that can infect ruminants, with different species affecting different parts of the intestinal tract. For example, Eimeria bovis and Eimeria zuernii infect the caecum and abomasum, respectively, while Eimeria ellipsoidalis and Eimeria falciformis infect the small intestine.
Coccidiosis is typically diagnosed through fecal examination, where the presence of oocysts (eggs) in the feces is indicative of an infection. Treatment options include anticoccidial drugs, which can be administered orally or parenterally, and supportive care to manage symptoms such as diarrhea and dehydration.
Prevention is key to managing coccidiosis, and this includes the use of vaccines, cleanliness and hygiene practices, and controlling the parasite's environmental survival. In some cases, a combination of these methods may be necessary to effectively prevent and control coccidiosis in ruminant populations.
The most common type of colitis is ulcerative colitis, which affects the rectum and lower part of the colon. The symptoms of ulcerative colitis can include:
* Diarrhea (which may be bloody)
* Abdominal pain and cramping
* Rectal bleeding
* Weight loss
* Loss of appetite
* Nausea and vomiting
Microscopic colitis is another type of colitis that is characterized by inflammation in the colon, but without visible ulcers or bleeding. The symptoms of microscopic colitis are similar to those of ulcerative colitis, but may be less severe.
Other types of colitis include:
* Infantile colitis: This is a rare condition that affects babies and young children, and is characterized by diarrhea, fever, and vomiting.
* Isomorphic colitis: This is a rare condition that affects the colon and rectum, and is characterized by inflammation and symptoms similar to ulcerative colitis.
* Radiation colitis: This is a condition that occurs after radiation therapy to the pelvic area, and is characterized by inflammation and symptoms similar to ulcerative colitis.
* Ischemic colitis: This is a condition where there is a reduction in blood flow to the colon, which can lead to inflammation and symptoms such as abdominal pain and diarrhea.
The diagnosis of colitis typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as:
* Colonoscopy: This is a test that uses a flexible tube with a camera on the end to visualize the inside of the colon and rectum.
* Endoscopy: This is a test that uses a flexible tube with a camera on the end to visualize the inside of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum.
* Stool tests: These are tests that analyze stool samples for signs of inflammation or infection.
* Blood tests: These are tests that analyze blood samples for signs of inflammation or infection.
* Biopsy: This is a test that involves taking a small sample of tissue from the colon and examining it under a microscope for signs of inflammation or infection.
Treatment for colitis depends on the underlying cause, but may include medications such as:
* Aminosalicylates: These are medications that help to reduce inflammation in the colon and relieve symptoms such as diarrhea and abdominal pain. Examples include sulfasalazine (Azulfidine) and mesalamine (Asacol).
* Corticosteroids: These are medications that help to reduce inflammation in the body. They may be used short-term to control acute flares of colitis, or long-term to maintain remission. Examples include prednisone and hydrocortisone.
* Immunomodulators: These are medications that help to suppress the immune system and reduce inflammation. Examples include azathioprine (Imuran) and mercaptopurine (Purinethol).
* Biologics: These are medications that target specific proteins involved in the inflammatory response. Examples include infliximab (Remicade) and adalimumab (Humira).
In addition to medication, lifestyle changes such as dietary modifications and stress management techniques may also be helpful in managing colitis symptoms. Surgery may be necessary in some cases where the colitis is severe or persistent, and involves removing damaged portions of the colon and rectum.
It's important to note that colitis can increase the risk of developing colon cancer, so regular screening for colon cancer is recommended for people with chronic colitis. Additionally, people with colitis may be more susceptible to other health problems such as osteoporosis, osteopenia, and liver disease, so it's important to work closely with a healthcare provider to monitor for these conditions and take steps to prevent them.
The term "collagenous" refers to the presence of collagen in the affected tissue or organ. Collagen is a major component of connective tissue, which provides structure and support to various organs and tissues throughout the body. In the case of colitis, collagenous, the immune system mistakenly attacks the collagen in the colon, leading to inflammation and damage to the tissue.
The cause of colitis, collagenous is not well understood, but it is believed to be an autoimmune disorder, meaning that the immune system is reacting abnormally to a normal substance. It can occur in people of all ages and is more common in women than men. Treatment options include medications such as corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, and biologics, as well as dietary changes and lifestyle modifications.
1. Malaria: A disease caused by a parasite that is transmitted through the bite of an infected mosquito. It can cause fever, chills, and flu-like symptoms.
2. Giardiasis: A disease caused by a parasite that is found in contaminated food and water. It can cause diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and weight loss.
3. Toxoplasmosis: A disease caused by a parasite that is transmitted through the consumption of contaminated meat or cat feces. It can cause fever, headache, and swollen lymph nodes.
4. Leishmaniasis: A group of diseases caused by a parasite that is transmitted through the bite of an infected sandfly. It can cause skin sores, fatigue, and weight loss.
5. Chagas disease: A disease caused by a parasite that is transmitted through the bite of an infected triatomine bug. It can cause heart problems, digestive issues, and brain damage.
6. Trichomoniasis: A disease caused by a parasite that is transmitted through sexual contact with an infected person. It can cause vaginal itching, burning during urination, and abnormal vaginal discharge.
7. Cryptosporidiosis: A disease caused by a parasite that is found in contaminated water and food. It can cause diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach cramps.
8. Amoebiasis: A disease caused by a parasite that is found in contaminated water and food. It can cause diarrhea, abdominal pain, and rectal bleeding.
9. Babesiosis: A disease caused by a parasite that is transmitted through the bite of an infected blacklegged tick. It can cause fever, chills, and fatigue.
10. Angiostrongyliasis: A disease caused by a parasite that is transmitted through the ingestion of raw or undercooked snails or slugs. It can cause eosinophilic meningitis, which is an inflammation of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord.
It's important to note that these are just a few examples of parasitic diseases, and there are many more out there. Additionally, while some of these diseases can be treated with antiparasitic medications, others may require long-term management and supportive care. It's important to seek medical attention if you suspect that you have been infected with a parasite or if you experience any symptoms that could be related to a parasitic infection.
Live Fast, Diarrhea
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Diarrhea of a Madman
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Porcine epidemic diarrhoea
Health consequences of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill
Alexander Crombie (surgeon)
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Diarrhea | MedlinePlus
Brainerd Diarrhea | CDC
Chronic Diarrhea in Children - NIDDK
Travelers' Diarrhea | Travelers' Health | CDC
'Diarrhea'[majr:noexp] AND humans[mh] AND english[la] AND 'last 1 Year' [edat] NOT (letter[pt] OR case reports[pt] OR editorial...
Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus secretory diarrhea syndrome - NIH Genetic Testing Registry (GTR) - NCBI
Diarrhea: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Chronic Diarrhea: Diagnosis and Management
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- Diarrhea can cause dehydration , which means that your body does not have enough fluid to work properly. (medlineplus.gov)
- Diarrhea is treated by replacing lost fluids and electrolytes to prevent dehydration. (medlineplus.gov)
- The most serious complication of chronic diarrhea is dehydration . (medicalnewstoday.com)
- While occasional bouts of diarrhea won't cause much of a problem, chronic, prolonged diarrhea expels water and minerals in large volume, leading to dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. (livestrong.com)
- If you have persistent diarrhea with other symptoms of dehydration, you should seek medical attention. (livestrong.com)
- If you have diarrhea but you're in otherwise good health and have none of the symptoms of dehydration, you may benefit from following the BRAT diet. (livestrong.com)
- BRAT stands for bananas, rice, applesauce and toast, which are all bland, soft, low-fiber foods that can help alleviate diarrhea and even reduce your risk of developing dehydration. (livestrong.com)
- Dehydration is a dangerous side effect of diarrhea. (clevelandclinic.org)
- Diarrhea can cause dehydration (when your body loses large amounts of water), electrolyte imbalance (loss of sodium, potassium and magnesium that play a key role in vital bodily functions) and kidney failure (not enough blood/fluid is supplied to the kidneys). (clevelandclinic.org)
- If your diarrhea fails to improve and resolve completely, you can be at risk of complications (dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, kidney failure and organ damage). (clevelandclinic.org)
- Call your healthcare provider if you have diarrhea that fails to get better or go away, or if you experience symptoms of dehydration. (clevelandclinic.org)
- Most people who die from diarrhoea actually die from severe dehydration and fluid loss. (who.int)
- We must not forget that the patient with diarrhea, in addition to eating these foods, should drink plenty of water to avoid dehydration. (botanical-online.com)
- Chronic diarrhea -- diarrhea that lasts at least four weeks -- can be a symptom of a chronic disease. (medlineplus.gov)
- Chronic diarrhea symptoms may be continual, or they may come and go. (medlineplus.gov)
- If you have chronic diarrhea, your health care provider may perform other tests to look for signs of disease. (medlineplus.gov)
- Care should be taken to exclude other causes of chronic diarrhea, both infectious and noninfectious (e.g., lymphocytic colitis, collagenous colitis, tumors, drug reactions). (cdc.gov)
- There have been no known cases of a person developing a chronic condition after the acute onset of Brainerd diarrhea or of a person relapsing once the illness has resolved completely. (cdc.gov)
- Chronic diarrhea is passing loose, watery stools three or more times a day for at least 4 weeks. (nih.gov)
- Chronic diarrhea can affect children of any age. (nih.gov)
- To find the cause of a child's chronic diarrhea, doctors may use information from the child's medical and family history, a physical exam, or tests. (nih.gov)
- How doctors treat chronic diarrhea in children depends on the cause. (nih.gov)
- In rare cases, a doctor may perform surgery to treat the cause of your child's chronic diarrhea. (nih.gov)
- Eating, diet, and nutrition play a major role in chronic diarrhea in children. (nih.gov)
- Depending on the cause, changing what your child eats can prevent, reduce, or stop chronic diarrhea. (nih.gov)
- Chronic diarrhea is a common problem affecting up to 5% of the population at a given time. (medscape.com)
- Irritable bowel syndrome can be distinguished from some other causes of chronic diarrhea by the presence of pain that peaks before defecation, is relieved by defecation, and is associated with changes in stool form or frequency (Rome criteria). (medscape.com)
- Patients with chronic diarrhea usually need some evaluation, but history and physical examination may be sufficient to direct therapy in some. (medscape.com)
- For example, diet, medications, and surgery or radiation therapy can be important causes of chronic diarrhea that can be suspected on the basis of history alone. (medscape.com)
- This clinical perspective addresses the definition, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of chronic diarrhea, which is based on a systematic review produced for the World Congress of Gastroenterology in 2013 [ 1 ] and updated by the authors in 2016. (medscape.com)
- A search of PubMed for the years from 1975 to 2015 was conducted by using the following major search terms and subheadings including "diarrhea," "stool analysis," "irritable bowel syndrome," "chronic diarrhea AND diagnosis," "chronic diarrhea AND therapy," and "breath tests. (medscape.com)
- chronic or persistent diarrhea is defined as an episode that lasts longer than 14 days. (medscape.com)
- A person with chronic diarrhea will typically experience runny stools for longer than 4 weeks , according to the American College of Gastroenterology. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- However, chronic diarrhea may cause other problems if a person does not receive treatment for it. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- In this article, we discuss chronic diarrhea, its causes, and the available treatment options. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- There are many potential causes of chronic diarrhea. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Consuming these sweet substances every day can even lead to chronic diarrhea. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- This is a natural sugar in dairy that can cause chronic diarrhea in people whose bodies cannot digest it. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- This may help the person work out which product is the cause of the chronic diarrhea. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Chronic diarrhea can be an adverse effect of several prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) medications. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- In some cases, an intestinal parasite can give rise to chronic diarrhea. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The American College of Gastroenterology define chronic diarrhea as a symptom that causes loose or watery stools for 4 weeks or longer . (medicalnewstoday.com)
- RESEARCH OBJECTIVES Background Wasting syndrome, a condition that commonly includes chronic diarrhea, is one of the most frequent AIDS-defining conditions among adults and adolescents reported to the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention. (nih.gov)
- They also provide important nutrients that are lost during bouts of chronic diarrhea. (livestrong.com)
- While this isn't a problem if diarrhea lasts only a couple days, it can become a problem if diarrhea is chronic. (livestrong.com)
- Malabsorption and malnutrition are more common with digestive conditions that cause chronic diarrhea, like ulcerative colitis, food intolerances and allergies and chronic infections, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases . (livestrong.com)
- When you have chronic and persistent diarrhea, potassium is one of the electrolytes that's expelled from your body in large volume. (livestrong.com)
- Metabolic disorders and systemic diseases - these are often chronic and debilitating causes for diarrhea. (petmd.com)
- Some clues that will help determine the cause include the duration of the diarrhea, the overall health of the ferret and whether or not it presents any other chronic disease symptoms. (petmd.com)
- Diarrhea that lasts for more than four weeks or comes and goes regularly over a long period of time is called chronic diarrhea. (clevelandclinic.org)
- It is also used to treat chronic diarrhea caused by inflammatory bowel disease (e.g. (medbroadcast.com)
- For adults and children 12 years of age and older who have acute or chronic diarrhea, the recommended dose of loperamide is a starting dose of 4 mg, followed by a 2 mg dose after each loose bowel movement (or bout of diarrhea). (medbroadcast.com)
- For chronic diarrhea, once the optimal daily dose has been established, this dose can be given as a single daily dose or in divided doses. (medbroadcast.com)
- Children 6 to 12 years of age (10 kg to 20 kg) can use this medication for acute or chronic diarrhea if recommended by a doctor. (medbroadcast.com)
- If you have acute (not chronic) diarrhea, see your doctor if it has not improved within 48 hours. (medbroadcast.com)
- Likewise, chronic diarrhea can be a sign of a more serious condition and requires thoughtful evaluation. (bvsalud.org)
Irritable bowel sy2
- If you have a long-term form of diarrhea, such as diarrhea caused by irritable bowel syndrome, changes to your diet and lifestyle may help. (medlineplus.gov)
- Common causes include a range of digestive problems, including irritable bowel syndrome, when diarrhoea often alternates with constipation and is associated with bloating and wind. (aidsmap.com)
- Your doctor may give you antibiotics to treat travelers' diarrhea, but consider using them only for severe cases. (cdc.gov)
- Over-the-counter supplements that contain healthy bacteria may help prevent diarrhea caused by taking antibiotics. (medlineplus.gov)
- Most people do not need to take antibiotics every day to prevent diarrhea while traveling. (medlineplus.gov)
- Can antibiotics cause diarrhea? (clevelandclinic.org)
- Most antibiotics (clindamycin, erythromycins and broad spectrum antibiotics) can cause diarrhea. (clevelandclinic.org)
- Probiotics may also be used as a preventative measure for diarrhea associated with antibiotics. (verywellhealth.com)
Avoid getting d1
- Although we don't want to deprive you of a fascinating talking point during your travels, it's obviously best to avoid getting diarrhoea in the first place. (lonelyplanet.com)
- Brainerd diarrhea should be suspected in any patient who presents with the acute onset of nonbloody diarrhea lasting for more than 4 weeks, and for whom stool cultures and examinations for ova and parasites have been negative. (cdc.gov)
- If severe diarrhea develops soon after you return from your trip, see a doctor and ask for stool tests so you can find out which antibiotic will work for you. (cdc.gov)
- Diarrhea is when you pass loose or watery stool. (medlineplus.gov)
- Patients vary in their definition of diarrhea, citing loose stool consistency, increased frequency, urgency of bowel movements, or incontinence as key symptoms. (medscape.com)
- All of the foods in the BRAT diet are classified as binding foods because they can help solidify your stool and decrease diarrhea. (livestrong.com)
- Diarrhoea can take the form of a semi-loose to completely liquid stool (poo), and may result in having to go to the toilet more often and urgently. (aidsmap.com)
- When you have diarrhea, your stool will be loose and watery. (clevelandclinic.org)
- When you have loose or watery stool, it's called diarrhea. (clevelandclinic.org)
- When you have diarrhea, you lose water and electrolytes along with stool. (clevelandclinic.org)
- If your cat or dog has diarrhea accompanied by fever, vomiting , blood in the stool, or lethargy, consult your veterinarian immediately, as these are serious symptoms. (1800petmeds.com)
Symptoms of diarrhea6
- Several drugs, such as loperamide, can be bought over-the-counter to treat the symptoms of diarrhea. (cdc.gov)
- The symptoms of diarrhea will depend on the underlying cause and severity of the illness, but most often include watery or loose stools, abdominal swelling or distension, and lethargy. (petmd.com)
- What are the symptoms of diarrhea? (clevelandclinic.org)
- Some people argue that yogurt can help ease symptoms of diarrhea, while others say it can make diarrhea worse. (verywellhealth.com)
- If you are sensitive to lactose or have lactose intolerance, then yogurt might make symptoms of diarrhea worse for you. (verywellhealth.com)
- This may help decrease symptoms of diarrhea by up to one day. (verywellhealth.com)
- Approach to the patient with diarrhea and malabsorption. (medlineplus.gov)
- Severe diarrhea and weight loss associated with intestinal damage and malabsorption contribute to malnutrition, poor drug absorption, and diminished quality of life. (nih.gov)
- Another issue caused by diarrhea is malabsorption. (livestrong.com)
- People who visit developing countries are at risk for traveler's diarrhea . (medlineplus.gov)
- Two types of diarrhea can be prevented - rotavirus diarrhea and traveler's diarrhea. (medlineplus.gov)
- Plan ahead by learning the risks and treatment for traveler's diarrhea before your trip. (medlineplus.gov)
- Traveler's diarrhea causes loose, watery stools. (medlineplus.gov)
- People can get traveler's diarrhea when they visit places where the water is not clean or the food is not handled safely. (medlineplus.gov)
- This article tells you what you should eat or drink if you have traveler's diarrhea. (medlineplus.gov)
- Bacteria, parasites, and other substances in the water and food can cause traveler's diarrhea. (medlineplus.gov)
- You can lower your risk of getting traveler's diarrhea by avoiding water, ice, and food that may be contaminated. (medlineplus.gov)
- The goal of the traveler's diarrhea diet is to make your symptoms better and prevent you from getting dehydrated . (medlineplus.gov)
- Traveler's diarrhea is rarely dangerous in adults. (medlineplus.gov)
- There is no vaccine against traveler's diarrhea. (medlineplus.gov)
- A prescription medicine called rifaximin can also help prevent traveler's diarrhea. (medlineplus.gov)
- Symptom clusters and settings can be used to assess the likelihood of particular causes of diarrhea. (medscape.com)
- Many different conditions have diarrhea as a symptom. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Diarrhea can also be a secondary symptom to another (sometimes more serious) condition. (petmd.com)
- Diarrhoea can be a symptom of medical problems such as appendicitis, or of food poisoning, allergy or intolerance. (aidsmap.com)
- Diarrhea is a symptom of countless conditions, and left unchecked, it can weaken the body and obstruct the healing process. (aloeelite.com)
- The characteristic symptom of shigellosis is diarrhea, which often contains mucus or blood. (medicaldaily.com)
- It is common for diarrhoea to be accompanied by stomach pains, bloating, nausea, vomiting , fever and loss of appetite. (aidsmap.com)
- Brainerd diarrhea is a syndrome of acute onset of watery diarrhea (3 or more loose stools per day) lasting 4 weeks or longer, which can occur in outbreaks or as sporadic cases. (cdc.gov)
- Patients typically experience 10-20 episodes per day of explosive, watery diarrhea, characterized by urgency and often by fecal incontinence. (cdc.gov)
- Presentation is most commonly the clinical triad of watery diarrhea, endocrinopathy (most commonly insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus), and eczematous dermatitis. (nih.gov)
- The most common, acute diarrhea is loose watery diarrhea that lasts one to two days. (clevelandclinic.org)
- Eating or drinking food or water that contains certain types of bacteria or parasites can also lead to diarrhea. (medlineplus.gov)
- Intestinal protozoa often associated with AIDS include coccidian parasites causing protracted diarrhea (e.g. (nih.gov)
- Diarrhoea can also be caused by bacterial infections, parasites and viruses. (aidsmap.com)
- Depending on the cause of the problem, you may need medicines to stop the diarrhea or treat an infection. (medlineplus.gov)
- CDAD is associated with a bacterial infection in the lining of the gut that can cause severe diarrhea, inflammation of the colon and in some cases death. (foxbusiness.com)
- This PA, Infectious Causes of Diarrhea or Wasting Syndrome in People with AIDS, is related to the priority area of HIV infection. (nih.gov)
- Diarrhoea caused by infection will usually settle down after a few days. (aidsmap.com)
- There is a higher risk of fungal infection, diarrhoea, food infection, viral fever and eye problems like conjunctivitis in rainy season but most people do not know about the symptoms of these diseases. (hindustantimes.com)
- There is a higher risk of fungal infection, diarrhoea, food infection, viral fever and eye problems but most people do not know about the symptoms of these diseases, which is why it is important to create awareness about such diseases in the rainy season. (hindustantimes.com)
- Some people also get diarrhea after stomach surgery, because sometimes the surgeries can cause food to move through your digestive system more quickly. (medlineplus.gov)
- Diarrhea makes it difficult for your body to absorb nutrients from your food since things are moving through your digestive system so quickly. (livestrong.com)
- Having such a richness in sulphur-containing components, this plant, together with onion, becomes of the best natural remedies to cure infectious processes of digestive tract, intestine putrefactions and diarrhea. (botanical-online.com)
- AloeElite will in no way cause or intensify diarrhea, but when first taking our product, many of our clients struggle to control excessive or loose stools associated with a digestive disorder. (aloeelite.com)
- By controlling diarrhea, AloeElite has an opportunity to absorb into the digestive tract, imbuing the body with all the known benefits of AMP molecules. (aloeelite.com)
Types of diarrhea2
- Acute diarrhea is diarrhea that lasts a short time. (medlineplus.gov)
- If a virus or bacteria is the cause of your diarrhea, you may also have a fever, chills, and bloody stools. (medlineplus.gov)
- Diarrhea can be caused by bacteria. (clevelandclinic.org)
- On the other hand, the beneficial bacteria ( probiotics ) in yogurt are thought to be the main reason for its ability to help decrease diarrhea symptoms. (verywellhealth.com)
- Probiotics may help ease acute diarrhea caused by bacteria, as well as Clostridioides difficile -associated diarrhea, especially if taken at the first signs of symptoms. (verywellhealth.com)
- Experts have found that certain strains of probiotic bacteria are better at treating or preventing diarrhea than others. (verywellhealth.com)
- There has been an extensive increase in the drug-resistant Shigella bacteria responsible for watery and possibly bloody diarrhea, according to the latest data. (medicaldaily.com)
- Diarrhea is loose, watery stools (bowel movements). (medlineplus.gov)
- Some drugs can cause severe diarrhoea, involving several trips to the toilet each day, with large, uncontrollable liquid bowel movements, as well as feeling weak and dizzy. (aidsmap.com)
- Too sweet food since it increases peristaltism (bowel movements) producing of favoring diarrhea encouraging. (botanical-online.com)
- Diarrhea can be a complication of some types of abdominal or intestinal surgery. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Give your pet Fast Balance-G.I. immediately when diarrhea occurs, and daily until diarrhea resolves, because it helps the intestinal cells function in a normal manner so that the diarrhea stops. (1800petmeds.com)
- For cats with diarrhea caused by intestinal worms , Profender Cat Dewormer (Rx) is effective against roundworms, hookworms, and tapeworms. (1800petmeds.com)
- They are good intestinal regulators are also able to prevent constipation, such as while, for its richness in pectin, calm diarrhea. (botanical-online.com)
- Children with diarrhea should be given oral rehydration solutions to replace lost fluids and electrolytes. (medlineplus.gov)
- You have diarrhea if you have loose stools three or more times in one day. (medlineplus.gov)
- The wide diversity of bacterial and viral infections that may cause diarrhoea complicates accurate surveillance and diagnosis, especially in developing countries with little or no access to modern laboratory procedures. (who.int)
- Dificid was granted marketing approval as a treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, or CDAD, in adults 18 years and older. (foxbusiness.com)
- Probiotics have shown promise for a variety of health purposes, including prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (including diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile ), prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis in premature infants, treatment of infant colic , treatment of periodontal disease , and induction or maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis . (nih.gov)
- If you are an individual suffering from diarrhea, you may consider using Loperamide or some other effective anti-diarrheal temporarily so that AloeElite will have a chance to absorb. (aloeelite.com)
- Imodium is the brand name for the medication Loperamide and for most people, it is the single most effective product on the market for controlling diarrhea. (aloeelite.com)
- Avoid medicines for diarrhea that you can buy without a prescription unless your provider tells you to use them. (medlineplus.gov)
- This is a functional disorder that can cause diarrhea, constipation , or both. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- On average, adults In the United States have acute diarrhea once a year. (medlineplus.gov)
- In otherwise healthy adults, diarrhea is rarely serious or life-threatening, but it can make a trip very unpleasant. (cdc.gov)
- It needs to be treated differently than you would treat diarrhea in adults. (medlineplus.gov)
- Diarrhea occurs when a person has loose or watery stools. (medicalnewstoday.com)
Type of diarrhea2
Cases of diarrhea5
- Most people experience this common illness at some point in their lives, with short-term cases of diarrhea being the second most commonly reported illness in the United States. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Treatment in cases of diarrhea depends on the underlying cause of the condition. (petmd.com)
- During severe cases of diarrhea, however, the ferret will need hospitalization to monitor the animal until it is stabilized. (petmd.com)
- Although most cases of diarrhea are self-limited (happening for a fixed amount of time and steady level of severity), sometimes diarrhea can lead to serious complications. (clevelandclinic.org)
- Food intolerances are responsible for many cases of diarrhea. (botanical-online.com)
- Brainerd diarrhea usually resolves on its own or without specific medical treatment. (cdc.gov)
- Wasting syndrome, in the absence of diarrhea or gastrointestinal pathogens, is poorly understood, but may involve decreased nutrient absorption, metabolic disturbances, and excess production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) or other immune effectors. (nih.gov)
- In these cases, it would be best to avoid eating yogurt and other dairy products-especially if you are experiencing diarrhea and other gastrointestinal (GI) related issues. (verywellhealth.com)
- Taking 2 tablets of Pepto-Bismol 4 times a day before you travel and while you are traveling can help prevent diarrhea. (medlineplus.gov)
- In serious cases of travelers' diarrhea, oral rehydration solution-available online or in pharmacies in developing countries-can be used for fluid replacements. (cdc.gov)
- Management is generally supportive: In most cases, the best option for treatment of acute-onset diarrhea is the early use of oral rehydration therapy (ORT). (medscape.com)
- Acute Diarrhea in Children: Oral Rehydration, Maint. (cdc.gov)
- The most common cause of diarrhea is the stomach flu ( viral gastroenteritis ). (medlineplus.gov)
- In general, diarrhea is self-limited and goes away (resolves) without intervention. (clevelandclinic.org)
- Objectives and scope The objective of this PA is to stimulate drug discovery through original and innovative research focused on key metabolic and pathophysiologic features of infectious organisms contributing to diarrhea or wasting syndrome. (nih.gov)
- Inflammatory and infectious diarrhea are two serious forms of the condition. (petmd.com)
- There is no known curative treatment for Brainerd diarrhea. (cdc.gov)
- A survey of gastroenterologists suggested that many patients who are not associated with a recognized outbreak seek treatment for illness compatible with Brainerd diarrhea. (cdc.gov)
- Shares of Optimer Pharmaceuticals (NASDAQ:OPTR) rose nearly 7% on Tuesday after the drug maker said its antibacterial diarrhea treatment Dificid was approved by the Food and Drug Administration . (foxbusiness.com)
- Together, bananas and rice make up two major components of the BRAT diet, which is often recommended as part of diarrhea treatment. (livestrong.com)
- Your doctor can investigate the cause of diarrhoea and provide treatment. (aidsmap.com)
- In most cases, diarrhoea goes away after the first few weeks or months of treatment. (aidsmap.com)
- Discuss any problems with your doctor, who may be able to recommend treatments for the diarrhoea or, if necessary, change your HIV treatment . (aidsmap.com)
- In case of diarrhea, their slightly astringent properties help overcome diarrhea, resulting in an excellent aid for the treatment of colitis. (botanical-online.com)
- Hawthorn fruits, because they contain much starch, catechins and zinc, have astringent properties making them useful for the treatment of diarrhea. (botanical-online.com)
- If you find the dosage inadequate for controlling the diarrhea, consider a more aggressive course of treatment. (aloeelite.com)
- It can be more severe and protracted than the more common watery diarrhoea described earlier, and usually needs antibiotic treatment. (lonelyplanet.com)
- Treatment and preventive tips to avoid diarrhoea - The main cause of diarrhoea is rotavirus. (hindustantimes.com)
- In the R01 human study, patients will consume BB-12 in yogurt during antibiotic treatment and will be observed for the frequency and duration of diarrhea and adverse outcomes. (nih.gov)
- What's the difference between normal diarrhea and severe diarrhea? (clevelandclinic.org)
- When you have diarrhea, you may need to quickly run to the bathroom with urgency and this may happen more frequently than normal. (clevelandclinic.org)
- Persistent diarrhea increases your risk of nutrient deficiencies and malnourishment. (livestrong.com)
- When do I need to see a health care provider for diarrhea? (medlineplus.gov)
- If children have diarrhea, parents or caregivers should not hesitate to call a health care provider. (medlineplus.gov)
- Talk with your health care provider if your child has diarrhea. (medlineplus.gov)
- For each of these people, diarrhea can cause other health problems. (clevelandclinic.org)
- Can diarrhea harm your health? (clevelandclinic.org)
- Ultimately, primary care physicians must take an evidence-based and comprehensive approach to diarrhea to appropriately apply health care resources in the interest of patient care . (bvsalud.org)
- Is Yogurt Good for Diarrhea? (verywellhealth.com)
- Yogurt can usually help with diarrhea. (verywellhealth.com)
- If you have diarrhea and would like to try yogurt as a home remedy, choose a brand that contains probiotics and is low in sugar. (verywellhealth.com)
- This article discusses yogurt and its impact on diarrhea symptoms, including what to look for in yogurt, what to avoid, and when to see a healthcare provider for diarrhea. (verywellhealth.com)
- Does Yogurt Help Diarrhea? (verywellhealth.com)
- This makes it difficult to know which yogurt to choose for diarrhea. (verywellhealth.com)
- Roundworms, tapeworms, and hookworms cause small intestine diarrhea. (1800petmeds.com)
- Once the cause of Brainerd diarrhea is identified, more specific prevention measures can be formulated. (cdc.gov)
- Despite extensive clinical and laboratory investigations, the cause of Brainerd diarrhea has not yet been identified. (cdc.gov)
- The clinical presentation and course of diarrhea therefore depend on its cause and on the host. (medscape.com)
- Antimicrobial and antiparasitic agents may be used to treat diarrhea caused by specific organisms and/or clinical circumstances. (medscape.com)