The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.
Complete or severe weakness of the muscles of respiration. This condition may be associated with MOTOR NEURON DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; injury to the PHRENIC NERVE; and other disorders.
Respiratory muscles that arise from the lower border of one rib and insert into the upper border of the adjoining rib, and contract during inspiration or respiration. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.
Contraceptive devices used by females.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.
Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
The act of BREATHING in.
Highly differentiated epithelial cells of the visceral layer of BOWMAN CAPSULE of the KIDNEY. They are composed of a cell body with major CELL SURFACE EXTENSIONS and secondary fingerlike extensions called pedicels. They enwrap the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS capillaries with their cell surface extensions forming a filtration structure. The pedicels of neighboring podocytes interdigitate with each other leaving between them filtration slits that are bridged by an extracellular structure impermeable to large macromolecules called the slit diaphragm, and provide the last barrier to protein loss in the KIDNEY.
A congenital abnormality characterized by the elevation of the DIAPHRAGM dome. It is the result of a thinned diaphragmatic muscle and injured PHRENIC NERVE, allowing the intra-abdominal viscera to push the diaphragm upward against the LUNG.
A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)
A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.
A strain of mice arising from a spontaneous MUTATION (mdx) in inbred C57BL mice. This mutation is X chromosome-linked and produces viable homozygous animals that lack the muscle protein DYSTROPHIN, have high serum levels of muscle ENZYMES, and possess histological lesions similar to human MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY. The histological features, linkage, and map position of mdx make these mice a worthy animal model of DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY.
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Muscle contraction with negligible change in the force of contraction but shortening of the distance between the origin and insertion.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.
The specialized postsynaptic region of a muscle cell. The motor endplate is immediately across the synaptic cleft from the presynaptic axon terminal. Among its anatomical specializations are junctional folds which harbor a high density of cholinergic receptors.
The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.
The volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. It is the equivalent to each of the following sums: VITAL CAPACITY plus RESIDUAL VOLUME; INSPIRATORY CAPACITY plus FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY; TIDAL VOLUME plus INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus functional residual capacity; or tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume plus EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus residual volume.
RESPIRATORY MUSCLE contraction during INHALATION. The work is accomplished in three phases: LUNG COMPLIANCE work, that required to expand the LUNGS against its elastic forces; tissue resistance work, that required to overcome the viscosity of the lung and chest wall structures; and AIRWAY RESISTANCE work, that required to overcome airway resistance during the movement of air into the lungs. Work of breathing does not refer to expiration, which is entirely a passive process caused by elastic recoil of the lung and chest cage. (Guyton, Textbook of Medical Physiology, 8th ed, p406)
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Paired but separate cavity within the THORACIC CAVITY. It consists of the space between the parietal and visceral PLEURA and normally contains a capillary layer of serous fluid that lubricates the pleural surfaces.
Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
A neuromuscular blocker and active ingredient in CURARE; plant based alkaloid of Menispermaceae.
The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the RESIDUAL VOLUME and the EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is FRC.
A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.
The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Compounds that contain the decamethylenebis(trimethyl)ammonium radical. These compounds frequently act as neuromuscular depolarizing agents.
The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
C18 steroid with androgenic and anabolic properties. It is generally prepared from alkyl ethers of ESTRADIOL to resemble TESTOSTERONE but less one carbon at the 19 position.
The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.
Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.
The outer margins of the thorax containing SKIN, deep FASCIA; THORACIC VERTEBRAE; RIBS; STERNUM; and MUSCLES.
Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
A specialized barrier in the kidney, consisting of the fenestrated CAPILLARY ENDOTHELIUM; GLOMERULAR BASEMENT MEMBRANE; and glomerular epithelium (PODOCYTES). The barrier prevents the filtration of PLASMA PROTEINS.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
An X-linked recessive muscle disease caused by an inability to synthesize DYSTROPHIN, which is involved with maintaining the integrity of the sarcolemma. Muscle fibers undergo a process that features degeneration and regeneration. Clinical manifestations include proximal weakness in the first few years of life, pseudohypertrophy, cardiomyopathy (see MYOCARDIAL DISEASES), and an increased incidence of impaired mentation. Becker muscular dystrophy is a closely related condition featuring a later onset of disease (usually adolescence) and a slowly progressive course. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1415)
Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The posture of an individual lying face up.
A muscle protein localized in surface membranes which is the product of the Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy gene. Individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy usually lack dystrophin completely while those with Becker muscular dystrophy have dystrophin of an altered size. It shares features with other cytoskeletal proteins such as SPECTRIN and alpha-actinin but the precise function of dystrophin is not clear. One possible role might be to preserve the integrity and alignment of the plasma membrane to the myofibrils during muscle contraction and relaxation. MW 400 kDa.
Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY without inflammatory or neoplastic components. Nephrosis may be a primary disorder or secondary complication of other diseases. It is characterized by the NEPHROTIC SYNDROME indicating the presence of PROTEINURIA and HYPOALBUMINEMIA with accompanying EDEMA.
The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .
A colorimetric reagent for iron, manganese, titanium, molybdenum, and complexes of zirconium. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A bis-quaternary steroid that is a competitive nicotinic antagonist. As a neuromuscular blocking agent it is more potent than CURARE but has less effect on the circulatory system and on histamine release.
Tumors or cancer located in muscle tissue or specific muscles. They are differentiated from NEOPLASMS, MUSCLE TISSUE which are neoplasms composed of skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscle tissue, such as MYOSARCOMA or LEIOMYOMA.
The posture of an individual lying face down.
Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction by causing sustained depolarization of the motor end plate. These agents are primarily used as adjuvants in surgical anesthesia to cause skeletal muscle relaxation.
The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.
A potent inhibitor of the high affinity uptake system for CHOLINE. It has less effect on the low affinity uptake system. Since choline is one of the components of ACETYLCHOLINE, treatment with hemicholinium can deplete acetylcholine from cholinergic terminals. Hemicholinium 3 is commonly used as a research tool in animal and in vitro experiments.
The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a maximal expiration. Common abbreviation is RV.
Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction without causing depolarization of the motor end plate. They prevent acetylcholine from triggering muscle contraction and are used as muscle relaxants during electroshock treatments, in convulsive states, and as anesthesia adjuvants.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.
Techniques for effecting the transition of the respiratory-failure patient from mechanical ventilation to spontaneous ventilation, while meeting the criteria that tidal volume be above a given threshold (greater than 5 ml/kg), respiratory frequency be below a given count (less than 30 breaths/min), and oxygen partial pressure be above a given threshold (PaO2 greater than 50mm Hg). Weaning studies focus on finding methods to monitor and predict the outcome of mechanical ventilator weaning as well as finding ventilatory support techniques which will facilitate successful weaning. Present methods include intermittent mandatory ventilation, intermittent positive pressure ventilation, and mandatory minute volume ventilation.
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be breathed in and blown out over a sustained interval such as 15 or 20 seconds. Common abbreviations are MVV and MBC.
The study of MAGNETIC PHENOMENA.
That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
Evidence-based nursing, midwifery and healthcare grounded in research and scholarship. Practitioners include nurse practitioners, clinical nurse specialists, nurse anesthetists, and nurse midwives.
A potent, long-acting cholinesterase inhibitor used as a miotic in the treatment of glaucoma.
Mechanical ventilation delivered to match the patient's efforts in breathing as detected by the interactive ventilation device.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Chemical substances that are destructive to spermatozoa used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.
The sudden, forceful, involuntary expulsion of air from the NOSE and MOUTH caused by irritation to the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.
The type of DIAPHRAGMATIC HERNIA caused by TRAUMA or injury, usually to the ABDOMEN.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.
These compounds stimulate anabolism and inhibit catabolism. They stimulate the development of muscle mass, strength, and power.
Neurotoxic proteins from the venom of the banded or Formosan krait (Bungarus multicinctus, an elapid snake). alpha-Bungarotoxin blocks nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and has been used to isolate and study them; beta- and gamma-bungarotoxins act presynaptically causing acetylcholine release and depletion. Both alpha and beta forms have been characterized, the alpha being similar to the large, long or Type II neurotoxins from other elapid venoms.
A system of organs and tissues that process and transport immune cells and LYMPH.
A respiratory stimulant that enhances respiration by acting as an agonist of peripheral chemoreceptors located on the carotid bodies. The drug increases arterial oxygen tension while decreasing arterial carbon dioxide tension in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It may also prove useful in the treatment of nocturnal oxygen desaturation without impairing the quality of sleep.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
Vestibular nucleus lying immediately superior to the inferior vestibular nucleus and composed of large multipolar nerve cells. Its upper end becomes continuous with the superior vestibular nucleus.
A giant elastic protein of molecular mass ranging from 2,993 kDa (cardiac), 3,300 kDa (psoas), to 3,700 kDa (soleus) having a kinase domain. The amino- terminal is involved in a Z line binding, and the carboxy-terminal region is bound to the myosin filament with an overlap between the counter-connectin filaments at the M line.
Instruments intended to detect and study sound produced by the heart, lungs, or other parts of the body. (from UMDNS, 1999)
The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.
A quaternary skeletal muscle relaxant usually used in the form of its bromide, chloride, or iodide. It is a depolarizing relaxant, acting in about 30 seconds and with a duration of effect averaging three to five minutes. Succinylcholine is used in surgical, anesthetic, and other procedures in which a brief period of muscle relaxation is called for.
A 195-kDa zonula occludens protein that is distinguished by the presence of a ZU5 domain at the C-terminal of the molecule.
The first digit on the radial side of the hand which in humans lies opposite the other four.
An autosomally-encoded 376-kDa cytoskeletal protein that is similar in structure and function to DYSTROPHIN. It is a ubiquitously-expressed protein that plays a role in anchoring the CYTOSKELETON to the PLASMA MEMBRANE.
A historical and cultural entity dispersed across a wide geographical area under the influence of Greek civilization, culture, and science. The Greek Empire extended from the Greek mainland and the Aegean islands from the 16th century B.C., to the Indus Valley in the 4th century under Alexander the Great, and to southern Italy and Sicily. Greek medicine began with Homeric and Aesculapian medicine and continued unbroken to Hippocrates (480-355 B.C.). The classic period of Greek medicine was 460-136 B.C. and the Graeco-Roman period, 156 B.C.-576 A.D. (From A. Castiglioni, A History of Medicine, 2d ed; from F. H. Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed)
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
The appearance of carbonyl groups (such as aldehyde or ketone groups) in PROTEINS as the result of several oxidative modification reactions. It is a standard marker for OXIDATIVE STRESS. Carbonylated proteins tend to be more hydrophobic and resistant to proteolysis.
A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.
The ventral rami of the thoracic nerves from segments T1 through T11. The intercostal nerves supply motor and sensory innervation to the thorax and abdomen. The skin and muscles supplied by a given pair are called, respectively, a dermatome and a myotome.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
A condition with trapped gas or air in the PERITONEAL CAVITY, usually secondary to perforation of the internal organs such as the LUNG and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, or to recent surgery. Pneumoperitoneum may be purposely introduced to aid radiological examination.
A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.
Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.
A syndrome associated with inflammation of the BRACHIAL PLEXUS. Clinical features include severe pain in the shoulder region which may be accompanied by MUSCLE WEAKNESS and loss of sensation in the upper extremity. This condition may be associated with VIRUS DISEASES; IMMUNIZATION; SURGERY; heroin use (see HEROIN DEPENDENCE); and other conditions. The term brachial neuralgia generally refers to pain associated with brachial plexus injury. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1355-6)
A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.
Conditions characterized by impaired transmission of impulses at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. This may result from disorders that affect receptor function, pre- or postsynaptic membrane function, or ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE activity. The majority of diseases in this category are associated with autoimmune, toxic, or inherited conditions.
A pathological accumulation of air in tissues or organs.
The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.
The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.
X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.
The physiologic or functional barrier to GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX at the esophagogastric junction. Sphincteric muscles remain tonically contracted during the resting state and form the high-pressure zone separating the lumen of the ESOPHAGUS from that of the STOMACH. (Haubrich et al, Bockus Gastroenterology, 5th ed., pp399, 415)
Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
A long flat muscle that extends along the whole length of both sides of the abdomen. It flexes the vertebral column, particularly the lumbar portion; it also tenses the anterior abdominal wall and assists in compressing the abdominal contents. It is frequently the site of hematomas. In reconstructive surgery it is often used for the creation of myocutaneous flaps. (From Gray's Anatomy, 30th American ed, p491)
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
The thin serous membrane enveloping the lungs (LUNG) and lining the THORACIC CAVITY. Pleura consist of two layers, the inner visceral pleura lying next to the pulmonary parenchyma and the outer parietal pleura. Between the two layers is the PLEURAL CAVITY which contains a thin film of liquid.
Mechanical devices used to produce or assist pulmonary ventilation.
Severe or complete loss of motor function in all four limbs which may result from BRAIN DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or rarely MUSCULAR DISEASES. The locked-in syndrome is characterized by quadriplegia in combination with cranial muscle paralysis. Consciousness is spared and the only retained voluntary motor activity may be limited eye movements. This condition is usually caused by a lesion in the upper BRAIN STEM which injures the descending cortico-spinal and cortico-bulbar tracts.
Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
Substances used to identify the location and to characterize the types of NEURAL PATHWAYS.
The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.
Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.
The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.
A subset of ubiquitin protein ligases that are formed by the association of a SKP DOMAIN PROTEIN, a CULLIN DOMAIN PROTEIN and a F-BOX DOMAIN PROTEIN.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.
Medicated dosage forms for topical application in the vagina. A cream is a semisolid emulsion containing suspended or dissolved medication; a foam is a dispersion of a gas in a medicated liquid resulting in a light, frothy mass; a jelly is a colloidal semisolid mass of a water soluble medicated material, usually translucent.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The 12th cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve originates in the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla and supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the vagus). This nerve also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
The position or attitude of the body.
A genus of the order Sirenia comprising what are commonly called manatees. The distinguishing characteristics include a tail that is not notched, a short nasal cavity, the absence of nasal bones, and enamel-covered teeth. Members of this genus are found in marine bays and/or sluggish rivers, usually in turbid water. (From Scott, Concise Encyclopedia Biology, 1996)
The spread of response if stimulation is prolonged. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)
The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.
Photography of objects viewed under a microscope using ordinary photographic methods.
An accumulation of air or gas in the PLEURAL CAVITY, which may occur spontaneously or as a result of trauma or a pathological process. The gas may also be introduced deliberately during PNEUMOTHORAX, ARTIFICIAL.
Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.
Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.
Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.
A form of creatine kinase found in the MITOCHONDRIA.
The act of BREATHING out.
Ethers that are linked to a benzene ring structure.
A drug combination that contains THEOPHYLLINE and ethylenediamine. It is more soluble in water than theophylline but has similar pharmacologic actions. It's most common use is in bronchial asthma, but it has been investigated for several other applications.
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A cholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and to reverse the effects of muscle relaxants such as gallamine and tubocurarine. Neostigmine, unlike PHYSOSTIGMINE, does not cross the blood-brain barrier.
A condition characterized by severe PROTEINURIA, greater than 3.5 g/day in an average adult. The substantial loss of protein in the urine results in complications such as HYPOPROTEINEMIA; generalized EDEMA; HYPERTENSION; and HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. Diseases associated with nephrotic syndrome generally cause chronic kidney dysfunction.
A reduction in the amount of air entering the pulmonary alveoli.
Voluntary activity without external compulsion.
Surgical incision into the chest wall.
A general term encompassing lower MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and certain MUSCULAR DISEASES. Manifestations include MUSCLE WEAKNESS; FASCICULATION; muscle ATROPHY; SPASM; MYOKYMIA; MUSCLE HYPERTONIA, myalgias, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
PUROMYCIN derivative that lacks the methoxyphenylalanyl group on the amine of the sugar ring. It is an antibiotic with antineoplastic properties and can cause nephrosis.
The act of taking solids and liquids into the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT through the mouth and throat.
A glucocorticoid given, as the free alcohol or in esterified form, orally, intramuscularly, by local injection, by inhalation, or applied topically in the management of various disorders in which corticosteroids are indicated. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p739)
Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Measurement of the volume of gas in the lungs, including that which is trapped in poorly communicating air spaces. It is of particular use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a slow onset and a short duration of action. It is mainly used for infiltration anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, and spinal block. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1016).
The most divergent of the known fibroblast growth factor receptors. It does not contain an intracellular TYROSINE KINASE domain and has been shown to interact with FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 5 is found primarily in skeletal tissue.
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.
A heterogeneous group of inherited MYOPATHIES, characterized by wasting and weakness of the SKELETAL MUSCLE. They are categorized by the sites of MUSCLE WEAKNESS; AGE OF ONSET; and INHERITANCE PATTERNS.
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.7.
Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.
The central part of the body to which the neck and limbs are attached.
Descriptive anatomy based on three-dimensional imaging (IMAGING, THREE-DIMENSIONAL) of the body, organs, and structures using a series of computer multiplane sections, displayed by transverse, coronal, and sagittal analyses. It is essential to accurate interpretation by the radiologist of such techniques as ultrasonic diagnosis, MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING, and computed tomography (TOMOGRAPHY, X-RAY COMPUTED). (From Lane & Sharfaei, Modern Sectional Anatomy, 1992, Preface)
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.
The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).
The electrical response evoked in a muscle or motor nerve by electrical or magnetic stimulation. Common methods of stimulation are by transcranial electrical and TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION. It is often used for monitoring during neurosurgery.
The area covering the terminal portion of ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of STOMACH at the cardiac orifice.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
The pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles that make up the upper and fore part of the chest in front of the AXILLA.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.
A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.
Drugs that interrupt transmission of nerve impulses at the skeletal neuromuscular junction. They can be of two types, competitive, stabilizing blockers (NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS) or noncompetitive, depolarizing agents (NEUROMUSCULAR DEPOLARIZING AGENTS). Both prevent acetylcholine from triggering the muscle contraction and they are used as anesthesia adjuvants, as relaxants during electroshock, in convulsive states, etc.
A substituted phenylaminoethanol that has beta-2 adrenomimetic properties at very low doses. It is used as a bronchodilator in asthma.
Abnormal breathing through the mouth, usually associated with obstructive disorders of the nasal passages.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
The research and development of ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES for such medical applications as diagnosis, therapy, research, anesthesia control, cardiac control, and surgery. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
"Diaphragm" (in French). "Vaginal ring" (in French). "Contraceptive sterilization" (in French). "Natural methods" (in French).. ... Diaphragms are generally made of latex or silicone. They slide into the vagina, in contact with the cervix, to prevent the ... The vaginal ring is a flexible porous plastic ring that contains a combination of estrogen and progestin. The advantage ... A brand of birth control Pills in France Plate of birth control pills Vaginal Ring Patch Cream and Eggs Spermicides Abortion in ...
The cap was developed after the cervical diaphragm. Both cover the cervix and the main difference between the diaphragm and the ... This can be done on either urine in both men and women, vaginal or cervical swabs in women, or urethral swabs in men. Screening ... The diaphragm, however, can be used more than once. These two devices partially protect against STIs (they do not protect ... This can occur through kissing, vaginal intercourse, oral sex or anal sex. The virus is most infectious during times when there ...
The vaginal mucosa thickens and the vaginal pH becomes acidic again. Girls may also experience a thin, white vaginal discharge ... The middle third of the vagina involves the urogenital diaphragm. It is supported by the levator ani muscles and the lower ... Another vaginal anomaly is a transverse vaginal septum, which partially or completely blocks the vaginal canal. The precise ... Vaginal evisceration is a serious complication of a vaginal hysterectomy and occurs when the vaginal cuff ruptures, allowing ...
... an improved diaphragm, a patch containing only progestin, and a vaginal ring containing long-acting progesterone. This vaginal ... An unrolled male latex condom A polyurethane female condom A diaphragm vaginal-cervical barrier, in its case with a quarter U.S ... Deliberate non-penetrative sex without vaginal sex or deliberate oral sex without vaginal sex are also sometimes considered ... or specifically not engaging in vaginal intercourse, while engaging in other forms of non-vaginal sex. Complete sexual ...
The company also sold a lubricating jelly under the name "vaginal jelly", based on a formula imported from Germany. In the ... Its primary product was the diaphragm, which was Margaret Sanger's recommended method of contraception. ...
The pelvic diaphragm is composed of the levator ani and the coccygeus muscle. These arise between the symphysis and the ischial ... The former is surrounded by the bulbospongiosus which narrows the vaginal introitus in females and surrounds the corpus ... The urogenital diaphragm consists mainly of the deep transverse perineal which arises from the inferior ischial and pubic rami ... The urogenital diaphragm is reinforced posteriorly by the superficial transverse perineal. The external anal and urethral ...
In 2010, Tropicana served as a co-hostess to Vaginal Davis' performance piece "Speaking from the Diaphragm" at Performance ... "Vaginal Davis". Studio Museum in Harlem. 6 July 2010. Archived from the original on 8 June 2012. Retrieved 12 March 2013. Grode ...
June 1996). "Lea's Shield: a study of the safety and efficacy of a new vaginal barrier contraceptive used with and without ... Other barrier methods, such as diaphragm may provide limited protection against infections in the upper genital tract. Other ... Other hormonal methods require less frequent action - weekly for the patch, twice a month for vaginal ring, monthly for ... Cervical mucus is checked before each urination, and vaginal sensation is observed throughout the day. The observed sign or ...
Foote appears to have been the first to use the term "womb veil", in introducing his vaginal diaphragm in 1863. The ... Made of rubber, it was a forerunner to the modern diaphragm and cervical cap. The name was first used by Edward Bliss Foote in ... By comparison, modern diaphragms require cervical measurement and a prescription from a medical practitioner, and range in size ... This linguistic variety, some of it euphemistic, makes it difficult to distinguish in the literature among diaphragms, cervical ...
state that although a number of texts report that they surround the vaginal opening, this does not appear to be the case and ... their deep surfaces are in contact with the inferior fascia of the urogenital diaphragm; superficially, they are covered by the ... Some research indicates that they do not surround the vaginal opening, and are more closely related to the clitoris than to the ... As the clitoral bulbs fill with blood, they tightly cuff the vaginal opening, causing the vulva to expand outward. This puts ...
... her risk of urinary tract infections increases due to the loss of protective vaginal flora. Additionally, vaginal atrophy that ... Diaphragm use is also associated. Condom use without spermicide or use of birth control pills does not increase the risk of ... As opposed to topical creams, the use of vaginal estrogen from pessaries has not been as useful as low dose antibiotics. ... In those with frequent urinary tract infections who use spermicide or a diaphragm as a method of contraception, they are ...
"Diseases Characterized by Vaginal Discharge". CDC. Archived from the original on 28 April 2014. Retrieved 17 April 2014. " ... Clotrimazole creams and suppositories contain oil which may weaken latex condoms and diaphragms. For topical formulations, ... It is used to treat vaginal yeast infections, oral thrush, diaper rash, pityriasis versicolor, and types of ringworm including ... It is commonly available without a prescription in various dosage forms, such as a topical cream, ointment, or vaginal ...
Diaphragms and caps are often used in conjunction with spermicides. In one year, 12% of women using the diaphragm will undergo ... In women who have not had a vaginal delivery, the external opening is small and circular, and in women who have had a vaginal ... During vaginal childbirth, the cervix must flatten and dilate to allow the fetus to progress along the birth canal. Midwives ... Cervical diaphragms are reusable, firm-rimmed plastic devices inserted by a woman prior to intercourse that cover the cervix. ...
"Female longitudinal anal muscles or conjoint longitudinal coats extend into the subcutaneous tissue along the vaginal vestibule ... inserts with the fascia of the levator ani to either side of the rectum or to other fascial elements of the pelvic diaphragm. ... muscle additionally runs around the sides of the rectum to connect to the rectovaginal fascia of the posterior vaginal wall. ... muscle before branching and inserting among the various muscles and fascial structures associated with the pelvic diaphragm and ...
Treating vaginal yeast infections are one of the most common uses of pharmaceutical pessaries. They are also known as vaginal ... Also known as a contraceptive cap, they work similar to a diaphragm as a barrier form of contraception. It is inserted into the ... This is due to undesirable side effects such as vaginal discharge and erosion of the vaginal wall. In order to remove the cube ... Some more common side effects include vaginal discharge and odor. Vaginal discharge and odor may be associated with bacterial ...
The SILCS is currently marketed as the Caya diaphragm in Europe and has received market clearance for distribution by the FDA. ... In the area of vaginal product research, biomarkers could give early information about the safety and likely efficacy of both ... CONRAD was a collaborator in PATH's SILCS diaphragm research, and conducted the pivotal study that showed the SILCS was as ... "Lea's Shield: a study of the safety and efficacy of a new vaginal barrier contraceptive used with and without spermicide. - ...
Also, condoms may be more likely to break during anal sex than during vaginal sex, increasing the risk of STI transmission. The ... Fackelmann KA (1992). "Diaphragm and sponge protect against STDs - sexually transmitted diseases". Science News. Archived from ... Barriers, such as condoms, dental dams, and medical gloves can prevent contact with body fluids (such as blood, vaginal fluid, ... Bacteria from the rectum are easily transferred to the vagina, which may cause vaginal and urinary tract infections. When anal- ...
Vaginal ultrasound has a clinical value in the diagnosis of endometrioma and before operating for deep endometriosis. This ... Less commonly lesions can be found on the diaphragm or lungs. Diaphragmatic endometriosis is rare, almost always on the right ... Vaginal ultrasound is inexpensive, easily accessible, has no contraindications and requires no preparation. Healthcare ... vaginal hysterectomies, and hernia repair. Endometriosis may also present with skin lesions in cutaneous endometriosis. ...
4.6% for the diaphragm); Overall rate 17.4% (vs. 16.7% for the diaphragm). Little data is available on the effectiveness of the ... Except for the Fem-Cap, it also leaves exposed all the vaginal wall so that the hormones, etc. in the seminal fluid of the man ... Although the diaphragm was always more popular in the United States than the cervical cap, the cap was also common. Many ... Unlike the other caps, Lea's Shield has a one-way air valve that helps it seal to the vaginal walls. The valve also allows the ...
... contraceptives Progestin-only pill Patch Hormonal vaginal contraceptive ring Emergency contraception Barrier methods Diaphragm ... A second symptoms-based method is the Sympto-thermal method, which combines a woman's observations of her vaginal secretions ... a method where the woman checks for secretions twice a day and if she has had vaginal secretions that day or the day prior, she ...
Specification for Rubber Contraceptives-Vaginal Diaphragms D6977 - 19 Specification for Polychloroprene Examination Gloves for ...
Some sources do not consider "pelvic floor" and "pelvic diaphragm" to be identical, with the "diaphragm" consisting of only the ... Apical vaginal prolapse Uterine prolapse (uterus into vagina) Vaginal vault prolapse (roof of vagina) - after hysterectomy ... The pelvic diaphragm is a muscular partition formed by the levatores ani and coccygei, with which may be included the parietal ... However, other sources include the fascia as part of the diaphragm.[citation needed] In practice, the two terms are often used ...
IUD with progestogen Condoms Diaphragms Etonogestrel-releasing implant Levonorgestrel-releasing implant Progesterone vaginal ...
... music and lyrics by Dionne McClain-Freeney Vaginal Davis Is Speaking from the Diaphragm by Vaginal Davis When Last We Flew by ...
A 1984 study in the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology compared it with the diaphragm and found that the Today ... sponge was a "safe and acceptable method of contraception with an effectiveness rate in the range of other vaginal ... Chicago Tribune Edelman DA, McIntyre SL, Harper J (1984). A comparative trial of the Today contraceptive sponge and diaphragm. ...
... the vaginal ring, diaphragms with spermicide, sponges with spermicide, cervical caps with spermicide, female condoms, ... Longstanding techniques included the rhythm method, withdrawal, diaphragms, contraceptive sponges[citation needed], condoms, ... and also with the vaginal ring that will last for 6 months. Contraceptive use has also been shown to reduce the rate of ... the vaginal ring, the patch, the pill, condoms, emergency contraception, spermicide, fertility and withdrawal, the popular is ...
Adolescents were asked how they felt about oral and vaginal sex in relation to their health, social, and emotional well-being. ... diaphragms, spermicides, hormonal contraception or sterilization. The effectiveness of the various contraceptive methods in ... To reduce the risk of unintended pregnancies, some people who engage in penile-vaginal sex may use contraception, such as birth ... or two or more people such as vaginal sex, anal sex, oral sex or mutual masturbation. Penetrative sex between two people may be ...
... vaginal contraceptive ring, diaphragm, sponge, cervical cap, female condom, spermicide, emergency contraception (Plan B/morning ...
Diaphragm with added microbicide Intravaginal ring (IVR) Gel (rectal or vaginal) Other vaginally administered products, ...
Its rupture during vaginal birth leads to widening of the gap between the anterior free borders of levator ani muscle of both ... The perineum is below the pelvic diaphragm and between the legs. It is a diamond-shaped area that includes the anus and, in ... Approximately 85% of women have some perineal tear during a vaginal delivery and in about 69% suturing is required. Obstetric ... and that this can increase vaginal tightness or result in pain during intercourse. The most common slang term used for this ...
This results in an increased radiolucency on X-ray, a reduction in lung markings and depression of the diaphragm. It may occur ... Pessary (vaginal suppository). *Vaginal ring. *Vaginal douche. *Intrauterine device (IUD). *Extra-amniotic infusion ... Then takes place the onset of contraction of the diaphragm, which results in expansion of the intrapleural space and an ...
... topical vaginal estrogen has been found to reduce recurrence.[53][54] As opposed to topical creams, the use of vaginal estrogen ... Diaphragm use is also associated.[28] Condom use without spermicide or use of birth control pills does not increase the risk of ... her risk of urinary tract infections increases due to the loss of protective vaginal flora.[30] Additionally, vaginal atrophy ... in the absence of vaginal discharge and significant pain.[4] These symptoms may vary from mild to severe[9] and in healthy ...
Including vaginal intercourse: Breastfeeding infertility (LAM). *Calendar-based methods (rhythm, etc.). *Fertility awareness ( ...
Vaginal ultrasonography showing a Mirena in optimal place in the uterus, as viewed from angle shown in schematic depiction. ...
Vaginal bleeding generally diminishes gradually over about two weeks after a medical abortion, but in individual cases spotting ... Methotrexate is given either orally or intramuscularly, followed by vaginal misoprostol 3-5 days later.[10] This is an ... The medical abortion regimen (200 mg of oral mifepristone, followed 24-48 hours later by 800 mcg of vaginal misoprostol) ... after a change from vaginal to buccal administration of misoprostol combined with the routine preventative use of doxycycline ...
This will be translocated later into the diaphragm and ventral mesentery.. *Divides the coelom into primitive pericardial and ...
Vaginal artery (females) / inferior vesical artery (males). *middle rectal artery. *internal pudendal artery *inferior rectal ... branches to diaphragm. *branches to abdominal muscles.. *Superior epigastric artery. thyrocervical trunk[edit]. *inferior ...
Birds lack a diaphragm, and therefore use their intercostal and abdominal muscles to expand and contract their entire thoraco- ... These vaginal structures may be used to prevent penetration by the male phallus (which coils counter-clockwise). In these ...
Diaphragms and caps are often used in conjunction with spermicides.[34] In one year, 12% of women using the diaphragm will ... In women who have not had a vaginal delivery, the external opening is small and circular, and in women who have had a vaginal ... During vaginal childbirth, the cervix must flatten and dilate to allow the fetus to progress along the birth canal. Midwives ... Cervical diaphragms are reusable, firm-rimmed plastic devices inserted by a woman prior to intercourse that cover the cervix. ...
Also, condoms may be more likely to break during anal sex than during vaginal sex, increasing the risk of STI transmission.[36] ... The use of a diaphragm or contraceptive sponge provides some women with better protection against certain sexually transmitted ... Bacteria from the rectum are easily transferred to the vagina, which may cause vaginal and urinary tract infections.[43] ... Barriers, such as condoms, dental dams, and medical gloves can prevent contact with body fluids (such as blood, vaginal fluid, ...
Progesterone vaginal ring[note 85]. Ovulation inducers[edit]. *Clomifeneα. Uterotonics[edit]. *Carbetocin ... Diaphragms. Implantable contraceptives[edit]. *Etonogestrel-releasing implant. *Levonorgestrel-releasing implant. Intravaginal ...
Gas tends to rise, and when a pocket of CO2 rises in the abdomen, it pushes against the diaphragm (the muscle that separates ... treatment of ectopic pregnancy and finally laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy (nowadays termed as cervical intra- ...
Vaginal sexual activity without the use of contraception through choice or coercion is the predominant cause of unintended ... diaphragms, spermicides, or sterilization.[2] Women choose to use a contraceptive method based on method efficacy, medical ... Sexual intercourse may be vaginal, anal, or oral, and may involve the use of a body part or an object.[71] ...
Types of Vaginal Rings[edit]. Several vaginal ring products are currently available, including: *Vaginal rings as treatment of ... Vaginal rings are easily inserted and removed.[10] Vaginal walls hold them in place. Although their exact location within the ... Vaginal rings as contraception: *NuvaRing - a low-dose contraceptive vaginal ring, manufactured from poly(ethylene-co-vinyl ... John's wort, and HIV medicines, may compromise the effectiveness of vaginal rings.[6] Vaginal rings do not protect users from ...
Progesterone vaginal ring. Insulin lan usada liyané tumrap dhiabètes[besut , besut sumber]. *Gliclazide[cathetan 47] ... Diaphragms. Kontrasèpsi implan[besut , besut sumber]. *Etonogestrel-releasing implant. *Levonorgestrel-releasing implant ...
Diaphragm and cervical cap - these are objects that a woman puts in her vagina to cover the cervix (the opening at the bottom ... Non-penetrative sex, non-vaginal sex - sex without putting the man's penis in the woman's vagina. This is more effective than ...
Diaphragm. *Surface Lines *midsternal line. *mammary line. *midclavicular line. *lateral sternal line ...
The female urethra is much shorter, beginning at the bladder neck and terminating in the vaginal vestibule. ...
Each is directed across the crus of the diaphragm, so as to form nearly a right angle. ...
and diaphragm. pleura/pleural cavity. Thoracentesis. Pleurodesis. Thoracoscopy. Thoracotomy. Chest tube. mediastinum. ... Vaginal delivery. Induction. *Artificial rupture of membranes. *Episiotomy. *Symphysiotomy. *Forceps in childbirth ...
The respiratory center does so via motor neurons which activate the muscles of respiration (in particular the diaphragm).[5][19 ... and bicarbonate following uncomplicated term vaginal deliveries (146 infants)". Am J Obstet Gynecol. 151: 798-800. doi:10.1016/ ...
Thoracic diaphragm, anterior abdominal wall. Round ligament of liver, paraumbilical veins. Left umbilical vein. Round ligament ... is derived from the vaginal process, an outpouching of the parietal peritoneum. ... The abdominal cavity (the space bounded by the vertebrae, abdominal muscles, diaphragm, and pelvic floor) should not be ...
Including vaginal intercourse: Breastfeeding infertility (LAM). *Calendar-based methods (rhythm, etc.). *Fertility awareness ( ...
The withdrawal method is a behavior that involves halting penile-vaginal intercourse to remove the penis out and away from the ...
Including vaginal intercourse: Breastfeeding infertility (LAM). *Calendar-based methods (rhythm, etc.). *Fertility awareness ( ...
Diaphragm and spermicide[ref 1]. 012.00 !12. (1 of 6). 006.00 !6. Barrier & spermicide. Vaginal insertion. 00.030 ! Every act ... Vaginal insertion. 00.030 ! Every act of intercourse. Abstinence pledge[note 9][22][better source needed]. 050.00 !50-57.5 ( ... Vaginal insertion. 00.030 ! Every act of intercourse. Male latex condom[ref 1][19]. Condom. 018.00 !18. (1 of 5). 002.00 !2. ... Vaginal insertion. 00.030 ! Every act of intercourse. MPA shot[ref 1]. Depo Provera, the shot. 006.00 !6. (1 of 17). 000.20 ! ...
催乳素(英语:Template:Prolactin inhibitors and anti-inflammatory products for vaginal administration) ... 腹部(英语:Template: Congenital diaphragm and abdominal wall defects). *肌肉萎缩(英语:Template:Muscular dystrophy) ...
... and vaginal dryness.[13] However, there have been no studies that conclusively determine that these symptoms are caused by the ... diaphragm, sponge, or emergency contraception) for the following week after insertion to prevent pregnancy. However, if the ...
Great price on Vaginal contraceptive rubber diaphragm type C arcing sp 65mm. FREE delivery options available. Trusted service, ... Vaginal contraceptive rubber diaphragm type C arcing sp 65mm. Registered UK Online Pharmacy - Prescription item. To purchase ...
Effect of the vaginal sponge and the diaphragm in preventing pregnancy. The vaginal sponge is a birth control method used in ... The contraceptive vaginal sponge was developed as an alternative to the contraceptive diaphragm. The sponge, made of ... The diaphragm is a rubber circle that goes in the birth canal. It helps to keep sperm from getting into the womb. The diaphragm ... We included randomized controlled trials comparing the vaginal contraceptive sponge (Today; Collatex) with any diaphragm used ...
The effect of the vaginal diaphragm and lubricant gel on acquisition of HSV-2 ... The effect of the vaginal diaphragm and lubricant gel on acquisition of HSV-2 ... Provision of diaphragm and lubricant gel offered no additional protection against HSV-2 acquisition over male condoms alone. ... we examined the effectiveness of the Ortho All-Flex Diaphragm, lubricant gel (Replens) and condoms compared to condoms alone on ...
Speaking From the Diaphragm. The Vaginal Davis Blog . . .From the Counsel of Inter-Continental Balistic Principalities ... posted by Vaginal Davis 5:01 AM. Wednesday, February 21, 2007. TUETONIC TRESSIE. Sorry one and all i havent updated this lady ... Vaginal Davis horse rind thighs. I didnt trick with anyone, but came close with Japanese action star Takeshi Kaneshiro who is ...
Speaking From the Diaphragm. The Vaginal Davis Blog . . .From the Counsel of Inter-Continental Balistic Principalities ... posted by Vaginal Davis 3:42 AM. Sunday, June 03, 2007. ROTE INSEL. My new neighborhood of Red Island is a very famous part of ... So if you are not a generous person, get thee gone and away from Vaginal Davis!!!!. ...
Find our more about the best way to use a diaphragm. ... The diaphragm is a barrier method of birth control. It fits ... It is suitable for women with poor vaginal muscle tone.. The coil spring diaphragm has a soft, flexible rim. It is suitable for ... What is a diaphragm?. Share on Pinterest. Diaphragms are a form contraceptive that are effective 94 percent of the time when ... it needs to be inserted before every act of vaginal intercourse. A woman needs to be refitted for her diaphragm after each full ...
diaphragm synonyms, diaphragm pronunciation, diaphragm translation, English dictionary definition of diaphragm. n. 1. Anatomy A ... health care providers perceive the diaphragm as having low acceptability.. Acceptability of the vaginal diaphragm among current ... Related to diaphragm: Diaphragm pump, Diaphragm valve, Diaphragm breathing, Diaphragm muscle. di·a·phragm. (dī′ə-frăm′). n.. 1 ... 6. to furnish with a diaphragm. [1350-1400; , Late Latin diaphragma , Greek diáphragma the diaphragm, midriff =dia- dia- + ...
Learn the basics of using a diaphragm, a barrier method of birth control that women have turned to since the nineteenth century ... Have slack vaginal muscles. Thinking through the pros and cons of diaphragm use, and understanding how this method of birth ... To insert the diaphragm, begin by applying spermicide around the rim and into the dome of the diaphragm. Squeeze the diaphragm ... What is a Diaphragm?. Diaphragms are made of latex, with a shallow, domed cup and a flexible rim that, when inserted into your ...
A diaphragm may be a birth control good option for young women who can take responsibility in advance. Find out more. ... Other vaginal creams, such as yeast infection medicines, also can damage the diaphragm. ... What Is a Diaphragm?. A diaphragm is a dome-shaped bowl made of thin, flexible silicone that sits over the cervix, the part of ... Where Are Diaphragms Available?. A doctor or nurse practitioner must fit a girl for a diaphragm. During a pelvic exam, the ...
A diaphragm may be a birth control good option for a young woman who can take responsibility in advance. ... Other vaginal creams, such as yeast infection medicines, also can damage the diaphragm. ... What Is a Diaphragm?. A diaphragm is a dome-shaped bowl made of thin, flexible silicone that sits over the cervix, the part of ... A diaphragm should be replaced every 2 years.. When Should I Call the Doctor?. If you use a diaphragm, call the doctor if you: ...
2. Diaphragm. Vaginal diaphragms are circular domes made of silicone with a flexible rim. They fit inside the vagina and cover ... Diaphragms work by stopping sperm from meeting an egg. Diaphragms are 92-96 per cent effective if used correctly with a ... Diaphragm side-effects: your periods will not be affected by using a diaphragm. ... The hormone combination of oestrogen and progesterone can also be delivered in a vaginal ring (which sits high in the vagina) ...
Diaphragm. What is the Diaphragm/cap with spermicide?. The diaphragm or cap is a circular dome made of rubber, which is fitted ... Vaginal ring. A recent arrival in Ireland is a flexible and transparent contraceptive vaginal ring which releases low doses of ... What are the drawbacks to a diaphragm and spermicide?. *The diaphragm must stay in place for six hours after sex, more ... What are the benefits of a diaphragm and spermicide?. *The diaphragm does not affect your menstrual cycle. ...
Helps prevent STDs during vaginal or anal sex. Learn More. Use Every Time Diaphragm. ...
"Diaphragm" (in French). "Vaginal ring" (in French). "Contraceptive sterilization" (in French). "Natural methods" (in French).. ... Diaphragms are generally made of latex or silicone. They slide into the vagina, in contact with the cervix, to prevent the ... The vaginal ring is a flexible porous plastic ring that contains a combination of estrogen and progestin. The advantage ... A brand of birth control Pills in France Plate of birth control pills Vaginal Ring Patch Cream and Eggs Spermicides Abortion in ...
A contraceptive diaphragm or cap is used with spermicide inside the vagina to prevent pregnancy. Find out how it works, where ... have weakened vaginal muscles (possibly as a result of giving birth) that cant hold a diaphragm in place ... Who can use a diaphragm or cap?. Most women are able to use a diaphragm or cap, but it may not be suitable for you if you: * ... Dont take the diaphragm or cap out to reapply spermicide. When you first start using a diaphragm or cap, a doctor or nurse ...
Diaphragm. The diaphragm is a soft latex dome that a woman inserts into her vagina before sexual intercourse. It fits over her ... Vaginal contraceptive ring (The Ring). The Ring is a small, flexible plastic ring - about 2 inches wide - that a woman places ... View image of a diaphragm and tube of spermicidal cream. Female sterilization (tubal ligation). Female sterilization is a form ... cervix and is held in place by her vaginal muscles. It always needs to be used with spermicidal cream or jelly. The diaphragm ...
Vaginal Spermicides, Sponges, Diaphragms As demonstrated in several cohort studies, vaginal spermicides (i.e., film, gel, ... vaginal sponges, or diaphragms. The role of spermicides, sponges, and diaphragms for preventing STDs among men has not been ... Wet mount and culture of a vaginal swab specimen for T. vaginalis infection. If vaginal discharge or malodor is evident, the ... Vaginitis is characterized by a vaginal discharge (usually) or vulvar itching and irritation; a vaginal odor may be present. ...
... diaphragm; female condom or vaginal pouch; foam; jelly or cream; suppository or insert; Today sponge; and other method. ... Sexual experience: The recode variable HADSEX indicates whether the respondent ever had vaginal sexual intercourse, referred to ...
... at the pelvic diaphragm: 2.7 cm (1.1 in); at the introitus: 2.6 cm (1.0 in) A 2006 U.S. study of vagina sizes using Magnetic ... Given the large range in vaginal dimensions noted in studies such as the above, many fitted vaginal devices, for example ... The potential effect of parity may be the result of a stretching and elongation of the birth canal at the time of vaginal birth ... Vaginoplasty Vulval structure Vaginal health Barnhart, K. T.; Izquierdo, A.; Pretorius, E. S.; Shera, D. M.; Shabbout, M.; ...
Diaphragm: You must know about each birth control method before making a choice. Once you have measured all the pros and cons, ... Vaginal Ring The soft ring is placed inside the vagina and it releases the same hormones as the birth control pills. It has to ... Diaphragm It is a dome shaped rubber which is put over the cervix before the intercourse. It is usually used with spermicide. ... It is the smaller version of a diaphragm. It is placed over the cervix which prevents the entry to the uterus. Pros: Does not ...
Diaphragms. Protective against cervical infection; associated with vaginal anaerobic overgrowth. Protective against cervical ... Vaginal trauma, toxic shock syndrome. Vaginal and urinary tract infection; vaginal discharges if not removed appropriately; ... Barrier methods (diaphragm and cervical cap). Protects against STDs, prevention against HIV-AIDS not proven; diaphragm protects ... For example, the first-year contraceptive failure rate for condoms and diaphragms ranges from 12 to 20 percent (Hatcher et al ...
... relatively odorless vaginal lubrication. How much lubricant is produced is influenced by a number of different factors ... ... Factors that may influence vaginal dryness are:. Intercourse. Diaphragms. Antidepressants. Antihistamines. decongestants. ... Other surgery, infection, and even various medications can lead to vaginal dryness in many cases.. Vaginal dryness can occur ... What cause Vaginal Dryness for women during menopause?. By Dr George Grant ...
If you experience spotting or vaginal bleeding (a diaphragm cannot be used during your period) ... What is a Diaphragm?. A diaphragm is a circular, latex cup that you can insert into your vagina to prevent pregnancy. It is ... Is a Diaphragm Effective?. Women that use the diaphragm correctly have only a 6% chance of becoming pregnant each year. But ... Push the diaphragm as far up and back in your vagina as possible. Tuck the edge of the diaphragm behind your pubic bone, and ...
Strong odors or vaginal discharge may appear if the diaphragm is left in too long. ... Who Uses Diaphragms?. A young woman who can take responsibility for sex in advance can use a diaphragm. With a diaphragm, she ... What Is a Diaphragm?. A diaphragm is a dome-shaped bowl made of thin, flexible rubber that sits over the cervix, the part of ... After sex, the diaphragm must be left in for at least 6 hours, but no longer than 24 hours. The diaphragm can be removed by ...
Some of these include diaphragms & sponges, vaginal rings, sub-dermal implants, and female condoms. Consequently, the sales of ...
There are other causes that may be to blame for your vaginal itch, including hormonal changes and allergic reactions to laundry ... you may assume that you have a vaginal yeast infection. But thats not always the case. ... Vaginal vein. Medically reviewed by the Healthline Medical Network. The vaginal vein refers to the group of blood vessels ... Vaginal itch is hard to ignore. But if possible, fight the urge to scratch. Scratching sensitive vaginal tissues may increase ...
birth control vaginal ring (NuvaRing). *condom. *diaphragm. *emergency contraception (morning-after pill) ...
It cannot be used until 6 weeks after a full term delivery, after a recent abortion, miscarriage, or during any vaginal ... A doctor prescribes a diaphragm or cervical cap. *A pelvic exam must be performed in order to find the correct size diaphragm ... What is the cost of a diaphragm/cervical cap? *The cost is approximately $40-50 for the diaphragm or cervical cap. ... To use the diaphragm or cervical cap, put a teaspoon of spermicide on the inside cup-like part and spread a bit on the rim. ...
... diaphragms and cervical caps (which must be used with a spermicide), and vaginal sponges (contains spermicide). I understand ... Secondary forms of contraception include condoms (with or without spermicide), diaphragms and cervical caps (which must be used ... with a spermicide), and vaginal sponges (contains spermicide).. Any birth control method can fail. Therefore, it is critically ...
Diaphragms. *Vaginal rings. *Cervical caps. *Intrauterine devices. *Tubal ligation. *Hysterectomies. Women do not need to see ...
  • Background In the context of a multisite HIV prevention trial in Southern African women, we examined the effectiveness of the Ortho All-Flex Diaphragm, lubricant gel (Replens) and condoms compared to condoms alone on the incidence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections. (bmj.com)
  • Provision of diaphragm and lubricant gel offered no additional protection against HSV-2 acquisition over male condoms alone. (bmj.com)
  • It is a barrier method of birth control, but unlike condoms , diaphragms are a barrier method that is controlled by the woman, not the man. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Couples having sex must always use condoms along with the diaphragm to protect against STDs. (kidshealth.org)
  • Some of these include diaphragms & sponges, vaginal rings, sub-dermal implants, and female condoms. (yahoo.com)
  • By using condoms as well as a diaphragm or cap, you'll help to protect yourself against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). (www.nhs.uk)
  • Imiquimod cream may weaken condoms and vaginal diaphragms. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It may be placed on condoms, diaphragms, and sponges. (aafp.org)
  • The mineral oil in Monistat 7 will also interact with a latex diaphragm, and latex condoms. (natural-remedies-for-you.com)
  • As a spermicidal contraceptive , to be used in conjunction with a barrier method of contraception such as condoms , diaphragms or caps . (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • The jelly should be used in combination with barrier methods of contraception such as condoms, diaphragms or caps to provide additional protection against the risk of becoming pregnant. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Barrier methods (condoms, diaphragms, sponge, cervical cap) - Birth control you use each time you have sex. (womenshealth.gov)
  • Condoms and diaphragms may be damaged & fail to prevent pregnancy or sexually transmitted disease (STDs). (walgreens.com)
  • Condoms, diaphragms, sponges, and cervical caps are also referred to as barrier contraception methods. (pitchengine.com)
  • Female contraceptive is segmented into female condoms, contraceptive diaphragms, contraceptive sponges, contraceptive vaginal rings, intrauterine devices, sub-dermal contraceptive implants, and non-surgical permanent contraception devices. (mrrse.com)
  • Push the folded diaphragm as far into the vagina as possible, aiming back toward the tailbone. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • If the user is going to have intercourse again within 6 hours, more spermicide should be placed in the vagina, without removing the diaphragm. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Diaphragms are made of latex, with a shallow, domed cup and a flexible rim that, when inserted into your vagina, covers your cervix. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Squeeze the diaphragm so that it is folded, and insert it into your vagina, pushing until the diaphragm is tucked up behind your pubic bone and covering the cervix. (everydayhealth.com)
  • To remove the diaphragm, lift the rim off your cervix with your finger and pull it gently out of your vagina. (everydayhealth.com)
  • A diaphragm is a dome-shaped bowl made of thin, flexible silicone that sits over the cervix , the part of the uterus that opens into the vagina. (kidshealth.org)
  • The diaphragm is placed high into the vagina so it covers the cervix. (kidshealth.org)
  • The diaphragm isn't a good choice for anyone who is uncomfortable or uneasy with the thought of reaching into her vagina. (kidshealth.org)
  • A woman's vagina naturally produces a clear, relatively odorless vaginal lubrication. (selfgrowth.com)
  • In addition, stress to the vagina from the trauma of childbirth, an episiotomy, or from a vaginal tear or laceration, can cause temporary vaginal dryness. (selfgrowth.com)
  • The vaginal ring (NuvaRing) is an estrogen- and progestin-laden plastic ring that is placed in the vagina for 21 days and removed for seven days, after which a new ring is placed. (healthcentral.com)
  • A contraceptive diaphragm or cap is a circular dome made of thin, soft silicone that's inserted into the vagina before sex. (www.nhs.uk)
  • It is usually applied into the vagina immediately before (up to one hour) before each act of vaginal intercourse. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If more than one act of vaginal intercourse occurs within one hour, apply another dose into the vagina. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This can upset the normal balance of bacteria that live in your vagina and cause a vaginal infection. (drugs.com)
  • b. instructing the user to place the insert into a woman's vagina, wherein at least a portion of the top of the insert contacts an anterior vaginal wall and a posterior vaginal wall. (google.com)
  • A diaphragm is a circular, latex cup that you can insert into your vagina to prevent pregnancy. (womenscenter.com)
  • Push the diaphragm as far up and back in your vagina as possible. (womenscenter.com)
  • It is important to note that you should not leave the diaphragm inside your vagina for over 24 hours. (womenscenter.com)
  • For added protection, spermicide is put into the bowl of the diaphragm and along its edges before inserting the diaphragm high into the vagina so it covers the cervix. (rchsd.org)
  • The diaphragm can be removed by placing a finger into the vagina to pull it out. (rchsd.org)
  • During a pelvic exam the doctor will measure the vagina to determine which diaphragm size is the right fit, then teach the patient how to insert and remove it. (rchsd.org)
  • A diaphragm is a dome-shaped flexible rubber barrier that has to be put deep into the woman's vagina to fit over the cervix. (halton.ca)
  • The diaphragm must be inserted sometime before sexual intercourse, and remain in the vagina for 6 to 8 hours after a man's last ejaculation. (wikipedia.org)
  • For multiple acts of intercourse, it is recommended that an additional 5 mL of spermicide be inserted into the vagina (not into the dome-the seal of the diaphragm should not be broken) before each act. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conjugated estrogens vaginal cream is used to manage vaginal and urinary menopausal symptoms such as itching, burning, dryness in or around the vagina, difficulty or burning during urination, and painful sexual intercourse. (medbroadcast.com)
  • Since vaginas vary in size, each patient will need to be fitted by a doctor or nurse with a diaphragm that conforms to the shape and contour of the vagina as well as the strength of the muscles in the vaginal walls. (encyclopedia.com)
  • While standing with one foot elevated on a chair or step, lying down, or squatting, the woman folds the diaphragm inward toward the middle and inserts it into the vagina as far as it will go. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The vaginal ring is a flexible, plastic ring that is placed in the upper vagina. (ahealthyme.com)
  • For example, no contraceptive sponges currently are available in the United States, although a new vaginal sponge (Protectaid) is under investigation. (aafp.org)
  • In April 2013, we did computer searches for randomized trials that compared the sponge with the diaphragm. (cochrane.org)
  • About 30% more women stopped using the sponge than the diaphragm. (cochrane.org)
  • The sponge was less effective than the diaphragm in preventing pregnancy. (cochrane.org)
  • The contraceptive vaginal sponge was developed as an alternative to the contraceptive diaphragm. (cochrane.org)
  • Unlike the diaphragm, the sponge can be used for more than one coital act within 24 hours without the insertion of additional spermicide, and the sponge does not require fitting or a prescription from a physician. (cochrane.org)
  • How the sponge compares with the diaphragm in terms of efficacy and continuation is not clear. (cochrane.org)
  • To compare the efficacy and continuation rates of the sponge with the diaphragm (used with nonoxynol-9). (cochrane.org)
  • Our a priori hypothesis was that the sponge would have higher rates for failure and discontinuation than the diaphragm. (cochrane.org)
  • The sponge was significantly less effective in both trials in preventing overall pregnancy than was the diaphragm. (cochrane.org)
  • In the larger USA trial , the 12-month cumulative life-table termination rates per 100 women for overall pregnancy were 17.4 for the sponge and 12.8 for the diaphragm. (cochrane.org)
  • Sponge versus diaphragm for contraception. (cochrane.org)
  • To play it safe, both in terms of STIs and for general vaginal health and comfort, if the sponge feels irritating to you or your partner -- if it leaves either of you feeling rubbed a bit raw, sore, swollen or itchy -- it's probably best not to use it. (scarleteen.com)
  • Women with BV may also have a grayish malodorous vaginal discharge. (sheknows.com)
  • There may be a thick, white or creamy vaginal discharge. (mydr.com.au)
  • Appropriate investigations for a vaginal discharge should also be performed, as this can cause a secondary dermatitis (eg, bacterial vaginosis). (mja.com.au)
  • Tioconazole ointment reduces vaginal burning , itching , and discharge that may occur with this condition. (webmd.com)
  • If you have fever, chills, flu -like symptoms, stomach / abdominal pain , or a bad-smelling vaginal discharge , do not use this medication. (webmd.com)
  • Using a condom in addition to the diaphragm will reduce this risk and provide extra protection against unwanted pregnancy. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Using a condom also reduces the risk of a sexually transmitted infection (STI), because a diaphragm does not protect against this. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • They can slip, so you need to be sure that the penis enters the condom and is not inserted between the condom and the vaginal wall. (tcd.ie)
  • Using a male condom in conjunction with the diaphragm decreases the potential for pregnancy. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Miconazole may damage a condom or diaphragm. (uwhealth.org)
  • The diaphragm can be put in place around 1 hour before having sex, and it should remain in place for at least 6 hours after intercourse. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Lactic acid, citric acid, and potassium bitartrate vaginal gel may be applied after your doctor has told you that it is safe to resume vaginal intercourse after childbirth, abortion, or miscarriage. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In order for it to work, the diaphragm must remain in place for six hours after intercourse. (womenscenter.com)
  • Both the diaphragm and cervical cap can be inserted right before or up to 6 hours before intercourse. (halton.ca)
  • The diaphragm only has to be used during intercourse. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like all cervical barriers, diaphragms may be inserted several hours before use, allowing uninterrupted foreplay and intercourse. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most couples find that neither partner can feel the diaphragm during intercourse. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diaphragms may be inserted two-three hours prior to intercourse, and must be left in place for six to eight hours following sexual relations. (encyclopedia.com)
  • If she desires to have intercourse again before the six to eight hours have passed, the diaphragm should not be removed. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Back-up Contraceptive Pills , also known as the " emergency contraception ", "morning-after pill", or Plan B, can reduce the risk of an unintended pregnancy by 72-90% if taken up to 5 days after unprotected vaginal intercourse. (cityofberkeley.info)
  • Do not have vaginal intercourse. (walgreens.com)
  • Diaphragms are used with spermicide, which kills sperm and provides an added layer of birth control protection. (everydayhealth.com)
  • To insert the diaphragm, begin by applying spermicide around the rim and into the dome of the diaphragm. (everydayhealth.com)
  • For added protection, spermicide is put into the bowl of the diaphragm and along its edges before it's inserted. (kidshealth.org)
  • More spermicide must be used each time a young woman has sex while wearing the diaphragm. (kidshealth.org)
  • Over the course of a year, 12 out of 100 typical couples who use the diaphragm with spermicide will have an accidental pregnancy. (kidshealth.org)
  • With a diaphragm, she must always have a supply of spermicide. (kidshealth.org)
  • When used correctly with spermicide, a diaphragm or cap is 92-96% effective at preventing pregnancy - this means that between 4 and 8 women out of every 100 who use a diaphragm or cap as contraception will become pregnant within a year. (www.nhs.uk)
  • You can put in a diaphragm or cap with spermicide any time before you have sex. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Don't take the diaphragm or cap out to reapply spermicide. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Additional spermicide should also be used if she is going to have sex more than 3 hours after she inserted the diaphragm. (rchsd.org)
  • Over the course of a year, 16 out of 100 typical couples who rely on the diaphragm with spermicide to prevent pregnancy will have an accidental pregnancy. (rchsd.org)
  • With a diaphragm, some of the most important things are that it fits correctly, that it is used every time a couple has sex, and that spermicide is used appropriately. (rchsd.org)
  • To use the diaphragm or cervical cap, put a teaspoon of spermicide on the inside cup-like part and spread a bit on the rim. (halton.ca)
  • Some women are sensitive or allergic to spermicide that is used with the diaphragm and cervical cap. (halton.ca)
  • A water-based lubricant (usually spermicide) may be applied to the rim of the diaphragm to aid insertion. (wikipedia.org)
  • One teaspoon (5 mL) of spermicide may be placed in the dome of the diaphragm before insertion, or with an applicator after insertion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contraceptive Technology reports that the method failure rate of the diaphragm with spermicide is 6% per year. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prior to insertion, the inside of the dome and the rim are covered with a thick layer (perhaps a tablespoon) of a spermicide that is compatible with the diaphragm being used. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It is used with a spermicide designed for diaphragms. (ahealthyme.com)
  • To be effective, diaphragms must be used with a spermicide cream, gel, or jelly. (lbbc.org)
  • Collatex) with any diaphragm used with nonoxynol-9 to prevent pregnancy. (cochrane.org)
  • Used correctly and consistently, the diaphragm can be 94 percent effective in preventing pregnancy. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A diaphragm that's inserted incorrectly or doesn't fit well can lead to pregnancy. (kidshealth.org)
  • For instance, in May 2020, Evofem Biosciences, Inc. received the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for Phexxi (lactic acid, citric acid and potassium bitartrate) vaginal gel used to prevent pregnancy in females of reproductive potential for use as an on-demand method of contraception. (medgadget.com)
  • For instance, in December 2019, Evofem Biosciences, Inc. announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) acknowledged receipt of the New Drug Application resubmission for Amphora, a Multipurpose Vaginal pH Regulator (MVP-R), for the prevention of pregnancy. (medgadget.com)
  • The combination of lactic acid, citric acid, and potassium bitartrate is used to prevent pregnancy when used just before vaginal sex in women who can become pregnant. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It does not prevent pregnancy when used after vaginal sex. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you have given birth, had abdominal or pelvic surgery, lost or gained more than 20 percent of your total body weight, or have had a miscarriage or abortion after 3 and a half months of pregnancy, chances are you will need to be fitted for a new diaphragm. (womenscenter.com)
  • A diaphragm that's inserted incorrectly or doesn't fit properly can result in pregnancy. (rchsd.org)
  • The actual pregnancy rates among diaphragm users vary depending on the population being studied, with yearly rates of 10% to 39% being reported. (wikipedia.org)
  • A contraceptive diaphragm is a nonhormonal birth control method that is used to prevent pregnancy. (youngwomenshealth.org)
  • Five areas of obstetric practice (fetal monitoring, fetal imaging, anesthesia, cesarean section and vaginal birth after cesarean section [VBAC], and immediate neonatal care) impact on labor and delivery in a twin pregnancy. (glowm.com)
  • A diaphragm, or cap, is a reusable, dome-shaped cup that fits over the cervix. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A diaphragm keeps sperm from entering the uterus by covering the cervix. (kidshealth.org)
  • Tuck the edge of the diaphragm behind your pubic bone, and make sure your cervix is covered. (womenscenter.com)
  • You spread the gel over the diaphragm surface and also around the rim, allowing it to come into contact with the cervix. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • The common cause of "postpartum" vaginal dryness can be the hormonal imbalance that can occur from breast-feeding. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Short-acting hormonal methods (pill, mini pills, patch, shot, vaginal ring) - Birth control your doctor prescribes that you remember to take every day or month. (womenshealth.gov)
  • A vaginal applicator should be used to insert more Gygel. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • These include diaphragms and cervical caps. (drugs.com)
  • When it is time to remove the diaphragm, make sure your hands are clean and thoroughly washed. (womenscenter.com)
  • Typically there is no danger at all, and the gynecologist will just remove the diaphragm without issue,' Dr. Dweck says. (sheknows.com)
  • A diaphragm or cap is a barrier method of contraception. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The effectiveness of diaphragms, as of most forms of contraception, can be assessed two ways: method effectiveness and actual effectiveness. (wikipedia.org)
  • The diaphragm does not interfere with a woman's menstrual cycle, therefore, no reversal or wait time is necessary if contraception is no longer wanted or needed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many women, especially those who have sex less frequently, prefer barrier contraception such as the diaphragm over methods that require some action every day. (wikipedia.org)
  • The diaphragm is less expensive than many other methods of contraception. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diaphragms are dome-shaped barrier methods of contraception that block sperm from entering the uterus. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Other methods that require a prescription include the vaginal ring, intrauterine device (IUD), Implanon (contraceptive implant), and injectable forms of contraception. (ahealthyme.com)
  • Diaphragms must be replaced every 2 years (or more often if your weight changes by 10 lbs), and cervical caps must be replaced every year. (halton.ca)
  • To make using vaginal contraceptives as safe and reliable as possible, you should understand how and when to use them and what effects may be expected. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Other vaginal creams, such as yeast infection medicines, also can damage the diaphragm. (kidshealth.org)
  • Diaphragms may make urinary tract infections more likely. (rchsd.org)
  • Typically, urinary stress incontinence is more common in women who have had multiple vaginal deliveries (especially when women have had big babies or instrumented deliveries), women who are overweight and women with a family history of stress incontinence. (sheknows.com)
  • During a pelvic exam , the doctor or NP will find the right size diaphragm and teach her how to insert and remove it. (kidshealth.org)
  • The only way that a doctor could tell that you're sexually active is if you have a pelvic or rectal exam scheduled and have recently had a partner ejaculate inside of you during vaginal or anal sex. (healthline.com)
  • A pelvic exam must be performed in order to find the correct size diaphragm or cervical cap. (halton.ca)
  • The pelvic diaphragm is composed of the levator ani and the coccygeus muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The diaphragm should not stay in longer than 24 hours. (kidshealth.org)
  • After sex, the diaphragm must be left in for at least 6 hours, but no longer than 24 hours. (rchsd.org)
  • A diaphragm is a barrier form of birth control. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Understanding the pros and cons of the diaphragm, a barrier method of birth control that's been used by women since the nineteenth century. (everydayhealth.com)
  • The diaphragm is a barrier method of birth control. (wikipedia.org)
  • Toxic shock syndrome - An uncommon, but potentially fatal, disease that has been associated with the use of diaphragms and vaginal tampons. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Do not use tampons, douches, spermicides , or other vaginal products while using this medication. (webmd.com)
  • What cause Vaginal Dryness for women during menopause? (selfgrowth.com)
  • As a woman matures and approaches menopause, her estrogen levels drop, which can cause vaginal dryness. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Other surgery, infection, and even various medications can lead to vaginal dryness in many cases. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Untreated lichen sclerosus may lead to vaginal scarring, blistering, painful sex, and vulvar cancer. (healthline.com)
  • Thrush can be triggered by taking a course of antibiotics, pre-menstrual changes in vaginal acid balance, hot weather or wearing tight-fitting synthetic clothes. (mydr.com.au)
  • If symptoms are worse before or during menses, then recurrent vulval vaginal candidiasis is likely. (mja.com.au)
  • If this is the first time that you have ever had symptoms of a vaginal yeast infection, consult your doctor before using this medication. (uwhealth.org)
  • When vaginal itch strikes, you may assume that you have a yeast infection. (healthline.com)
  • Bacterial vaginosis is a vaginal infection. (healthline.com)
  • Don't assume vaginal itch is a yeast infection. (healthline.com)
  • It may be, but treating a yeast infection that doesn't exist may make it more difficult to diagnose the real reason for vaginal itch. (healthline.com)
  • Scratching sensitive vaginal tissues may increase irritation and lead to infection. (healthline.com)
  • Unless you're positive you have a yeast infection, see your doctor or gynecologist for a proper diagnosis if you have persistent vaginal itch. (healthline.com)
  • Some women develop cystitis (a bladder infection) when they use a diaphragm or cap. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Your normal vaginal bacteria may be out of balance, causing an infection. (drugs.com)
  • Monistat is an over the counter cream that contains either Tioconazole or miconazole nitrate which are anti fungal drugs that are commonly used in over the counter vaginal yeast infection cures. (natural-remedies-for-you.com)
  • If you choose to use Monistat for your vaginal yeast infection, please be careful, so you carry on enjoying your good health. (natural-remedies-for-you.com)
  • If left in for too long, you could develop a vaginal infection or, though rare, toxic shock syndrome. (sheknows.com)
  • Skipping doses may also increase your risk of further infection that is resistant to miconazole vaginal. (uwhealth.org)
  • Ask your doctor before using this medication for self-treatment if this is your first vaginal infection. (webmd.com)
  • Do not use if you have never had a vaginal yeast infection diagnosed by a doctor. (walgreens.com)
  • A vaginal yeast infection may well result in a slow leakage of a thick, white, clumpy (cottage-cheese-like) substance with no or minimal odour. (canada.com)
  • However, for a diaphragm to be 100 percent effective, it is best to use it in conjunction with some form of spermicidal cream or jelly. (womenscenter.com)
  • Diaphragms must be used with spermicidal cream or jelly. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Baby powder and oil-based lubricants (such as mineral oil, petroleum jelly, or baby oil) should not be put on the diaphragm. (kidshealth.org)
  • Using any types of powder or oil-based lubricants can damage the exterior of the diaphragm and therefore make it ineffective. (womenscenter.com)
  • Lubricants or vaginal medications that contain oil will cause the latex to rapidly degrade and greatly increases the chances of the diaphragm breaking or tearing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaginal dryness can occur after a menstrual period or after tampon use. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Lactic acid, citric acid, and potassium bitartrate vaginal gel may be used at any time during the menstrual cycle. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It cannot be used until 6 weeks after a full term delivery, after a recent abortion, miscarriage, or during any vaginal bleeding, including menstrual periods. (halton.ca)
  • Your doctor may ask you to start using the vaginal ring on the first day of your menstrual period called First day start. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Most products used to treat vaginal thrush are 'pharmacist only' or 'prescription only' medications, so you will need to talk to your pharmacist or doctor to obtain treatment. (mydr.com.au)
  • Miconazole vaginal is used to treat vaginal candida (yeast) infections. (uwhealth.org)
  • The normal vaginal flora, H2O2-producing lactobacilli, and bacterial vaginosis in pregnant women. (springer.com)
  • Mild increase in vaginal burning, itching or irritation may occur. (walgreens.com)
  • The diaphragm is a rubber circle that goes in the birth canal. (cochrane.org)
  • Invented in the nineteenth century, the diaphragm has served as a form of birth control for millions of women around the world. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Knowing more about the diaphragm should help you decide whether it's the right birth control method for you. (everydayhealth.com)
  • When used correctly and in combination with spermicidal gel, the diaphragm has a birth control effectiveness rate of 94 percent, according to the Planned Parenthood Federation of America. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Although most women can safely use the diaphragm, some conditions may make it unsuitable for birth control, according to the experts at Planned Parenthood. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Thinking through the pros and cons of diaphragm use, and understanding how this method of birth control works, should help you decide whether a diaphragm is right for you. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Many women use a diaphragm because it is relatively safe, lasts for up to 2 years and costs less than birth control pills. (womenscenter.com)
  • As is the case with all birth control, a diaphragm is effective because it prevents sperm from joining with the egg. (womenscenter.com)
  • Unlike some other cervical barriers, the effectiveness of the diaphragm is the same for women who have given birth as for those who have not. (wikipedia.org)
  • It works less well for women who have had a vaginal birth, the FDA says. (ahealthyme.com)
  • Use another form of birth control while using miconazole vaginal. (uwhealth.org)
  • Taking birth control pills increases your chances of getting vaginal candidiasis. (canada.com)
  • It should not be washed with harsh or perfumed soaps or used with perfumed powders because either of these substances can damage the diaphragm. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Vaginal yeast infections often (such as once a month or 3 in 6 months). (walgreens.com)
  • The wide seal rim diaphragm is a silicone ring that is useful for women who are allergic or sensitive to latex. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you or your sexual partner are allergic to lactic acid, citric acid, and potassium bitartrate, any other medications, or any of the ingredients in lactic acid, citric acid, and potassium bitartrate vaginal gel. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The rubber or latex in the diaphragm may cause an allergic reaction (this is rare). (rchsd.org)
  • You should not use miconazole vaginal if you have ever had an allergic reaction to it. (uwhealth.org)
  • Both the diaphragm and cervical cap are used with spermicides to help kill sperm. (halton.ca)
  • Cross-sectional study of rural women in Uganda demonstrated a positive association between abnormal vaginal flora and HIV-1 seropositivity, and a dose-response relationship between degree of microflora alteration and HIV-1 serostatus. (springer.com)
  • Diaphragm paralysis and eventration are rare but important diagnostic considerations in patients with persistent hypoxemia, especially with hypercarbia, in the neonatal period, after thoracic surgery when it is difficult to wean patients off ventilator support, in patients with high spinal cord injury, and in those with an abnormal diaphragm contour on chest radiography. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • Ultrasonography of the chest not only can identify abnormal diaphragm motion and thickness, enabling diagnostic confirmation but also can help exclude some differential diagnoses (e.g., pleural effusions, subdiaphragmatic fluid collections, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, sequestrations, and cystic adenomatoid malformations). (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • pessary (a vaginal suppository) made of various acidic substances (crocodile dung is alleged) and lubricated with honey or oil, which may have been somewhat effective at killing sperm. (mcgill.ca)
  • Bacterial vaginosis is treated with oral antibiotics, a vaginal antibiotic gel, or cream. (healthline.com)
  • It is easily treated with oral or vaginal antibiotics,' she assures. (sheknows.com)
  • It can also be brought on by using vaginal deodorants, bath salts and some soaps. (mydr.com.au)
  • and vaginal deodorants. (lawyerworks.com)
  • It is important to note that diaphragms do not provide protection from contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs). (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A diaphragm or cap doesn't provide reliable protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). (www.nhs.uk)
  • Current information suggests that the diaphragm and the cervical cap do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs) , however studies are in progress. (halton.ca)
  • Silicone diaphragms may last much longer-up to ten years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diaphragms are generally made of latex or silicone. (wikipedia.org)
  • A doctor prescribes a diaphragm or cervical cap. (halton.ca)
  • The news has been nearly as bad for other technological solutions, including vaginal microbicides, one-a-day prevention pills and diaphragms. (washingtonpost.com)
  • The concept of preserving or reestablishing protective flora has been hastened by several factors, including the potential widespread use of vaginal microbicides, the increased heterosexual spread of HIV, and the imminent availability of exogenous Lactobacillus species probiotic therapy. (springer.com)
  • With one finger, push the front rim of the diaphragm up behind the pubic bone. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • These tiny, crab-like creatures cause intense itching in the vaginal and pubic areas. (healthline.com)
  • The urogenital diaphragm consists mainly of the deep transverse perineal which arises from the inferior ischial and pubic rami and extends to the urogential hiatus. (wikipedia.org)
  • You shouldn't use a diaphragm or cap during your period as there is a possible link with toxic shock syndrome (TSS) , a rare condition that can be life threatening. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Although rare, wearing the diaphragm longer than the recommended time can result in toxic shock syndrome. (encyclopedia.com)