Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
Dialysis fluid being introduced into and removed from the peritoneal cavity as either a continuous or an intermittent procedure.
A process of selective diffusion through a membrane. It is usually used to separate low-molecular-weight solutes which diffuse through the membrane from the colloidal and high-molecular-weight solutes which do not. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Solutions prepared for exchange across a semipermeable membrane of solutes below a molecular size determined by the cutoff threshold of the membrane material.
Portable peritoneal dialysis using the continuous (24 hours a day, 7 days a week) presence of peritoneal dialysis solution in the peritoneal cavity except for periods of drainage and instillation of fresh solution.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
INFLAMMATION of the PERITONEUM lining the ABDOMINAL CAVITY as the result of infectious, autoimmune, or chemical processes. Primary peritonitis is due to infection of the PERITONEAL CAVITY via hematogenous or lymphatic spread and without intra-abdominal source. Secondary peritonitis arises from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY itself through RUPTURE or ABSCESS of intra-abdominal organs.
A membrane of squamous EPITHELIAL CELLS, the mesothelial cells, covered by apical MICROVILLI that allow rapid absorption of fluid and particles in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. The peritoneum is divided into parietal and visceral components. The parietal peritoneum covers the inside of the ABDOMINAL WALL. The visceral peritoneum covers the intraperitoneal organs. The double-layered peritoneum forms the MESENTERY that suspends these organs from the abdominal wall.
Catheters designed to be left within an organ or passage for an extended period of time.
Solutions prepared for hemodialysis. The composition of the pre-dialysis solution may be varied in order to determine the effect of solvated metabolites on anoxia, malnutrition, acid-base balance, etc. Of principal interest are the effect of the choice of buffers (e.g., acetate or carbonate), the addition of cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+), and addition of carbohydrates (glucose).
The separation of particles from a suspension by passage through a filter with very fine pores. In ultrafiltration the separation is accomplished by convective transport; in DIALYSIS separation relies instead upon differential diffusion. Ultrafiltration occurs naturally and is a laboratory procedure. Artificial ultrafiltration of the blood is referred to as HEMOFILTRATION or HEMODIAFILTRATION (if combined with HEMODIALYSIS).
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the kidney.
Procedures which temporarily or permanently remedy insufficient cleansing of body fluids by the kidneys.
Devices which can substitute for normally functioning KIDNEYS in removing components from the blood by DIALYSIS that are normally eliminated in the URINE.
Surgical shunt allowing direct passage of blood from an artery to a vein. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The combination of hemodialysis and hemofiltration either simultaneously or sequentially. Convective transport (hemofiltration) may be better for removal of larger molecular weight substances and diffusive transport (hemodialysis) for smaller molecular weight solutes.
Creatinine is a waste product that's generated from muscle metabolism, typically filtered through the kidneys and released in urine, with increased levels in blood indicating impaired kidney function.
The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Pathological processes involving the PERITONEUM.
Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
Disorder characterized by a wide range of structural changes in PERITONEUM, resulting from fibrogenic or inflammatory processes. Peritoneal fibrosis is a common complication in patients receiving PERITONEAL DIALYSIS and contributes to its gradual decrease in efficiency.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
The space enclosed by the peritoneum. It is divided into two portions, the greater sac and the lesser sac or omental bursa, which lies behind the STOMACH. The two sacs are connected by the foramen of Winslow, or epiploic foramen.
Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level in the ability to remove wastes, concentrate URINE, and maintain ELECTROLYTE BALANCE; BLOOD PRESSURE; and CALCIUM metabolism. Renal insufficiency can be classified by the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE.
Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level for more than three months. Chronic kidney insufficiency is classified by five stages according to the decline in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA). The most severe form is the end-stage renal disease (CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE). (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002)
A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
Decalcification of bone or abnormal bone development due to chronic KIDNEY DISEASES, in which 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis by the kidneys is impaired, leading to reduced negative feedback on PARATHYROID HORMONE. The resulting SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM eventually leads to bone disorders.
The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
Laboratory tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working through examination of blood and urine.
KIDNEY injuries associated with diabetes mellitus and affecting KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; ARTERIOLES; KIDNEY TUBULES; and the interstitium. Clinical signs include persistent PROTEINURIA, from microalbuminuria progressing to ALBUMINURIA of greater than 300 mg/24 h, leading to reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE.
Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Agents which improve the quality of the blood, increasing the hemoglobin level and the number of erythrocytes. They are used in the treatment of anemias.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
Abnormally elevated PARATHYROID HORMONE secretion as a response to HYPOCALCEMIA. It is caused by chronic KIDNEY FAILURE or other abnormalities in the controls of bone and mineral metabolism, leading to various BONE DISEASES, such as RENAL OSTEODYSTROPHY.
Disturbances in the body's WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
The two dimensional measure of the outer layer of the body.
The serous fluid of ASCITES, the accumulation of fluids in the PERITONEAL CAVITY.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Extracorporeal ULTRAFILTRATION technique without HEMODIALYSIS for treatment of fluid overload and electrolyte disturbances affecting renal, cardiac, or pulmonary function.
A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
Health care institutions operated by private groups or corporations for a profit.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
Placement of an intravenous CATHETER in the subclavian, jugular, or other central vein.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
Withholding or withdrawal of a particular treatment or treatments, often (but not necessarily) life-prolonging treatment, from a patient or from a research subject as part of a research protocol. The concept is differentiated from REFUSAL TO TREAT, where the emphasis is on the health professional's or health facility's refusal to treat a patient or group of patients when the patient or the patient's representative requests treatment. Withholding of life-prolonging treatment is usually indexed only with EUTHANASIA, PASSIVE, unless the distinction between withholding and withdrawing treatment, or the issue of withholding palliative rather than curative treatment, is discussed.
Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.
Failure of equipment to perform to standard. The failure may be due to defects or improper use.
The lack of sufficient energy or protein to meet the body's metabolic demands, as a result of either an inadequate dietary intake of protein, intake of poor quality dietary protein, increased demands due to disease, or increased nutrient losses.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.
An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Devices to be inserted into veins or arteries for the purpose of carrying fluids into or from a peripheral or central vascular location. They may include component parts such as catheters, ports, reservoirs, and valves. They may be left in place temporarily for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A semisynthetic cephalosporin analog with broad-spectrum antibiotic action due to inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. It attains high serum levels and is excreted quickly via the urine.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.
Organizational activities previously performed internally that are provided by external agents.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.
A condition in which albumin level in blood (SERUM ALBUMIN) is below the normal range. Hypoalbuminemia may be due to decreased hepatic albumin synthesis, increased albumin catabolism, altered albumin distribution, or albumin loss through the urine (ALBUMINURIA).
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
A pathological process consisting of hardening or fibrosis of an anatomical structure, often a vessel or a nerve.
Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Saudi Arabia" is a country located in the western portion of the Asian continent and is not a medical term or concept. It does not have a medical definition.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.
Directions written for the obtaining and use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS; MEDICAL DEVICES; corrective LENSES; and a variety of other medical remedies.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A biochemical abnormality referring to an elevation of BLOOD UREA NITROGEN and CREATININE. Azotemia can be produced by KIDNEY DISEASES or other extrarenal disorders. When azotemia becomes associated with a constellation of clinical signs, it is termed UREMIA.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Products derived from the nonenzymatic reaction of GLUCOSE and PROTEINS in vivo that exhibit a yellow-brown pigmentation and an ability to participate in protein-protein cross-linking. These substances are involved in biological processes relating to protein turnover and it is believed that their excessive accumulation contributes to the chronic complications of DIABETES MELLITUS.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.
Decreased URINE output that is below the normal range. Oliguria can be defined as urine output of less than or equal to 0.5 or 1 ml/kg/hr depending on the age.
A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.
The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
A double-layered fold of peritoneum that attaches the STOMACH to other organs in the ABDOMINAL CAVITY.
Severe systemic manifestation of trauma and ischemia involving soft tissues, principally skeletal muscle, due to prolonged severe crushing. It leads to increased permeability of the cell membrane and to the release of potassium, enzymes, and myoglobin from within cells. Ischemic renal dysfunction secondary to hypotension and diminished renal perfusion results in acute tubular necrosis and uremia.
Catheters that are inserted into a large central vein such as a SUBCLAVIAN VEIN or FEMORAL VEIN.
A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS that is a spherical, non-motile, gram-positive, chemoorganotrophic, facultative anaerobe. Mainly found on the skin and mucous membrane of warm-blooded animals, it can be primary pathogen or secondary invader.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
A fetuin subtype that is synthesized by HEPATOCYTES and secreted into the circulation. It plays a major role in preventing CALCIUM precipitation in the BLOOD.
A highly poisonous compound used widely in the manufacture of plastics, adhesives and synthetic rubber.
Solution that is usually 10 percent glucose but may be higher. An isotonic solution of glucose is 5 percent.
A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Prospective patient listings for appointments or treatments.
An intense itching sensation that produces the urge to rub or scratch the skin to obtain relief.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
A collection of watery fluid in the pleural cavity. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.
The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but 'Europe' is a geographical continent and not a medical term; therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition.
Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.
Further or repeated use of equipment, instruments, devices, or materials. It includes additional use regardless of the original intent of the producer as to disposability or durability. It does not include the repeated use of fluids or solutions.
The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.
Death of cells in the KIDNEY CORTEX, a common final result of various renal injuries including HYPOXIA; ISCHEMIA; and drug toxicity.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
The venous trunk of the upper limb; a continuation of the basilar and brachial veins running from the lower border of the teres major muscle to the outer border of the first rib where it becomes the subclavian vein.
The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.
Removal of an implanted therapeutic or prosthetic device.
The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.
General dysfunction of an organ occurring immediately following its transplantation. The term most frequently refers to renal dysfunction following KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
Large veins on either side of the root of the neck formed by the junction of the internal jugular and subclavian veins. They drain blood from the head, neck, and upper extremities, and unite to form the superior vena cava.
Diseases of BONES.
Normal human serum albumin mildly iodinated with radioactive iodine (131-I) which has a half-life of 8 days, and emits beta and gamma rays. It is used as a diagnostic aid in blood volume determination. (from Merck Index, 11th ed)
A group of sporadic, familial and/or inherited, degenerative, and infectious disease processes, linked by the common theme of abnormal protein folding and deposition of AMYLOID. As the amyloid deposits enlarge they displace normal tissue structures, causing disruption of function. Various signs and symptoms depend on the location and size of the deposits.
Condition of induced systemic hypersensitivity in which tissues respond to appropriate challenging agents with a sudden local calcification.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.
Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.
A technique of measuring the dielectric properties of materials, which vary over a range of frequencies depending on the physical properties of the material. The technique involves measuring, over a range of frequencies, ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE and phase shift of an electric field as it passes through the material.
The fluid of the body that is outside of CELLS. It is the external environment for the cells.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.
A sugar acid derived from D-glucose in which both the aldehydic carbon atom and the carbon atom bearing the primary hydroxyl group are oxidized to carboxylic acid groups.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Italy" is not a medical term or concept, it's a country located in Southern Europe. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I'd be happy to help with those!
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
Patient or client refusal of or resistance to medical, psychological, or psychiatric treatment. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
Pathological processes involving any of the BLOOD VESSELS in the cardiac or peripheral circulation. They include diseases of ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Enlargement of the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.
An independent sultanate on the northeast coast of Borneo. Its chief products are oil and natural gas. Its name is Hindi, coming from the Sanskrit bhumi, land or region. It gave its name Brunei to Borneo. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p183 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p82)
Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.
## I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Japan" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located in Asia, known as Nihon-koku or Nippon-koku in Japanese, and is renowned for its unique culture, advanced technology, and rich history. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to help answer them!
Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
A dead body, usually a human body.
Inflammation of the renal glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) that can be classified by the type of glomerular injuries including antibody deposition, complement activation, cellular proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis. These structural and functional abnormalities usually lead to HEMATURIA; PROTEINURIA; HYPERTENSION; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
Refusal of the health professional to initiate or continue treatment of a patient or group of patients. The refusal can be based on any reason. The concept is differentiated from PATIENT REFUSAL OF TREATMENT see TREATMENT REFUSAL which originates with the patient and not the health professional.
The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.
The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.
Homopolymer of tetrafluoroethylene. Nonflammable, tough, inert plastic tubing or sheeting; used to line vessels, insulate, protect or lubricate apparatus; also as filter, coating for surgical implants or as prosthetic material. Synonyms: Fluoroflex; Fluoroplast; Ftoroplast; Halon; Polyfene; PTFE; Tetron.
Obstruction of flow in biological or prosthetic vascular grafts.
A topically used antibiotic from a strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens. It has shown excellent activity against gram-positive staphylococci and streptococci. The antibiotic is used primarily for the treatment of primary and secondary skin disorders, nasal infections, and wound healing.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Taiwan" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. It is a country located in East Asia. If you have any questions related to healthcare or medical terms, I would be happy to help with those!
A disease or state in which death is possible or imminent.
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
Sulfones are a class of organic compounds containing the functional group with a sulfur atom bonded to two oxygen atoms and another organic group, widely used in pharmaceuticals, particularly for the treatment of bacterial infections, leprosy, and certain types of cancer.
Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.
Abnormally high potassium concentration in the blood, most often due to defective renal excretion. It is characterized clinically by electrocardiographic abnormalities (elevated T waves and depressed P waves, and eventually by atrial asystole). In severe cases, weakness and flaccid paralysis may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Transmission of energy or mass by a medium involving movement of the medium itself. The circulatory movement that occurs in a fluid at a nonuniform temperature owing to the variation of its density and the action of gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed; Webster, 10th ed)

Evaluation of a new method for the analysis of free catecholamines in plasma using automated sample trace enrichment with dialysis and HPLC. (1/1315)

BACKGROUND: Analysis of urinary free catecholamines was automated recently, but analysis of plasma samples posed special difficulties. The present study was undertaken to evaluate a new method for the automated analysis of plasma catecholamines. METHODS: The procedure is based on an improved sample handling system that includes dialysis and sample clean-up on a strong cation trace-enrichment cartridge. The catecholamines norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine are then separated by reversed-phase ion-pair chromatography and quantified by electrochemical detection. RESULTS: Use of a 740- microL sample is required to give the catecholamine detection limit of 0.05 nmol/L and analytical imprecision (CV) between 1.1% and 9.3%. The assay can be run unattended, although >12 h of analysis time is not recommended without cooling of the autosampler rack. Comparison (n = 68) of the automated cation-exchange clean-up with the well-established manual alumina procedure gave excellent agreement (mean, 3.78 +/- 2.76 and 3.8 +/- 2.89 nmol/L for norepinephrine and 0.99 +/- 1.72 and 1.08 +/- 1.78 nmol/L for epinephrine). Hemodialysis had no clear effect on plasma norepinephrine. Epinephrine concentrations were similar (0.05 < P < 0.1) in chronic renal failure patients (0.24 +/- 0.3 nmol/L; n = 15) and healthy controls (0.5 +/- 0.24 nmol/L; n = 31). Dopamine was not quantified, being usually <0.2 nmol/L. CONCLUSION: The availability of such a fully automated procedure should encourage the more widespread use of plasma catecholamine estimation, e.g., after dialysis, exercise, or trauma/surgery and in the investigation of catecholamine-secreting tumors, particularly in the anuric patient.  (+info)

Inhibition of protein denaturation by fatty acids, bile salts and other natural substances: a new hypothesis for the mechanism of action of fish oil in rheumatic diseases. (2/1315)

Natural hydrophobic substances like bile salts (cholate, deoxycholate, chenodeoxycholate, lithocholate and their conjugates with glycine and taurine), fatty acids (caprylic, capric, lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid) were much more active (EC50 approximately 10(-4)-10(-5) M) than selected amino acids (EC50 > 10(-2) M) and inorganic salts (EC50 approximately 10(-1) M) in inhibiting heat-induced denaturation of human serum albumin in vitro. Fish oil, rich in n-3-polyunsaturated acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, administered p.o. (1 ml/kg) in the rat, protected ex vivo (after 2 hr) serum against heat-induced denaturation more than bendazac, a known antidenaturant drug. Thus, we speculated that the antidenaturant activity of fish oil may be partly (in addition to the known effect on endogenous eicosanoid composition) responsible for its beneficial effects in rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatic conditions. In this connection, it is of note that the in vitro antidenaturant activity of fish oil fatty acids was higher than that of known antidenaturant drugs such as bendazac and bindarit and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like phenylbutazone and indomethacin which could exert beneficial effects in chronic inflammatory conditions by stabilizing endogenous proteins.  (+info)

Kinetics and mechanism of exchange of apolipoprotein C-III molecules from very low density lipoprotein particles. (3/1315)

Transfer of apolipoprotein (apo) molecules between lipoprotein particles is an important factor in modulating the metabolism of the particles. Although the phenomenon is well established, the kinetics and molecular mechanism of passive apo exchange/transfer have not been defined in detail. In this study, the kinetic parameters governing the movement of radiolabeled apoC molecules from human very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) to high density lipoprotein (HDL3) particles were measured using a manganese phosphate precipitation assay to rapidly separate the two types of lipoprotein particles. In the case of VLDL labeled with human [14C]apoCIII1, a large fraction of the apoCIII1 transfers to HDL3 within 1 minute of mixing the two lipoproteins at either 4 degrees or 37 degrees C. As the diameter of the VLDL donor particles is decreased from 42-59 to 23-25 nm, the size of this rapidly transferring apoCIII1 pool increases from about 50% to 85%. There is also a pool of apoCIII1 existing on the donor VLDL particles that transfers more slowly. This slow transfer follows a monoexponential rate equation; for 35-40 nm donor VLDL particles the pool size is approximately 20% and the t1/2 is approximately 3 h. The flux of apoCIII molecules between VLDL and HDL3 is bidirectional and all of the apoCIII seems to be available for exchange so that equilibrium is attained. It is likely that the two kinetic pools of apoCIII are related to conformational variations of individual apo molecules on the surface of VLDL particles. The rate of slow transfer of apoCIII1 from donor VLDL (35-40 nm) to acceptor HDL3 is unaffected by an increase in the acceptor to donor ratio, indicating that the transfer is not dependent on collisions between donor and acceptor particles. Consistent with this, apoCIII1 molecules can transfer from donor VLDL to acceptor HDL3 particles across a 50 kDa molecular mass cutoff semipermeable membrane separating the lipoprotein particles. These results indicate that apoC molecules transfer between VLDL and HDL3 particles by an aqueous diffusion mechanism.  (+info)

Isolation and characterization of a Ca2+ -binding polysaccharide associated with coccoliths of Emiliania huxleyi (Lohmann) Kamptner. (4/1315)

C-occolithophoridae, a group of mostly unicellular algae, possess a cell wall containing calcified plates, called coccoliths. The coccoliths from the species Emilania huxleyi (Lohmann) Kamptner contain a water-soluble acid polysaccharide. In this paper we describe the isolation and some characteristic properties of the polysaccharide, in particular its Ca2+ -binding capacity. A large-scale cultivation of the Coccolithophoridae was worked out and a new procedure for isolating coccoliths was developed. The polysaccharide obtained from the coccoliths contained two types of monobasic acid groups in a total amount of 1.8 mumol/mg polysaccharide. One type consisted of weakly acid groups which were identified as uronic acids. The nature of the stronger acid groups remains to be established. The ratio between the respective groups was 1:0.8. Studies with 45Ca2+ demonstrated that the isolated polysaccharide is capable of binding Ca2+. Equilibrium dialysis revealed that the maximum amount of Ca2+ which can be bound in 0.92 +/- 0.05 mumol/mg polysaccharide. Flow-rate dialysis experiments strongly suggested the presence of two classes of Ca2+ -binding sites differing in affinity for Ca2+. High-affinity sites (dissociation constant Kd for Ca2+ :2.2 +/- 1.0 X 10(-5) M) were found to be present in amounts (0.38 +/- 0.04 mumol/mg polysaccharide) approximately equivalent to the strongly acid monovalent groups mentioned above (0.8 mumol/mg polysaccharide). Low-affinity sites (Kd for Ca2+: -11 +/- 39 X 10(-5) M) were estimated at 0.74 +/- 0.11 mumol/mg polysaccharide. Although this figure could be determined less accurately, it is suggested that the uronic acids (1.0 mumol/mg polysaccharide) are identical to the low-affinity sites. Preferential binding of Ca2+ occurred in a 100-fold excess of Na+ and Mg2+ as was shown by gel filtration. A 100-fold excess of Sr2+ inhibited Ca2+ binding to a great extent while no Ca2+ was bound in the presence of an equimolar amount of La3+. The dissociation constants of the high-affinity sites for Na+, Mg2+, Sr2+ and La3+ (in the presence of Ca2+) were determined with the flow-rate dialysis technique. They confirm the order of binding preference found with gel filtration. A polysaccharide with similar properties could be isolated from subfossil coccoliths of E. hyxleyi (about 1000 years old). The possible role of the polysaccharide as a heterogeneous matrix in coccolith formation is discussed.  (+info)

Polyamine-dependent deoxyribonuclease activity from rat-liver nuclei. (5/1315)

When nuclei isolated from rat liver in a low salt buffer were washed with 0.1 M NaCl solution, the supernatant showed a deoxyribonuclease (DNase) activity. The activity required Mg2+ and in addition spermine or spermidine, and its optimal pH was 7.2-7.4. The activity was higher on denatured (single stranded) DNA than on double-helical DNA. With both substrates the activity was highest at a polyamine concentration at which the DNA-polyamine complex began to precipitate. No Mg2++Ca2+ dependent DNase activity was detected in the preparation.  (+info)

Tissue distribution and characteristics of xanthine oxidase and allopurinol oxidizing enzyme. (6/1315)

Tissue distribution and levels of allopurinol oxidizing enzyme and xanthine oxidase with hypoxanthine as a substrate were compared with supernatant fractions from various tissues of mice and from liver of mice, rats, guinea pigs and rabbits. The allopurinol oxidizing enzyme activities in liver were quite different among the species and the sex difference of the enzyme activity only in mouse liver. In mice, the highest activity of allopurinol oxidizing enzyme was found in the liver with a trace value in lung, but the enzyme activity was not detected in brain, small intestine and kidney, while the highest activity of xanthine oxidase was detected in small intestine, lung, liver and kidney in that sequence. The allopurinol oxidizing enzyme activity in mouse liver supernatant fraction did not change after storage at -20 degrees C or dialysis against 0.1 M Tris-HCl containing 1.15% KCl, but the activity markedly decreased after dialysis against 0.1 M Tris-HCl. On the contrary, the xanthine oxidase was activated 2 to 3 times the usual activity after storage at -20 degrees C or dialysis of the enzyme preparation. These results indicated that allopurinol was hydroxylated to oxipurinol mainly by the enzyme which is not identical to xanthine oxidase in vivo. A possible role of aldehyde oxidase involved in the allopurinol oxidation in liver supernatant fraction was dicussed.  (+info)

Early requirement for alpha-SNAP and NSF in the secretory cascade in chromaffin cells. (7/1315)

NSF and alpha-SNAP have been shown to be required for SNARE complex disassembly and exocytosis. However, the exact requirement for NSF and alpha-SNAP in vesicular traffic through the secretory pathway remains controversial. We performed a study on the kinetics of exocytosis from bovine chromaffin cells using high time resolution capacitance measurement and electrochemical amperometry, combined with flash photolysis of caged Ca2+ as a fast stimulus. alpha-SNAP, a C-terminal mutant of alpha-SNAP, and NEM were assayed for their effects on secretion kinetics. Two kinetically distinct components of catecholamine release can be observed upon fast step-like elevation of [Ca2+]i. One is the exocytotic burst, thought to represent the readily releasable pool of vesicles. Following the exocytotic burst, secretion proceeds slowly at maintained high [Ca2+]i, which may represent vesicle maturation/recruitment, i.e. some priming steps after docking. alpha-SNAP increased the amplitude of both the exocytotic burst and the slow component but did not change their kinetics, which we examined with millisecond time resolution. In addition, NEM only partially inhibited the slow component without altering the exocytotic burst, fusion kinetics and the rate of endocytosis. These results suggest a role for alpha-SNAP/NSF in priming granules for release at an early step, but not modifying the fusion of readily releasable granules.  (+info)

Daunomycin-induced unfolding and aggregation of chromatin. (8/1315)

Using equilibrium dialysis and sedimentation velocity analysis, we have characterized the binding of the anti-tumor drug daunomycin to chicken erythrocyte chromatin before and after depletion of linker histones and to its constitutive DNA under several ionic strengths (5, 25, and 75 mM NaCl). The equilibrium dialysis experiments reveal that the drug binds cooperatively to both the chromatin fractions and to the DNA counterpart within the range of ionic strength used in this study. A significant decrease in the binding affinity was observed at 75 mM NaCl. At any given salt concentration, daunomycin exhibits higher binding affinity for DNA than for linker histone-depleted chromatin or chromatin (in decreasing order). Binding of daunomycin to DNA does not significantly affect the sedimentation coefficient of the molecule. This is in contrast to binding to chromatin and to its linker histone-depleted counterpart. In these instances, preferential binding of the drug to the linker DNA regions induces an unfolding of the chromatin fiber that is followed by aggregation, presumably because of histone-DNA interfiber interactions.  (+info)

Renal dialysis is a medical procedure that is used to artificially remove waste products, toxins, and excess fluids from the blood when the kidneys are no longer able to perform these functions effectively. This process is also known as hemodialysis.

During renal dialysis, the patient's blood is circulated through a special machine called a dialyzer or an artificial kidney, which contains a semi-permeable membrane that filters out waste products and excess fluids from the blood. The cleaned blood is then returned to the patient's body.

Renal dialysis is typically recommended for patients with advanced kidney disease or kidney failure, such as those with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). It is a life-sustaining treatment that helps to maintain the balance of fluids and electrolytes in the body, prevent the buildup of waste products and toxins, and control blood pressure.

There are two main types of renal dialysis: hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. Hemodialysis is the most common type and involves using a dialyzer to filter the blood outside the body. Peritoneal dialysis, on the other hand, involves placing a catheter in the abdomen and using the lining of the abdomen (peritoneum) as a natural filter to remove waste products and excess fluids from the body.

Overall, renal dialysis is an essential treatment option for patients with kidney failure, helping them to maintain their quality of life and prolong their survival.

Peritoneal dialysis is a type of renal replacement therapy used to treat patients with severe kidney dysfunction or end-stage renal disease. It is a process that utilizes the peritoneum, a membranous sac lining the abdominal cavity, as a natural semipermeable membrane for filtering waste products, excess fluids, and electrolytes from the bloodstream.

In peritoneal dialysis, a sterile dialysate solution is infused into the peritoneal cavity via a permanently implanted catheter. The dialysate contains various substances such as glucose or other osmotic agents, electrolytes, and buffer solutions that facilitate the diffusion of waste products and fluids from the blood vessels surrounding the peritoneum into the dialysate.

There are two primary types of peritoneal dialysis: continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and automated peritoneal dialysis (APD). CAPD is performed manually, several times a day, while APD is carried out using a cycler machine overnight.

Peritoneal dialysis offers certain advantages over hemodialysis, such as better preservation of residual renal function, fewer dietary restrictions, and greater flexibility in scheduling treatments. However, it also has potential complications, including peritonitis (inflammation of the peritoneum), catheter-related infections, fluid imbalances, and membrane failure over time.

Dialysis is a medical treatment that is used to remove waste and excess fluid from the blood when the kidneys are no longer able to perform these functions effectively. This life-sustaining procedure uses a specialized machine, called a dialyzer or artificial kidney, to filter the blood outside of the body and return clean, chemically balanced blood back into the body.

There are two main types of dialysis: hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.

1. Hemodialysis: In this method, a patient's blood is passed through an external filter (dialyzer) that removes waste products, toxins, and excess fluids. The cleaned blood is then returned to the body with the help of a specialized machine. Hemodialysis typically requires access to a large vein, often created by a surgical procedure called an arteriovenous (AV) fistula or graft. Hemodialysis sessions usually last for about 3-5 hours and are performed three times a week in a clinical setting, such as a dialysis center or hospital.
2. Peritoneal Dialysis: This method uses the lining of the patient's own abdomen (peritoneum) as a natural filter to clean the blood. A sterile dialysate solution is introduced into the peritoneal cavity via a permanently implanted catheter. The solution absorbs waste products and excess fluids from the blood vessels lining the peritoneum through a process called diffusion. After a dwell time, usually several hours, the used dialysate is drained out and replaced with fresh dialysate. This process is known as an exchange and is typically repeated multiple times throughout the day or night, depending on the specific type of peritoneal dialysis (continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis or automated peritoneal dialysis).

Both methods have their advantages and disadvantages, and the choice between them depends on various factors, such as a patient's overall health, lifestyle, and personal preferences. Dialysis is a life-saving treatment for people with end-stage kidney disease or severe kidney dysfunction, allowing them to maintain their quality of life and extend their lifespan until a kidney transplant becomes available or their kidney function improves.

Dialysis solutions are fluids that are used during the process of dialysis, which is a treatment for patients with kidney failure. The main function of these solutions is to help remove waste products and excess fluid from the bloodstream, as the kidneys are no longer able to do so effectively.

The dialysis solution typically contains a mixture of water, electrolytes (such as sodium, potassium, chloride, and bicarbonate), and a small amount of glucose. The composition of the solution may vary depending on the individual patient's needs, but it is carefully controlled to match the patient's blood as closely as possible.

During dialysis, the patient's blood is circulated through a special filter called a dialyzer, which separates waste products and excess fluids from the blood. The used dialysis solution, which contains these waste products and excess fluids, is then discarded. Fresh dialysis solution is continuously introduced into the dialyzer to replace the used solution, creating a continuous flow of fluid that helps remove waste products and maintain the proper balance of electrolytes in the patient's blood.

Overall, dialysis solutions play a critical role in helping patients with kidney failure maintain their health and quality of life.

Peritoneal dialysis, continuous ambulatory (CAPD), is a type of renal replacement therapy used to treat patients with end-stage kidney disease. It is a form of peritoneal dialysis that is performed continuously, without the need for machines or hospitalization. CAPD uses the patient's own peritoneum, a thin membrane that lines the abdominal cavity, as a natural filter to remove waste products and excess fluids from the bloodstream.

In CAPD, a sterile dialysis solution is introduced into the peritoneal cavity through a permanent catheter implanted in the patient's abdomen. The solution remains in the peritoneal cavity for a dwell time of several hours, during which diffusion occurs across the peritoneal membrane, allowing waste products and excess fluids to move from the bloodstream into the dialysis solution.

After the dwell time, the used dialysis solution is drained from the peritoneal cavity and discarded, and a fresh batch of dialysis solution is introduced. This process is typically repeated four to five times a day, with each exchange taking about 30 minutes to complete. Patients can perform CAPD exchanges while going about their daily activities, making it a convenient and flexible treatment option for many patients with end-stage kidney disease.

Overall, CAPD is a highly effective form of dialysis that offers several advantages over other types of renal replacement therapy, including improved quality of life, better preservation of residual kidney function, and lower costs. However, it does require careful attention to sterile technique and regular monitoring to ensure proper functioning of the peritoneal membrane and adequate clearance of waste products and fluids.

Chronic kidney failure, also known as chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 5 or end-stage renal disease (ESRD), is a permanent loss of kidney function that occurs gradually over a period of months to years. It is defined as a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of less than 15 ml/min, which means the kidneys are filtering waste and excess fluids at less than 15% of their normal capacity.

CKD can be caused by various underlying conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, glomerulonephritis, polycystic kidney disease, and recurrent kidney infections. Over time, the damage to the kidneys can lead to a buildup of waste products and fluids in the body, which can cause a range of symptoms including fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, and confusion.

Treatment for chronic kidney failure typically involves managing the underlying condition, making lifestyle changes such as following a healthy diet, and receiving supportive care such as dialysis or a kidney transplant to replace lost kidney function.

Peritonitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the peritoneum, which is the serous membrane that lines the inner wall of the abdominal cavity and covers the abdominal organs. The peritoneum has an important role in protecting the abdominal organs and providing a smooth surface for them to move against each other.

Peritonitis can occur as a result of bacterial or fungal infection, chemical irritation, or trauma to the abdomen. The most common cause of peritonitis is a rupture or perforation of an organ in the abdominal cavity, such as the appendix, stomach, or intestines, which allows bacteria from the gut to enter the peritoneal cavity.

Symptoms of peritonitis may include abdominal pain and tenderness, fever, nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite, and decreased bowel movements. In severe cases, peritonitis can lead to sepsis, a life-threatening condition characterized by widespread inflammation throughout the body.

Treatment for peritonitis typically involves antibiotics to treat the infection, as well as surgical intervention to repair any damage to the abdominal organs and remove any infected fluid or tissue from the peritoneal cavity. In some cases, a temporary or permanent drain may be placed in the abdomen to help remove excess fluid and promote healing.

The peritoneum is the serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and covers the abdominal organs. It is composed of a mesothelial cell monolayer supported by a thin, loose connective tissue. The peritoneum has two layers: the parietal peritoneum, which lines the abdominal wall, and the visceral peritoneum, which covers the organs.

The potential space between these two layers is called the peritoneal cavity, which contains a small amount of serous fluid that allows for the smooth movement of the organs within the cavity. The peritoneum plays an important role in the absorption and secretion of fluids and electrolytes, as well as providing a surface for the circulation of immune cells.

In addition, it also provides a route for the spread of infection or malignant cells throughout the abdominal cavity, known as peritonitis. The peritoneum is highly vascularized and innervated, making it sensitive to pain and distention.

Indwelling catheters, also known as Foley catheters, are medical devices that are inserted into the bladder to drain urine. They have a small balloon at the tip that is inflated with water once the catheter is in the correct position in the bladder, allowing it to remain in place and continuously drain urine. Indwelling catheters are typically used for patients who are unable to empty their bladders on their own, such as those who are bedridden or have nerve damage that affects bladder function. They are also used during and after certain surgical procedures. Prolonged use of indwelling catheters can increase the risk of urinary tract infections and other complications.

Hemodialysis solutions are sterile, pyrogen-free fluids used in the process of hemodialysis, a renal replacement therapy for patients with kidney failure. These solutions are formulated to remove waste products and excess fluid from the blood by means of diffusion and osmosis across a semipermeable membrane.

The primary components of hemodialysis solutions include:

1. Electrolytes: Sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, and magnesium ions are present in concentrations that aim to restore normal levels in the body or to correct for abnormalities in patients' serum electrolyte levels.
2. Buffer: Bicarbonate or acetate is added as a buffer to maintain the pH of the dialysate and prevent acidification of the blood during hemodialysis.
3. Glucose: A small amount of glucose may be included in the solution to provide energy for the patient.
4. Water: Ultrapure water is used to prepare the solution, free from microbial contaminants and endotoxins.

Hemodialysis solutions are available in different concentrations and formulations to address individual patient needs and specific clinical situations. The composition of these solutions must be carefully controlled to ensure their effectiveness and safety during hemodialysis treatments.

Ultrafiltration is a medical process that separates fluids and dissolved solutes based on their size and charge. It's a type of membrane filtration that uses a semipermeable membrane with pores small enough to allow the passage of water and low molecular weight solutes, while retaining larger molecules and cells.

In clinical practice, ultrafiltration is often used in patients with acute or chronic kidney failure to remove excess fluid from the bloodstream, a process known as renal replacement therapy or dialysis. During this procedure, the patient's blood is passed through a hollow fiber membrane, and pressure differences across the membrane cause water and small solutes to move through the pores, while larger molecules such as proteins and cells are retained.

Ultrafiltration can also be used in other medical contexts, such as plasma exchange or therapeutic apheresis, where specific components of the blood are removed for therapeutic purposes.

Urea is not a medical condition but it is a medically relevant substance. Here's the definition:

Urea is a colorless, odorless solid that is the primary nitrogen-containing compound in the urine of mammals. It is a normal metabolic end product that is excreted by the kidneys and is also used as a fertilizer and in various industrial applications. Chemically, urea is a carbamide, consisting of two amino groups (NH2) joined by a carbon atom and having a hydrogen atom and a hydroxyl group (OH) attached to the carbon atom. Urea is produced in the liver as an end product of protein metabolism and is then eliminated from the body by the kidneys through urination. Abnormal levels of urea in the blood, known as uremia, can indicate impaired kidney function or other medical conditions.

Nephrology is a branch of medicine that deals with the study and treatment of kidney diseases. A nephrologist is a medical specialist who specializes in the diagnosis, management, and treatment of various kidney-related disorders such as chronic kidney disease (CKD), acute renal failure, glomerulonephritis, hypertension, kidney stones, electrolyte imbalances, and inherited kidney diseases. They also provide care for patients who require dialysis or transplantation due to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Nephrologists work closely with other healthcare professionals including primary care physicians, surgeons, radiologists, and pathologists to develop individualized treatment plans for their patients.

Renal replacement therapy (RRT) is a medical treatment that takes over the normal function of the kidneys when they fail. The main objectives of RRT are to remove waste products and excess fluid, correct electrolyte imbalances, and maintain acid-base balance in the body. There are several types of RRT, including hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and kidney transplantation.

Hemodialysis involves circulating the patient's blood through an external filter called a dialyzer, which removes waste products and excess fluid. The cleaned blood is then returned to the patient's body. Hemodialysis can be performed in a hospital or dialysis center, or at home with appropriate training.

Peritoneal dialysis involves instilling a special solution called dialysate into the patient's abdominal cavity, where it remains for a period of time to allow waste products and excess fluid to move from the bloodstream into the dialysate through a membrane in the peritoneum. The used dialysate is then drained out of the body and replaced with fresh dialysate. Peritoneal dialysis can be performed continuously or intermittently, and it can also be done at home.

Kidney transplantation involves surgically implanting a healthy kidney from a donor into the patient's body to replace the failed kidneys. This is usually the most effective form of RRT, but it requires major surgery and long-term immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection of the transplanted organ.

Overall, RRT is a life-sustaining treatment for patients with end-stage kidney disease, and it can significantly improve their quality of life and longevity.

Artificial kidney, also known as a renal replacement therapy or dialysis, is a device that performs the essential functions of the human kidney when the natural kidneys are unable to do so. The main function of an artificial kidney is to filter and remove waste, excess water, and toxic substances from the blood, helping to maintain the body's chemical balance and regulate blood pressure.

There are two primary types of artificial kidney treatments: hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. Hemodialysis involves circulating the patient's blood through an external filter (dialyzer) that contains a semi-permeable membrane, which separates waste products and excess fluids from the blood. The cleaned blood is then returned to the body. This process typically takes place in a clinical setting, such as a hospital or dialysis center, for about 3-5 hours, several times a week.

Peritoneal dialysis, on the other hand, uses the patient's own peritoneum (a membrane lining the abdominal cavity) as a natural filter. A special solution called dialysate is introduced into the peritoneal cavity via a catheter, and waste products and excess fluids pass from the blood vessels in the peritoneum into the dialysate. After a dwell time of several hours, the used dialysate is drained out and replaced with fresh solution. This process can be performed manually (continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis) or using a machine (automated peritoneal dialysis), typically at home and during sleep.

Artificial kidneys are life-saving treatments for patients with end-stage renal disease, helping them maintain their quality of life and extend their lifespan until a kidney transplant becomes available.

An arteriovenous shunt is a surgically created connection between an artery and a vein. This procedure is typically performed to reroute blood flow or to provide vascular access for various medical treatments. In a surgical setting, the creation of an arteriovenous shunt involves connecting an artery directly to a vein, bypassing the capillary network in between.

There are different types of arteriovenous shunts used for specific medical purposes:

1. Arteriovenous Fistula (AVF): This is a surgical connection created between an artery and a vein, usually in the arm or leg. The procedure involves dissecting both the artery and vein, then suturing them directly together. Over time, the increased blood flow to the vein causes it to dilate and thicken, making it suitable for repeated needle punctures during hemodialysis treatments for patients with kidney failure.
2. Arteriovenous Graft (AVG): An arteriovenous graft is a synthetic tube used to connect an artery and a vein when a direct AVF cannot be created due to insufficient vessel size or poor quality. The graft can be made of various materials, such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) or Dacron. Grafts are more prone to infection and clotting compared to native AVFs but remain an essential option for patients requiring hemodialysis access.
3. Central Venous Catheter (CVC): A central venous catheter is a flexible tube inserted into a large vein, often in the neck or groin, and advanced towards the heart. CVCs can be used as temporary arteriovenous shunts for patients who require immediate hemodialysis access but do not have time to wait for an AVF or AVG to mature. However, they are associated with higher risks of infection and thrombosis compared to native AVFs and AVGs.

In summary, a surgical arteriovenous shunt is a connection between an artery and a vein established through a medical procedure. The primary purpose of these shunts is to provide vascular access for hemodialysis in patients with end-stage renal disease or to serve as temporary access when native AVFs or AVGs are not feasible.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Hemodiafiltration (HDF) is a type of renal replacement therapy used for patients with severe kidney failure. It combines elements of hemodialysis and hemofiltration to provide more efficient removal of waste products, toxins, and excess fluid from the blood.

During HDF, the patient's blood is passed through a semi-permeable membrane in a dialyzer or artificial kidney. The membrane allows for the passage of smaller molecules such as urea, creatinine, and electrolytes, while retaining larger molecules like proteins. A combination of diffusion (due to the concentration gradient) and convection (due to the application of a transmembrane pressure) leads to the removal of waste products and toxins from the blood.

In addition to this, a substitution fluid is infused into the extracorporeal circuit to replace the volume of fluid removed during convection. This substitution fluid can be tailored to match the patient's electrolyte and acid-base status, allowing for better control over their biochemical parameters.

HDF has been shown to provide better clearance of middle and large molecular weight uremic toxins compared to conventional hemodialysis, potentially leading to improved clinical outcomes such as reduced inflammation, oxidative stress, and cardiovascular risk. However, more research is needed to confirm these benefits and establish the optimal dosing and prescription for HDF.

Creatinine is a waste product that's produced by your muscles and removed from your body by your kidneys. Creatinine is a breakdown product of creatine, a compound found in meat and fish, as well as in the muscles of vertebrates, including humans.

In healthy individuals, the kidneys filter out most of the creatinine and eliminate it through urine. However, when the kidneys are not functioning properly, creatinine levels in the blood can rise. Therefore, measuring the amount of creatinine in the blood or urine is a common way to test how well the kidneys are working. High creatinine levels in the blood may indicate kidney damage or kidney disease.

Kidney transplantation is a surgical procedure where a healthy kidney from a deceased or living donor is implanted into a patient with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or permanent kidney failure. The new kidney takes over the functions of filtering waste and excess fluids from the blood, producing urine, and maintaining the body's electrolyte balance.

The transplanted kidney is typically placed in the lower abdomen, with its blood vessels connected to the recipient's iliac artery and vein. The ureter of the new kidney is then attached to the recipient's bladder to ensure proper urine flow. Following the surgery, the patient will require lifelong immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection of the transplanted organ by their immune system.

Kidney disease, also known as nephropathy or renal disease, refers to any functional or structural damage to the kidneys that impairs their ability to filter blood, regulate electrolytes, produce hormones, and maintain fluid balance. This damage can result from a wide range of causes, including diabetes, hypertension, glomerulonephritis, polycystic kidney disease, lupus, infections, drugs, toxins, and congenital or inherited disorders.

Depending on the severity and progression of the kidney damage, kidney diseases can be classified into two main categories: acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). AKI is a sudden and often reversible loss of kidney function that occurs over hours to days, while CKD is a progressive and irreversible decline in kidney function that develops over months or years.

Symptoms of kidney diseases may include edema, proteinuria, hematuria, hypertension, electrolyte imbalances, metabolic acidosis, anemia, and decreased urine output. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and severity of the disease and may include medications, dietary modifications, dialysis, or kidney transplantation.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Serum albumin is the most abundant protein in human blood plasma, synthesized by the liver. It plays a crucial role in maintaining the oncotic pressure or colloid osmotic pressure of blood, which helps to regulate the fluid balance between the intravascular and extravascular spaces.

Serum albumin has a molecular weight of around 66 kDa and is composed of a single polypeptide chain. It contains several binding sites for various endogenous and exogenous substances, such as bilirubin, fatty acids, hormones, and drugs, facilitating their transport throughout the body. Additionally, albumin possesses antioxidant properties, protecting against oxidative damage.

Albumin levels in the blood are often used as a clinical indicator of liver function, nutritional status, and overall health. Low serum albumin levels may suggest liver disease, malnutrition, inflammation, or kidney dysfunction.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Peritoneal diseases refer to a group of conditions that affect the peritoneum, which is the thin, transparent membrane that lines the inner wall of the abdomen and covers the organs within it. The peritoneum has several functions, including providing protection and support to the abdominal organs, producing and absorbing fluids, and serving as a site for the immune system's response to infections and other foreign substances.

Peritoneal diseases can be broadly classified into two categories: infectious and non-infectious. Infectious peritoneal diseases are caused by bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic infections that spread to the peritoneum from other parts of the body or through contaminated food, water, or medical devices. Non-infectious peritoneal diseases, on the other hand, are not caused by infections but rather by other factors such as autoimmune disorders, cancer, or chemical irritants.

Some examples of peritoneal diseases include:

1. Peritonitis: Inflammation of the peritoneum due to bacterial or fungal infections, often caused by a ruptured appendix, perforated ulcer, or other abdominal injuries or conditions.
2. Tuberculous peritonitis: A form of peritonitis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacterium that causes tuberculosis (TB).
3. Peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis: Infection of the peritoneum in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis, a type of kidney replacement therapy for patients with end-stage renal disease.
4. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma: A rare and aggressive form of cancer that affects the mesothelial cells lining the peritoneum, often caused by exposure to asbestos.
5. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): An autoimmune disorder that can cause inflammation and scarring of the peritoneum.
6. Peritoneal carcinomatosis: The spread of cancer cells from other parts of the body to the peritoneum, often seen in patients with advanced ovarian or colorectal cancer.
7. Cirrhotic ascites: Fluid accumulation in the peritoneal cavity due to liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension.
8. Meigs' syndrome: A rare condition characterized by the presence of a benign ovarian tumor, ascites, and pleural effusion.

Acute kidney injury (AKI), also known as acute renal failure, is a rapid loss of kidney function that occurs over a few hours or days. It is defined as an increase in the serum creatinine level by 0.3 mg/dL within 48 hours or an increase in the creatinine level to more than 1.5 times baseline, which is known or presumed to have occurred within the prior 7 days, or a urine volume of less than 0.5 mL/kg per hour for six hours.

AKI can be caused by a variety of conditions, including decreased blood flow to the kidneys, obstruction of the urinary tract, exposure to toxic substances, and certain medications. Symptoms of AKI may include decreased urine output, fluid retention, electrolyte imbalances, and metabolic acidosis. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the injury and providing supportive care, such as dialysis, to help maintain kidney function until the injury resolves.

Artificial membranes are synthetic or man-made materials that possess properties similar to natural biological membranes, such as selective permeability and barrier functions. These membranes can be designed to control the movement of molecules, ions, or cells across them, making them useful in various medical and biotechnological applications.

Examples of artificial membranes include:

1. Dialysis membranes: Used in hemodialysis for patients with renal failure, these semi-permeable membranes filter waste products and excess fluids from the blood while retaining essential proteins and cells.
2. Hemofiltration membranes: Utilized in extracorporeal circuits to remove larger molecules, such as cytokines or inflammatory mediators, from the blood during critical illnesses or sepsis.
3. Drug delivery systems: Artificial membranes can be used to encapsulate drugs, allowing for controlled release and targeted drug delivery in specific tissues or cells.
4. Tissue engineering: Synthetic membranes serve as scaffolds for cell growth and tissue regeneration, guiding the formation of new functional tissues.
5. Biosensors: Artificial membranes can be integrated into biosensing devices to selectively detect and quantify biomolecules, such as proteins or nucleic acids, in diagnostic applications.
6. Microfluidics: Artificial membranes are used in microfluidic systems for lab-on-a-chip applications, enabling the manipulation and analysis of small volumes of fluids for various medical and biological purposes.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Glucans are polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates) that are made up of long chains of glucose molecules. They can be found in the cell walls of certain plants, fungi, and bacteria. In medicine, beta-glucans derived from yeast or mushrooms have been studied for their potential immune-enhancing effects. However, more research is needed to fully understand their role and effectiveness in human health.

Peritoneal fibrosis is a chronic condition characterized by the formation of excessive scar tissue (fibrosis) in the peritoneum, which is the thin, transparent membrane that lines the inner wall of the abdomen and covers the abdominal organs. This fibrotic process can lead to thickening and shrinkage of the peritoneum, resulting in impaired function of the affected organs and various complications.

Peritoneal fibrosis often occurs as a result of long-term exposure to dialysis solutions used during peritoneal dialysis, a type of renal replacement therapy for patients with end-stage kidney disease. The inflammatory response triggered by the dialysate can cause progressive fibrosis and thickening of the peritoneum, ultimately leading to reduced efficiency of the dialysis process and potential complications such as fluid leakage, hernias, or bowel obstruction.

In addition to peritoneal dialysis-induced fibrosis, other causes of peritoneal fibrosis include previous abdominal surgeries, intra-abdominal infections, autoimmune diseases, and certain medications. The diagnosis of peritoneal fibrosis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies (such as ultrasound or CT scan), and direct examination of the peritoneum during diagnostic laparoscopy. Treatment options may include modifying the underlying cause, optimizing dialysis techniques, using anti-fibrotic medications, or considering alternative renal replacement therapies such as hemodialysis or transplantation.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Medical survival rate is a statistical measure used to determine the percentage of patients who are still alive for a specific period of time after their diagnosis or treatment for a certain condition or disease. It is often expressed as a five-year survival rate, which refers to the proportion of people who are alive five years after their diagnosis. Survival rates can be affected by many factors, including the stage of the disease at diagnosis, the patient's age and overall health, the effectiveness of treatment, and other health conditions that the patient may have. It is important to note that survival rates are statistical estimates and do not necessarily predict an individual patient's prognosis.

The peritoneal cavity is the potential space within the abdominal and pelvic regions, bounded by the parietal peritoneum lining the inner aspect of the abdominal and pelvic walls, and the visceral peritoneum covering the abdominal and pelvic organs. It contains a small amount of serous fluid that allows for the gliding of organs against each other during normal physiological activities such as digestion and movement. This cavity can become pathologically involved in various conditions, including inflammation, infection, hemorrhage, or neoplasia, leading to symptoms like abdominal pain, distention, or tenderness.

Renal insufficiency, also known as kidney failure, is a medical condition in which the kidneys are unable to properly filter waste products and excess fluids from the blood. This results in a buildup of these substances in the body, which can cause a variety of symptoms such as weakness, shortness of breath, and fluid retention. Renal insufficiency can be acute, meaning it comes on suddenly, or chronic, meaning it develops over time. It is typically diagnosed through blood tests, urine tests, and imaging studies. Treatment may include medications to control symptoms, dietary changes, and in severe cases, dialysis or a kidney transplant.

Chronic Renal Insufficiency (CRI) is a medical condition characterized by a gradual and progressive loss of kidney function over a period of months or years. It is also known as Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). The main function of the kidneys is to filter waste products and excess fluids from the blood, which are then excreted in the urine. When the kidneys become insufficient, these waste products and fluids accumulate in the body, leading to various complications.

CRI is defined as a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of less than 60 ml/min/1.73m2 for three months or more, regardless of cause. GFR is a measure of kidney function that estimates how well the kidneys are filtering waste products from the blood. The condition is classified into five stages based on the severity of the disease and the GFR value.

Stage 1: GFR greater than or equal to 90 ml/min/1.73m2
Stage 2: GFR between 60-89 ml/min/1.73m2
Stage 3: GFR between 30-59 ml/min/1.73m2
Stage 4: GFR between 15-29 ml/min/1.73m2
Stage 5: GFR less than 15 ml/min/1.73m2 or dialysis

CRI can be caused by various underlying conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, glomerulonephritis, polycystic kidney disease, and other genetic or acquired disorders. Symptoms of CRI may include fatigue, weakness, loss of appetite, swelling in the legs and ankles, shortness of breath, and changes in urination patterns. Treatment for CRI focuses on slowing down the progression of the disease, managing symptoms, and preventing complications. This may involve lifestyle modifications, medication, dialysis, or kidney transplantation.

Anemia is a medical condition characterized by a lower than normal number of red blood cells or lower than normal levels of hemoglobin in the blood. Hemoglobin is an important protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. Anemia can cause fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, and a pale complexion because the body's tissues are not getting enough oxygen.

Anemia can be caused by various factors, including nutritional deficiencies (such as iron, vitamin B12, or folate deficiency), blood loss, chronic diseases (such as kidney disease or rheumatoid arthritis), inherited genetic disorders (such as sickle cell anemia or thalassemia), and certain medications.

There are different types of anemia, classified based on the underlying cause, size and shape of red blood cells, and the level of hemoglobin in the blood. Treatment for anemia depends on the underlying cause and may include dietary changes, supplements, medication, or blood transfusions.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

Erythropoietin (EPO) is a hormone that is primarily produced by the kidneys and plays a crucial role in the production of red blood cells in the body. It works by stimulating the bone marrow to produce more red blood cells, which are essential for carrying oxygen to various tissues and organs.

EPO is a glycoprotein that is released into the bloodstream in response to low oxygen levels in the body. When the kidneys detect low oxygen levels, they release EPO, which then travels to the bone marrow and binds to specific receptors on immature red blood cells called erythroblasts. This binding triggers a series of events that promote the maturation and proliferation of erythroblasts, leading to an increase in the production of red blood cells.

In addition to its role in regulating red blood cell production, EPO has also been shown to have neuroprotective effects and may play a role in modulating the immune system. Abnormal levels of EPO have been associated with various medical conditions, including anemia, kidney disease, and certain types of cancer.

EPO is also used as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of anemia caused by chronic kidney disease, chemotherapy, or other conditions that affect red blood cell production. Recombinant human EPO (rhEPO) is a synthetic form of the hormone that is produced using genetic engineering techniques and is commonly used in clinical practice to treat anemia. However, misuse of rhEPO for performance enhancement in sports has been a subject of concern due to its potential to enhance oxygen-carrying capacity and improve endurance.

Nutritional status is a concept that refers to the condition of an individual in relation to their nutrient intake, absorption, metabolism, and excretion. It encompasses various aspects such as body weight, muscle mass, fat distribution, presence of any deficiencies or excesses of specific nutrients, and overall health status.

A comprehensive assessment of nutritional status typically includes a review of dietary intake, anthropometric measurements (such as height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure), laboratory tests (such as serum albumin, total protein, cholesterol levels, vitamin and mineral levels), and clinical evaluation for signs of malnutrition or overnutrition.

Malnutrition can result from inadequate intake or absorption of nutrients, increased nutrient requirements due to illness or injury, or excessive loss of nutrients due to medical conditions. On the other hand, overnutrition can lead to obesity and related health problems such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancer.

Therefore, maintaining a good nutritional status is essential for overall health and well-being, and it is an important consideration in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of various medical conditions.

Bicarbonates, also known as sodium bicarbonate or baking soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. In the context of medical definitions, bicarbonates refer to the bicarbonate ion (HCO3-), which is an important buffer in the body that helps maintain normal pH levels in blood and other bodily fluids.

The balance of bicarbonate and carbonic acid in the body helps regulate the acidity or alkalinity of the blood, a condition known as pH balance. Bicarbonates are produced by the body and are also found in some foods and drinking water. They work to neutralize excess acid in the body and help maintain the normal pH range of 7.35 to 7.45.

In medical testing, bicarbonate levels may be measured as part of an electrolyte panel or as a component of arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis. Low bicarbonate levels can indicate metabolic acidosis, while high levels can indicate metabolic alkalosis. Both conditions can have serious consequences if not treated promptly and appropriately.

Renal osteodystrophy is a bone disease that occurs in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is characterized by abnormalities in the bones' structure and mineral composition due to disturbances in the metabolism of calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D. These metabolic disturbances result from the kidneys' decreased ability to maintain balance in the levels of these minerals and hormones.

Renal osteodystrophy can manifest as several bone disorders, including:

1. Osteitis fibrosa cystica: Increased bone turnover due to excessive parathyroid hormone (PTH) production, leading to high levels of alkaline phosphatase and increased resorption of bones.
2. Adynamic bone disease: Decreased bone turnover due to reduced PTH levels, resulting in low bone formation rates and increased fracture risk.
3. Mixed uremic osteodystrophy: A combination of high and low bone turnover, with varying degrees of mineralization defects.
4. Osteomalacia: Defective mineralization of bones due to vitamin D deficiency or resistance, leading to soft and weak bones.

Symptoms of renal osteodystrophy may include bone pain, muscle weakness, fractures, deformities, and growth retardation in children. Diagnosis typically involves laboratory tests, imaging studies, and sometimes bone biopsies. Treatment focuses on correcting the metabolic imbalances through dietary modifications, medications (such as phosphate binders, vitamin D analogs, and calcimimetics), and addressing any secondary hyperparathyroidism if present.

Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a test used to check how well the kidneys are working. Specifically, it estimates how much blood passes through the glomeruli each minute. The glomeruli are the tiny fibers in the kidneys that filter waste from the blood. A lower GFR number means that the kidneys aren't working properly and may indicate kidney disease.

The GFR is typically calculated using a formula that takes into account the patient's serum creatinine level, age, sex, and race. The most commonly used formula is the CKD-EPI (Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration) equation. A normal GFR is usually above 90 mL/min/1.73m2, but this can vary depending on the individual's age and other factors.

Proportional hazards models are a type of statistical analysis used in medical research to investigate the relationship between covariates (predictor variables) and survival times. The most common application of proportional hazards models is in the Cox regression model, which is named after its developer, Sir David Cox.

In a proportional hazards model, the hazard rate or risk of an event occurring at a given time is assumed to be proportional to the hazard rate of a reference group, after adjusting for the covariates. This means that the ratio of the hazard rates between any two individuals remains constant over time, regardless of their survival times.

Mathematically, the hazard function h(t) at time t for an individual with a set of covariates X can be expressed as:

h(t|X) = h0(t) \* exp(β1X1 + β2X2 + ... + βpXp)

where h0(t) is the baseline hazard function, X1, X2, ..., Xp are the covariates, and β1, β2, ..., βp are the regression coefficients that represent the effect of each covariate on the hazard rate.

The assumption of proportionality is crucial in the interpretation of the results from a Cox regression model. If the assumption is violated, then the estimated regression coefficients may be biased and misleading. Therefore, it is important to test for the proportional hazards assumption before interpreting the results of a Cox regression analysis.

Kidney function tests (KFTs) are a group of diagnostic tests that evaluate how well your kidneys are functioning by measuring the levels of various substances in the blood and urine. The tests typically assess the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which is an indicator of how efficiently the kidneys filter waste from the blood, as well as the levels of electrolytes, waste products, and proteins in the body.

Some common KFTs include:

1. Serum creatinine: A waste product that's produced by normal muscle breakdown and is excreted by the kidneys. Elevated levels may indicate reduced kidney function.
2. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN): Another waste product that's produced when protein is broken down and excreted by the kidneys. Increased BUN levels can suggest impaired kidney function.
3. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR): A calculation based on serum creatinine, age, sex, and race that estimates the GFR and provides a more precise assessment of kidney function than creatinine alone.
4. Urinalysis: An examination of a urine sample to detect abnormalities such as protein, blood, or bacteria that may indicate kidney disease.
5. Electrolyte levels: Measurement of sodium, potassium, chloride, and bicarbonate in the blood to ensure they're properly balanced, which is essential for normal kidney function.

KFTs are often ordered as part of a routine check-up or when kidney disease is suspected based on symptoms or other diagnostic tests. Regular monitoring of kidney function can help detect and manage kidney disease early, potentially preventing or slowing down its progression.

Diabetic nephropathy is a kidney disease that occurs as a complication of diabetes. It is also known as diabetic kidney disease (DKD). This condition affects the ability of the kidneys to filter waste and excess fluids from the blood, leading to their accumulation in the body.

Diabetic nephropathy is caused by damage to the small blood vessels in the kidneys, which can occur over time due to high levels of glucose in the blood. This damage can lead to scarring and thickening of the kidney's filtering membranes, reducing their ability to function properly.

Symptoms of diabetic nephropathy may include proteinuria (the presence of protein in the urine), edema (swelling in the legs, ankles, or feet due to fluid retention), and hypertension (high blood pressure). Over time, if left untreated, diabetic nephropathy can progress to end-stage kidney disease, which requires dialysis or a kidney transplant.

Preventing or delaying the onset of diabetic nephropathy involves maintaining good control of blood sugar levels, keeping blood pressure under control, and making lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, eating a healthy diet, and getting regular exercise. Regular monitoring of kidney function through urine tests and blood tests is also important for early detection and treatment of this condition.

Catheterization is a medical procedure in which a catheter (a flexible tube) is inserted into the body to treat various medical conditions or for diagnostic purposes. The specific definition can vary depending on the area of medicine and the particular procedure being discussed. Here are some common types of catheterization:

1. Urinary catheterization: This involves inserting a catheter through the urethra into the bladder to drain urine. It is often performed to manage urinary retention, monitor urine output in critically ill patients, or assist with surgical procedures.
2. Cardiac catheterization: A procedure where a catheter is inserted into a blood vessel, usually in the groin or arm, and guided to the heart. This allows for various diagnostic tests and treatments, such as measuring pressures within the heart chambers, assessing blood flow, or performing angioplasty and stenting of narrowed coronary arteries.
3. Central venous catheterization: A catheter is inserted into a large vein, typically in the neck, chest, or groin, to administer medications, fluids, or nutrition, or to monitor central venous pressure.
4. Peritoneal dialysis catheterization: A catheter is placed into the abdominal cavity for individuals undergoing peritoneal dialysis, a type of kidney replacement therapy.
5. Neurological catheterization: In some cases, a catheter may be inserted into the cerebrospinal fluid space (lumbar puncture) or the brain's ventricular system (ventriculostomy) to diagnose or treat various neurological conditions.

These are just a few examples of catheterization procedures in medicine. The specific definition and purpose will depend on the medical context and the particular organ or body system involved.

Glucose is a simple monosaccharide (or single sugar) that serves as the primary source of energy for living organisms. It's a fundamental molecule in biology, often referred to as "dextrose" or "grape sugar." Glucose has the molecular formula C6H12O6 and is vital to the functioning of cells, especially those in the brain and nervous system.

In the body, glucose is derived from the digestion of carbohydrates in food, and it's transported around the body via the bloodstream to cells where it can be used for energy. Cells convert glucose into a usable form through a process called cellular respiration, which involves a series of metabolic reactions that generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP)—the main currency of energy in cells.

Glucose is also stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen, a polysaccharide (multiple sugar) that can be broken down back into glucose when needed for energy between meals or during physical activity. Maintaining appropriate blood glucose levels is crucial for overall health, and imbalances can lead to conditions such as diabetes mellitus.

Hematinics are a class of medications and dietary supplements that are used to enhance the production of red blood cells or hemoglobin in the body. They typically contain iron, vitamin B12, folic acid, or other nutrients that are essential for the synthesis of hemoglobin and the formation of red blood cells.

Iron is a critical component of hematinics because it plays a central role in the production of hemoglobin, which is the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body. Vitamin B12 and folic acid are also important nutrients for red blood cell production, as they help to regulate the growth and division of red blood cells in the bone marrow.

Hematinics are often prescribed to treat anemia, which is a condition characterized by a low red blood cell count or abnormally low levels of hemoglobin in the blood. Anemia can be caused by a variety of factors, including nutritional deficiencies, chronic diseases, and inherited genetic disorders.

Examples of hematinics include ferrous sulfate (an iron supplement), cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12), and folic acid. These medications are available in various forms, such as tablets, capsules, and liquids, and can be taken orally or by injection. It is important to follow the dosage instructions carefully and to inform your healthcare provider of any other medications you are taking, as hematinics can interact with certain drugs and may cause side effects.

Phosphorus is an essential mineral that is required by every cell in the body for normal functioning. It is a key component of several important biomolecules, including adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is the primary source of energy for cells, and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), which are the genetic materials in cells.

Phosphorus is also a major constituent of bones and teeth, where it combines with calcium to provide strength and structure. In addition, phosphorus plays a critical role in various metabolic processes, including energy production, nerve impulse transmission, and pH regulation.

The medical definition of phosphorus refers to the chemical element with the atomic number 15 and the symbol P. It is a highly reactive non-metal that exists in several forms, including white phosphorus, red phosphorus, and black phosphorus. In the body, phosphorus is primarily found in the form of organic compounds, such as phospholipids, phosphoproteins, and nucleic acids.

Abnormal levels of phosphorus in the body can lead to various health problems. For example, high levels of phosphorus (hyperphosphatemia) can occur in patients with kidney disease or those who consume large amounts of phosphorus-rich foods, and can contribute to the development of calcification of soft tissues and cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, low levels of phosphorus (hypophosphatemia) can occur in patients with malnutrition, vitamin D deficiency, or alcoholism, and can lead to muscle weakness, bone pain, and an increased risk of infection.

Secondary hyperparathyroidism is a condition characterized by an overproduction of parathyroid hormone (PTH) from the parathyroid glands due to hypocalcemia (low levels of calcium in the blood). This condition is usually a result of chronic kidney disease, where the kidneys fail to convert vitamin D into its active form, leading to decreased absorption of calcium in the intestines. The body responds by increasing PTH production to maintain normal calcium levels, but over time, this results in high PTH levels and associated complications such as bone disease, kidney stones, and cardiovascular calcification.

Water-electrolyte imbalance refers to a disturbance in the balance of water and electrolytes (such as sodium, potassium, chloride, and bicarbonate) in the body. This imbalance can occur when there is an excess or deficiency of water or electrolytes in the body, leading to altered concentrations in the blood and other bodily fluids.

Such imbalances can result from various medical conditions, including kidney disease, heart failure, liver cirrhosis, severe dehydration, burns, excessive sweating, vomiting, diarrhea, and certain medications. Symptoms of water-electrolyte imbalance may include weakness, fatigue, muscle cramps, seizures, confusion, and in severe cases, coma or even death. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause and correcting the electrolyte and fluid levels through appropriate medical interventions.

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a polypeptide hormone that plays a crucial role in the regulation of calcium and phosphate levels in the body. It is produced and secreted by the parathyroid glands, which are four small endocrine glands located on the back surface of the thyroid gland.

The primary function of PTH is to maintain normal calcium levels in the blood by increasing calcium absorption from the gut, mobilizing calcium from bones, and decreasing calcium excretion by the kidneys. PTH also increases phosphate excretion by the kidneys, which helps to lower serum phosphate levels.

In addition to its role in calcium and phosphate homeostasis, PTH has been shown to have anabolic effects on bone tissue, stimulating bone formation and preventing bone loss. However, chronic elevations in PTH levels can lead to excessive bone resorption and osteoporosis.

Overall, Parathyroid Hormone is a critical hormone that helps maintain mineral homeostasis and supports healthy bone metabolism.

Body Surface Area (BSA) is a calculated value that is often used in medicine, pharmacology, and physiology to adjust dosages of medications or to estimate parameters based on body size. It is the total area of the exterior surface of the human body. The most widely used formula for estimating BSA in adults is the Mosteller formula:

BSA (m²) = √([height (cm)] x [weight (kg)] / 3600)

This formula uses the person's height and weight to estimate the body surface area. It's important to note that this formula, like all BSA formulas, is an approximation and may not be accurate for every individual. Other more complex formulas exist, such as the DuBois & DuBois formula or the Haycock formula, but the Mosteller formula is considered to be sufficiently accurate for most clinical purposes.

Ascitic fluid is defined as the abnormal accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity, which is the space between the two layers of the peritoneum, a serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and covers the abdominal organs. This buildup of fluid, also known as ascites, can be caused by various medical conditions such as liver cirrhosis, cancer, heart failure, or infection. The fluid itself is typically straw-colored and clear, but it may also contain cells, proteins, and other substances depending on the underlying cause. Analysis of ascitic fluid can help doctors diagnose and manage the underlying condition causing the accumulation of fluid.

Survival analysis is a branch of statistics that deals with the analysis of time to event data. It is used to estimate the time it takes for a certain event of interest to occur, such as death, disease recurrence, or treatment failure. The event of interest is called the "failure" event, and survival analysis estimates the probability of not experiencing the failure event until a certain point in time, also known as the "survival" probability.

Survival analysis can provide important information about the effectiveness of treatments, the prognosis of patients, and the identification of risk factors associated with the event of interest. It can handle censored data, which is common in medical research where some participants may drop out or be lost to follow-up before the event of interest occurs.

Survival analysis typically involves estimating the survival function, which describes the probability of surviving beyond a certain time point, as well as hazard functions, which describe the instantaneous rate of failure at a given time point. Other important concepts in survival analysis include median survival times, restricted mean survival times, and various statistical tests to compare survival curves between groups.

Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) is a laboratory value that measures the amount of urea nitrogen in the blood. Urea nitrogen is a waste product that is formed when proteins are broken down in the liver. The kidneys filter urea nitrogen from the blood and excrete it as urine.

A high BUN level may indicate impaired kidney function, as the kidneys are not effectively removing urea nitrogen from the blood. However, BUN levels can also be affected by other factors such as dehydration, heart failure, or gastrointestinal bleeding. Therefore, BUN should be interpreted in conjunction with other laboratory values and clinical findings.

The normal range for BUN is typically between 7-20 mg/dL (milligrams per deciliter) or 2.5-7.1 mmol/L (millimoles per liter), but the reference range may vary depending on the laboratory.

Hemofiltration is a type of renal replacement therapy used for treating acute or chronic renal failure. It is a convective process that utilizes a semipermeable membrane to remove waste solutes and water from the blood. In this process, blood is passed through a filter, called a hemofilter, which contains hollow fibers with tiny pores. The pressure gradient across the membrane causes fluid and solutes to move from the blood into the filtrate compartment, based on their size and charge.

The filtrate, which contains waste products and water, is then discarded, while a replacement solution is infused back into the patient's bloodstream to maintain adequate fluid volume and electrolyte balance. Hemofiltration can be performed continuously (continuous hemofiltration) or intermittently (intermittent hemofiltration), depending on the clinical situation and the patient's needs.

Hemofiltration is particularly useful in critically ill patients with fluid overload, electrolyte imbalances, or acute kidney injury, as it can effectively remove large volumes of water and solutes, including inflammatory mediators and toxins, from the blood. It is also used in the management of drug overdoses and poisonings, where rapid removal of toxic substances is required.

The chemical element aluminum (or aluminium in British English) is a silvery-white, soft, non-magnetic, ductile metal. The atomic number of aluminum is 13 and its symbol on the periodic table is Al. It is the most abundant metallic element in the Earth's crust and is found in a variety of minerals such as bauxite.

Aluminum is resistant to corrosion due to the formation of a thin layer of aluminum oxide on its surface that protects it from further oxidation. It is lightweight, has good thermal and electrical conductivity, and can be easily formed and machined. These properties make aluminum a widely used metal in various industries such as construction, packaging, transportation, and electronics.

In the medical field, aluminum is used in some medications and medical devices. For example, aluminum hydroxide is commonly used as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid and treat heartburn, while aluminum salts are used as adjuvants in vaccines to enhance the immune response. However, excessive exposure to aluminum can be harmful and has been linked to neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, although the exact relationship between aluminum and these conditions is not fully understood.

In epidemiology, the incidence of a disease is defined as the number of new cases of that disease within a specific population over a certain period of time. It is typically expressed as a rate, with the number of new cases in the numerator and the size of the population at risk in the denominator. Incidence provides information about the risk of developing a disease during a given time period and can be used to compare disease rates between different populations or to monitor trends in disease occurrence over time.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Proprietary health facilities are privately owned and operated healthcare facilities. These facilities are typically motivated by profit and can take various forms such as hospitals, clinics, diagnostic centers, rehabilitation facilities, and long-term care centers. They can be owned and managed by a single individual, a group of investors, or a corporation.

Proprietary health facilities may provide a range of medical services, from routine check-ups to complex procedures, depending on their size, staffing, and equipment. They are subject to state and federal regulations regarding patient safety, quality of care, and billing practices. Patients who choose to receive care at proprietary health facilities typically pay out-of-pocket or through private insurance, although some may also accept Medicare and Medicaid payments.

A biological marker, often referred to as a biomarker, is a measurable indicator that reflects the presence or severity of a disease state, or a response to a therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers can be found in various materials such as blood, tissues, or bodily fluids, and they can take many forms, including molecular, histologic, radiographic, or physiological measurements.

In the context of medical research and clinical practice, biomarkers are used for a variety of purposes, such as:

1. Diagnosis: Biomarkers can help diagnose a disease by indicating the presence or absence of a particular condition. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a biomarker used to detect prostate cancer.
2. Monitoring: Biomarkers can be used to monitor the progression or regression of a disease over time. For instance, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels are monitored in diabetes patients to assess long-term blood glucose control.
3. Predicting: Biomarkers can help predict the likelihood of developing a particular disease or the risk of a negative outcome. For example, the presence of certain genetic mutations can indicate an increased risk for breast cancer.
4. Response to treatment: Biomarkers can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a specific treatment by measuring changes in the biomarker levels before and after the intervention. This is particularly useful in personalized medicine, where treatments are tailored to individual patients based on their unique biomarker profiles.

It's important to note that for a biomarker to be considered clinically valid and useful, it must undergo rigorous validation through well-designed studies, including demonstrating sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and clinical relevance.

A buffer in the context of physiology and medicine refers to a substance or system that helps to maintain stable or neutral conditions, particularly in relation to pH levels, within the body or biological fluids.

Buffers are weak acids or bases that can react with strong acids or bases to minimize changes in the pH level. They do this by taking up excess hydrogen ions (H+) when acidity increases or releasing hydrogen ions when alkalinity increases, thereby maintaining a relatively constant pH.

In the human body, some of the key buffer systems include:

1. Bicarbonate buffer system: This is the major buffer in blood and extracellular fluids. It consists of bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) and carbonic acid (H2CO3). When there is an increase in acidity, the bicarbonate ion accepts a hydrogen ion to form carbonic acid, which then dissociates into water and carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide can be exhaled, helping to remove excess acid from the body.
2. Phosphate buffer system: This is primarily found within cells. It consists of dihydrogen phosphate (H2PO4-) and monohydrogen phosphate (HPO42-) ions. When there is an increase in alkalinity, the dihydrogen phosphate ion donates a hydrogen ion to form monohydrogen phosphate, helping to neutralize the excess base.
3. Protein buffer system: Proteins, particularly histidine-rich proteins, can also act as buffers due to the presence of ionizable groups on their surfaces. These groups can bind or release hydrogen ions in response to changes in pH, thus maintaining a stable environment within cells and organelles.

Maintaining appropriate pH levels is crucial for various biological processes, including enzyme function, cell membrane stability, and overall homeostasis. Buffers play a vital role in preserving these balanced conditions despite internal or external challenges that might disrupt them.

Comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional health conditions or diseases alongside a primary illness or condition. These co-occurring health issues can have an impact on the treatment plan, prognosis, and overall healthcare management of an individual. Comorbidities often interact with each other and the primary condition, leading to more complex clinical situations and increased healthcare needs. It is essential for healthcare professionals to consider and address comorbidities to provide comprehensive care and improve patient outcomes.

Hemoglobin (Hb or Hgb) is the main oxygen-carrying protein in the red blood cells, which are responsible for delivering oxygen throughout the body. It is a complex molecule made up of four globin proteins and four heme groups. Each heme group contains an iron atom that binds to one molecule of oxygen. Hemoglobin plays a crucial role in the transport of oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues, and also helps to carry carbon dioxide back to the lungs for exhalation.

There are several types of hemoglobin present in the human body, including:

* Hemoglobin A (HbA): This is the most common type of hemoglobin, making up about 95-98% of total hemoglobin in adults. It consists of two alpha and two beta globin chains.
* Hemoglobin A2 (HbA2): This makes up about 1.5-3.5% of total hemoglobin in adults. It consists of two alpha and two delta globin chains.
* Hemoglobin F (HbF): This is the main type of hemoglobin present in fetal life, but it persists at low levels in adults. It consists of two alpha and two gamma globin chains.
* Hemoglobin S (HbS): This is an abnormal form of hemoglobin that can cause sickle cell disease when it occurs in the homozygous state (i.e., both copies of the gene are affected). It results from a single amino acid substitution in the beta globin chain.
* Hemoglobin C (HbC): This is another abnormal form of hemoglobin that can cause mild to moderate hemolytic anemia when it occurs in the homozygous state. It results from a different single amino acid substitution in the beta globin chain than HbS.

Abnormal forms of hemoglobin, such as HbS and HbC, can lead to various clinical disorders, including sickle cell disease, thalassemia, and other hemoglobinopathies.

Risk assessment in the medical context refers to the process of identifying, evaluating, and prioritizing risks to patients, healthcare workers, or the community related to healthcare delivery. It involves determining the likelihood and potential impact of adverse events or hazards, such as infectious diseases, medication errors, or medical devices failures, and implementing measures to mitigate or manage those risks. The goal of risk assessment is to promote safe and high-quality care by identifying areas for improvement and taking action to minimize harm.

A kidney, in medical terms, is one of two bean-shaped organs located in the lower back region of the body. They are essential for maintaining homeostasis within the body by performing several crucial functions such as:

1. Regulation of water and electrolyte balance: Kidneys help regulate the amount of water and various electrolytes like sodium, potassium, and calcium in the bloodstream to maintain a stable internal environment.

2. Excretion of waste products: They filter waste products from the blood, including urea (a byproduct of protein metabolism), creatinine (a breakdown product of muscle tissue), and other harmful substances that result from normal cellular functions or external sources like medications and toxins.

3. Endocrine function: Kidneys produce several hormones with important roles in the body, such as erythropoietin (stimulates red blood cell production), renin (regulates blood pressure), and calcitriol (activated form of vitamin D that helps regulate calcium homeostasis).

4. pH balance regulation: Kidneys maintain the proper acid-base balance in the body by excreting either hydrogen ions or bicarbonate ions, depending on whether the blood is too acidic or too alkaline.

5. Blood pressure control: The kidneys play a significant role in regulating blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which constricts blood vessels and promotes sodium and water retention to increase blood volume and, consequently, blood pressure.

Anatomically, each kidney is approximately 10-12 cm long, 5-7 cm wide, and 3 cm thick, with a weight of about 120-170 grams. They are surrounded by a protective layer of fat and connected to the urinary system through the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra.

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a class of diseases that affect the heart and blood vessels. They are the leading cause of death globally, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). The term "cardiovascular disease" refers to a group of conditions that include:

1. Coronary artery disease (CAD): This is the most common type of heart disease and occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the heart become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of cholesterol, fat, and other substances in the walls of the arteries. This can lead to chest pain, shortness of breath, or a heart attack.
2. Heart failure: This occurs when the heart is unable to pump blood efficiently to meet the body's needs. It can be caused by various conditions, including coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, and cardiomyopathy.
3. Stroke: A stroke occurs when the blood supply to a part of the brain is interrupted or reduced, often due to a clot or a ruptured blood vessel. This can cause brain damage or death.
4. Peripheral artery disease (PAD): This occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the limbs become narrowed or blocked, leading to pain, numbness, or weakness in the legs or arms.
5. Rheumatic heart disease: This is a complication of untreated strep throat and can cause damage to the heart valves, leading to heart failure or other complications.
6. Congenital heart defects: These are structural problems with the heart that are present at birth. They can range from mild to severe and may require medical intervention.
7. Cardiomyopathy: This is a disease of the heart muscle that makes it harder for the heart to pump blood efficiently. It can be caused by various factors, including genetics, infections, and certain medications.
8. Heart arrhythmias: These are abnormal heart rhythms that can cause the heart to beat too fast, too slow, or irregularly. They can lead to symptoms such as palpitations, dizziness, or fainting.
9. Valvular heart disease: This occurs when one or more of the heart valves become damaged or diseased, leading to problems with blood flow through the heart.
10. Aortic aneurysm and dissection: These are conditions that affect the aorta, the largest artery in the body. An aneurysm is a bulge in the aorta, while a dissection is a tear in the inner layer of the aorta. Both can be life-threatening if not treated promptly.

It's important to note that many of these conditions can be managed or treated with medical interventions such as medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes. If you have any concerns about your heart health, it's important to speak with a healthcare provider.

Biocompatible materials are non-toxic and non-reacting substances that can be used in medical devices, tissue engineering, and drug delivery systems without causing harm or adverse reactions to living tissues or organs. These materials are designed to mimic the properties of natural tissues and are able to integrate with biological systems without being rejected by the body's immune system.

Biocompatible materials can be made from a variety of substances, including metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites. The specific properties of these materials, such as their mechanical strength, flexibility, and biodegradability, are carefully selected to meet the requirements of their intended medical application.

Examples of biocompatible materials include titanium used in dental implants and joint replacements, polyethylene used in artificial hips, and hydrogels used in contact lenses and drug delivery systems. The use of biocompatible materials has revolutionized modern medicine by enabling the development of advanced medical technologies that can improve patient outcomes and quality of life.

Central venous catheterization is a medical procedure in which a flexible tube called a catheter is inserted into a large vein in the body, usually in the neck (internal jugular vein), chest (subclavian vein), or groin (femoral vein). The catheter is threaded through the vein until it reaches a central location, such as the superior vena cava or the right atrium of the heart.

Central venous catheterization may be performed for several reasons, including:

1. To administer medications, fluids, or nutritional support directly into the bloodstream.
2. To monitor central venous pressure (CVP), which can help assess a patient's volume status and cardiac function.
3. To draw blood samples for laboratory tests.
4. To deliver chemotherapy drugs or other medications that may be harmful to peripheral veins.
5. To provide access for hemodialysis or other long-term therapies.

The procedure requires careful attention to sterile technique to minimize the risk of infection, and it is usually performed under local anesthesia with sedation or general anesthesia. Complications of central venous catheterization may include bleeding, infection, pneumothorax (collapsed lung), arterial puncture, and catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI).

Prognosis is a medical term that refers to the prediction of the likely outcome or course of a disease, including the chances of recovery or recurrence, based on the patient's symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. It is an important aspect of clinical decision-making and patient communication, as it helps doctors and patients make informed decisions about treatment options, set realistic expectations, and plan for future care.

Prognosis can be expressed in various ways, such as percentages, categories (e.g., good, fair, poor), or survival rates, depending on the nature of the disease and the available evidence. However, it is important to note that prognosis is not an exact science and may vary depending on individual factors, such as age, overall health status, and response to treatment. Therefore, it should be used as a guide rather than a definitive forecast.

A registry in the context of medicine is a collection or database of standardized information about individuals who share a certain condition or attribute, such as a disease, treatment, exposure, or demographic group. These registries are used for various purposes, including:

* Monitoring and tracking the natural history of diseases and conditions
* Evaluating the safety and effectiveness of medical treatments and interventions
* Conducting research and generating hypotheses for further study
* Providing information to patients, clinicians, and researchers
* Informing public health policy and decision-making

Registries can be established for a wide range of purposes, including disease-specific registries (such as cancer or diabetes registries), procedure-specific registries (such as joint replacement or cardiac surgery registries), and population-based registries (such as birth defects or cancer registries). Data collected in registries may include demographic information, clinical data, laboratory results, treatment details, and outcomes.

Registries can be maintained by a variety of organizations, including hospitals, clinics, academic medical centers, professional societies, government agencies, and industry. Participation in registries is often voluntary, although some registries may require informed consent from participants. Data collected in registries are typically de-identified to protect the privacy of individuals.

"Withholding treatment" in a medical context refers to the deliberate decision not to provide or initiate certain medical treatments, interventions, or procedures for a patient. This decision is typically made after considering various factors such as the patient's wishes, their overall prognosis, the potential benefits and burdens of the treatment, and the patient's quality of life.

The reasons for withholding treatment can vary widely, but some common reasons include:

* The treatment is unlikely to be effective in improving the patient's condition or extending their life.
* The treatment may cause unnecessary discomfort, pain, or suffering for the patient.
* The patient has expressed a desire not to receive certain treatments, particularly if they are deemed to be burdensome or of little benefit.
* The cost of the treatment is prohibitive and not covered by insurance, and the patient cannot afford to pay out-of-pocket.

It's important to note that withholding treatment does not mean abandoning the patient or providing substandard care. Rather, it involves making thoughtful and informed decisions about the most appropriate course of action for a given situation, taking into account the patient's individual needs and preferences.

Body water refers to the total amount of water present in the human body. It is an essential component of life and makes up about 60-70% of an adult's body weight. Body water is distributed throughout various fluid compartments within the body, including intracellular fluid (water inside cells), extracellular fluid (water outside cells), and transcellular fluid (water found in specific bodily spaces such as the digestive tract, eyes, and joints). Maintaining proper hydration and balance of body water is crucial for various physiological processes, including temperature regulation, nutrient transportation, waste elimination, and overall health.

Equipment failure is a term used in the medical field to describe the malfunction or breakdown of medical equipment, devices, or systems that are essential for patient care. This can include simple devices like syringes and thermometers, as well as complex machines such as ventilators, infusion pumps, and imaging equipment.

Equipment failure can have serious consequences for patients, including delayed or inappropriate treatment, injury, or even death. It is therefore essential that medical equipment is properly maintained, tested, and repaired to ensure its safe and effective operation.

There are many potential causes of equipment failure, including:

* Wear and tear from frequent use
* Inadequate cleaning or disinfection
* Improper handling or storage
* Power supply issues
* Software glitches or bugs
* Mechanical failures or defects
* Human error or misuse

To prevent equipment failure, healthcare facilities should have established policies and procedures for the acquisition, maintenance, and disposal of medical equipment. Staff should be trained in the proper use and handling of equipment, and regular inspections and testing should be performed to identify and address any potential issues before they lead to failure.

Protein-Energy Malnutrition (PEM) is a serious condition that occurs when an individual's diet does not provide enough protein or calories to meet their body's needs. It can lead to impaired physical and cognitive development, decreased immune function, increased susceptibility to infections, and in severe cases, death.

PEM can be caused by a variety of factors, including poverty, food insecurity, digestive disorders, chronic diseases, and eating disorders. The two most common forms of PEM are marasmus and kwashiorkor. Marasmus is characterized by extreme weight loss, muscle wasting, and decreased fat stores, while kwashiorkor is marked by swelling (edema), fluid accumulation in the abdomen, and a distended belly.

In medical terms, PEM is defined as a state of nutrient deficiency that results from a lack of adequate protein and energy intake over an extended period. It can be diagnosed through a combination of clinical assessment, medical history, physical examination, and laboratory tests. Treatment typically involves providing the individual with a balanced diet that is high in both protein and calories, as well as addressing any underlying medical conditions that may be contributing to their malnutrition.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

Water-electrolyte balance refers to the regulation of water and electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate) in the body to maintain homeostasis. This is crucial for various bodily functions such as nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, fluid balance, and pH regulation. The body maintains this balance through mechanisms that control water intake, excretion, and electrolyte concentration in various body fluids like blood and extracellular fluid. Disruptions in water-electrolyte balance can lead to dehydration or overhydration, and imbalances in electrolytes can cause conditions such as hyponatremia (low sodium levels) or hyperkalemia (high potassium levels).

Quality of Life (QOL) is a broad, multidimensional concept that usually includes an individual's physical health, psychological state, level of independence, social relationships, personal beliefs, and their relationship to salient features of their environment. It reflects the impact of disease and treatment on a patient's overall well-being and ability to function in daily life.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines QOL as "an individual's perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns." It is a subjective concept, meaning it can vary greatly from person to person.

In healthcare, QOL is often used as an outcome measure in clinical trials and other research studies to assess the impact of interventions or treatments on overall patient well-being.

Phosphates, in a medical context, refer to the salts or esters of phosphoric acid. Phosphates play crucial roles in various biological processes within the human body. They are essential components of bones and teeth, where they combine with calcium to form hydroxyapatite crystals. Phosphates also participate in energy transfer reactions as phosphate groups attached to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Additionally, they contribute to buffer systems that help maintain normal pH levels in the body.

Abnormal levels of phosphates in the blood can indicate certain medical conditions. High phosphate levels (hyperphosphatemia) may be associated with kidney dysfunction, hyperparathyroidism, or excessive intake of phosphate-containing products. Low phosphate levels (hypophosphatemia) might result from malnutrition, vitamin D deficiency, or certain diseases affecting the small intestine or kidneys. Both hypophosphatemia and hyperphosphatemia can have significant impacts on various organ systems and may require medical intervention.

Calcinosis is a medical condition characterized by the abnormal deposit of calcium salts in various tissues of the body, commonly under the skin or in the muscles and tendons. These calcium deposits can form hard lumps or nodules that can cause pain, inflammation, and restricted mobility. Calcinosis can occur as a complication of other medical conditions, such as autoimmune disorders, kidney disease, and hypercalcemia (high levels of calcium in the blood). In some cases, the cause of calcinosis may be unknown. Treatment for calcinosis depends on the underlying cause and may include medications to manage calcium levels, physical therapy, and surgical removal of large deposits.

Beta-2 microglobulin (β2M) is a small protein that is a component of the major histocompatibility complex class I molecule, which plays a crucial role in the immune system. It is found on the surface of almost all nucleated cells in the body and is involved in presenting intracellular peptides to T-cells for immune surveillance.

β2M is produced at a relatively constant rate by cells throughout the body and is freely filtered by the glomeruli in the kidneys. Under normal circumstances, most of the filtrated β2M is reabsorbed and catabolized in the proximal tubules of the nephrons. However, when the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is decreased, as in chronic kidney disease (CKD), the reabsorption capacity of the proximal tubules becomes overwhelmed, leading to increased levels of β2M in the blood and its subsequent appearance in the urine.

Elevated serum and urinary β2M levels have been associated with various clinical conditions, such as CKD, multiple myeloma, autoimmune disorders, and certain infectious diseases. Measuring β2M concentrations can provide valuable information for diagnostic, prognostic, and monitoring purposes in these contexts.

A cross-over study is a type of experimental design in which participants receive two or more interventions in a specific order. After a washout period, each participant receives the opposite intervention(s). The primary advantage of this design is that it controls for individual variability by allowing each participant to act as their own control.

In medical research, cross-over studies are often used to compare the efficacy or safety of two treatments. For example, a researcher might conduct a cross-over study to compare the effectiveness of two different medications for treating high blood pressure. Half of the participants would be randomly assigned to receive one medication first and then switch to the other medication after a washout period. The other half of the participants would receive the opposite order of treatments.

Cross-over studies can provide valuable insights into the relative merits of different interventions, but they also have some limitations. For example, they may not be suitable for studying conditions that are chronic or irreversible, as it may not be possible to completely reverse the effects of the first intervention before administering the second one. Additionally, carryover effects from the first intervention can confound the results if they persist into the second treatment period.

Overall, cross-over studies are a useful tool in medical research when used appropriately and with careful consideration of their limitations.

Sterilization, in a medical context, refers to the process of eliminating or removing all forms of microbial life, including fungi, bacteria, viruses, spores, and any other biological agents from a surface, object, or environment. This is typically achieved through various methods such as heat (using autoclaves), chemical processes, irradiation, or filtration.

In addition, sterilization can also refer to the surgical procedure that renders individuals unable to reproduce. This is often referred to as "permanent contraception" and can be performed through various methods such as vasectomy for men and tubal ligation for women. It's important to note that these procedures are typically permanent and not easily reversible.

A chronic disease is a long-term medical condition that often progresses slowly over a period of years and requires ongoing management and care. These diseases are typically not fully curable, but symptoms can be managed to improve quality of life. Common chronic diseases include heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). They are often associated with advanced age, although they can also affect children and younger adults. Chronic diseases can have significant impacts on individuals' physical, emotional, and social well-being, as well as on healthcare systems and society at large.

Treatment failure is a term used in medicine to describe the situation when a prescribed treatment or intervention is not achieving the desired therapeutic goals or objectives. This may occur due to various reasons, such as:

1. Development of drug resistance by the pathogen or disease being treated.
2. Inadequate dosage or frequency of the medication.
3. Poor adherence or compliance to the treatment regimen by the patient.
4. The presence of underlying conditions or comorbidities that may affect the efficacy of the treatment.
5. The severity or progression of the disease despite appropriate treatment.

When treatment failure occurs, healthcare providers may need to reassess the patient's condition and modify the treatment plan accordingly, which may include adjusting the dosage, changing the medication, adding new medications, or considering alternative treatments.

The Kaplan-Meier estimate is a statistical method used to calculate the survival probability over time in a population. It is commonly used in medical research to analyze time-to-event data, such as the time until a patient experiences a specific event like disease progression or death. The Kaplan-Meier estimate takes into account censored data, which occurs when some individuals are lost to follow-up before experiencing the event of interest.

The method involves constructing a survival curve that shows the proportion of subjects still surviving at different time points. At each time point, the survival probability is calculated as the product of the conditional probabilities of surviving from one time point to the next. The Kaplan-Meier estimate provides an unbiased and consistent estimator of the survival function, even when censoring is present.

In summary, the Kaplan-Meier estimate is a crucial tool in medical research for analyzing time-to-event data and estimating survival probabilities over time while accounting for censored observations.

Automation in the medical context refers to the use of technology and programming to allow machines or devices to operate with minimal human intervention. This can include various types of medical equipment, such as laboratory analyzers, imaging devices, and robotic surgical systems. Automation can help improve efficiency, accuracy, and safety in healthcare settings by reducing the potential for human error and allowing healthcare professionals to focus on higher-level tasks. It is important to note that while automation has many benefits, it is also essential to ensure that appropriate safeguards are in place to prevent accidents and maintain quality of care.

Multivariate analysis is a statistical method used to examine the relationship between multiple independent variables and a dependent variable. It allows for the simultaneous examination of the effects of two or more independent variables on an outcome, while controlling for the effects of other variables in the model. This technique can be used to identify patterns, associations, and interactions among multiple variables, and is commonly used in medical research to understand complex health outcomes and disease processes. Examples of multivariate analysis methods include multiple regression, factor analysis, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis.

Vascular access devices (VADs) are medical devices that are used to gain access to a patient's vascular system for the purpose of administering treatments, monitoring vital signs, or obtaining diagnostic samples. These devices can be categorized into short-term and long-term based on their intended duration of use.

Short-term VADs include peripheral intravenous catheters (PIVs), midline catheters, and peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs). PIVs are thin, flexible tubes that are inserted into a vein in the arm or hand for short-term use. Midlines are similar to PIVs but are longer and can be used for up to 4 weeks. PICCs are inserted into a vein in the upper arm and threaded through to the larger veins near the heart, allowing for long-term access.

Long-term VADs include tunneled central venous catheters (CVCs), non-tunneled CVCs, and implanted ports. Tunneled CVCs are inserted into a large vein in the neck or chest and then threaded under the skin to an exit site, reducing the risk of infection. Non-tunneled CVCs are similar but do not have a tunnel, making them more prone to infection. Implanted ports are small devices that are surgically implanted under the skin, usually in the chest or arm, and connected to a catheter that is inserted into a large vein.

VADs can be used for various medical treatments such as chemotherapy, antibiotic therapy, parenteral nutrition, dialysis, and blood transfusions. Proper care and maintenance of VADs are essential to prevent complications such as infection, thrombosis, and catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI).

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

Parenteral infusions refer to the administration of fluids or medications directly into a patient's vein or subcutaneous tissue using a needle or catheter. This route bypasses the gastrointestinal tract and allows for rapid absorption and onset of action. Parenteral infusions can be used to correct fluid and electrolyte imbalances, administer medications that cannot be given orally, provide nutritional support, and deliver blood products. Common types of parenteral infusions include intravenous (IV) drips, IV push, and subcutaneous infusions. It is important that parenteral infusions are administered using aseptic technique to reduce the risk of infection.

Calcium is an essential mineral that is vital for various physiological processes in the human body. The medical definition of calcium is as follows:

Calcium (Ca2+) is a crucial cation and the most abundant mineral in the human body, with approximately 99% of it found in bones and teeth. It plays a vital role in maintaining structural integrity, nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, hormonal secretion, blood coagulation, and enzyme activation.

Calcium homeostasis is tightly regulated through the interplay of several hormones, including parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin, and vitamin D. Dietary calcium intake, absorption, and excretion are also critical factors in maintaining optimal calcium levels in the body.

Hypocalcemia refers to low serum calcium levels, while hypercalcemia indicates high serum calcium levels. Both conditions can have detrimental effects on various organ systems and require medical intervention to correct.

Cefazolin is a type of antibiotic known as a cephalosporin, which is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. It works by interfering with the bacteria's ability to form a cell wall, which is necessary for its survival. Without a functional cell wall, the bacteria are not able to grow and multiply, and are eventually destroyed by the body's immune system.

Cefazolin is commonly used to treat infections of the skin, bones, joints, heart, lungs, and urinary tract. It may also be used to prevent infection during surgery. Like all antibiotics, cefazolin is only effective against certain types of bacteria, so it is important to know the specific type of bacteria causing an infection before using this medication.

Cefazolin is usually given as an injection into a vein or muscle, and may be administered in a hospital setting or at home with proper training. The dosage and duration of treatment will depend on the severity and location of the infection, as well as the patient's overall health status.

As with any medication, cefazolin can cause side effects, including diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, headache, and rash. In rare cases, it may also cause serious side effects such as allergic reactions, kidney damage, or abnormal blood clotting. It is important to report any unusual symptoms to a healthcare provider promptly.

It is essential to complete the full course of treatment with cefazolin, even if symptoms improve, to ensure that the infection is fully treated and to reduce the risk of antibiotic resistance.

Blood proteins, also known as serum proteins, are a group of complex molecules present in the blood that are essential for various physiological functions. These proteins include albumin, globulins (alpha, beta, and gamma), and fibrinogen. They play crucial roles in maintaining oncotic pressure, transporting hormones, enzymes, vitamins, and minerals, providing immune defense, and contributing to blood clotting.

Albumin is the most abundant protein in the blood, accounting for about 60% of the total protein mass. It functions as a transporter of various substances, such as hormones, fatty acids, and drugs, and helps maintain oncotic pressure, which is essential for fluid balance between the blood vessels and surrounding tissues.

Globulins are divided into three main categories: alpha, beta, and gamma globulins. Alpha and beta globulins consist of transport proteins like lipoproteins, hormone-binding proteins, and enzymes. Gamma globulins, also known as immunoglobulins or antibodies, are essential for the immune system's defense against pathogens.

Fibrinogen is a protein involved in blood clotting. When an injury occurs, fibrinogen is converted into fibrin, which forms a mesh to trap platelets and form a clot, preventing excessive bleeding.

Abnormal levels of these proteins can indicate various medical conditions, such as liver or kidney disease, malnutrition, infections, inflammation, or autoimmune disorders. Blood protein levels are typically measured through laboratory tests like serum protein electrophoresis (SPE) and immunoelectrophoresis (IEP).

Hematocrit is a medical term that refers to the percentage of total blood volume that is made up of red blood cells. It is typically measured as part of a complete blood count (CBC) test. A high hematocrit may indicate conditions such as dehydration, polycythemia, or living at high altitudes, while a low hematocrit may be a sign of anemia, bleeding, or overhydration. It is important to note that hematocrit values can vary depending on factors such as age, gender, and pregnancy status.

I could not find a specific medical definition for "outsourced services" as it is more commonly used in business and management to describe the practice of contracting certain tasks or operations to an external company or organization. However, in a general healthcare context, outsourced services refer to the contracting of various non-clinical support functions or services to external entities. These may include:

1. Administrative tasks: Billing, coding, transcription, and scheduling can be handled by outside companies specializing in these areas.
2. IT infrastructure management: Healthcare organizations may outsource the maintenance and management of their IT systems, networks, and data storage to external IT service providers.
3. Human resources: Recruitment, employee benefits management, and payroll processing can be managed by third-party human resource firms.
4. Facilities management: Maintenance, cleaning, and security services for healthcare facilities can be contracted to external companies.
5. Biomedical equipment maintenance: Healthcare organizations may outsource the servicing and repair of medical devices and equipment to specialized vendors.
6. Revenue cycle management: Specialized firms can manage the entire revenue cycle process, including claims processing, payment posting, and accounts receivable follow-up.
7. Clinical research support services: Contract research organizations (CROs) provide various services related to clinical trials, such as study design, data management, and biostatistical analysis.
8. Telemedicine platforms: Healthcare organizations may partner with telemedicine companies to offer remote consultations and patient monitoring services.
9. Medical waste disposal: The handling and disposal of medical waste can be contracted to external companies that specialize in this field.
10. Legal, compliance, and risk management services: Law firms or consulting organizations can provide guidance on regulatory requirements, compliance matters, and risk mitigation strategies.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the body's function is not maintained. It can also refer to a deficiency or excess of vitamins, minerals, protein, energy, and/or water. This condition can have negative effects on physical and mental health. Malnutrition includes undernutrition (wasting, stunting, underweight), overnutrition (overweight, obesity) and micronutrient deficiencies or excesses.

It's important to note that malnutrition is different from malabsorption, which is the inability to absorb nutrients from food. Malabsorption can also lead to malnutrition if it results in a lack of necessary nutrients for the body's function.

Hypoalbuminemia is a medical condition characterized by having lower than normal levels of albumin in the blood. Albumin is a type of protein produced by the liver, and it plays a crucial role in maintaining oncotic pressure (the force that keeps fluid inside blood vessels) and transporting various substances throughout the body.

A serum albumin level below 3.5 g/dL (grams per deciliter) is generally considered hypoalbuminemia, although some laboratories may define it as a level below 3.4 g/dL or even lower. This condition can be caused by various factors, including liver disease, malnutrition, kidney disease, inflammation, and protein-losing enteropathy (a disorder that causes excessive loss of protein in the gastrointestinal tract).

Hypoalbuminemia is often associated with poorer clinical outcomes in several medical conditions, such as increased risk of infection, longer hospital stays, and higher mortality rates. It's essential to identify and address the underlying cause of hypoalbuminemia for appropriate treatment and improved patient outcomes.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Osmolar concentration is a measure of the total number of solute particles (such as ions or molecules) dissolved in a solution per liter of solvent (usually water), which affects the osmotic pressure. It is expressed in units of osmoles per liter (osmol/L). Osmolarity and osmolality are related concepts, with osmolarity referring to the number of osmoles per unit volume of solution, typically measured in liters, while osmolality refers to the number of osmoles per kilogram of solvent. In clinical contexts, osmolar concentration is often used to describe the solute concentration of bodily fluids such as blood or urine.

The Predictive Value of Tests, specifically the Positive Predictive Value (PPV) and Negative Predictive Value (NPV), are measures used in diagnostic tests to determine the probability that a positive or negative test result is correct.

Positive Predictive Value (PPV) is the proportion of patients with a positive test result who actually have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true positives divided by the total number of positive results (true positives + false positives). A higher PPV indicates that a positive test result is more likely to be a true positive, and therefore the disease is more likely to be present.

Negative Predictive Value (NPV) is the proportion of patients with a negative test result who do not have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true negatives divided by the total number of negative results (true negatives + false negatives). A higher NPV indicates that a negative test result is more likely to be a true negative, and therefore the disease is less likely to be present.

The predictive value of tests depends on the prevalence of the disease in the population being tested, as well as the sensitivity and specificity of the test. A test with high sensitivity and specificity will generally have higher predictive values than a test with low sensitivity and specificity. However, even a highly sensitive and specific test can have low predictive values if the prevalence of the disease is low in the population being tested.

Sclerosis is a medical term that refers to the abnormal hardening or scarring of body tissues, particularly in the context of various degenerative diseases affecting the nervous system. The term "sclerosis" comes from the Greek word "skleros," which means hard. In these conditions, the normally flexible and adaptable nerve cells or their protective coverings (myelin sheath) become rigid and inflexible due to the buildup of scar tissue or abnormal protein deposits.

There are several types of sclerosis, but one of the most well-known is multiple sclerosis (MS). In MS, the immune system mistakenly attacks the myelin sheath surrounding nerve fibers in the brain and spinal cord, leading to scarring and damage that disrupts communication between the brain and the rest of the body. This results in a wide range of symptoms, such as muscle weakness, numbness, vision problems, balance issues, and cognitive impairment.

Other conditions that involve sclerosis include:

1. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS): Also known as Lou Gehrig's disease, ALS is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord, leading to muscle weakness, stiffness, and atrophy.
2. Systemic sclerosis: A rare autoimmune connective tissue disorder characterized by thickening and hardening of the skin and internal organs due to excessive collagen deposition.
3. Plaque psoriasis: A chronic inflammatory skin condition marked by red, scaly patches (plaques) resulting from rapid turnover and accumulation of skin cells.
4. Adhesive capsulitis: Also known as frozen shoulder, this condition involves stiffening and thickening of the shoulder joint's capsule due to scarring or inflammation, leading to limited mobility and pain.

Hypotension is a medical term that refers to abnormally low blood pressure, usually defined as a systolic blood pressure less than 90 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) or a diastolic blood pressure less than 60 mm Hg. Blood pressure is the force exerted by the blood against the walls of the blood vessels as the heart pumps blood.

Hypotension can cause symptoms such as dizziness, lightheadedness, weakness, and fainting, especially when standing up suddenly. In severe cases, hypotension can lead to shock, which is a life-threatening condition characterized by multiple organ failure due to inadequate blood flow.

Hypotension can be caused by various factors, including certain medications, medical conditions such as heart disease, endocrine disorders, and dehydration. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience symptoms of hypotension, as it can indicate an underlying health issue that requires treatment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Saudi Arabia" is a country, not a medical term or concept. It is located in the Asian continent, and it is known as the birthplace of Islam and home to its two holiest cities, Mecca and Medina. The country's political structure is a monarchy, and it has the largest oil reserves in the world. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help!

In the context of medicine and physiology, permeability refers to the ability of a tissue or membrane to allow the passage of fluids, solutes, or gases. It is often used to describe the property of the capillary walls, which control the exchange of substances between the blood and the surrounding tissues.

The permeability of a membrane can be influenced by various factors, including its molecular structure, charge, and the size of the molecules attempting to pass through it. A more permeable membrane allows for easier passage of substances, while a less permeable membrane restricts the movement of substances.

In some cases, changes in permeability can have significant consequences for health. For example, increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier (a specialized type of capillary that regulates the passage of substances into the brain) has been implicated in a number of neurological conditions, including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and traumatic brain injury.

Metabolic clearance rate is a term used in pharmacology to describe the volume of blood or plasma from which a drug is completely removed per unit time by metabolic processes. It is a measure of the body's ability to eliminate a particular substance and is usually expressed in units of volume (e.g., milliliters or liters) per time (e.g., minutes, hours, or days).

The metabolic clearance rate can be calculated by dividing the total amount of drug eliminated by the plasma concentration of the drug and the time over which it was eliminated. It provides important information about the pharmacokinetics of a drug, including its rate of elimination and the potential for drug-drug interactions that may affect metabolism.

It is worth noting that there are different types of clearance rates, such as renal clearance rate (which refers to the removal of a drug by the kidneys) or hepatic clearance rate (which refers to the removal of a drug by the liver). Metabolic clearance rate specifically refers to the elimination of a drug through metabolic processes, which can occur in various organs throughout the body.

Microdialysis is a minimally invasive technique used in clinical and research settings to continuously monitor the concentration of various chemicals, such as neurotransmitters, drugs, or metabolites, in biological fluids (e.g., extracellular fluid of tissues, blood, or cerebrospinal fluid). This method involves inserting a small, flexible catheter with a semipermeable membrane into the region of interest. A physiological solution is continuously perfused through the catheter, allowing molecules to diffuse across the membrane based on their concentration gradient. The dialysate that exits the catheter is then collected and analyzed for target compounds using various analytical techniques (e.g., high-performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry).

In summary, microdialysis is a valuable tool for monitoring real-time changes in chemical concentrations within biological systems, enabling better understanding of physiological processes or pharmacokinetic properties of drugs.

Acidosis is a medical condition that occurs when there is an excess accumulation of acid in the body or when the body loses its ability to effectively regulate the pH level of the blood. The normal pH range of the blood is slightly alkaline, between 7.35 and 7.45. When the pH falls below 7.35, it is called acidosis.

Acidosis can be caused by various factors, including impaired kidney function, respiratory problems, diabetes, severe dehydration, alcoholism, and certain medications or toxins. There are two main types of acidosis: metabolic acidosis and respiratory acidosis.

Metabolic acidosis occurs when the body produces too much acid or is unable to eliminate it effectively. This can be caused by conditions such as diabetic ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis, kidney failure, and ingestion of certain toxins.

Respiratory acidosis, on the other hand, occurs when the lungs are unable to remove enough carbon dioxide from the body, leading to an accumulation of acid. This can be caused by conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and sedative overdose.

Symptoms of acidosis may include fatigue, shortness of breath, confusion, headache, rapid heartbeat, and in severe cases, coma or even death. Treatment for acidosis depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, oxygen therapy, fluid replacement, and dialysis.

A prescription is a written or electronic order for a medication or device issued by a healthcare provider (such as a doctor, nurse practitioner, or dentist) to a patient. It provides detailed instructions about the medication, including its dosage, frequency, route of administration, and duration of treatment. Prescriptions may also include additional information such as warnings about potential side effects or interactions with other medications.

Prescriptions are typically required for medications that have the potential to cause harm if used improperly, such as controlled substances or those that require careful monitoring. They serve as a legal document that authorizes a pharmacist to dispense the prescribed medication to the patient and may also be used for insurance billing purposes.

Prescriptions are an important tool in the management of medical conditions and can help ensure that patients receive appropriate and safe treatment with medications.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

Bacterial infections are caused by the invasion and multiplication of bacteria in or on tissues of the body. These infections can range from mild, like a common cold, to severe, such as pneumonia, meningitis, or sepsis. The symptoms of a bacterial infection depend on the type of bacteria invading the body and the area of the body that is affected.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that can live in many different environments, including in the human body. While some bacteria are beneficial to humans and help with digestion or protect against harmful pathogens, others can cause illness and disease. When bacteria invade the body, they can release toxins and other harmful substances that damage tissues and trigger an immune response.

Bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics, which work by killing or inhibiting the growth of bacteria. However, it is important to note that misuse or overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, making treatment more difficult. It is also essential to complete the full course of antibiotics as prescribed, even if symptoms improve, to ensure that all bacteria are eliminated and reduce the risk of recurrence or development of antibiotic resistance.

Biological transport refers to the movement of molecules, ions, or solutes across biological membranes or through cells in living organisms. This process is essential for maintaining homeostasis, regulating cellular functions, and enabling communication between cells. There are two main types of biological transport: passive transport and active transport.

Passive transport does not require the input of energy and includes:

1. Diffusion: The random movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until equilibrium is reached.
2. Osmosis: The diffusion of solvent molecules (usually water) across a semi-permeable membrane from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration.
3. Facilitated diffusion: The assisted passage of polar or charged substances through protein channels or carriers in the cell membrane, which increases the rate of diffusion without consuming energy.

Active transport requires the input of energy (in the form of ATP) and includes:

1. Primary active transport: The direct use of ATP to move molecules against their concentration gradient, often driven by specific transport proteins called pumps.
2. Secondary active transport: The coupling of the movement of one substance down its electrochemical gradient with the uphill transport of another substance, mediated by a shared transport protein. This process is also known as co-transport or counter-transport.

Azotemia is a medical term that refers to an elevated level of urea and other nitrogenous waste products in the blood. This condition is typically caused by impaired kidney function, which can lead to the accumulation of these substances in the body.

Normally, the kidneys filter waste products from the blood and excrete them in the urine. However, when the kidneys are not functioning properly, they may be unable to remove these waste products efficiently, leading to their buildup in the bloodstream. This can cause a range of symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and confusion.

Azotemia is often classified based on the level of urea in the blood, with mild azotemia defined as a blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level between 20 and 39 mg/dL, moderate azotemia defined as a BUN level between 40 and 89 mg/dL, and severe azotemia defined as a BUN level of 90 mg/dL or higher.

Treatment for azotemia typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the condition, which may involve medications to control high blood pressure or diabetes, dietary changes, or dialysis in severe cases.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

Advanced Glycosylation End Products (AGEs) are formed through the non-enzymatic glycation and oxidative modification of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. This process occurs when a sugar molecule, such as glucose, binds to a protein or lipid without the regulation of an enzyme, leading to the formation of a Schiff base. This then rearranges to form a more stable ketoamine, known as an Amadori product. Over time, these Amadori products can undergo further reactions, including oxidation, fragmentation, and cross-linking, resulting in the formation of AGEs.

AGEs can alter the structure and function of proteins and lipids, leading to damage in tissues and organs. They have been implicated in the development and progression of several age-related diseases, including diabetes, atherosclerosis, kidney disease, and Alzheimer's disease. AGEs can also contribute to inflammation and oxidative stress, which can further exacerbate tissue damage.

In summary, Advanced Glycosylation End Products (AGEs) are the result of non-enzymatic glycation and oxidation of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, leading to structural and functional changes in tissues and organs, and contributing to the development and progression of several age-related diseases.

In medicine, "absorption" refers to the process by which substances, including nutrients, medications, or toxins, are taken up and assimilated into the body's tissues or bloodstream after they have been introduced into the body via various routes (such as oral, intravenous, or transdermal).

The absorption of a substance depends on several factors, including its chemical properties, the route of administration, and the presence of other substances that may affect its uptake. For example, some medications may be better absorbed when taken with food, while others may require an empty stomach for optimal absorption.

Once a substance is absorbed into the bloodstream, it can then be distributed to various tissues throughout the body, where it may exert its effects or be metabolized and eliminated by the body's detoxification systems. Understanding the process of absorption is crucial in developing effective medical treatments and determining appropriate dosages for medications.

Albumins are a type of protein found in various biological fluids, including blood plasma. The most well-known albumin is serum albumin, which is produced by the liver and is the most abundant protein in blood plasma. Serum albumin plays several important roles in the body, such as maintaining oncotic pressure (which helps to regulate fluid balance in the body), transporting various substances (such as hormones, fatty acids, and drugs), and acting as an antioxidant.

Albumins are soluble in water and have a molecular weight ranging from 65,000 to 69,000 daltons. They are composed of a single polypeptide chain that contains approximately 585 amino acid residues. The structure of albumin is characterized by a high proportion of alpha-helices and beta-sheets, which give it a stable, folded conformation.

In addition to their role in human physiology, albumins are also used as diagnostic markers in medicine. For example, low serum albumin levels may indicate liver disease, malnutrition, or inflammation, while high levels may be seen in dehydration or certain types of kidney disease. Albumins may also be used as a replacement therapy in patients with severe protein loss, such as those with nephrotic syndrome or burn injuries.

Oliguria is a medical term that refers to a condition where the urine output is significantly reduced, typically defined as less than 400 milliliters (or about 13 ounces) in 24 hours for an adult. This condition can be a sign of underlying kidney dysfunction or other medical conditions that affect urine production, such as dehydration, shock, or obstruction of the urinary tract. It is important to note that oliguria can be a serious symptom and requires prompt medical attention to determine the cause and initiate appropriate treatment.

C-reactive protein (CRP) is a protein produced by the liver in response to inflammation or infection in the body. It is named after its ability to bind to the C-polysaccharide of pneumococcus, a type of bacteria. CRP levels can be measured with a simple blood test and are often used as a marker of inflammation or infection. Elevated CRP levels may indicate a variety of conditions, including infections, tissue damage, and chronic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and cancer. However, it is important to note that CRP is not specific to any particular condition, so additional tests are usually needed to make a definitive diagnosis.

Blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the blood vessels. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and is given as two figures:

1. Systolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart pushes blood out into the arteries.
2. Diastolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart rests between beats, allowing it to fill with blood.

Normal blood pressure for adults is typically around 120/80 mmHg, although this can vary slightly depending on age, sex, and other factors. High blood pressure (hypertension) is generally considered to be a reading of 130/80 mmHg or higher, while low blood pressure (hypotension) is usually defined as a reading below 90/60 mmHg. It's important to note that blood pressure can fluctuate throughout the day and may be affected by factors such as stress, physical activity, and medication use.

Electric impedance is a measure of opposition to the flow of alternating current (AC) in an electrical circuit or component, caused by both resistance (ohmic) and reactance (capacitive and inductive). It is expressed as a complex number, with the real part representing resistance and the imaginary part representing reactance. The unit of electric impedance is the ohm (Ω).

In the context of medical devices, electric impedance may be used to measure various physiological parameters, such as tissue conductivity or fluid composition. For example, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) uses electrical impedance to estimate body composition, including fat mass and lean muscle mass. Similarly, electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a medical imaging technique that uses electric impedance to create images of internal organs and tissues.

Hospitalization is the process of admitting a patient to a hospital for the purpose of receiving medical treatment, surgery, or other health care services. It involves staying in the hospital as an inpatient, typically under the care of doctors, nurses, and other healthcare professionals. The length of stay can vary depending on the individual's medical condition and the type of treatment required. Hospitalization may be necessary for a variety of reasons, such as to receive intensive care, to undergo diagnostic tests or procedures, to recover from surgery, or to manage chronic illnesses or injuries.

Acid-base equilibrium refers to the balance between the concentration of acids and bases in a solution, which determines its pH level. In a healthy human body, maintaining acid-base equilibrium is crucial for proper cellular function and homeostasis.

The balance is maintained by several buffering systems in the body, including the bicarbonate buffer system, which helps to regulate the pH of blood. This system involves the reaction between carbonic acid (a weak acid) and bicarbonate ions (a base) to form water and carbon dioxide.

The balance between acids and bases is carefully regulated by the body's respiratory and renal systems. The lungs control the elimination of carbon dioxide, a weak acid, through exhalation, while the kidneys regulate the excretion of hydrogen ions and the reabsorption of bicarbonate ions.

When the balance between acids and bases is disrupted, it can lead to acid-base disorders such as acidosis (excessive acidity) or alkalosis (excessive basicity). These conditions can have serious consequences on various organ systems if left untreated.

The omentum, in anatomical terms, refers to a large apron-like fold of abdominal fatty tissue that hangs down from the stomach and loops over the intestines. It is divided into two portions: the greater omentum, which is larger and hangs down further, and the lesser omentum, which is smaller and connects the stomach to the liver.

The omentum has several functions in the body, including providing protection and cushioning for the abdominal organs, assisting with the immune response by containing a large number of immune cells, and helping to repair damaged tissues. It can also serve as a source of nutrients and energy for the body during times of starvation or other stressors.

In medical contexts, the omentum may be surgically mobilized and used to wrap around injured or inflamed tissues in order to promote healing and reduce the risk of infection. This technique is known as an "omentopexy" or "omentoplasty."

Crush syndrome, also known as traumatic rhabdomyolysis, is a medical condition that occurs when a significant amount of muscle tissue is damaged or destroyed, releasing large amounts of intracellular contents into the circulation. This can happen due to prolonged compression of muscles, often seen in cases of entrapment in debris or heavy objects following natural disasters, accidents, or other traumatic events.

The crush syndrome is characterized by a triad of symptoms:

1. Muscle injury and breakdown (rhabdomyolysis) leading to the release of muscle contents such as potassium, myoglobin, creatine kinase, and uric acid into the bloodstream.
2. Electrolyte imbalances, particularly hyperkalemia (elevated potassium levels), which can cause cardiac arrhythmias and cardiac arrest if not promptly treated.
3. Acute kidney injury (AKI) due to myoglobinuria, where the released myoglobin from damaged muscle tissue clogs the renal tubules in the kidneys, impairing their function and potentially leading to acute renal failure.

Immediate medical intervention is crucial for managing crush syndrome, which includes aggressive fluid resuscitation, close monitoring of electrolyte levels, and supportive care for kidney function. In some cases, dialysis may be required to support the kidneys until they recover.

Central venous catheters (CVCs) are medical devices used to access the central venous system, typically placed in one of the large great veins such as the internal jugular, subclavian, or femoral vein. They can be used for a variety of purposes including administration of medications and fluids, monitoring central venous pressure, and obtaining blood samples. CVCs come in different types, such as non-tunneled, tunneled, and implantable ports, each with its own specific indications and uses. Proper placement and maintenance of CVCs are crucial to prevent complications such as infection, thrombosis, and catheter-related bloodstream infections.

Staphylococcus epidermidis is a type of coagulase-negative staphylococcal bacterium that is commonly found on the human skin and mucous membranes. It is a part of the normal flora and usually does not cause infection in healthy individuals. However, it can cause serious infections in people with weakened immune systems or when it enters the body through medical devices such as catheters or artificial joints. Infections caused by S. epidermidis are often difficult to treat due to its ability to form biofilms.

Medical Definition: Staphylococcus epidermidis is a gram-positive, catalase-positive, coagulase-negative coccus that commonly inhabits the skin and mucous membranes. It is a leading cause of nosocomial infections associated with indwelling medical devices and is known for its ability to form biofilms. S. epidermidis infections can cause a range of clinical manifestations, including bacteremia, endocarditis, urinary tract infections, and device-related infections.

The Chi-square distribution is a continuous probability distribution that is often used in statistical hypothesis testing. It is the distribution of a sum of squares of k independent standard normal random variables. The resulting quantity follows a chi-square distribution with k degrees of freedom, denoted as χ²(k).

The probability density function (pdf) of the Chi-square distribution with k degrees of freedom is given by:

f(x; k) = (1/ (2^(k/2) * Γ(k/2))) \* x^((k/2)-1) \* e^(-x/2), for x > 0 and 0, otherwise.

Where Γ(k/2) is the gamma function evaluated at k/2. The mean and variance of a Chi-square distribution with k degrees of freedom are k and 2k, respectively.

The Chi-square distribution has various applications in statistical inference, including testing goodness-of-fit, homogeneity of variances, and independence in contingency tables.

Alpha-2-HS-Glycoprotein (AHSG), also known as fetuin-A, is a plasma protein synthesized primarily in the liver. It belongs to the group of proteins called acute phase reactants, which means its levels can increase or decrease in response to inflammation or injury. AHSG plays a role in several physiological processes, including inhibition of tissue calcification, regulation of insulin sensitivity, and modulation of immune responses. Structurally, it is a glycoprotein with two homologous domains, each containing three disulfide bridges. The function and regulation of AHSG are subjects of ongoing research due to its potential implications in various diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and chronic kidney disease.

Acrylonitrile is a colorless, flammable liquid with an unpleasant odor. It is used in the manufacture of plastics, resins, and synthetic fibers. In terms of medical toxicology, acrylonitrile is classified as a volatile organic compound (VOC) and can cause irritation to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. Exposure to high levels of acrylonitrile can lead to symptoms such as headache, dizziness, nausea, and vomiting. Chronic exposure has been associated with an increased risk of certain types of cancer, including lung, laryngeal, and esophageal cancer. However, it's important to note that occupational exposure limits are in place to minimize the risks associated with acrylonitrile exposure.

A Glucose Solution, Hypertonic is a medical solution that contains a higher concentration of glucose (sugar) than is found in normal body fluids. This results in an osmotic gradient that draws water from the surrounding tissues and increases the osmolarity of the body fluids. It is often used in medical settings to treat certain conditions such as hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) or dehydration due to diarrhea or vomiting. However, it's important to note that hypertonic glucose solutions should be used with caution because high concentrations of glucose can lead to complications like hyperglycemia and dehydration if not properly managed.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "New Zealand" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, known for its stunning landscapes, unique wildlife, and as the filming location for the "Lord of the Rings" films. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I'd be happy to try and help answer those for you!

Regression analysis is a statistical technique used in medicine, as well as in other fields, to examine the relationship between one or more independent variables (predictors) and a dependent variable (outcome). It allows for the estimation of the average change in the outcome variable associated with a one-unit change in an independent variable, while controlling for the effects of other independent variables. This technique is often used to identify risk factors for diseases or to evaluate the effectiveness of medical interventions. In medical research, regression analysis can be used to adjust for potential confounding variables and to quantify the relationship between exposures and health outcomes. It can also be used in predictive modeling to estimate the probability of a particular outcome based on multiple predictors.

A waiting list, in the context of healthcare and medicine, refers to a list of patients who are awaiting a particular medical service or procedure, such as surgery, consultation with a specialist, or therapy. These lists are often established when the demand for certain services exceeds the immediate supply of resources, including physician time, hospital beds, or specialized equipment.

Patients on waiting lists are typically ranked based on factors like the severity of their condition, the urgency of their need for treatment, and the date they were placed on the list. The goal is to ensure that those with the most pressing medical needs receive care as soon as possible, while also providing a fair and transparent system for allocating limited resources.

However, it's important to note that extended waiting times can have negative consequences for patients, including worsening of symptoms, decreased quality of life, and potential complications. As such, healthcare systems strive to minimize wait times through various strategies, such as increasing resource allocation, improving efficiency, and implementing alternative service delivery models.

Pruritus is a medical term derived from Latin, in which "prurire" means "to itch." It refers to an unpleasant sensation on the skin that provokes the desire or reflex to scratch. This can be caused by various factors, such as skin conditions (e.g., dryness, eczema, psoriasis), systemic diseases (e.g., liver disease, kidney failure), nerve disorders, psychological conditions, or reactions to certain medications.

Pruritus can significantly affect a person's quality of life, leading to sleep disturbances, anxiety, and depression. Proper identification and management of the underlying cause are essential for effective treatment.

I apologize, but "Canada" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located in North America, known for its vast wilderness, multicultural cities, and significant natural resources. If you have any questions related to healthcare or medical terms, I would be happy to help answer those!

The "cause of death" is a medical determination of the disease, injury, or event that directly results in a person's death. This information is typically documented on a death certificate and may be used for public health surveillance, research, and legal purposes. The cause of death is usually determined by a physician based on their clinical judgment and any available medical evidence, such as laboratory test results, autopsy findings, or eyewitness accounts. In some cases, the cause of death may be uncertain or unknown, and the death may be classified as "natural," "accidental," "homicide," or "suicide" based on the available information.

Cellulose is a complex carbohydrate that is the main structural component of the cell walls of green plants, many algae, and some fungi. It is a polysaccharide consisting of long chains of beta-glucose molecules linked together by beta-1,4 glycosidic bonds. Cellulose is insoluble in water and most organic solvents, and it is resistant to digestion by humans and non-ruminant animals due to the lack of cellulase enzymes in their digestive systems. However, ruminants such as cows and sheep can digest cellulose with the help of microbes in their rumen that produce cellulase.

Cellulose has many industrial applications, including the production of paper, textiles, and building materials. It is also used as a source of dietary fiber in human food and animal feed. Cellulose-based materials are being explored for use in biomedical applications such as tissue engineering and drug delivery due to their biocompatibility and mechanical properties.

Hydrothorax is a medical term that refers to the abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in the pleural space, which is the potential space between the lungs and the chest wall. This condition often results from various underlying pathological processes such as liver cirrhosis, heart failure, or kidney disease, where there is an imbalance in the body's fluid regulation leading to the accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity. The presence of hydrothorax can cause respiratory distress and other symptoms related to lung function impairment.

Infection is defined medically as the invasion and multiplication of pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites within the body, which can lead to tissue damage, illness, and disease. This process often triggers an immune response from the host's body in an attempt to eliminate the infectious agents and restore homeostasis. Infections can be transmitted through various routes, including airborne particles, direct contact with contaminated surfaces or bodily fluids, sexual contact, or vector-borne transmission. The severity of an infection may range from mild and self-limiting to severe and life-threatening, depending on factors such as the type and quantity of pathogen, the host's immune status, and any underlying health conditions.

Equipment contamination in a medical context refers to the presence of harmful microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi, on the surfaces of medical equipment or devices. This can occur during use, storage, or transportation of the equipment and can lead to the transmission of infections to patients, healthcare workers, or other individuals who come into contact with the contaminated equipment.

Equipment contamination can occur through various routes, including contact with contaminated body fluids, airborne particles, or environmental surfaces. To prevent equipment contamination and the resulting infection transmission, it is essential to follow strict infection control practices, such as regular cleaning and disinfection of equipment, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and proper handling and storage of medical devices.

Amino acids are organic compounds that serve as the building blocks of proteins. They consist of a central carbon atom, also known as the alpha carbon, which is bonded to an amino group (-NH2), a carboxyl group (-COOH), a hydrogen atom (H), and a variable side chain (R group). The R group can be composed of various combinations of atoms such as hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon, which determine the unique properties of each amino acid.

There are 20 standard amino acids that are encoded by the genetic code and incorporated into proteins during translation. These include:

1. Alanine (Ala)
2. Arginine (Arg)
3. Asparagine (Asn)
4. Aspartic acid (Asp)
5. Cysteine (Cys)
6. Glutamine (Gln)
7. Glutamic acid (Glu)
8. Glycine (Gly)
9. Histidine (His)
10. Isoleucine (Ile)
11. Leucine (Leu)
12. Lysine (Lys)
13. Methionine (Met)
14. Phenylalanine (Phe)
15. Proline (Pro)
16. Serine (Ser)
17. Threonine (Thr)
18. Tryptophan (Trp)
19. Tyrosine (Tyr)
20. Valine (Val)

Additionally, there are several non-standard or modified amino acids that can be incorporated into proteins through post-translational modifications, such as hydroxylation, methylation, and phosphorylation. These modifications expand the functional diversity of proteins and play crucial roles in various cellular processes.

Amino acids are essential for numerous biological functions, including protein synthesis, enzyme catalysis, neurotransmitter production, energy metabolism, and immune response regulation. Some amino acids can be synthesized by the human body (non-essential), while others must be obtained through dietary sources (essential).

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Europe" is a geographical and political designation, rather than a medical one. It refers to the continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Europe is made up of approximately 50 countries, depending on how one defines a "country."

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I'd be happy to help answer them!

Patient selection, in the context of medical treatment or clinical research, refers to the process of identifying and choosing appropriate individuals who are most likely to benefit from a particular medical intervention or who meet specific criteria to participate in a study. This decision is based on various factors such as the patient's diagnosis, stage of disease, overall health status, potential risks, and expected benefits. The goal of patient selection is to ensure that the selected individuals will receive the most effective and safe care possible while also contributing to meaningful research outcomes.

I cannot provide a medical definition for "equipment reuse" as it is not a term that is commonly used in the medical field. However, I can give you some general information about equipment reuse in healthcare settings.

Equipment reuse refers to the practice of using previously owned or disposable medical equipment and supplies multiple times after they have been sterilized or disinfected according to established protocols. This practice is often adopted by healthcare facilities as a way to reduce costs, conserve resources, and minimize waste.

Examples of medical equipment that may be reused include anesthesia breathing circuits, blood pressure cuffs, stethoscopes, and electronic thermometers. It's important to note that any reprocessed or reused medical equipment must undergo strict cleaning, disinfection, and sterilization procedures to ensure the safety of patients and healthcare workers.

Reusing medical equipment can have benefits such as reducing costs and waste, but it also carries risks if not done properly. Proper training and adherence to established protocols are crucial to ensuring that reused equipment is safe for use.

Vascular patency is a term used in medicine to describe the state of a blood vessel (such as an artery or vein) being open, unobstructed, and allowing for the normal flow of blood. It is an important concept in the treatment and management of various cardiovascular conditions, such as peripheral artery disease, coronary artery disease, and deep vein thrombosis.

Maintaining vascular patency can help prevent serious complications like tissue damage, organ dysfunction, or even death. This may involve medical interventions such as administering blood-thinning medications to prevent clots, performing procedures to remove blockages, or using devices like stents to keep vessels open. Regular monitoring of vascular patency is also crucial for evaluating the effectiveness of treatments and adjusting care plans accordingly.

Kidney cortex necrosis is a serious condition characterized by the death (necrosis) of cells in the outer part (cortex) of the kidneys, usually as a result of an interruption in blood flow. This can occur due to various reasons such as severe shock, blood clots, or complications from pregnancy. The necrosis of kidney cortical tissue can lead to acute renal failure, which is a life-threatening situation requiring immediate medical attention and intensive care.

The death of kidney cells in the cortex disrupts the normal functioning of the kidneys, impairing their ability to filter waste products and excess fluids from the blood. This can result in the accumulation of harmful substances in the body and an imbalance of electrolytes, which can be life-threatening if left untreated.

Kidney cortex necrosis is typically diagnosed through a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scan. Treatment usually involves supportive care, including dialysis to replace the kidneys' function until they can recover on their own or until a transplant can be performed. In some cases, the damage to the kidneys may be permanent, leading to chronic renal failure and the need for long-term dialysis or transplantation.

Equipment design, in the medical context, refers to the process of creating and developing medical equipment and devices, such as surgical instruments, diagnostic machines, or assistive technologies. This process involves several stages, including:

1. Identifying user needs and requirements
2. Concept development and brainstorming
3. Prototyping and testing
4. Design for manufacturing and assembly
5. Safety and regulatory compliance
6. Verification and validation
7. Training and support

The goal of equipment design is to create safe, effective, and efficient medical devices that meet the needs of healthcare providers and patients while complying with relevant regulations and standards. The design process typically involves a multidisciplinary team of engineers, clinicians, designers, and researchers who work together to develop innovative solutions that improve patient care and outcomes.

Logistic models, specifically logistic regression models, are a type of statistical analysis used in medical and epidemiological research to identify the relationship between the risk of a certain health outcome or disease (dependent variable) and one or more independent variables, such as demographic factors, exposure variables, or other clinical measurements.

In contrast to linear regression models, logistic regression models are used when the dependent variable is binary or dichotomous in nature, meaning it can only take on two values, such as "disease present" or "disease absent." The model uses a logistic function to estimate the probability of the outcome based on the independent variables.

Logistic regression models are useful for identifying risk factors and estimating the strength of associations between exposures and health outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders, and predicting the probability of an outcome given certain values of the independent variables. They can also be used to develop clinical prediction rules or scores that can aid in decision-making and patient care.

The axillary vein is a large vein that runs through the axilla or armpit region. It is formed by the union of the brachial vein and the basilic vein at the lower border of the teres major muscle. The axillary vein carries deoxygenated blood from the upper limb, chest wall, and breast towards the heart. As it moves proximally, it becomes continuous with the subclavian vein to form the brachiocephalic vein. It is accompanied by the axillary artery and forms part of the important neurovascular bundle in the axilla.

Health care costs refer to the expenses incurred for medical services, treatments, procedures, and products that are used to maintain or restore an individual's health. These costs can be categorized into several types:

1. Direct costs: These include payments made for doctor visits, hospital stays, medications, diagnostic tests, surgeries, and other medical treatments and services. Direct costs can be further divided into two subcategories:
* Out-of-pocket costs: Expenses paid directly by patients, such as co-payments, deductibles, coinsurance, and any uncovered medical services or products.
* Third-party payer costs: Expenses covered by insurance companies, government programs (like Medicare, Medicaid), or other entities that pay for health care services on behalf of patients.
2. Indirect costs: These are the expenses incurred as a result of illness or injury that indirectly impact an individual's ability to work and earn a living. Examples include lost productivity, absenteeism, reduced earning capacity, and disability benefits.
3. Non-medical costs: These are expenses related to caregiving, transportation, home modifications, assistive devices, and other non-medical services required for managing health conditions or disabilities.

Health care costs can vary significantly depending on factors such as the type of medical service, geographic location, insurance coverage, and individual health status. Understanding these costs is essential for patients, healthcare providers, policymakers, and researchers to make informed decisions about treatment options, resource allocation, and health system design.

"Device Removal" in a medical context generally refers to the surgical or nonsurgical removal of a medical device that has been previously implanted in a patient's body. The purpose of removing the device may vary, depending on the individual case. Some common reasons for device removal include infection, malfunction, rejection, or when the device is no longer needed.

Examples of medical devices that may require removal include pacemakers, implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs), artificial joints, orthopedic hardware, breast implants, cochlear implants, and intrauterine devices (IUDs). The procedure for device removal will depend on the type of device, its location in the body, and the reason for its removal.

It is important to note that device removal carries certain risks, such as bleeding, infection, damage to surrounding tissues, or complications related to anesthesia. Therefore, the decision to remove a medical device should be made carefully, considering both the potential benefits and risks of the procedure.

Graft survival, in medical terms, refers to the success of a transplanted tissue or organ in continuing to function and integrate with the recipient's body over time. It is the opposite of graft rejection, which occurs when the recipient's immune system recognizes the transplanted tissue as foreign and attacks it, leading to its failure.

Graft survival depends on various factors, including the compatibility between the donor and recipient, the type and location of the graft, the use of immunosuppressive drugs to prevent rejection, and the overall health of the recipient. A successful graft survival implies that the transplanted tissue or organ has been accepted by the recipient's body and is functioning properly, providing the necessary physiological support for the recipient's survival and improved quality of life.

Delayed graft function (DGF) is a term used in the medical field, particularly in transplant medicine. It refers to a situation where a transplanted organ, most commonly a kidney, fails to function normally immediately after the transplantation procedure. This failure to function occurs within the first week after the transplant and is usually associated with poor urine output and elevated levels of creatinine in the blood.

DGF can be caused by several factors, including pre-existing conditions in the recipient, such as diabetes or hypertension, poor quality of the donor organ, or complications during the surgery. It may also result from the immune system's reaction to the transplanted organ, known as rejection.

In many cases, DGF can be managed with medical interventions, such as administering medications to help reduce inflammation and improve blood flow to the organ. However, in some instances, it may lead to more severe complications, including acute or chronic rejection of the transplanted organ, which could require additional treatments or even another transplant.

It's important to note that not all cases of DGF lead to long-term complications, and many patients with DGF can still go on to have successful transplants with proper management and care.

The brachiocephalic veins, also known as the innominate veins, are large veins in the human body. They are formed by the union of the subclavian vein and the internal jugular vein on each side of the body. The resulting vein then carries blood from the upper limbs, head, and neck to the superior vena cava, which is the large vein that returns blood to the heart.

Here's a more detailed medical definition:

The brachiocephalic veins are paired venous structures that result from the union of the subclavian vein and the internal jugular vein on each side of the body. These veins are located in the superior mediastinum, near the base of the neck, and are typically about 2 to 3 centimeters in length. The brachiocephalic veins receive blood from several sources, including the upper extremities, head, neck, and thoracic wall. They then transport this blood to the superior vena cava, which is a large vein that returns blood to the right atrium of the heart.

It's worth noting that the brachiocephalic veins are subject to various pathological conditions, including thrombosis (blood clots), stenosis (narrowing), and compression by nearby structures such as the first rib or the scalene muscles. These conditions can lead to a variety of symptoms, including swelling, pain, and difficulty breathing.

Bone diseases is a broad term that refers to various medical conditions that affect the bones. These conditions can be categorized into several groups, including:

1. Developmental and congenital bone diseases: These are conditions that affect bone growth and development before or at birth. Examples include osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bone disease), achondroplasia (dwarfism), and cleidocranial dysostosis.
2. Metabolic bone diseases: These are conditions that affect the body's ability to maintain healthy bones. They are often caused by hormonal imbalances, vitamin deficiencies, or problems with mineral metabolism. Examples include osteoporosis, osteomalacia, and Paget's disease of bone.
3. Inflammatory bone diseases: These are conditions that cause inflammation in the bones. They can be caused by infections, autoimmune disorders, or other medical conditions. Examples include osteomyelitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
4. Degenerative bone diseases: These are conditions that cause the bones to break down over time. They can be caused by aging, injury, or disease. Examples include osteoarthritis, avascular necrosis, and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH).
5. Tumors and cancers of the bone: These are conditions that involve abnormal growths in the bones. They can be benign or malignant. Examples include osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, and Ewing sarcoma.
6. Fractures and injuries: While not strictly a "disease," fractures and injuries are common conditions that affect the bones. They can result from trauma, overuse, or weakened bones. Examples include stress fractures, compound fractures, and dislocations.

Overall, bone diseases can cause a wide range of symptoms, including pain, stiffness, deformity, and decreased mobility. Treatment for these conditions varies depending on the specific diagnosis but may include medication, surgery, physical therapy, or lifestyle changes.

Radio-iodinated serum albumin refers to human serum albumin that has been chemically bonded with radioactive iodine isotopes, typically I-125 or I-131. This results in a radiolabeled protein that can be used in medical imaging and research to track the distribution and movement of the protein in the body.

In human physiology, serum albumin is the most abundant protein in plasma, synthesized by the liver, and it plays a crucial role in maintaining oncotic pressure and transporting various molecules in the bloodstream. Radio-iodination of serum albumin allows for non-invasive monitoring of its behavior in vivo, which can be useful in evaluating conditions such as protein losing enteropathies, nephrotic syndrome, or liver dysfunction.

It is essential to handle and dispose of radio-iodinated serum albumin with proper radiation safety protocols due to its radioactive nature.

Amyloidosis is a medical condition characterized by the abnormal accumulation of insoluble proteins called amyloid in various tissues and organs throughout the body. These misfolded protein deposits can disrupt the normal function of affected organs, leading to a range of symptoms depending on the location and extent of the amyloid deposition.

There are different types of amyloidosis, classified based on the specific proteins involved:

1. Primary (AL) Amyloidosis: This is the most common form, accounting for around 80% of cases. It results from the overproduction and misfolding of immunoglobulin light chains, typically by clonal plasma cells in the bone marrow. The amyloid deposits can affect various organs, including the heart, kidneys, liver, and nervous system.
2. Secondary (AA) Amyloidosis: This form is associated with chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, tuberculosis, or familial Mediterranean fever. The amyloid fibrils are composed of serum amyloid A protein (SAA), an acute-phase reactant produced during the inflammatory response. The kidneys are commonly affected in this type of amyloidosis.
3. Hereditary or Familial Amyloidosis: These forms are caused by genetic mutations that result in the production of abnormal proteins prone to misfolding and amyloid formation. Examples include transthyretin (TTR) amyloidosis, fibrinogen amyloidosis, and apolipoprotein AI amyloidosis. These forms can affect various organs, including the heart, nerves, and kidneys.
4. Dialysis-Related Amyloidosis: This form is seen in patients undergoing long-term dialysis for chronic kidney disease. The amyloid fibrils are composed of beta-2 microglobulin, a protein that accumulates due to impaired clearance during dialysis. The joints and bones are commonly affected in this type of amyloidosis.

The diagnosis of amyloidosis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies, and tissue biopsy with the demonstration of amyloid deposition using special stains (e.g., Congo red). Treatment depends on the specific type and extent of organ involvement and may include supportive care, medications to target the underlying cause (e.g., chemotherapy, immunomodulatory agents), and organ transplantation in some cases.

Calciphylaxis is a rare but serious medical condition characterized by the formation of calcium deposits in small blood vessels and surrounding tissues, particularly in the skin and fatty tissue beneath the skin. This can lead to tissue death (necrosis) and ulceration, often resulting in severe pain, infection, and other complications.

Calciphylaxis is most commonly seen in patients with chronic kidney disease or end-stage renal failure, although it has also been reported in patients with normal kidney function. Other risk factors include obesity, female gender, diabetes, and use of warfarin or corticosteroids.

The exact cause of calciphylaxis is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of factors such as abnormal mineral metabolism, inflammation, and vascular injury. Treatment typically involves addressing any underlying medical conditions, wound care, and sometimes surgical debridement or skin grafting. In some cases, medications such as sodium thiosulfate or bisphosphonates may be used to help dissolve the calcium deposits and improve symptoms.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

Health facilities, also known as healthcare facilities, are organizations that provide health services, treatments, and care to individuals in need of medical attention. These facilities can include various types of establishments such as hospitals, clinics, doctor's offices, dental practices, long-term care facilities, rehabilitation centers, and diagnostic imaging centers.

Health facilities are designed to offer a range of services that promote health, prevent illness, diagnose and treat medical conditions, and provide ongoing care for patients with chronic illnesses or disabilities. They may also offer educational programs and resources to help individuals maintain their health and well-being.

The specific services offered by health facilities can vary widely depending on the type and size of the facility, as well as its location and target population. However, all health facilities are required to meet certain standards for safety, quality, and patient care in order to ensure that patients receive the best possible treatment and outcomes.

Practice guidelines, also known as clinical practice guidelines, are systematically developed statements that aim to assist healthcare professionals and patients in making informed decisions about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances. They are based on a thorough evaluation of the available scientific evidence, consensus of expert opinion, and consideration of patient preferences. Practice guidelines can cover a wide range of topics, including diagnosis, management, prevention, and treatment options for various medical conditions. They are intended to improve the quality and consistency of care, reduce unnecessary variations in practice, and promote evidence-based medicine. However, they should not replace clinical judgment or individualized patient care.

Dielectric spectroscopy is a type of material characterization technique that measures the dielectric properties of a material as a function of frequency. The dielectric property of a material refers to its ability to store electrical energy in the form of polarization when an external electric field is applied. In dielectric spectroscopy, the material's response to an alternating electric field is measured, and the resulting complex permittivity (which includes both real and imaginary components) is used to characterize the material's dielectric behavior.

The technique involves applying a small amplitude AC voltage to the material while measuring the current flow through it. The frequency of the applied voltage can be varied over a wide range, typically from millihertz to gigahertz. By analyzing the phase shift and amplitude of the resulting current, the complex permittivity of the material can be determined as a function of frequency.

Dielectric spectroscopy is widely used in materials science, physics, chemistry, and biology to study the structure, dynamics, and composition of various materials, including polymers, ceramics, glasses, colloids, and biological tissues. The technique can provide valuable information about the material's molecular mobility, relaxation processes, conductivity, and other dielectric properties, which can be used for quality control, process monitoring, and fundamental research.

Extracellular fluid (ECF) is the fluid that exists outside of the cells in the body. It makes up about 20-25% of the total body weight in a healthy adult. ECF can be further divided into two main components: interstitial fluid and intravascular fluid.

Interstitial fluid is the fluid that surrounds the cells and fills the spaces between them. It provides nutrients to the cells, removes waste products, and helps maintain a balanced environment around the cells.

Intravascular fluid, also known as plasma, is the fluid component of blood that circulates in the blood vessels. It carries nutrients, hormones, and waste products throughout the body, and helps regulate temperature, pH, and osmotic pressure.

Maintaining the proper balance of ECF is essential for normal bodily functions. Disruptions in this balance can lead to various medical conditions, such as dehydration, edema, and heart failure.

Sodium is an essential mineral and electrolyte that is necessary for human health. In a medical context, sodium is often discussed in terms of its concentration in the blood, as measured by serum sodium levels. The normal range for serum sodium is typically between 135 and 145 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L).

Sodium plays a number of important roles in the body, including:

* Regulating fluid balance: Sodium helps to regulate the amount of water in and around your cells, which is important for maintaining normal blood pressure and preventing dehydration.
* Facilitating nerve impulse transmission: Sodium is involved in the generation and transmission of electrical signals in the nervous system, which is necessary for proper muscle function and coordination.
* Assisting with muscle contraction: Sodium helps to regulate muscle contractions by interacting with other minerals such as calcium and potassium.

Low sodium levels (hyponatremia) can cause symptoms such as confusion, seizures, and coma, while high sodium levels (hypernatremia) can lead to symptoms such as weakness, muscle cramps, and seizures. Both conditions require medical treatment to correct.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

Postoperative complications refer to any unfavorable condition or event that occurs during the recovery period after a surgical procedure. These complications can vary in severity and may include, but are not limited to:

1. Infection: This can occur at the site of the incision or inside the body, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.
2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) can lead to a drop in blood pressure and may require further surgical intervention.
3. Blood clots: These can form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and can potentially travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
4. Wound dehiscence: This is when the surgical wound opens up, which can lead to infection and further complications.
5. Pulmonary issues: These include atelectasis (collapsed lung), pneumonia, or respiratory failure.
6. Cardiovascular problems: These include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, or stroke.
7. Renal failure: This can occur due to various reasons such as dehydration, blood loss, or the use of certain medications.
8. Pain management issues: Inadequate pain control can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and decreased mobility.
9. Nausea and vomiting: These can be caused by anesthesia, opioid pain medication, or other factors.
10. Delirium: This is a state of confusion and disorientation that can occur in the elderly or those with certain medical conditions.

Prompt identification and management of these complications are crucial to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient.

In the context of medicine and healthcare, 'probability' does not have a specific medical definition. However, in general terms, probability is a branch of mathematics that deals with the study of numerical quantities called probabilities, which are assigned to events or sets of events. Probability is a measure of the likelihood that an event will occur. It is usually expressed as a number between 0 and 1, where 0 indicates that the event is impossible and 1 indicates that the event is certain to occur.

In medical research and statistics, probability is often used to quantify the uncertainty associated with statistical estimates or hypotheses. For example, a p-value is a probability that measures the strength of evidence against a hypothesis. A small p-value (typically less than 0.05) suggests that the observed data are unlikely under the assumption of the null hypothesis, and therefore provides evidence in favor of an alternative hypothesis.

Probability theory is also used to model complex systems and processes in medicine, such as disease transmission dynamics or the effectiveness of medical interventions. By quantifying the uncertainty associated with these models, researchers can make more informed decisions about healthcare policies and practices.

Glucaric acid, also known as saccharic acid, is not a medication or a medical treatment. It is an organic compound that occurs naturally in various fruits and vegetables, such as oranges, apples, and corn. Glucaric acid is a type of dicarboxylic acid, which means it contains two carboxyl groups.

In the human body, glucaric acid is produced as a byproduct of glucose metabolism and can be found in small amounts in urine. It is also produced synthetically for industrial uses, such as in the production of cleaning products, textiles, and plastics.

There has been some research on the potential health benefits of glucaric acid, including its role in detoxification and cancer prevention. However, more studies are needed to confirm these effects and establish recommended intake levels or dosages. Therefore, it is not currently considered a medical treatment for any specific condition.

Longitudinal studies are a type of research design where data is collected from the same subjects repeatedly over a period of time, often years or even decades. These studies are used to establish patterns of changes and events over time, and can help researchers identify causal relationships between variables. They are particularly useful in fields such as epidemiology, psychology, and sociology, where the focus is on understanding developmental trends and the long-term effects of various factors on health and behavior.

In medical research, longitudinal studies can be used to track the progression of diseases over time, identify risk factors for certain conditions, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. For example, a longitudinal study might follow a group of individuals over several decades to assess their exposure to certain environmental factors and their subsequent development of chronic diseases such as cancer or heart disease. By comparing data collected at multiple time points, researchers can identify trends and correlations that may not be apparent in shorter-term studies.

Longitudinal studies have several advantages over other research designs, including their ability to establish temporal relationships between variables, track changes over time, and reduce the impact of confounding factors. However, they also have some limitations, such as the potential for attrition (loss of participants over time), which can introduce bias and affect the validity of the results. Additionally, longitudinal studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, requiring significant resources and a long-term commitment from both researchers and study participants.

Reference values, also known as reference ranges or reference intervals, are the set of values that are considered normal or typical for a particular population or group of people. These values are often used in laboratory tests to help interpret test results and determine whether a patient's value falls within the expected range.

The process of establishing reference values typically involves measuring a particular biomarker or parameter in a large, healthy population and then calculating the mean and standard deviation of the measurements. Based on these statistics, a range is established that includes a certain percentage of the population (often 95%) and excludes extreme outliers.

It's important to note that reference values can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, race, and other demographic characteristics. Therefore, it's essential to use reference values that are specific to the relevant population when interpreting laboratory test results. Additionally, reference values may change over time due to advances in measurement technology or changes in the population being studied.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Italy" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located in Southern Europe. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

Dietary proteins are sources of protein that come from the foods we eat. Protein is an essential nutrient for the human body, required for various bodily functions such as growth, repair, and immune function. Dietary proteins are broken down into amino acids during digestion, which are then absorbed and used to synthesize new proteins in the body.

Dietary proteins can be classified as complete or incomplete based on their essential amino acid content. Complete proteins contain all nine essential amino acids that cannot be produced by the human body and must be obtained through the diet. Examples of complete protein sources include meat, poultry, fish, eggs, dairy products, soy, and quinoa.

Incomplete proteins lack one or more essential amino acids and are typically found in plant-based foods such as grains, legumes, nuts, and seeds. However, by combining different incomplete protein sources, it is possible to obtain all the essential amino acids needed for a complete protein diet. This concept is known as complementary proteins.

It's important to note that while dietary proteins are essential for good health, excessive protein intake can have negative effects on the body, such as increased stress on the kidneys and bones. Therefore, it's recommended to consume protein in moderation as part of a balanced and varied diet.

Treatment refusal, in a medical context, refers to the situation where a patient declines or denies recommended medical treatment or intervention for their health condition. This decision is made with full understanding and awareness of the potential consequences of not receiving the proposed medical care.

It's important to note that patients have the right to accept or refuse medical treatments based on their personal values, beliefs, and preferences. Healthcare providers must respect this right, while also ensuring that patients are well-informed about their health status, treatment options, and associated benefits, risks, and outcomes. In some cases, it might be necessary to explore the reasons behind the refusal and address any concerns or misconceptions the patient may have, in order to support informed decision-making.

Vascular diseases are medical conditions that affect the circulatory system, specifically the blood vessels (arteries, veins, and capillaries). These diseases can include conditions such as:

1. Atherosclerosis: The buildup of fats, cholesterol, and other substances in and on the walls of the arteries, which can restrict blood flow.
2. Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD): A condition caused by atherosclerosis where there is narrowing or blockage of the peripheral arteries, most commonly in the legs. This can lead to pain, numbness, and cramping.
3. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD): Atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle. This can lead to chest pain, shortness of breath, or a heart attack.
4. Carotid Artery Disease: Atherosclerosis of the carotid arteries in the neck that supply blood to the brain. This can increase the risk of stroke.
5. Cerebrovascular Disease: Conditions that affect blood flow to the brain, including stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA or "mini-stroke").
6. Aneurysm: A weakened area in the wall of a blood vessel that causes it to bulge outward and potentially rupture.
7. Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT): A blood clot that forms in the deep veins, usually in the legs, which can cause pain, swelling, and increased risk of pulmonary embolism if the clot travels to the lungs.
8. Varicose Veins: Swollen, twisted, and often painful veins that have filled with an abnormal collection of blood, usually appearing in the legs.
9. Vasculitis: Inflammation of the blood vessels, which can cause damage and narrowing, leading to reduced blood flow.
10. Raynaud's Phenomenon: A condition where the small arteries that supply blood to the skin become narrowed, causing decreased blood flow, typically in response to cold temperatures or stress.

These are just a few examples of vascular conditions that fall under the umbrella term "cerebrovascular disease." Early diagnosis and treatment can significantly improve outcomes for many of these conditions.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a medical condition in which the left ventricle of the heart undergoes an enlargement or thickening of its muscle wall. The left ventricle is the main pumping chamber of the heart that supplies oxygenated blood to the rest of the body.

In response to increased workload, such as hypertension (high blood pressure), aortic valve stenosis, or athletic training, the left ventricular muscle may thicken and enlarge. This process is called "hypertrophy." While some degree of hypertrophy can be adaptive in athletes, significant or excessive hypertrophy can lead to impaired relaxation and filling of the left ventricle during diastole, reduced pumping capacity, and decreased compliance of the chamber.

Left ventricular hypertrophy is often asymptomatic initially but can increase the risk of various cardiovascular complications such as heart failure, arrhythmias, myocardial infarction (heart attack), and sudden cardiac death over time. It is typically diagnosed through imaging techniques like echocardiography or cardiac MRI and confirmed by measuring the thickness of the left ventricular wall.

A referral in the medical context is the process where a healthcare professional (such as a general practitioner or primary care physician) sends or refers a patient to another healthcare professional who has specialized knowledge and skills to address the patient's specific health condition or concern. This could be a specialist, a consultant, or a facility that provides specialized care. The referral may involve transferring the patient's care entirely to the other professional or may simply be for a consultation and advice.

A consultation in healthcare is a process where a healthcare professional seeks the opinion or advice of another professional regarding a patient's medical condition. This can be done in various ways, such as face-to-face meetings, phone calls, or written correspondence. The consulting professional provides their expert opinion to assist in the diagnosis, treatment plan, or management of the patient's condition. The ultimate decision and responsibility for the patient's care typically remain with the referring or primary healthcare provider.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Brunei" is not a medical term or concept. It is an independent country located on the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia, bordering Malaysia and surrounded by the South China Sea. Brunei is a constitutional sultanate, known for its oil and gas reserves, tropical rainforests, and diverse wildlife. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

Staphylococcal infections are a type of infection caused by Staphylococcus bacteria, which are commonly found on the skin and nose of healthy people. However, if they enter the body through a cut, scratch, or other wound, they can cause an infection.

There are several types of Staphylococcus bacteria, but the most common one that causes infections is Staphylococcus aureus. These infections can range from minor skin infections such as pimples, boils, and impetigo to serious conditions such as pneumonia, bloodstream infections, and toxic shock syndrome.

Symptoms of staphylococcal infections depend on the type and severity of the infection. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, either topical or oral, depending on the severity and location of the infection. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary for more severe infections. It is important to note that some strains of Staphylococcus aureus have developed resistance to certain antibiotics, making them more difficult to treat.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Japan" is not a medical term. Japan is the name of a country, officially known as Nippon-koku or Nihon-koku in Japanese, and is located in East Asia. It is an island nation in the Pacific Ocean with a population of about 126 million people.

If you have any medical questions or terms that you would like me to define, please let me know!

Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3. It is a common substance found in rocks and in the shells of many marine animals. As a mineral, it is known as calcite or aragonite.

In the medical field, calcium carbonate is often used as a dietary supplement to prevent or treat calcium deficiency. It is also commonly used as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid and relieve symptoms of heartburn, acid reflux, and indigestion.

Calcium carbonate works by reacting with hydrochloric acid in the stomach to form water, carbon dioxide, and calcium chloride. This reaction helps to raise the pH level in the stomach and neutralize excess acid.

It is important to note that excessive use of calcium carbonate can lead to hypercalcemia, a condition characterized by high levels of calcium in the blood, which can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, constipation, confusion, and muscle weakness. Therefore, it is recommended to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen.

A cadaver is a deceased body that is used for medical research or education. In the field of medicine, cadavers are often used in anatomy lessons, surgical training, and other forms of medical research. The use of cadavers allows medical professionals to gain a deeper understanding of the human body and its various systems without causing harm to living subjects. Cadavers may be donated to medical schools or obtained through other means, such as through consent of the deceased or their next of kin. It is important to handle and treat cadavers with respect and dignity, as they were once living individuals who deserve to be treated with care even in death.

Glomerulonephritis is a medical condition that involves inflammation of the glomeruli, which are the tiny blood vessel clusters in the kidneys that filter waste and excess fluids from the blood. This inflammation can impair the kidney's ability to filter blood properly, leading to symptoms such as proteinuria (protein in the urine), hematuria (blood in the urine), edema (swelling), hypertension (high blood pressure), and eventually kidney failure.

Glomerulonephritis can be acute or chronic, and it may occur as a primary kidney disease or secondary to other medical conditions such as infections, autoimmune disorders, or vasculitis. The diagnosis of glomerulonephritis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, urinalysis, blood tests, and imaging studies, with confirmation often requiring a kidney biopsy. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and severity of the disease but may include medications to suppress inflammation, control blood pressure, and manage symptoms.

"Refusal to treat" is a medical-legal term that refers to the situation where a healthcare professional or institution declines to provide medical care or treatment to a patient. The refusal can be based on various reasons such as:

1. Lack of training or expertise to handle the patient's medical condition.
2. The belief that the treatment requested by the patient is medically inappropriate or unnecessary.
3. Personal or professional disagreements with the patient's choices or lifestyle.
4. Concerns about the safety of the healthcare provider or other patients.
5. Inability to pay for the treatment or lack of insurance coverage.

However, it is important to note that refusing to treat a patient is a serious decision that should only be made after careful consideration and consultation with other healthcare professionals. Healthcare providers have an ethical duty to provide emergency medical care to anyone in need, regardless of their ability to pay or any personal differences. In addition, they must comply with applicable laws and regulations regarding refusal to treat, which may vary depending on the jurisdiction.

Patient education, as defined by the US National Library of Medicine's Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), is "the teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs. It includes the patient's understanding of his or her condition and the necessary procedures for self, assisted, or professional care." This encompasses a wide range of activities and interventions aimed at helping patients and their families understand their medical conditions, treatment options, self-care skills, and overall health management. Effective patient education can lead to improved health outcomes, increased patient satisfaction, and better use of healthcare resources.

Drug contamination refers to the presence of impurities or foreign substances in a pharmaceutical drug or medication. These impurities can include things like bacteria, chemicals, or other drugs that are not intended to be present in the final product. Drug contamination can occur at any stage during the production, storage, or distribution of a medication and can potentially lead to reduced effectiveness, increased side effects, or serious health risks for patients. It is closely monitored and regulated by various health authorities to ensure the safety and efficacy of medications.

Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by elevated levels of glucose in the blood (hyperglycemia) due to absolute or relative deficiency in insulin secretion and/or insulin action. There are two main types: Type 1 diabetes, which results from the autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells leading to insulin deficiency, and Type 2 diabetes, which is associated with insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency.

Type 1 diabetes typically presents in childhood or young adulthood, while Type 2 diabetes tends to occur later in life, often in association with obesity and physical inactivity. Both types of diabetes can lead to long-term complications such as damage to the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and cardiovascular system if left untreated or not well controlled.

The diagnosis of diabetes is usually made based on fasting plasma glucose levels, oral glucose tolerance tests, or hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels. Treatment typically involves lifestyle modifications such as diet and exercise, along with medications to lower blood glucose levels and manage associated conditions.

Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is not inherently a medical term, but it is a chemical compound with significant uses in the medical field. Medically, PTFE is often referred to by its brand name, Teflon. It is a synthetic fluoropolymer used in various medical applications due to its unique properties such as high resistance to heat, electrical and chemical interaction, and exceptional non-reactivity with body tissues.

PTFE can be found in medical devices like catheters, where it reduces friction, making insertion easier and minimizing trauma. It is also used in orthopedic and dental implants, drug delivery systems, and sutures due to its biocompatibility and non-adhesive nature.

Graft occlusion in the context of vascular surgery refers to the complete or partial blockage of a blood vessel that has been surgically replaced or repaired with a graft. The graft can be made from either synthetic materials or autologous tissue (taken from another part of the patient's body).

Graft occlusion can occur due to various reasons, including:

1. Thrombosis: Formation of a blood clot within the graft, which can obstruct blood flow.
2. Intimal hyperplasia: Overgrowth of the inner lining (intima) of the graft or the adjacent native vessel, causing narrowing of the lumen and reducing blood flow.
3. Atherosclerosis: Deposition of cholesterol and other substances in the walls of the graft, leading to hardening and narrowing of the vessel.
4. Infection: Bacterial or fungal infection of the graft can cause inflammation, weakening, and ultimately occlusion of the graft.
5. Mechanical factors: Kinking, twisting, or compression of the graft can lead to obstruction of blood flow.

Graft occlusion is a significant complication following vascular surgery, as it can result in reduced perfusion to downstream tissues and organs, leading to ischemia (lack of oxygen supply) and potential tissue damage or loss.

Mupirocin is a topical antibiotic medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. Its medical definition, according to the National Library of Medicine (NLM), is: "A topical antimicrobial agent that is used to eradicate staphylococcal and streptococcal bacteria from the nose and skin. It is also used as a first-line treatment for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections."

Mupirocin works by inhibiting protein synthesis in bacteria, which prevents them from multiplying. This topical antibiotic is available as an ointment or cream and is usually applied three times a day for 5 to 10 days. It is important to note that mupirocin should only be used to treat bacterial infections and not viral or fungal infections, as it has no effect on these types of pathogens.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Taiwan" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of an island nation located in East Asia. The official name of the country is the Republic of China (ROC). If you have any medical questions or inquiries, I would be happy to help answer those for you!

A critical illness is a serious condition that has the potential to cause long-term or permanent disability, or even death. It often requires intensive care and life support from medical professionals. Critical illnesses can include conditions such as:

1. Heart attack
2. Stroke
3. Organ failure (such as kidney, liver, or lung)
4. Severe infections (such as sepsis)
5. Coma or brain injury
6. Major trauma
7. Cancer that has spread to other parts of the body

These conditions can cause significant physical and emotional stress on patients and their families, and often require extensive medical treatment, rehabilitation, and long-term care. Critical illness insurance is a type of insurance policy that provides financial benefits to help cover the costs associated with treating these serious medical conditions.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Australia" is not a medical term or concept. It is the world's largest island and smallest continent, located in the Southern Hemisphere, surrounded by the Pacific and Indian Oceans. It is composed of many diverse ecosystems, including deserts, rainforests, and coastal areas, and is home to a wide variety of unique plant and animal species.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer them for you!

Sulfones are a group of medications that contain a sulfur atom bonded to two oxygen atoms and one other group, typically a hydrogen or carbon atom. They have various medical uses, including as antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory agents. One example of a sulfone is dapsone, which is used to treat bacterial infections such as leprosy and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP), as well as some inflammatory skin conditions. It's important to note that sulfones can have significant side effects and should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

Vancomycin is an antibiotic that belongs to the glycopeptide class. It is primarily used to treat severe infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE). Vancomycin works by inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial cell walls. It is usually administered intravenously in a hospital setting due to its potential nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity. The medical definition of 'Vancomycin' can be summarized as:

"A glycopeptide antibiotic used to treat severe infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria, particularly those that are resistant to other antibiotics. It inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis and is administered intravenously due to its potential nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity."

Hyperkalemia is a medical condition characterized by an elevated level of potassium (K+) in the blood serum, specifically when the concentration exceeds 5.0-5.5 mEq/L (milliequivalents per liter). Potassium is a crucial intracellular ion that plays a significant role in various physiological processes, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and heart rhythm regulation.

Mild to moderate hyperkalemia might not cause noticeable symptoms but can still have harmful effects on the body, particularly on the cardiovascular system. Severe cases of hyperkalemia (potassium levels > 6.5 mEq/L) can lead to potentially life-threatening arrhythmias and heart failure.

Hyperkalemia may result from various factors, such as kidney dysfunction, hormonal imbalances, medication side effects, trauma, or excessive potassium intake. Prompt identification and management of hyperkalemia are essential to prevent severe complications and ensure proper treatment.

Convection, in the context of medicine and physiology, refers to the movement of fluids or gases in a system due to differences in temperature or density. This process plays a crucial role in various biological systems, including blood circulation, heat regulation, and respiration.

For instance, in the human body, convection helps regulate body temperature through the movement of warm and cool blood between the core and peripheral tissues. In the lungs, air moves in and out of the alveoli through convective forces generated by the contraction and relaxation of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles during breathing.

In a broader medical context, convection may also refer to the movement of fluids or gases in medical devices such as intravenous (IV) lines, catheters, or respiratory equipment, where it can impact the distribution and delivery of medications, nutrients, or oxygen.

"Sorption detoxification" is not a widely recognized or established medical term. However, the word "sorption" refers to various processes that result in the accumulation of a substance at an interface between two phases, such as absorption (taking up a substance into a liquid or solid), adsorption (accumulation of molecules on the surface of a material), and ion exchange.

In some alternative medicine or detoxification contexts, "sorption detoxification" might refer to the use of substances that can bind to or absorb toxins in the body, facilitating their removal through excretion. However, there is limited scientific evidence supporting the effectiveness of such approaches, and they are not considered mainstream medical treatments for drug addiction, poisoning, or other medical conditions.

Therefore, it's essential to consult with a licensed healthcare professional before pursuing any detoxification or treatment regimen that involves "sorption detoxification" or similar unconventional methods.

Thyroxine-binding proteins (TBPs) are specialized transport proteins in the blood that bind and carry thyroid hormones, primarily Thyroxine (T4), but also Triiodothyronine (T3) to a lesser extent. The majority of T4 and T3 in the blood are bound to these proteins, while only a small fraction (0.03% of T4 and 0.3% of T3) remains unbound or free, which is the biologically active form that can enter cells and tissues to exert its physiological effects.

There are three main types of thyroxine-binding proteins:

1. Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG): This is the major thyroid hormone transport protein, synthesized in the liver and accounting for approximately 70-80% of T4 and T3 binding. TBG has a high affinity but low capacity for thyroid hormones.
2. Transthyretin (TTR), also known as prealbumin: This protein accounts for around 10-20% of T4 and T3 binding. It has a lower affinity but higher capacity for thyroid hormones compared to TBG.
3. Albumin: This is the most abundant protein in the blood and binds approximately 15-20% of T4 and a smaller fraction of T3. Although albumin has a low affinity for thyroid hormones, its high concentration allows it to contribute significantly to their transport.

The binding of thyroid hormones to these proteins helps maintain stable levels in the blood and ensures a steady supply to tissues. Additionally, TBPs protect thyroid hormones from degradation and rapid clearance by the kidneys, thereby extending their half-life in the circulation.

Diabetes complications refer to a range of health issues that can develop as a result of poorly managed diabetes over time. These complications can affect various parts of the body and can be classified into two main categories: macrovascular and microvascular.

Macrovascular complications include:

* Cardiovascular disease (CVD): People with diabetes are at an increased risk of developing CVD, including coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, and stroke.
* Peripheral arterial disease (PAD): This condition affects the blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the limbs, particularly the legs. PAD can cause pain, numbness, or weakness in the legs and may increase the risk of amputation.

Microvascular complications include:

* Diabetic neuropathy: This is a type of nerve damage that can occur due to prolonged high blood sugar levels. It commonly affects the feet and legs, causing symptoms such as numbness, tingling, or pain.
* Diabetic retinopathy: This condition affects the blood vessels in the eye and can cause vision loss or blindness if left untreated.
* Diabetic nephropathy: This is a type of kidney damage that can occur due to diabetes. It can lead to kidney failure if not managed properly.

Other complications of diabetes include:

* Increased risk of infections, particularly skin and urinary tract infections.
* Slow healing of wounds, which can increase the risk of infection and amputation.
* Gum disease and other oral health problems.
* Hearing impairment.
* Sexual dysfunction.

Preventing or managing diabetes complications involves maintaining good blood sugar control, regular monitoring of blood glucose levels, following a healthy lifestyle, and receiving routine medical care.

Inflammation is a complex biological response of tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. It is characterized by the following signs: rubor (redness), tumor (swelling), calor (heat), dolor (pain), and functio laesa (loss of function). The process involves the activation of the immune system, recruitment of white blood cells, and release of inflammatory mediators, which contribute to the elimination of the injurious stimuli and initiation of the healing process. However, uncontrolled or chronic inflammation can also lead to tissue damage and diseases.

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

Osmosis is a physiological process in which solvent molecules move from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration, through a semi-permeable membrane, with the goal of equalizing the solute concentrations on the two sides. This process occurs naturally and is essential for the functioning of cells and biological systems.

In medical terms, osmosis plays a crucial role in maintaining water balance and regulating the distribution of fluids within the body. For example, it helps to control the flow of water between the bloodstream and the tissues, and between the different fluid compartments within the body. Disruptions in osmotic balance can lead to various medical conditions, such as dehydration, swelling, and electrolyte imbalances.

"Intraperitoneal injection" is a medical term that refers to the administration of a substance or medication directly into the peritoneal cavity, which is the space between the lining of the abdominal wall and the organs contained within it. This type of injection is typically used in clinical settings for various purposes, such as delivering chemotherapy drugs, anesthetics, or other medications directly to the abdominal organs.

The procedure involves inserting a needle through the abdominal wall and into the peritoneal cavity, taking care to avoid any vital structures such as blood vessels or nerves. Once the needle is properly positioned, the medication can be injected slowly and carefully to ensure even distribution throughout the cavity.

It's important to note that intraperitoneal injections are typically reserved for situations where other routes of administration are not feasible or effective, as they carry a higher risk of complications such as infection, bleeding, or injury to surrounding organs. As with any medical procedure, it should only be performed by trained healthcare professionals under appropriate clinical circumstances.

Chelating agents are substances that can bind and form stable complexes with certain metal ions, preventing them from participating in chemical reactions. In medicine, chelating agents are used to remove toxic or excessive amounts of metal ions from the body. For example, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a commonly used chelating agent that can bind with heavy metals such as lead and mercury, helping to eliminate them from the body and reduce their toxic effects. Other chelating agents include dimercaprol (BAL), penicillamine, and deferoxamine. These agents are used to treat metal poisoning, including lead poisoning, iron overload, and copper toxicity.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Ontario" is not a medical term. It is the name of a province in Canada, similar to how "California" is the name of a state in the United States. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health conditions, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

Magnesium is an essential mineral that plays a crucial role in various biological processes in the human body. It is the fourth most abundant cation in the body and is involved in over 300 enzymatic reactions, including protein synthesis, muscle and nerve function, blood glucose control, and blood pressure regulation. Magnesium also contributes to the structural development of bones and teeth.

In medical terms, magnesium deficiency can lead to several health issues, such as muscle cramps, weakness, heart arrhythmias, and seizures. On the other hand, excessive magnesium levels can cause symptoms like diarrhea, nausea, and muscle weakness. Magnesium supplements or magnesium-rich foods are often recommended to maintain optimal magnesium levels in the body.

Some common dietary sources of magnesium include leafy green vegetables, nuts, seeds, legumes, whole grains, and dairy products. Magnesium is also available in various forms as a dietary supplement, including magnesium oxide, magnesium citrate, magnesium chloride, and magnesium glycinate.

In the context of pharmacology, "half-life" refers to the time it takes for the concentration or amount of a drug in the body to be reduced by half during its elimination phase. This is typically influenced by factors such as metabolism and excretion rates of the drug. It's a key factor in determining dosage intervals and therapeutic effectiveness of medications, as well as potential side effects or toxicity risks.

Calcimimetic agents are a type of medication that mimic the action of calcium on the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) in the parathyroid gland. These agents enhance the sensitivity of the CaSR to extracellular calcium, which leads to a decrease in parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion.

Calcimimetics are primarily used in the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on dialysis. By decreasing PTH levels, calcimimetics can help to prevent the development of bone disease, reduce the risk of cardiovascular calcification, and improve overall clinical outcomes in these patients.

The most commonly prescribed calcimimetic agent is cinacalcet (Sensipar/Mimpara), which has been shown to effectively lower PTH levels, as well as serum calcium and phosphorus levels, in patients with CKD on dialysis. Other calcimimetic agents include etelcalcetide (Parsabiv) and evocalcet (Rocaltrol).

It is important to note that calcimimetics should be used with caution in patients with hypocalcemia, as they can further lower serum calcium levels. Close monitoring of calcium, phosphorus, and PTH levels is necessary during treatment with these agents.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Hemodialysis Peritoneal dialysis Hemofiltration Liver dialysis, a detoxification treatment for liver failure Dialysis (fly), a ... Dialysis may refer to: Dialysis (chemistry), a process of separating molecules in solution Electrodialysis, used to transport ... one solution to another through an ion-exchange membrane under the influence of an applied electric potential Kidney dialysis ... genus of insects in the family Xylophagidae This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Dialysis. If an ...
... is a species of fly in the family Xylophagidae. Canada, United States. Say, Thomas (1823). "Descriptions of ...
In medicine, nocturnal dialysis, refers to (renal) dialysis done at night. It usually is a reference to nocturnal hemodialysis ... Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, (1996) 11: 902-903[dead link], retrieved on 2008-06-09. v t e (All articles with dead ... but could also refer to peritoneal dialysis which is typically done at night. Nocturnal hemodialysis was conceived by the late ... Renal dialysis, All stub articles, Medical treatment stubs). ...
Dialysis can also be used to remove salts. This makes dialysis a useful technique for a variety of applications. See dialysis ... ISBN 978-0-470-08766-4. "What is dialysis?". "What is dialysis and how does dialysis work?". Luo, J.; Wu, C.; Xu, T.; Wu, Y. ( ... such as dialysis tubing. Dialysis is a common laboratory technique that operates on the same principle as medical dialysis. In ... Dialysis tubing is the oldest and generally the least expensive format used for dialysis in the lab. Tubing is cut and sealed ...
... is a species of fly in the family Xylophagidae. United States. Say, Thomas (1823). "Descriptions of ...
The first successful dialysis was performed in 1943. Dialysis may need to be initiated when there is a sudden rapid loss of ... Kidney dialysis (pronunciation) (from Greek διάλυσις, dialysis, 'dissolution'; from διά, dia, 'through', and λύσις, lysis, ' ... Knowing the patients' needs will allow the dialysis team to provide more options like: changes in dialysis type like home ... The most recent published guidelines from Canada, for when to initiate dialysis, recommend an intent to defer dialysis until a ...
A dialysis catheter is a catheter used for exchanging blood to and from a hemodialysis machine and a patient. The dialysis ... The most popular dialysis catheter sold on the market today is the Symmetrical-Tip dialysis catheter. This catheter is in the ... Media related to Dialysis catheter at Wikimedia Commons (Commons category link from Wikidata, Renal dialysis, Catheters). ... If a patient requires long-term dialysis therapy, a chronic dialysis catheter will be inserted. Chronic catheters contain a ...
Dialysis iwatai Nagatomi, 1953 Dialysis kesseli Hardy, 1948 Dialysis lauta (Loew, 1872) Dialysis mentata Webb, 1978 Dialysis ... Dialysis aldrichi Williston, 1895 Dialysis arakawae Matsumura, 1916 Dialysis cispacifica Bezzi, 1912 Dialysis dispar Bigot, ... 1879 Dialysis elongata (Say, 1823) Dialysis fasciventris (Loew, 1874) Dialysis flava Yang & Yang, 1995 Dialysis illinoensis ( ... 1994 Dialysis reparta Webb, 1978 Dialysis revelata Cockerell, 1908 Dialysis rufithorax (Say, 1823) Dialysis sinensis Yang & ...
... is a species of fly in the family Xylophagidae. United States. Loew, H. (1874). "Neue nordamerikanische ...
In nephrology, dialysis adequacy is the measurement of renal dialysis for the purpose of determining dialysis treatment regime ... In the US, the dominant way of measuring dialysis adequacy in Kt/V and based on the clearance of urea, though the relevance of ... Ross Morton, A.; Singer, Michael A. (2007-01-22). "The Problem with Kt/V: Dialysis Dose should be Normalized to Metabolic Rate ... Jones, Clare B.; Bargman, Joanne M. (2018). "Should we look beyond Kt / V urea in assessing dialysis adequacy?". Seminars in ...
... (PD) is a type of dialysis which uses the peritoneum in a person's abdomen as the membrane through which ... As of 2009, peritoneal dialysis was available in 12 out of 53 African countries. Peritoneal dialysis is a method of renal ... Best practices for peritoneal dialysis state that before peritoneal dialysis should be implemented, the person's understanding ... The amount of dialysis that occurs depends on the volume of the dwell, the regularity of the exchange and the concentration of ...
... is a species of fly in the family Xylophagidae. Canada, United States. Bigot, J.M.F. (1879). "Diptères nouveaux ...
... , York High School "Separation characteristics of dialysis membranes". "Fundamentals of membrane Dialysis". Ing ... For the principles and usage of dialysis in a research setting, see Dialysis (biochemistry). Dialysis occurs throughout nature ... Dialysis tubing for laboratory use is typically made of a film of regenerated cellulose or cellulose ester. However; dialysis ... it is not practical to try separating a 30kDa protein from a 10kDa protein using dialysis across a 20K rated dialysis membrane ...
The Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal. It is published by Oxford University Press ... "Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation". 2021 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Clarivate. 2022. ( ... on behalf of the European Renal Association - European Dialysis and Transplant Association. It is abstracted and indexed in ...
... and dialysis providers and that works to achieve superior education for dialysis and pre-dialysis patients. DPC brings patients ... Dialysis Patient Citizens is a U.S. non-profit organization based in our nation's capital dedicated to improving dialysis ... DPC State Dialysis Days are held throughout the year in various states. DPC Patient Ambassadors, dialysis patients or family ... The Board of Directors is made up of patients currently on dialysis or who have been on dialysis, but now have a kidney ...
Better alternatives are Nocturnal or Daily Dialysis, which are far more gentle processes for the new dialysis patient. Dialysis ... Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome at the United States National Library of Medicine Dialysis Disequilibrium Syndrome (DDS) - ... it is a reason why the first few dialysis sessions are shorter and less aggressive than the typical dialysis treatment for end- ... Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome (DDS) is the collection of neurological signs and symptoms, attributed to cerebral edema, ...
... and the dialysis staff. "Dialysis Clinic, Inc. - About Us". "The largest dialysis providers in 2016: Poised for change". www. ... "Dialysis Clinic, Inc. - Laboratory". "Dialysis Clinic, Inc. - Office of Clinical Research". Official website Company profile ( ... Dialysis Clinic, Inc. (DCI) was founded in 1971 by Dr. Keith Johnson. In December 1970, things were beginning to take shape. ... Dialysis Clinic, Inc. is a nonprofit medical corporation founded in 1971 and chartered as a 501(c)(3) tax-exempt organization ...
The SIA-NKF Dialysis Centre is a dialysis centre in Toa Payoh, Singapore, and was the first dialysis centre outside of a ... The dialysis centre offered dialysis at cheaper costs as compared to treatments at private hospitals. The dialysis centre was ... The dialysis centre has been included in the Toa Payoh Heritage Trail by the National Heritage Board. "SIA-NKF Dialysis Centre ... The SIA-NKF Dialysis Centre, short for the Singapore Airlines-National Kidney Foundation Dialysis Centre, was opened on 24 ...
Dialysis Clinic, Inc Fresenius Medical Care Holy Cross Renal Center Legacy Dialysis National Renal Care Northwest Kidney ... List of United States dialysis providers: American Renal Associates American Renal Care Abramson Center for Jewish Life DaVita ... Centers Olympus Dialysis Premier Dialysis Sanderling Renal Services Satellite Healthcare US Renal Care (Articles with short ... description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Renal dialysis organizations in the United States, United States ...
In addition, vitamins and minerals are lost during the process of dialysis. Therefore, dialysis patients are at risk for ... Vitamin and mineral management for dialysis patients is a required treatment for people undergoing dialysis because during end- ... People on dialysis must follow dietary restrictions, making it difficult for them to get the necessary amounts of certain ... Many dialysis patients have low intakes of calcium due to avoidance of foods containing phosphorus and potassium. Lack of ...
The dialysis process does not efficiently remove excess aluminium from the body, so it may build up over time. Aluminium is a ... Aluminium toxicity in people on dialysis is a problem for people on haemodialysis. Aluminium is often found in unfiltered water ...
... peritoneal dialysis) Dialysis is typically administered three times a week for several hours at free-standing dialysis centers ... Dialysis is a treatment that substitutes for the function of normal kidneys. Dialysis may be instituted when approximately 85%- ... Life expectancy is 5-10 years for those on dialysis; some live up to 30 years. Dialysis can occur via the blood (through a ... Dialysis and kidney transplantation are used to treat kidney failure; one (or both sequentially) of these are almost always ...
... dialysis; drugs and dressings for out-patient or take-home use† ; experimental drugs and treatment; eyesight; HRT and bone ...
Abel and Rowntree also developed the first artificial kidney, also known as dialysis, in 1913. From 1915 to 1918, Rowntree was ... He is most well known for pioneering kidney research including the Rowntree test for kidney function; dialysis; the intravenous ... "On the removal of diffusible substances from the circulating blood by means of dialysis". Trans Assoc Am Phys. 28: 51-54. Abel ... "On the removal of diffusible substances from the circulating blood of living animals by dialysis". J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 5 (3 ...
Nephrologists may further sub-specialise in dialysis, kidney transplantation, home therapies (home dialysis), cancer-related ... including dialysis and renal transplant patients. The word 'dialysis' is from the mid-19th century: via Latin from the Greek ... which deal with dialysis vascular access. The Renal Support Network (RSN) is a nonprofit, patient-focused, patient-run ... Dialysis is an artificial method of replacing some kidney function to prolong life. Renal transplantation replaces kidney ...
... a dialysis centre; a rehabilitation centre and a pharmacy. In addition to a car park, there is a complimentary shuttle bus ... dialysis; laboratory services; nutrition and dietetics; obstetrics and gynaecology; orthopaedics; paediatrics; optometry and ...
Later in 2009, Memorial Health Center also opened a kidney care center offering dialysis services. "Aspirus Langlade Hospital ... dialysis; ear, nose & throat; emergency services; endocrinology, general surgery; inpatient acute care; internal medicine; ...
... dialysis; endocrinology; rheumatology; psychiatry; and cardiology. The hospital also has an internal care medicine department ... Surgery Pediatrics Pharmacy Physiotherapy Plastic and Re-Constructive Service Psychiatry Radiology Radiotherapy Renal Dialysis ...
The Government of India set up a dialysis center in the region. at, details (29 August 2017). "about". The Hans India. ... at, details (26 September 2017). "dialysis-centre". Times of India. Retrieved 10 January 2017. v t e (Use dmy dates from May ...
... renal dialysis; physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, cardiac rehabilitation, and recreational ...
Making Dialysis Safer for Patients Coalition. Join partners and members with the common goal of preventing infections among ... Audit tools and checklists to support best practices for infection prevention and control in outpatient dialysis facilities. ... Trainings and resources to help dialysis providers understand the basics of infection prevention and control. ... Use CDCs recommendations and resources for infection prevention and control in the dialysis setting. ...
Dialysis is usually needed when patients lose about 85% to 90% of their kidney function or when they develop end-stage kidney ...
Health Information on Dialysis: MedlinePlus Multiple Languages Collection ... Dialysis: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Diálisis: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) ... URL of this page: Other topics A-Z. ...
... or bullous dermatosis of dialysis, is a syndrome of cutaneous fragility and blistering. The skin lesions clinically and ... Bullous disease of dialysis, or bullous dermatosis of dialysis, is a syndrome of cutaneous fragility and blistering. [1, 2] The ... The frequency of bullous disease of dialysis among dialysis populations in the United States has not been accurately determined ... encoded search term (Bullous Disease of Dialysis) and Bullous Disease of Dialysis What to Read Next on Medscape ...
Dialysis - The Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion plans to blog on as many healthcare safety topics as possible. We ... Making Dialysis Safer for Patients Coalition: Partnerships to Accelerate Progress in Patient Safety. Denise Cardo, MD Director ... co-hosted the third meeting of the Making Dialysis Safer for Patients Coalition in Atlanta. CDC has worked with partners to ...
Current Trends Recommendations for Providing Dialysis Treatment to Patients Infected with Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type III/ ... The type of dialysis treatment (i.e., hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis) should be based on the needs of the patient. The ... Standard infection-control strategies that are used routinely in dialysis units for all dialysis patients and personnel should ... Representatives of dialysis centers who are interested in participating in such a study and who regularly have more than 60 ...
General availability of dialysis in the public health system (Noncommunicable diseases). This indicator is available in the ...
Mark Dialysis as a Novel Adjuvant Treatment for Malignant Cancers Hobro, Sture ; Nilsson, Anders ; Sternby, Jan ; Öberg, Carl ... Bergling, Karin LU ; de Arteaga, Javier ; Ledesma, Fabián and Öberg, Carl M. LU (2022) In Peritoneal Dialysis International 42( ... Bergling, Karin LU ; de Arteaga, Javier and Öberg, Carl M. LU (2021) In Peritoneal Dialysis International 41(4). p.373-380 ... Helman, Jakob LU and M Öberg, Carl LU (2023) In Peritoneal Dialysis International 43(1). p.84-91 ...
Dialysis elongata is a species of fly in the family Xylophagidae. Canada, United States. Say, Thomas (1823). "Descriptions of ...
In addition, carpooling to dialysis centers was common. Although we cannot rule out domestic exposure, dialysis modality ... Severity of COVID-19 in end-stage kidney disease patients on chronic dialysis. Ther Apher Dial. 2021;25:706-9. DOIPubMedGoogle ... Patients requiring dialysis for chronic kidney disease comprise a high risk to public health (1), and need for this treatment ... Vallejos A, Baldani A, Gauto MA, Rueda DV, Santoro FM, Abriata M. COVID-19 among Chronic Dialysis Patients after First Year of ...
Dialysis is a medical treatment that can take over the job of filtering the blood until a persons failing kidneys heal or are ... What Is Dialysis?. Dialysis (dye-AL-ih-sis) is a medical treatment that can take over the job of cleaning the blood when the ... Does Dialysis Cure Kidney Failure?. Dialysis does the work of the kidneys to clean the blood, but it doesnt fix or cure kidney ... What Are the Types of Dialysis?. There are two types of dialysis:. *Hemodialysis (hee-moh-dye-AL-ih-sis): An artificial filter ...
2012 Vaccination Guideline for Dialysis and CKD Patients. *Guidelines for Vaccinating Kidney Dialysis Patients and Patients ... The CMS Dialysis page provides basic information related to survey and certification of dialysis facilities for ESRD surveyors ... Infection Control Topics for Dialysis Settings. (sections and page numbers refer to 2001 Guideline pdf). (Updated content). ... The resources on this page include guidance documents and web links to resources on the prevention of infection in the dialysis ...
Complete required training and Home Dialysis Center Practices Survey [PDF - 95 KB]. Be sure to check trusted websites and spam ... Print and follow Home Dialysis Facility Enrollment Checklist [PDF - 352 KB] to ensure successful and efficient enrollment. ... 2023 Combined LTCF Resident and Dialysis Patient Weekly COVID-19 Vaccination Module Protocol [PDF - 421 KB] ... 5-Step Enrollment for Home Dialysis Facilities - CMS QIP. ... Dialysis Componentplus icon*Dialysis COVID-19 Module. *Patient ...
The Dialysis Unit collaborates with, and provides acute dialysis services as needed, to such areas as: *General Clinical ... The Dialysis Unit nursing staff includes registered nurses experienced in the dialysis of infants, children, adolescents and ... Acute in-patient hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis (PD) *Maintenance outpatient hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, ... The Dialysis Unit, operated through the Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, provides comprehensive medical care for your ...
Dialysis: The term uremia, though it is sometimes used as if it were interchangeable with chronic renal failure, really means ... In terminal renal failure, the affected person can be rescued only by some form of dialysis and then maintained by dialysis or ... Although the toxin (or toxins) of uremia has yet to be identified, the rapid improvement that follows dialysis points strongly ...
Baxter, the second-largest dialysis market leader, acquired the third-largest dialysis company, Gambro. According to 2012 data ... This Dialysis Market Leader Has Much to Offer Investors. usman iftikhar, The Motley Fool ... This was the result of high investment in the dialysis service business. Its target for 2013 is to keep the debt-to-EBITDA ... The number of worldwide dialysis patients reached 2.306 million at the end of 2012, showing a 7% year-on-year increase with ...
Some of these centers also offer a peritoneoal dialysis program which is performed by patients at home, enabling them to remain ... assist patients in finding a center that meets their unique needs and can coordinate with primary care physicians and dialysis ... Patients who need dialysis can receive it through one of many centers in the region. A list of centers is available at http:// ... Some of these centers also offer a peritoneoal dialysis program which is performed by patients at home, enabling them to remain ...
The dialysis units have been procured from Belgium with financial resources provided by the Ministry of Health of Libya and a ... country office in Libya delivered 20 000 dialysis Units to Ministry Of Health of Libya on 25 October2017. ... The dialysis units have been procured from Belgium with financial resources provided by the Ministry of Health of Libya, in ... These supplies will cover the need of all dialysis centres and patients for 3 months and are part of the shipments managed by ...
Davita Queens Dialysis is a medical facility that treats patients who have End-Stage Renal Disease. End-Stage Renal Disease ( ... Organizational Behavior Analysis Of Davita Dialysis Center. DaVita Dialysis Center was founded in 1999, with the goal to ... The company has expanded to 2,251 outpatient dialysis centers in the United States and 118 outpatient dialysis centers in 10 ... Davita Queens Dialysis is a medical facility that treats patients who have End-Stage Renal Disease. End-Stage Renal Disease ( ...
... in dialysis patients, an imbalance which can result in long-term health problems. Potential therapeutic options to restore ... Tags: Antioxidant, Cardiology, Cardiovascular Disease, Chronic, Dialysis, Drugs, Inflammation, Malnutrition, Oxidative Stress, ... "Correction of OS imbalance appears to be a basic requisite to prevent complications in long-term dialysis patients" and is "a ... Many ESRD and hemodialysis patients are in a state of chronic inflammation induced by the dialysis process which further ...
... from the Philippines who works as a dialysis technician. Jose Puzon is from the Philippines and decided to train as a dialysis ... As a dialysis technician, he works under the direction of nurses and physicians, operating machines that take over the function ... As he says, "So working in dialysis is like you are working on your family members or working on someone close to your heart…" ... Jose Puzon is from the Philippines and decided to train as a dialysis technician, deeply moved by the death of his grandmother ...
Readmissions High Among Peritoneal Dialysis Patients. - Nearly a quarter readmitted within a month. by Kristen Monaco, Staff ... "Our findings were surprising in that readmission risk was the same, if not higher, among U.S. peritoneal dialysis patients than ... AUSTIN, Texas -- Peritoneal dialysis patients may require closer monitoring following a hospital discharge, researchers ... This information is even more important in light of increasing use of home modalities, including peritoneal dialysis, in the ...
Types of Dialysis. There are 2 types dialysis hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD). The HD removes the toxins and ... Dialysis and Kidney Disease. In dogs with kidney disease the peritoneal dialysis is more commonly used. PD takes a longer time ... Dialysis is a treatment option that may help dogs with kidney dysfunction. There are 2 types of dialysis: hemodialysis and ... Dialysis Side Effects. The dialysis may have side effects such as increased albumin levels, increased magnesium levels, pelvic ...
Patients with kidney failure who are undergoing dialysis-whether at dialysis clinics or at home-face a higher risk of ... Patients with kidney failure who are undergoing dialysis-whether at dialysis clinics or at home-face a higher risk of ... The article, titled "COVID-19 in Home Dialysis Patients: Epidemiology and Outcomes as Compared to In-Center Dialysis Patients ... a national not-for-profit dialysis provider serving approximately 2,000 home dialysis patients) from February 22, 2020 to ...
Dialysis machines need clean water to run, and that couldnt be guaranteed at the only two dialysis clinics on the island. ... The first dialysis refugees from St. Thomas arrived at a Fresenius Kidney Care center in Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico, last ... They needed dialysis -- and fast, in some cases. Typically, patients are only supposed to go 48 to 72 hours between sessions, ... Dialysis patients there were told through social media and other channels to muster at the hospital. When Lapkoff arrived on ...
... Am J Emerg Med. 2015 Apr;33(4):602.e3-4. doi ... an ominous sign in dialysis disequilibrium syndrome ...
Dialysis Patient Blogs, Message Boards, Global Dialysis News and Jobs in dialysis, Travel insurance, Dialysis Jobs, Dialysis ... Holiday Dialysis, Dialysis Holidays,Dialysis Travel Specialists, Dialysis Travel Insurance, Travel Tips and Stories, Dialysis ... Dialysis book shop. About dialysis for dialysis users. Recipees and cookery. Dialysis nursing. About Global Dialysis. Our story ... Types of dialysis. Dialysis glossary. Diet and nutrition. Drugs used in renal care. Costs of dialysis. Travel advice. Dialysis ...
... was developed to raise the awareness and use of peritoneal dialysis (PD) and home hemodialysis. Developed ... Whats New in Home Dialysis Research Each month, we gather recent research abstracts about home dialysis. Visit our Journal ... The updated videos include Coming to Terms, Kidneys and Kidney Disease, Slowing Kidney Disease, Kidney Transplant, Dialysis and ... Home Dialysis Use Surges 52% in a Decade The newest USRDS Annual Data Report finds that Americans with kidney failure are ...
Dialysis Patient Blogs, Message Boards, Global Dialysis News and Jobs in dialysis, Travel insurance, Dialysis Jobs, Dialysis ... Holiday Dialysis, Dialysis Holidays,Dialysis Travel Specialists, Dialysis Travel Insurance, Travel Tips and Stories, Dialysis ... Dialysis book shop. About dialysis for dialysis users. Recipees and cookery. Dialysis nursing. About Global Dialysis. Our story ... Types of dialysis. Dialysis glossary. Diet and nutrition. Drugs used in renal care. Costs of dialysis. Travel advice. Dialysis ...
... was developed to raise the awareness and use of peritoneal dialysis (PD) and home hemodialysis. Developed ... East Bay Peritoneal Dialysis Center 13939 E 14Th St. Ste 110. San Leandro, CA 94578 Phone: (510) 614-1380. Fax: 5106140393. ... Monterey Park Dialysis Center 883 South Atlantic Blvd. Ste H. Monterey Park, CA 91754 Phone: (323) 780-8787. Fax: 3237800246. ... San Juan Capistrano South Dialysis 31736 Rancho Viejo Rd. Ste B. San Juan Capistrano, CA 92675 Phone: (949) 240-1454. Fax: ...
  • This mechanobullous disorder has been observed in patients with end-stage renal disease who were treated with chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis or with hemodialysis. (
  • Patients infected with HTLV-III/LAV can be dialyzed by either hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis and do not need to be isolated from other patients. (
  • The type of dialysis treatment (i.e., hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis) should be based on the needs of the patient. (
  • Peritoneal dialysis (pair-eh-tih-NEEL dye-AL-ih-sis): This uses the lining of the belly as a filter. (
  • In peritoneal dialysis products, however, its rival Baxter has first ranking, and Fresenius came in second. (
  • AUSTIN, Texas -- Peritoneal dialysis patients may require closer monitoring following a hospital discharge, researchers suggested here. (
  • In a cohort or 10,167 index hospital admissions for peritoneal dialysis patients, nearly 25% experienced a readmission within 30 days, according to senior study author Laura Plantinga, PhD, of Emory University School of Medicine, and colleagues. (
  • Our findings were surprising in that readmission risk was the same, if not higher, among U.S. peritoneal dialysis patients than we had seen among U.S. in-center hemodialysis patients in previous studies," Plantinga said. (
  • Because of this, there was generally not much information available regarding the clinical details and frequency of readmissions for peritoneal dialysis patients, she explained. (
  • This information is even more important in light of increasing use of home modalities, including peritoneal dialysis, in the United States. (
  • This cohort included peritoneal dialysis patients over the age of 18. (
  • Overall, Plantinga suggested these high readmission rates among peritoneal dialysis patients may be, at least in part, due to less frequent provider contact, as compared to in-center hemodialysis patients. (
  • There are 2 types of dialysis: hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. (
  • The peritoneal dialysis employs a filtering membrane that is placed in the peritoneal area. (
  • The PD is considered less efficient than the HD, but the PD is applied for a longer period of time, so the peritoneal dialysis may have similar effects as the hemodialysis. (
  • In dogs with kidney disease the peritoneal dialysis is more commonly used. (
  • The premier resource for haemo, home and peritoneal dialysis around the world. (
  • When Jose and peritoneal dialysis (PD) nurse Cheroyl met, they couldn't know the path they would travel together-a journey that not only changed Jose's health but resulted in a bond that inspired Jose's future. (
  • Dialysis, either hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, is a life-saving procedure that replaces kidney function when the organs fail. (
  • Dialysis access surgery creates the vascular opening so a needle can be inserted for hemodialysis or an abdominal catheter inserted for peritoneal dialysis. (
  • Peritoneal Dialysis (PD) is a needle-free dialysis treatment option that best replicates your natural kidney function. (
  • Can Children Do Peritoneal Dialysis? (
  • Interested in learning more about peritoneal dialysis (PD)? (
  • In this report, we describe the evaluation and analysis of peritoneal dialysis as a method of treatment for chronic kidney disease patients on the computational level. (
  • Overall, our results reflected the ability of peritoneal dialysis to adequately remove waste urea from the body. (
  • With a drainage/infusion cycle every 5 hours, urea concentration can be maintained at a relatively constant level as peritoneal dialysis removes systemically generated urea. (
  • Alternatively, a greater number of shorter peritoneal dialysis sessions removed a significantly higher quantity of urea, resulting in an overall decrease in blood urea concentration. (
  • Our sensitivity analysis reflected the significance of certain parameters in peritoneal dialysis and therefore the areas that can be emphasized in such treatment to achieve varying results. (
  • Dialysate volume, peritoneal membrane surface area, and bodily urea generation most severely affected post-dialysis urea concentration while urea diffusivity through the capillary bed, peritoneal membrane thickness, and initial urea concentration had little impact. (
  • The Mount Sinai Home Dialysis Program offers peritoneal and home hemodialysis to allow you to receive dialysis therapy in this comfortable, autonomous setting. (
  • In the past 12 months, {have you/has SP} received dialysis (either hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis)? (
  • In peritoneal dialysis (PD)-treated patients , denudation of the mesothelium correlates with peritoneal fibrosis and vascular changes. (
  • Established in 2000, with more than 16,800 dialysis centers in 161 countries, Global Dialysis is the world's leading specialist in holiday dialysis and travel, providing an independent resource for information. (
  • Global Dialysis maps are easy to use and accessible. (
  • The third week of October each year is National Dialysis Technician Recognition Week . (
  • NANT sponsors the National Dialysis Technician Recognition Week. (
  • AAKP is celebrating National Dialysis Technician Recognition Week October 14 - 19, 2019 . (
  • National Dialysis Technician Recognition Week is a great time to give thanks for those special technicians in your dialysis unit. (
  • What Are the Types of Dialysis? (
  • Both types of dialysis clean the blood, but in different ways. (
  • Let's learn more about the types of dialysis technicians, how they are educated to help you and how you can celebrate this week with YOUR dialysis technician. (
  • Explore the reasons, options and process for switching from one type of dialysis treatment to another. (
  • Except for special diets and the time needed for treatments, people getting dialysis usually live normal lives. (
  • Patients require continuous treatments up to 3 times a week as they wait for a kidney transplant, while others are reliant on lifelong dialysis treatments due to their ineligibility of being a transplant recipient. (
  • Most dialysis patients receive treatments at least three times a week for at least four hours a day. (
  • More frequent treatments also helped avoid high blood levels of phosphate, which are often a problem for patients on dialysis. (
  • Still, this study offers hope that simple changes to current dialysis treatments could greatly improve the health of the patients who need them. (
  • Some people with end-stage kidney disease have a kidney transplant, but most receive dialysis treatments (a process of filtering and removing waste products and excess fluid from the body). (
  • Our eight bed state-of-the-art dialysis unit provides standard hemodialysis care to inpatients with acute kidney injury or end stage renal disease. (
  • Denise Cardo, MD Director CDC's Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion In June 2019, CDC and the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO) co-hosted the third meeting of the Making Dialysis Safer for Patients Coalition in Atlanta. (
  • Correction of OS imbalance appears to be a basic requisite to prevent complications in long-term dialysis patients" and is "a promising avenue of research. (
  • Your nephrologist (kidney doctor) and surgeon will work with you to decide which type of access will provide you with the best long-term dialysis. (
  • These supplies will cover the need of all dialysis centres and patients for 3 months and are part of the shipments managed by the WHO logistical support unit. (
  • The Ministry of Health will be responsible for distribution of the units on the dialysis centres and hospitals all over Libya. (
  • Our in depth knowledge of the dialysis world is helping dialysis professionals to develop their careers and dialysis centres to fill their vacancies. (
  • Medicaid expansion also improved pre-dialysis care for kidney disease, as indicated by the surgical placement of a fistula or graft before beginning dialysis, Trivedisaid. (
  • Fistulas and grafts - two methods for accessing the bloodstream for dialysis - are less likely to become infected than temporary venous catheters, and in expansion states there was an increase of 2.3 percentage points in the number of patients beginning dialysis with a fistula or graft. (
  • The company has the largest network of clinics through which it provides dialysis machines, dialyzers, disposable accessories, and other services in around 40 countries. (
  • Patients with kidney failure who are undergoing dialysis-whether at dialysis clinics or at home-face a higher risk of developing COVID-19 and a higher risk of dying from the disease. (
  • Dialysis machines need clean water to run, and that couldn't be guaranteed at the only two dialysis clinics on the island. (
  • If a patient is not ready for a paratransit pickup or a paratransit vehicle misses or is late for a dialysis patient pickup this can have a cascading effect on these inter‐related actors for the para‐transit schedule, to other patients, to the dialysis clinics, on to receiving reimbursement for this transport. (
  • When Lapkoff left the island yesterday, 121 transfers had been made, and search and rescue teams were working with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to find the remaining 16 dialysis patients who hadn't been accounted for. (
  • Search for a DaVita home dialysis center near you. (
  • Researchers examined about 1,000 people getting dialysis at 21 different locations in Germany. (
  • By combining state-of-the-art technology, convenient scheduling, and a compassionate and highly skilled staff, our Home Dialysis Program strives to provide you the highest quality of dialysis care. (
  • Urea reduction ratio (URR), formal urea kinetic modeling (FUKM), formal single-pool urea kinetics, and online clearance monitoring (OCM) are methods for calculating the delivered dose of dialysis in which OCM is a low-cost and accessible way to monitor regularly the quality of dialysis delivered. (
  • Despite recent advances in technology and medication, up to 1 in 5 patients on dialysis die each year. (
  • Hispanic patients on dialysis had 40% higher risk of staph bloodstream infections than White patients on dialysis during 2017-2020. (
  • More than 14,000 bloodstream infections occurred in patients on dialysis in the U.S. in 2020, and more than one in three were caused by staph. (
  • Staph bloodstream infections happen more often in Black and Hispanic patients on dialysis than White patients on dialysis, although other factors besides race and ethnicity may be involved. (
  • The good news is that bloodstream infections in patients on dialysis have gone down since 2014 with the widespread use of proven practices to prevent and control infections. (
  • The dialysis may have side effects such as increased albumin levels, increased magnesium levels, pelvic limb edemas, dialysis fluid retention or drainage from the incision site of the catheter. (
  • A catheter is used to establish quick vascular (bloodstream) access if you need to begin dialysis therapy immediately. (
  • Even with excellent placement technique, bacteria can enter the bloodstream directly through the catheter during dialysis. (
  • Your PD catheter is your lifeline to dialysis. (
  • The placement of a dialysis catheter will allow an access point for hemodialysis . (
  • If it has been determined that you need kidney dialysis, catheter placement is an important part of your care. (
  • A catheter will be placed several weeks or months before you begin dialysis so that you have time to heal. (
  • However, if you need dialysis started right away, this type of catheter will be used. (
  • A catheter is placed in your abdomen and a tube allows dialysis fluid to flow into and out of your body. (
  • Patients requiring dialysis for chronic kidney disease comprise a high risk to public health ( 1 ), and need for this treatment precluded patients from being able to comply with COVID-19 isolation measures during the pandemic ( 2 ). (
  • COVID-19 cases in CD patients included all cases in persons on dialysis treatment at the time of COVID-19 diagnosis. (
  • Dialysis (dye-AL-ih-sis) is a medical treatment that can take over the job of cleaning the blood when the kidneys can't. (
  • Read about the different treatment options available through the Dialysis Unit at Cincinnati Children's. (
  • Patients' suffering from this disease has to receive dialysis treatment to clean their blood, three times a week for up to four hours. (
  • Dialysis is a treatment option that may help dogs with kidney dysfunction. (
  • The researchers noted that patients undergoing dialysis, regardless of the site of dialysis treatment, exhibited higher rates of COVID-19 compared with the general population. (
  • Sunshine in Miami is on offer when you take a dialysis holiday with The Kidney Treatment Center of South Florida , our latest Premium Dialysis Member Center. (
  • In Medicaid expansion states, the number of patients who died within the first year of beginning dialysis - defined in the study as from the 91 st day to the end of the 15 th month of dialysis treatment - decreased from 6.9 percent prior to expansion to 6.1 percent after expansion, a total reduction of 0.8 percentage points. (
  • See if PD could be the right home dialysis treatment option for you. (
  • Unlike the dialysis machines elsewhere in the hospital or in outpatient treatment centers, ICU machines operate continuously, 24 hours a day - unless there are more patients than machines. (
  • There are two types of technicians in your dialysis clinic: the Biomedical Nephrology Technologist (BNT) is the individual responsible for maintaining the equipment used during your dialysis treatment. (
  • A well-functioning dialysis machine is a key component of a successful dialysis treatment. (
  • It's no secret that going through dialysis treatment is going to affect your weight-and you'll need to control it as much as you can. (
  • Home dialysis can mean fewer food restrictions, less medication, and more flexibility with treatment schedules. (
  • Because of the impact that dialysis treatment has on your body, the nutritional needs of people treating ESRD with dialysis are quite different than those living with earlier stages of CKD. (
  • While many of the dietary guidelines for dialysis are similar to those of chronic kidney disease, there are two key differences once you're on dialysis treatment: more protein and limited fluids. (
  • Along with receiving your full dialysis treatment on schedule, managing what you eat and drink is one of the biggest factors in your long-term health and your success on dialysis. (
  • Although more known therapeutic interventions are used to relieve the HD side effects, this study was designed to investigate how intelligent systems can make highly beneficial alterations in dialysis facilities and equipment to ease intradialytic complications and help the staff deliver high-quality treatment. (
  • Data from the study "help to confirm that AMG 416 could become an important new treatment option for dialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism," said Sean Harper, head of R&D at Amgen. (
  • During this process, as a patient, you likely got to know your dialysis technician as the individual who spends a great deal of time with you before, during and after each treatment. (
  • The preservation of patent, well-functioning dialysis fistulas is one of the most difficult clinical problems in the long-term treatment of patients undergoing dialysis. (
  • Dialysis treatment puts patients at higher risk for serious infections because it requires frequent access to the bloodstream using needles or catheters (soft plastic tubes inserted into large veins). (
  • Each patient is assigned a primary nurse who oversees the patient's dialysis management. (
  • The team also consists of a dialysis access nurse coordinator and social workers. (
  • Due in no small part to the care they got from their dialysis technicians, they chose to undertake the training to become a technician - and other have gone for more education to become a dialysis nurse. (
  • We contrasted clinical and epidemiologic characteristics and outcomes between chronic dialysis (CD) patients and the general population to evaluate COVID-19 dynamics during the first year of the pandemic in Argentina. (
  • The article, titled "COVID-19 in Home Dialysis Patients: Epidemiology and Outcomes as Compared to In-Center Dialysis Patients," will appear online at on June 9, 2021, doi: 10.1681/ASN.2020111653. (
  • It is important to note that higher intradialytic symptoms result in poor outcomes, including decreased quality of life, decreased dialysis dose, depression, and mortality [ 3 , 4 ]. (
  • Nurses, medical providers, technicians and others who work in dialysis facilities face a difficult task of managing the complex conditions affecting their patients while simultaneously focusing on reducing the risk of infection for these at-risk individuals. (
  • Jose describes the excellent opportunities for employment and career advancement for dialysis technicians - as is the case in other categories in the medical technician and nursing assistant fields. (
  • Some dialysis technicians and technologists know first hand what you, the dialysis patient, is going through - because they were on dialysis themselves. (
  • Technicians who do not recertify are no longer allowed to work in a dialysis unit. (
  • It is a great time for you, the dialysis patient, to say "Thank you" to the technicians in your dialysis unit. (
  • Dialysis Technicians - an important part of your health care team! (
  • Less than 15% of dialysis fistulas remain patent and can function without problems during the entire period of a patient's dependence on hemodialysis. (
  • Increasing the use of vascular access types that are proven to be lower risk for infections, such as fistulas and grafts, for people starting and currently on dialysis. (
  • The frequency of bullous disease of dialysis among dialysis populations in the United States has not been accurately determined but may be similar to that reported from several European surveys. (
  • Audit tools and checklists to support best practices for infection prevention and control in outpatient dialysis facilities. (
  • The Acute Dialysis Unit also has outpatient ESRD certification and has formal clinical and administrative protocols in place designed for outpatient dialysis. (
  • Lesions occur predominantly in sun-exposed skin-most often on the dorsal hands-of individuals treated for chronic renal failure with maintenance dialysis regimens. (
  • Patients with end-stage renal disease who are undergoing maintenance dialysis and who have manifestations of human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV)* infection, including acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), or who are positive for antibody to HTLV-III/LAV can be dialyzed in hospital-based or free-standing dialysis units using conventional infection-control precautions. (
  • [ 9 ] Three patients with blistering were found among 70 patients at an Irish dialysis center. (
  • No transmission of HTLV-III/LAV infection in the dialysis-center environment has been reported (3), and the possibility of such transmission appears extremely unlikely when routine infection-control precautions are followed (4). (
  • Chemical germicides used for disinfection and sterilization of devices in the dialysis center are effective against HTLV-III/LAV (4). (
  • Complete required training and Home Dialysis Center Practices Survey [PDF - 95 KB] . (
  • It's usually done in a special clinic called a dialysis center. (
  • The BMC team can assist patients in finding a center that meets their unique needs and can coordinate with primary care physicians and dialysis centers to meet ongoing needs. (
  • Plantinga highlighted how most prior readmission studies including ESRD patients have mainly focused on patients receiving in-center hemodialysis, which is "due to recent policy changes that hold both dialysis facilities and hospitals accountable for 30-day readmissions among hemodialysis patients. (
  • For the study, a team led by Caroline M. Hsu, MD and Eduardo Lacson Jr, MD, MPH (Tufts Medical Center and Dialysis Clinic, Inc.) examined information on all patients who received home dialysis through Dialysis Clinic, Inc. (a national not-for-profit dialysis provider serving approximately 2,000 home dialysis patients) from February 22, 2020 to December 31, 2020. (
  • The information was compared with data pertaining to patients who receive in-center dialysis. (
  • The first dialysis refugees from St. Thomas arrived at a Fresenius Kidney Care center in Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico, last Saturday night. (
  • Many thanks to KC Holiday Dialysis Center on the South Coast of the UK for joining our Premium Member Club. (
  • If you're planning a dialysis holiday in Eygypt then the Eygyption Medical Services team at their center across the country will be sure to look after your dialysis. (
  • The dialysis access center at BIDMC is staffed with leading nephrologists, interventional radiologists and transplant surgeons in the Boston community. (
  • The county paratransit operator is the agent that provides the principal, the dialysis center, with the work of transporting dialysis patients to their centers under conditions of incomplete and asymmetric information. (
  • In fact, some symptoms come about mostly during an undermanned interval in healthcare centers, so advanced facilities and artificial intelligence can take care of some functions in this condition in the dialysis center. (
  • To evaluate the oral conditions of patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing dialysis and to determine the influence of dialysis duration and bone metabolism on the prevalence and severity of the alterations found. (
  • We performed a descriptive study to characterize effects from COVID-19 among chronic dialysis patients compared with the general population in Argentina during March 2020-February 2021. (
  • COVID-19 cases in the general population (per 1,000 persons) and chronic dialysis patients, by date of symptom onset, Argentina, epidemiological weeks 10/2020 (March 1-7, 2020) through 08/2021 (February 21-27, 2021). (
  • Adults on dialysis were 100 times more likely to have a staph bloodstream infection than adults not on dialysis during 2017-2020. (
  • A pediatric nephrology fellow (a physician who has completed a pediatric residency and is in training to become a pediatric nephrologist) may also be assigned to the Dialysis Unit. (
  • Your CNT knows how to set the dialysis machine to meet the prescription your nephrologist has provided, mix the dialysate and ensure the water has been properly treated. (
  • As a dialysis technician, he works under the direction of nurses and physicians, operating machines that take over the function of the kidneys which are not removing toxins properly from a patient's blood and vascular system. (
  • In order to be treated with dialysis, physicians must establish a connection between the dialysis equipment and the patient's bloodstream. (
  • Asymmetric scheduling information between the dialysis centers (principal) in a county, the para‐transit authority (agent), and the patient's knowledge of his/her schedule is the focus of this research. (
  • Or dialysis access nurses can access the bloodstream by placing two needles into a fistula or a graft that has been previously created for this purpose. (
  • Many germs can cause dialysis bloodstream infections. (
  • The risk for staph bloodstream infection is strongly affected by how a person's blood circulation is connected to the dialysis machine, known as vascular access type. (
  • Full listing is free for every dialysis centre in the world. (
  • This centre was a pioneer in dialysis provision and has been in operation for over 22 years! (
  • Our latest member centre is on the island of Sardinia called Decimomannu Dialysis . (
  • We'd love to hear your reviews on this holiday dialysis centre. (
  • Standard blood and body fluid precautions and disinfection and sterilization strategies routinely practiced in dialysis centers are adequate to prevent transmission of HTLV-III/LAV. (
  • The hemodialysis machine pumps dialysis fluid into the dialyzer (artificial kidney) where circulating blood from the patient is separated from the dialysis fluid by a membrane. (
  • Strategies for disinfecting the dialysis fluid pathways of the hemodialysis machine are targeted to control bacterial contamination and generally consist of using about 500-750 ppm of sodium hypochlorite for 30-40 minutes or 1.5%-2.0% formaldehyde overnight. (
  • Your weight affects how much fluid to remove during dialysis. (
  • Your doctor and nurses will determine your dialysis estimated dry weight without extra fluid. (
  • Dialysis can remove most of this extra fluid, but not all. (
  • Managing your fluid intake will help you feel better on dialysis and keep you in better health. (
  • Erythropoietin prevents dialysis fluid-induced apoptosis of mesothelial cells. (
  • Use CDC's recommendations and resources for infection prevention and control in the dialysis setting. (
  • The routine infection-control precautions used in all dialysis centers when dialyzing all patients are considered adequate to prevent HTLV-III/LAV transmission. (
  • Standard infection-control strategies that are used routinely in dialysis units for all dialysis patients and personnel should be used to prevent HTLV-III/LAV transmission. (
  • The resources on this page include guidance documents and web links to resources on the prevention of infection in the dialysis setting. (
  • The 2016 update reviews the current recommendations on infection prevention and control for dialysis. (
  • however, with increasing community spread of COVID-19, including into rural areas, more home dialysis patients became infected and infection rates increased," said Dr. Lacson. (
  • Some kids with sudden or acute kidney failure need dialysis for a short time until the kidneys get better. (
  • The Dialysis Unit, operated through the Division of Nephrology and Hypertension , provides comprehensive medical care for your child with end-stage renal disease and acute renal failure, from birth through 21 years of age. (
  • Kidney disease can develop into renal failure and chronic renal failure should be treated with dialysis. (
  • For patients in an ICU with acute or chronic renal failure, dialysis support is provided at the bedside with the goal of optimizing therapy while maintaining patient stability. (
  • The multidisciplinary management of dialysis access coordinated among interventional radiologists, vascular surgeons, and nephrologists has proven extremely effective in prolonging the patency of the vascular access and decreasing the morbidity and mortality of patients with chronic renal failure. (
  • The scenario is expected to largely benefit the world's largest provider of dialysis products and services, Fresenius Medical Care , which has bypassed competitors through a recent acquisition. (
  • If we talk about its market position in major products categories, Fresenius had the top ranking in dialyzers, dialysis machines, concentrates for hemodialysis, and bloodline systems in 2012. (
  • This week, Fresenius will open up space in the third dialysis shift on Tuesday-Thursday-Saturday at Los Paseos to accommodate all of the patients from St. Thomas, Emanuelli said. (
  • CKD stage determined by laboratory values, while dialysis and transplantation were defined by ICD-9 & ICD-10 diagnosis or CPT codes. (
  • Then, the person needs dialysis to clean the blood because the kidneys can't. (
  • Dialysis does the work of the kidneys to clean the blood, but it doesn't fix or cure kidney failure. (
  • The updated videos include Coming to Terms , Kidneys and Kidney Disease , Slowing Kidney Disease , Kidney Transplant , Dialysis and Your Lifestyle , and Your Money and Your Life . (
  • Ventilators breathe for you when your lungs can't, and dialysis machines clean your blood of salts and toxins when your kidneys can't. (
  • 25 October 2017 - The World Health Organization (WHO) country office in Libya delivered 20 000 dialysis units to the Ministry Of Health of Libya on 25 October 2017. (
  • Davita Queens Dialysis is an outpatient facility that serves the adult population of patients diagnosed with End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD), these patients have permanent kidney failure. (
  • Stage 5 is also known as end stage renal disease (ESRD), this is kidney failure with a GFR of ≤ 15 and theses patients are typically on dialysis or in need of an immediate transplant. (
  • Oxidative stress, an imbalance between toxic compounds and defense mechanisms, and prevalent in the dialysis process, has been linked to numerous adverse complications in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. (
  • Many ESRD and hemodialysis patients are in a state of chronic inflammation induced by the dialysis process which further enhances oxidative stress. (
  • Davita Queens Dialysis is a medical facility that treats patients who have End-Stage Renal Disease. (
  • From kidney education to online resources, DaVita offers a variety of information to help support home dialysis patients. (
  • However, eventually this excess production is not enough to maintain normal levels, and at the point of CKD dialysis, this manifests as abnormal amounts of PTH, calcium and phosphorus that, in turn, can lead to significant clinical consequences, such as weakness and thinning of the bones. (
  • 15 ml/min/1.73m 2 , not on dialysis or with a transplant) have the highest mortality rates over time, while those in earlier stages of CKD had lower rates of mortality. (
  • These kids need dialysis for life, unless they get a kidney transplant . (
  • Three days before being called for her kidney transplant, Rachel was put on dialysis which uses an artificial device to clean and filter the blood of waste products. (
  • In 2018, the American Kidney Foundation reports that 785,883 Americans had kidney failure and needed dialysis or a kidney transplant to live. (
  • I was diagnosed when I was 7, then started dialysis at 25 before finally receiving a kidney transplant in 2018. (
  • The researchers found that 4.5% of home dialysis patients had COVID-19 between February and September, with Black race, Hispanic ethnicity, and long-term care facility residence being significant risk factors. (
  • The researchers randomly assigned nearly 250 dialysis patients to 2 groups. (
  • Dialysis provision must be increased to cope with existing patient numbers and the growth in the number of patients predicted. (
  • The provision of dialysis patient transit services presents an agency problem (Eisenhardt, 1989) where the local counties provide the paratransit, non‐emergency paratransit vehicles, yet the funding sources include federal, state, and local resources. (
  • Results of this field research and analysis can provide specifics on this information asymmetry and the resulting problems which can provide specifics to be used to solicit the for‐profit dialysis chains to provide support for communications/scheduling technology to improve the provision of dialysis transport. (
  • Continuing to apply proven practices to prevent and control infections in all U.S. dialysis facilities. (
  • As many as 25% of hospital admissions in the dialysis population have been attributed to vascular access problems, including fistula malfunction and thrombosis. (
  • People who need dialysis work with their care team to decide on the best method. (
  • Chronic care services for dialysis patients are provided six days a week. (
  • A new study finds that fewer patients with end-stage kidney disease died within a year of starting dialysis in states that expanded Medicaid coverage in the wake of the Affordable Care Act. (
  • PROVIDENCE, R.I. [Brown University] - In the first three years of Medicaid expansion due to the Affordable Care Act (ACA), the number of patients with end-stage kidney disease who died within a year of starting dialysis decreased in states that expanded Medicaid compared to non-expansion states, new research found. (
  • Hear from care partner, Shelley, and how home dialysis has benefited her father's lifestyle. (
  • The Dialysis Technician certification program is designed to train students the practical skills and theoretical knowledge required to enter the health and wellness field as a patient care technician. (
  • The unit provides optimal care for patients receiving dialysis using advanced equipment and innovative dialysis technologies. (
  • Although more research is needed, the finding could lead to changes in the standard of care for patients who need dialysis. (
  • DPC would like care coordination efforts to continue both for the sake of people on dialysis and for American taxpayers. (