The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
Methods, procedures, and tests performed to diagnose disease, disordered function, or disability.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
Any diagnostic evaluation using radioactive (unstable) isotopes. This diagnosis includes many nuclear medicine procedures as well as radioimmunoassay tests.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the ear or of hearing disorders or demonstration of hearing acuity or loss.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of disease or dysfunction by examination of the pathological site or operative field during surgical intervention.
Congenital structural abnormalities of the respiratory system.
PHENOTHIAZINES with an amino group at the 3-position that are green crystals or powder. They are used as biological stains.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the urinary tract or its organs or demonstration of its physiological processes.
Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of conditions related to pregnancy, labor, and the puerperium and of diseases of the female genitalia. It includes also demonstration of genital and pregnancy physiology.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the respiratory tract or its organs. It includes RESPIRATORY FUNCTION TESTS.
Diagnostic procedures, such as laboratory tests and x-rays, routinely performed on all individuals or specified categories of individuals in a specified situation, e.g., patients being admitted to the hospital. These include routine tests administered to neonates.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the digestive system or its organs or demonstration of their physiological processes.
The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the RESIDUAL VOLUME and the EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is FRC.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.
Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
Thin-walled sacs or spaces which function as a part of the respiratory system in birds, fishes, insects, and mammals.
The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.
The measurement of frequency or oscillation changes.
Diagnosis of the type and, when feasible, the cause of a pathologic process by means of microscopic study of cells in an exudate or other form of body fluid. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the nervous system, central and peripheral, or demonstration of neurologic function or dysfunction.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.
The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.
The production of an image obtained by cameras that detect the radioactive emissions of an injected radionuclide as it has distributed differentially throughout tissues in the body. The image obtained from a moving detector is called a scan, while the image obtained from a stationary camera device is called a scintiphotograph.
Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the endocrine glands or demonstration of their physiological processes.
The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.
Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Using fine needles (finer than 22-gauge) to remove tissue or fluid specimens from the living body for examination in the pathology laboratory and for disease diagnosis.
The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
A species of migratory Old World locusts, in the family ACRIDIDAE, that are important pests in Africa and Asia.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the cardiovascular system or its organs or demonstration of their physiological processes.
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Complete or severe weakness of the muscles of respiration. This condition may be associated with MOTOR NEURON DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; injury to the PHRENIC NERVE; and other disorders.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A syndrome characterized by progressive life-threatening RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY in the absence of known LUNG DISEASES, usually following a systemic insult such as surgery or major TRAUMA.
Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.
The volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. It is the equivalent to each of the following sums: VITAL CAPACITY plus RESIDUAL VOLUME; INSPIRATORY CAPACITY plus FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY; TIDAL VOLUME plus INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus functional residual capacity; or tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume plus EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus residual volume.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.
Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.
Mechanical devices used to produce or assist pulmonary ventilation.
Absence of air in the entire or part of a lung, such as an incompletely inflated neonate lung or a collapsed adult lung. Pulmonary atelectasis can be caused by airway obstruction, lung compression, fibrotic contraction, or other factors.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
The outer margins of the thorax containing SKIN, deep FASCIA; THORACIC VERTEBRAE; RIBS; STERNUM; and MUSCLES.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a maximal expiration. Common abbreviation is RV.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Measurement of the volume of gas in the lungs, including that which is trapped in poorly communicating air spaces. It is of particular use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Hospitals controlled by the county government.
A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The number of times an organism breathes with the lungs (RESPIRATION) per unit time, usually per minute.
Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.
Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.
The extra volume of air that can be expired with maximum effort beyond the level reached at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. Common abbreviation is ERV.
Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
The act of BREATHING in.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
A condition of the newborn marked by DYSPNEA with CYANOSIS, heralded by such prodromal signs as dilatation of the alae nasi, expiratory grunt, and retraction of the suprasternal notch or costal margins, mostly frequently occurring in premature infants, children of diabetic mothers, and infants delivered by cesarean section, and sometimes with no apparent predisposing cause.
Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
Large, long-tailed reptiles, including caimans, of the order Loricata.
RESPIRATORY MUSCLE contraction during INHALATION. The work is accomplished in three phases: LUNG COMPLIANCE work, that required to expand the LUNGS against its elastic forces; tissue resistance work, that required to overcome the viscosity of the lung and chest wall structures; and AIRWAY RESISTANCE work, that required to overcome airway resistance during the movement of air into the lungs. Work of breathing does not refer to expiration, which is entirely a passive process caused by elastic recoil of the lung and chest cage. (Guyton, Textbook of Medical Physiology, 8th ed, p406)
Cytochromes (electron-transporting proteins) in which the heme prosthetic group is heme a, i.e., the iron chelate of cytoporphyrin IX. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
The maximum volume of air that can be inspired after reaching the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the TIDAL VOLUME and the INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is IC.
Non-therapeutic positive end-expiratory pressure occurring frequently in patients with severe airway obstruction. It can appear with or without the administration of external positive end-expiratory pressure (POSITIVE-PRESSURE RESPIRATION). It presents an important load on the inspiratory muscles which are operating at a mechanical disadvantage due to hyperinflation. Auto-PEEP may cause profound hypotension that should be treated by intravascular volume expansion, increasing the time for expiration, and/or changing from assist mode to intermittent mandatory ventilation mode. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p1127)
A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.
The act of BREATHING out.
These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.
That part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT or the air within the respiratory tract that does not exchange OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE with pulmonary capillary blood.
A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes, but has been shown to be an especially potent inhibitor of heme enzymes and hemeproteins. It is used in many industrial processes.
HYPOVENTILATION syndrome in very obese persons with excessive ADIPOSE TISSUE around the ABDOMEN and DIAPHRAGM. It is characterized by diminished to absent ventilatory chemoresponsiveness; chronic HYPOXIA; HYPERCAPNIA; POLYCYTHEMIA; and long periods of sleep during day and night (HYPERSOMNOLENCE). It is a condition often related to OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA but can occur separately.
The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.
Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.
Ventilatory support system using frequencies from 60-900 cycles/min or more. Three types of systems have been distinguished on the basis of rates, volumes, and the system used. They are high frequency positive-pressure ventilation (HFPPV); HIGH-FREQUENCY JET VENTILATION; (HFJV); and high-frequency oscillation (HFO).
The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.
Used in the form of the hydrochloride as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
A pathological accumulation of air in tissues or organs.
The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.
The 8-hydroxy derivatives inhibit various enzymes and their halogenated derivatives, though neurotoxic, are used as topical anti-infective agents, among other uses.
Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.
Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.
The posture of an individual lying face down.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.
Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
The rate of airflow measured during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.
The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
A subcategory of CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE. The disease is characterized by hypersecretion of mucus accompanied by a chronic (more than 3 months in 2 consecutive years) productive cough. Infectious agents are a major cause of chronic bronchitis.
A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.
Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.
A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.
A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
An activity in which the organism plunges into water. It includes scuba and bell diving. Diving as natural behavior of animals goes here, as well as diving in decompression experiments with humans or animals.
Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.
Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)
The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.
Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
Organized services for the purpose of providing diagnosis to promote and maintain health.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).
The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.
A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.
Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.
Drugs used for their effects on the respiratory system.
Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.
Difficult or labored breathing.
Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.

Airway smooth muscle in health and disease; methods of measurement and relation to function. (1/63)

Smooth muscle is present and probably functional in the airways in utero and increases in absolute area during growth with little further change during adulthood. It encircles the entire airway below the level of the main bronchus, in a roughly circular orientation, except at high lung volumes. It occupies relatively more of the airway wall in the peripheral airways, reaching a maximum in the membranous bronchioles. Measurement of smooth muscle area in the airway wall is confounded by clinical classification of cases, methods of tissue retrieval and preparation, staining and orientation of sections, magnification, image analysis and statistical methods of comparison between groups. Airway smooth muscle area is pathologically increased in inflammatory conditions of the airways such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, in relation to airways obstruction, and asthma, in relation to severity and airway size (between 25 and 250% compared with control cases). It is increased in sudden infant death syndrome, but there are few studies in other conditions such as bronchiectasis. In asthma, smooth muscle must shorten (not necessarily to an abnormal degree) for the structural abnormalities of the airway to manifest as excessive airway narrowing. Not surprisingly there is renewed interest in the relationships between the mechanical and contractile properties of smooth muscle, parenchymal properties and lung volume and how these interact to determine smooth muscle length. The relative importance of smooth muscle area and mechanical properties, altered airway structure and airway inflammation in disease are yet to be determined.  (+info)

Computed tomographic scan of the chest, latex agglutination test and plasma (1AE3)-beta-D-glucan assay in early diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis: a prospective study of 215 patients. (2/63)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Blood and radiologic tests are frequently used for diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, but it remains unknown which is more useful for its early diagnosis. Aim of the study was to compare usefulness of computed tomographic (CT) scan of chest, latex agglutination (LA) test and determination of plasma (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan (BDG) levels for early diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). DESIGN AND METHODS: We treated 215 consecutive patients who underwent cytotoxic chemotherapy. From initiation of chemotherapy until death or discharge, blood samples were taken weekly and subjected to LA and BDG tests. We performed chest CT scans when patients had any signs of pulmonary infection or an antibiotic-resistant fever. RESULTS: Of the 215 patients, 30 (14. 0%) were diagnosed as having IPA. In sixteen cases the diagnosis was definite and in 14 it was suspected. In patient-based analysis, sensitivities of LA and BDG were 44% and 63%, respectively. Sensitivity tended to be lower in patients with IPA localized to the lung than those with disseminated invasive aspergillosis. Specificities were 93% and 74%, respectively. Either a halo or an air-crescent was observed in 7 of the 16 patients with IPA, and all of the IPA patients showed some abnormal signs on chest CT scans. On average, CT scan signs preceded a positive LA test by 7.1 days and a positive BDG assay by 11.5 days. In 6 of the 11 patients who became positive for either LA or BDG assay, CT scan signs preceded the positive results by more than seven days. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: Chest CT scan is more beneficial than the blood tests and X-ray for early diagnosis of IPA.  (+info)

The validity of a sore throat score in family practice. (3/63)

BACKGROUND: Reducing the number of antibiotic prescriptions given for common respiratory infections has been recommended as a way to limit bacterial resistance. This study assessed the validity of a previously published clinical score for the management of infections of the upper respiratory tract accompanied by sore throat. The study also examined the potential impact of this clinical score on the prescribing of antibiotics in community-based family practice. METHODS: A total of 97 family physicians in 49 Ontario communities assessed 621 children and adults with a new infection of the upper respiratory tract accompanied by sore throat and recorded their prescribing decisions. A throat swab was obtained for culture. The sensitivity and specificity of the score approach in this population were compared with previously published results for patients seen at an academic family medicine centre. In addition, physicians' prescribing practices and their recommendations for obtaining throat swabs were compared with score-based recommendations. RESULTS: Of the 621 cases of new upper respiratory tract infection and sore throat, information about prescriptions given was available for only 619; physicians prescribed antibiotics in 173 (27.9%) of these cases. Of the 173 prescriptions, 109 (63.0%) were given to patients with culture-negative results for group A Streptococcus. Using the score to determine management would have reduced prescriptions to culture-negative patients by 63.7% and overall antibiotic prescriptions by 52.3% (both p < 0.01). Culturing of throat samples would have been reduced by 35.8% (p < 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference in the sensitivity or specificity of the score approach between this community-based population (sensitivity 85.0%, specificity 92.1%) and an academic family medicine centre (sensitivity 83.1%, specificity 94.3%). INTERPRETATION: An explicit clinical score approach to the management of patients presenting with an upper respiratory tract infection and sore throat is valid in community-based family practice and could substantially reduce the unnecessary prescribing of antibiotics for these conditions.  (+info)

Efficacy of transthoracic needle aspiration in community-acquired pneumonia. (4/63)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the indications, efficacy, and safety of transthoracic needle aspiration (TNA) in diagnosing community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). METHODS: TNA procedure was performed using an ultrathin needle with ultrasonography and/or computed tomography. The aspirate samples were Gram-stained and sent for cultures. The results were compared with those from conventional microbiological studies. PATIENTS: Sixty patients with CAP who were admitted to the hospital and were studied prospectively between July 1994 and June 1999 were included in the study. RESULTS: TNA culture was positive in 30 cases (50.0%). Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most frequently isolated pathogen, followed by the Streptococcus milleri group, and anaerobes. The results of TNA were consistent with those of quantitative sputum cultures in 9 patients and with those of blood cultures in 4. Complications arose in 3 patients who developed small to moderate pneumothorax. CONCLUSIONS: TNA is a safe procedure with a good diagnostic yield. In particular, anaerobes or microaerophils such as the S. milleri group were highly detectable by TNA. The results obtained by TNA were highly consistent with those obtained by the gold standard methods. Combined with conventional methods, TNA is considered highly useful for determining the etiology of CAP.  (+info)

Expiratory flow limitation during exercise in COPD: detection by manual compression of the abdominal wall. (5/63)

Manual compression of the abdomen (MCA) during spontaneous expiration is a simple method for the detection of flow limitation in the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients during resting breathing, based on comparison of flow/volume curves obtained during MCA with that of the preceding control breath. It was assessed whether this nonstandardized technique is also feasible during exercise. MCA was performed during resting breathing and constant-exercise work at one- and two-thirds maximal mechanical power output (W'max) in six normal subjects and 12 COPD patients. Changes in end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) were also studied. With the aid of inspection, abdominal palpation and lung auscultation, MCA could always be applied during expiration. Flow limitation was never detected in the six normal subjects, whereas four of the COPD patients were flow limited at rest, seven during exercise at one-third W'max and nine during exercise at two-thirds W'max. Expiratory flow limitation detected by MCA was always associated with an increase in EELV during exercise, indicating dynamic hyperinflation occurrence or increase. It is concluded that manual compression of the abdomen is a very simple and reliable method for the detection of flow limitation during exercise.  (+info)

Formoterol in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized, controlled, 3-month trial. (6/63)

The aim of this study was to investigate formoterol, an inhaled long-acting beta2-agonist, in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Six-hundred and ninety-two COPD patients, mean baseline forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) 54%, FEV1/forced vital capacity 75% of predicted, reversibility 6.4% pred, were treated with formoterol (4.5, 9 or 18 microg b.i.d.) or placebo via Turbuhaler for 12 weeks. Symptoms were recorded daily. Spirometry and the incremental shuttle walking test (SWT) were performed at clinic visits. Compared with placebo, 18 microg b.i.d. formoterol reduced the mean total symptom score by 13% and increased the percentage of nights without awakenings by 15%. Formoterol (9 and 18 microg b.i.d.) significantly reduced symptom scores for breathlessness (-7% and -9%, respectively) and chest tightness (-11% and -8%, respectively), reduced the need for rescue medication (-25% and -18%, respectively), and increased symptom-free days (71% and 86%, respectively). FEV1 improved significantly after all three doses of formoterol (versus placebo). No differences were found between groups in SWT walking distance. No unexpected adverse events were seen. In conclusion, 9 and 18 microg b.i.d. formoterol reduced symptoms and increased the number of symptom-free days in a dose-dependent manner in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Formoterol improved lung function at a dose of 4.5 microg b.i.d. and higher.  (+info)

Evaluation of a portable device for diagnosing the sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome. (7/63)

Waiting times for hospital-based monitoring of the obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS) are rising. This study tested whether Embletta, a new portable device, may accurately diagnose OSAHS at home. A synchronous comparison to polysomnography was performed in 40 patients and a comparison of home Embletta studies with in-laboratory polysomnography was performed in 61 patients. In the synchronous study, the mean difference (polysomnography-Embletta) in apnoeas+hypopnoeas (A+H) x h(-1) in bed was 2 h(-1). In comparison to the apnoea/ hypopnoea index (AHI) x h(-1) slept, the Embletta (A+H) x h(-1) in bed differed by 8 x h(-1). These data were used to construct diagnostic categories in symptomatic patients from their Embletta results: "OSAHS" (> or = 20 (A+H) x h(-1) in bed), "possible OSAHS" (10-20 (A+H) x h(-1) in bed) or "not OSAHS" (<10 (A+H) x h(-1) in bed). In the home study, the mean difference in (A+H) x h(-1) in bed was 3 x h(-1). In comparison to the polysomnographic AHI x h(-1) slept, the Embletta (A+H) x h(-1) in bed differed by 6 +/- 14 x h(-1). Using the above classification, all nine patients categorised as not OSAHS had AHI < 15 x h(-1) slept on polysomnography and all 23 with OSAHS on Embletta had an AHI > or = 15 on polysomnography, but 18 patients fell into the possible OSAHS category potentially requiring further investigation and 11 home studies failed. Most patients were satisfactorily classified by home Embletta studies but 29 out of 61 required further investigation. The study suggested a 42% saving in diagnostic costs over polysomnography if this approach were adopted.  (+info)

Diagnosing occupational asthma: how, how much, how far? (8/63)

Diagnosing occupational asthma is still a challenge because it is based on a stepwise approach in which the depth of investigative means may vary depending on resources. The authors herewith review the existing investigative means from the approach of outlining controversies and queries. There is no validated clinical questionnaire for diagnosing occupational asthma. Immunological investigation is limited by the lack of standardised extracts for skin-prick testing and specific immunoglobulin E assessments. Criteria for interpretation of changes in peak expiratory flow rates and bronchial responsiveness to pharmacological agents are still open to discussion. It is worth improving the methodology of specific inhalation challenges, either in the laboratory or in the workplace, to facilitate more extensive use of these tests. Validation of new means that assess airway inflammation, such as exhaled nitric oxide and induced sputum, needs to be performed. There is a need to increase the use of these diagnostic tests because the diagnosis is still too often based on "clinical impression".  (+info)

Frontloading simulation allows you to try out innovative new ideas early in the design process when the cost of failure is low. It allows you to fail early, to fail often, and to learn from your mistakes.
Aug. 16, 1966 N. s. KAPANY 3,267,233 COLOR DISPLAY APPARATUS FOR IM S PRODUCED IN NGES DIFFERENT FREQUENCY 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed June 4, 1964 NARINDER S. KAPANY ATTORNEYS CABZI CAB Aug. 16, 1966 N. s. KAPANY 3,267,283 COLOR DISPLAY APPARATUS FOR IMAGES PRODUCED IN DIFFERENT FREQUENCY RANGES Filed June 4, 1964 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 4 4o FIG.6 48 DEFLECTION CIRCUITS COLOR CONTROL CIRCUITS INVENTOR NARINDER S. KAPANY ATTORNEYS United States Patent 3,267,283 I COLOR DISPLAY APPARATUS FOR IMAGES PRO- DUCED IN DIFFERENT FREQUENCY RANGES Narinder S. Kapany, Woodside, Calif., assignor to Optics Technology, Inc., Belmont, Calif., a corporation of California Filed June 4, 1964, Ser. No. 372,589 Claims. (Cl. 250- 71) This invention relates to a method and apparatus for irradiating an object with radiation having components I in various energy or frequency ranges, so that the object sensitivity to either reflection or transmission of radiation in the various ranges can be simultaneously or sequentially ...
Improved methods are provided for calibrating color on a color display coupled to a computer, which are useful for obtaining calibrated data in a virtual proof network for enabling different color devices to render consistent color. Methods involve user interactions with screens on the display to set color display parameters. An apparatus is also provided for calibrating a sensor which may be used for measuring color of a display in one or more of these methods.
HFXLH #Color #Display #Heart #Monitor #Blood #Pressure #Smart #Watches #Fitness #Bracelet #Activity #Tracker #Smart #Wristband HFXLH Color Display Heart Rate Monitor Blood Pressure Smart Watches Fitness Bracelet Activity Tracker Smart Wristband ...
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Multi-primary color (MPC) display is a display that can reproduce a wider gamut color than conventional displays. In addition to the standard RGB (Red Green and Blue) color subpixels, the technology utilizes additional colors, such as yellow, magenta and cyan, and thus increases the range of displayable colors that the human eye can see.[1][2] Sharps Quattron is the brand name of an LCD color display technology that utilizes a yellow fourth color subpixel.[3][4] It is used in Sharps Aquos LCD TV product line, particularly in models with screens 40 inches across and larger.[5] ...
A light-emitting color display system is provided having an optical sensor system in which a plurality of photosensors are directed towards the light source of the light-emitting color display system to provide outputs proportional to the light energy associated with each color. A processing system responds to the outputs over time with the initial outputs and provides a mechanism to correct color changes in the display system. The color light-emitting display system has a second plurality of photosensors directed away from said light-emitting color display system for providing outputs related to the different illuminants and allowing compensation of the light-emitting color display system for the illuminants.
The present invention provides a single-panel field-sequential full color display systems that are less complex, smaller in size and less costly than prior additive split-path color systems, while exhibiting higher light output, greater flexibility and greater reliability than prior single-panel field-sequential systems. In the first preferred embodiment, the display system includes a
The invention relates to a color display tube comprising a shadow mask (12) placed in front of the display screen (8). The shadow mask (12), at least on the side remote from the display screen, is coated with a glass layer (14) comprising a heavy metal. The object of such a layer is to reflect electrons incident on it so as to reduce local or overall heating. By means of the glass layer it is achieved that it crumbles away less easily, which inter alia is in favor of the picture quality, and that the shadow mask is more rigid.
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One respect in which X10 was ahead of its time was in being among the first GUI engines (and the first widely-deployed one) to support color on a high-resolution display. In 1986 this was a engineering for a demand that barely existed yet; high-resolution color displays were rare and expensive hardware.. The mainstream acceptance of color displays was one of those pervasive technology adoptions that, like cellphones or video games, can become curiously difficult to remember the dates of even if one lived through it. After the fact, it seems like color displays have always been there. But, in fact, they did not become common on machines with the computing power to support a GUI until five years after the release of X10 - nearly twenty years after the original Alto.. More precisely, though monitors that were capable of both resolutions at or above 10,000 pixels and color began appearing on top-of-the-line workstations around the time of X10 in 1986, they remained too expensive for mass-market ...
Soma Tech Intl offers the Invivo MDE Prism Patient Monitor up to 50% below OEM prices with the same service and warranty as new. The patient monitor that can display up to five different waveform traces simultaneously. The large color monitor screen can be adjustable for optimal viewing.
justechn writes I recently had the opportunity to see, first hand, HPs new 30-bit, 1 billion color LCD display. I have to say I am impressed. Not only is the HP Dreamcolor LP2480zx capable of displaying so much more than standard LCDs, but it considered a Color Critical display. This means if you ...
Noise, smart tech company has launched ColorFIT 2, the companys latest fitness band and the successor of the ColorFIT smart band with improved 0.96-inch color display that is brighter and new user interface. It is not a touch screen, but comes with a touch bottom below the screen. It has the ability to choose from up to 14 sports modes and have any 3 available at the same time on the band. It has built-in activity tracker, 24-hour heart rate monitor, step counter, sleep tracker, sedentary reminder and goal completion reminder. Continue reading Noise ColorFIT 2 smart fitness band with 0.96-inch color display, heart rate sensor launched for Rs. 1999. ...
Amazfit Bip S. Ekraani diagonaal: 3,25 cm (1.28), Kuvamise tüüp: TFT-ekraan, Ekraani resolutsioon: 176 x 176 pikslit, Puutetundlik ekraan. GPS (satelliit). Aku mahutavus: 200 mAh. Kaal: 31 g. Rihma materjal: Termoplast-polüuretaan (TPU), Rihma värv: Must
The lightly updated 2010 Nissan Altima will start at $20,620 when it goes on sale on Monday.. The biggest changes are visible at first glance, as the Altima is fitted with a restyled grille, hood, bumper and wheel designs.. The base sedan with a 2.5-liter four-cylinder engine and CVT transmission is the entry-level car. The coupe starts at $23,160, and the hybrid stickers for $27,500. All prices include shipping charges. Inside, Altimas get revised fabrics and finishings. The technology has been boosted with new available audio packages that include nine speakers, a 4.3-inch color display, USB port, Bluetooth and a rearview monitor. Nissans next-generation hard-drive navigation system is also available, including a 6.5-inch touch-screen color display, 9.3 gigs for music and a restaurant guide.. Additionally, vehicle dynamic control is now standard on all models, and the 3.5 SE trim has been renamed 3.5 SR. The engine lineup carries over with a 2.5-liter inline four-cylinder that makes 175 hp ...
So Im thinking about getting a double monitor setup. Found two monitors that seem quite nice; - AOC i2367fh, an IPS monitor with 5 ms response time. - iiyama ProLite B2481HS-1, TN/LED monitor with 2 ms response time. So Ive heard that IPS has a superior viewing angle, better color display and more. The only downside is the high response time. Right now I have a screen with 2 ms response time.
Our OI-6000 interface to your IR Series Moisture Analyzer. It features a range of administrative controls, diagnostic tools, and moisture management settings that provide real-time access to your analyzers central functions while it is in operation. The OI-6000 has a touch interface, color display and runs on a Windows CE operating system.. A single point connection to your NIR Series analyzer provides power and communication to your OI-6000. This feature offers hassle free installation and easy setup.. ...
Equipped with flawless touch control and a vivid color display, the Spectral Controller is effortless light control at the touch of your fingertips. Its straightforward approach to light control programming allows for endless customization options without the confusion. The sleek, modern design ensures a beautiful and cohesive setup that wont disrupt the look of your aquarium.
The ALTAIR 5X Gas Detector is capable of measuring up to 6 gases simultaneously and is now available with integrated PID sensor for VOC detection. Driven by advanced MSA XCell Sensor Technology, the ALTAIR 5X Gas Detector delivers faster response time, be
A cluster of leaves high in a maple tree is surrounded by till green leaves at Palisades-Kepler State Park in Mount Vernon, Iowa, on Wednesday, Sept. 30, 2015. Marion won three sets to one. With a warmer and wetter than normal September, fall color is at least a week late this year. The warmer and wetter conditions have allowed green chlorophyl to keep producing nutrients for trees rather than fading to allow the leafs colorful pigments to show through. (Jim Slosiarek/The Gazette ...
5 of 7 institutional investors in the company increased their stake last quarter. With phase II data of Resunab for cystic fibrosis on tap, hedge funds appear to be frontloading the upcoming release
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The main findings from the present study showed a significant association between physical mobility and two chronic conditions (hypertension and diabetes) in three nationally representative sample of Brazilian older adults. In addition, despite an increase in the prevalence of hypertension and diabetes from 1998 to 2008, the magnitude of the association between these chronic conditions and physical mobility did not change among those in the moderate difficulty group. However, among those with great difficulty, there was a decrease in the magnitude of these associations from 1998 to 2003, but our findings showed no change in the magnitude of the association for hypertension and a small increase in the strength of the association for diabetes, between 2003 and 2008.. The increase in prevalence of diabetes and hypertension among older adults in Brazil is similar to those observed in the USA [27] and Holland [22] in the same age group. Among American older adults data came from two national surveys ...
Supplement to JACM 40.2. The Journal of Ambulatory Care Management is pleased to announce a special supplement on the Brazilian National Program for Improving Access and Quality of Primary Care (PMAQ).. The Brazilian National Program for Improving Access and Quality of Primary Care (PMAQ) is one of the worlds largest initiatives intended to stimulate access to and quality of primary care services, encompassing over 30,000 health teams in nearly every Brazilian municipality. Currently in its third year, the program has multiple components including an innovative pay for performance mechanism. The program is growing rapidly and evolving new forms of performance assessment; financial and non-financial incentives; and partnerships between municipalities, states, and the federal government. More information and data (including results of the first and second rounds of evaluation) can be found here: The Journal would like to thank James Macinko (UCLA), ...
Case Reports in Pulmonology publishes case reports and case series in all areas of pulmonology, prevention, diagnosis and management of pulmonary and associated disorders, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology.
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0024-8451 - Bacharach PCA3 265 Portable Combustion Analyzer Kit for Oxygen (O2) 0.1-20.9%, Carbon Monoxide (CO/H2 compensated) 0-4000ppm, Nitric Oxide (NO) 0-3000ppm and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) 0-500ppm. Full color display. B-Smart replaceable sensors. Up to ten different fuels. ABS Housing. Alkaline Batteries powered. With Printer. CE Approved.
The Vivosport is a swim-proof activity tracker that has a 72 x 144 pixel color display thats always on and visible in sunlight. It features built in heart rate monitor and GPS, and is capable of showing notifications from a paired smartphone. ...
A coating of an encapsulated electrophoretic medium is formed on a substrate (106) by dispersing in a fluid (104) a plurality of electrophoretic capsules (102), contacting at least a portion of a substrate (106) with the fluid (104); and applying a potential difference between at least a part of the portion of the substrate (106) contacting the fluid (104) and a counter-electrode (110) in electrical contact with the fluid (104), thereby causing capsules (102) to be deposited upon at least part of the portion of the substrate (106) contacting the fluid (102). Patterned coatings of capsules containing different colors may be deposited in registration with electrodes using multiple capsule deposition steps. Alternatively, patterned coatings of capsules may be formed by applying a fluid form of an electrophoretic medium to a substrate, and applying a temporally varying voltage between an electrode and the substrate. The process may be repeated to allow for deposition of full color displays.
The glass-covered Conservatoies house a large tropical plant collection and provide seasonal plant color displays that include spring, summer, fall, and holiday shows. They are also used for special exhibits such as the Wings of Fancy Live Butterfly Exhibit. The garden surrounding the Conservatories displays a collection of unusual conifers and ground covers as well as several specimen trees. Adjacent to the Conservatories is a Rain Garden.. back to top. The Trial Garden. Grown-up drinks made from fresh ingredients in the garden are all the rage, and some of the combinations may be surprising. Visit the Cocktail Garden (designed by gardener Kelley Heim), located in the Trial Garden, to see the plants used in Cocktail recipes. There are countless possibilities for fresh and unusual blends. The Trial Garden is located along a hillside overlooking the east side of the Conservatories. In spring, over 10,000 spring flowering bulbs are featured followed by summer displays of new and unusual plant ...
|p|The Angio cpet is an ergometer that can be used for both arm and supine ergometry. Its compact design makes it universally applicable for ergometric studies in those sectors in which standard ergometry cannot be used. The Angio operates independent of pedaling speed in the range of 7 - 1000 watt. The Angio cpet is standard supplied with a communication module and can therefor be easily controlled by all known stress ECG and pulmonary devices in the world. The workload, rpm and time can be readout from the 3,5 colour display. The ergometer is supplied with standard pedals.|/p|
GPS fishfinder combo w/ brilliant 5? VGA color display, U.S. lakes charts, 500W dual beam transom mount transducer. Find lowest prices at
Explore the Panasonic VL-SVN511 - Video Intercom - • Smartphone Connect • Wi-Fi Connection • E-mail Notification • 5-inch wide colour display • Picture recording • Electric Lock Release Support • Voice Changer • Night Vision
District managers and midwives are similarly enthusiastic about the benefits that this model provides. Despite this success, they have some concerns about how to better streamline the work so that it is more feasible within their specific context. We are working with them closely to identify improvements, so that the model is responsive to both the needs of pregnant women and midwives. The national Ministry of Health has also expressed interest in building more evidence in order to consider a policy change.. This is important because high-quality, patient-centered and equitable antenatal care (ANC) should support healthy behavior and practices, link women and communities with the health system, and lead to increases in the coverage of skilled attendant at birth and improved good health through the life cycle.. But while many women come once for ANC, many fewer come back for visits throughout their pregnancy. Part of the reason is because weve found that traditional models dont meet womens ...
District managers and midwives are similarly enthusiastic about the benefits that this model provides. Despite this success, they have some concerns about how to better streamline the work so that it is more feasible within their specific context. We are working with them closely to identify improvements, so that the model is responsive to both the needs of pregnant women and midwives. The national Ministry of Health has also expressed interest in building more evidence in order to consider a policy change.. This is important because high-quality, patient-centered and equitable antenatal care (ANC) should support healthy behavior and practices, link women and communities with the health system, and lead to increases in the coverage of skilled attendant at birth and improved good health through the life cycle.. But while many women come once for ANC, many fewer come back for visits throughout their pregnancy. Part of the reason is because weve found that traditional models dont meet womens ...
In addition to working with national ministries of health and national STI groups, WHO/Europe partners with WHO headquarters, other organizations within the United Nations family and a number of international partners and donor organizations, nongovernmental organizations, community based organizations and civil society groups. Partners include:. ...
The University of Leeds is taking part in the Energy Consortium with CONACyT, (The Mexican National Ministry for Science and Technology) to receive funded Masters and PhD students in energy-related subjects.
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Quirón has an internationally prestigious medical staff, the largest in the sector, and is also the principal hospital network in terms of patient numbers and care facility area. The group administers 47 healthcare centers, more than 4.000 hospital beds and 8.000 doctors ...
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Method and apparatus for testing the operation of modules for use in a fault tolerant computing system that consists of two distinct computing zones. Diagnostic testing is performed when the system is powered on, the modules being subjected to module, zone and, if both zones are available, system diagnostic tests. Indications of faults detected during diagnostic testing are stored in an EEPROM on each module. Such fault indications can be cleared in the field by correcting the fault condition and successfully rerunning the diagnostic test during which the fault was detected. Indications of operating system detected faults are also stored in each module EEPROM. However, such fault indications are not field clearable.
This is my second HDX 18 Laptop sent by HP in the last month. Ive had this one for about a week. Everything was fine when I went to bed last night. This morning when I went to start it up it stays at the first screen (the one with the bios logo and tells you to press f10 for options) sorry if I am wrong on describing that. I can get to the Bios but I get 7 loud beeps before it enters. I am now running the system diagnostic tests on it because I have NO idea what else to do ...
The maturation, recruitment and survival of eosinophils in the respiratory tract are determined by IL-3, GM-CSF, but especially by IL-5, which has a key role in mediating airways eosinophilic inflamma .... ...
Welcome to Meadowlands Hospital Medical Center (MHMC) located at 55 Meadowlands Parkway in Secaucus, NJ. We are a DNV accredited hospital offering high quality medical services to our community.
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... techniques of respiratory therapy, organ transplants and other tissue and cell transplants. Emergency medicine is health care ... Diagnostic centers Dedicated to diagnostic, analytic and imaging services. Mobile health care centers Carry human and technical ... health information systems, and the overall quality of the health system. Toward these ends, the law created or empowered ... The health care system must also provide services for thousands of illegal immigrants and for the many tourists who visit Spain ...
Diagnostic techniques used include CT scanning, ultrasound, and X-ray. X-ray can help determine the path of a penetrating ... air in the pleural cavity outside the lungs that has escaped from the respiratory system) or pneumomediastinum (air in the ... Diagnostic laparoscopy or exploratory laparotomy may also be performed if other diagnostic methods do not yield conclusive ... Diagnostic peritoneal lavage is a controversial technique but can be used to detect injury to abdominal organs: a catheter is ...
More invasive diagnostic techniques are then necessary, posing a greater potential for complications such as pneumothorax. ... of cases using the Medtronic superDimension system. According to the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ... D. Makris (2007). "Electromagnetic navigation diagnostic bronchoscopy for small peripheral lung lesions". European Respiratory ... "Electromagnetic Navigation Diagnostic Bronchoscopy". American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 174 (9): 982- ...
... such as the nervous or respiratory systems.[3] The major anatomy textbook, Gray's Anatomy, has been reorganized from a systems ... Equally important advances have occurred in non-invasive techniques for examining the interior structures of the body. X-rays ... especially surgeons and doctors working in some diagnostic specialties, such as histopathology and radiology. [43] ... Reptiles are unable to use their skin for respiration as do amphibians and have a more efficient respiratory system drawing air ...
Cytopathologic techniques are used in the examination of virtually all body organs and tissues: Gynecologic cytology - ... Because needles as small as 27 gauge can almost always yield diagnostic material, FNAC is often the least injurious way to ... concerning lymph nodes Respiratory cytology - concerning the lungs and airways Gastrointestinal cytology - concerning the ... bone and skin cytology Kidney and adrenal cytology Liver and pancreas cytology Central nervous system cytology Eye cytology ...
immune system and hematopoietic 06. respiratory 07. digestive 08. urinary and genital 09. acts on the reproductive, pregnancy ... transitional adjustments to the acpc The second level separates the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, it is optionally ... The fourth letter identifies the surgical approach or technique used. The next three digits are used to differentiate between ... integumentary system - mammary glands 17. acts without precision surveying 18. anesthetic actions and additional statements 19 ...
... respiratory system (46 articles) A05 - urogenital system (87 articles) A06 - endocrine system A07 - cardiovascular system A08 ... Diagnostic and Therapeutic Techniques and Equipment E01 - diagnosis E02 - therapeutics E03 - anesthesia and analgesia E04 - ... stomatognathic system A15 - hemic and immune systems A16 - embryonic structures A17 - integumentary system B - Organisms B01 - ... A - Anatomy A01 - body regions (74 articles) A02 - musculoskeletal system (213 articles) A03 - digestive system (98 articles) ...
Respiratory failure occurs when inadequate gas exchange by the respiratory system occurs, with a low oxygen level or a high ... Enhanced monitoring techniques and specific therapies may prevent progression of respiratory compromise to respiratory failure ... Although specific diagnostic and therapeutic interventions must be individualized, standardized screening and monitoring ... Respiratory compromise describes a deterioration in respiratory function with a high likelihood of rapid progression to ...
This diagnostic technique has been abandoned in favor of faster diagnostic measures. Several methods are available to manage ... in individuals with spleens and effective immune systems. Complications include acute respiratory failure, congestive heart ... Infection typically stimulates the innate immune system, and not the humoral immune system. This results in control of the ... Babesia selfishly persists long-term in the host's system: the host gains no benefit from the parasite invasion and only ...
Similarly, malformation or malfunctioning of the respiratory system or speech mechanisms may result in speech impairments. For ... Self-modeling techniques may also be helpful; for example, self-modeling video tapes, in which the child watches a video of him ... The DSM-5 and the ICD-10 are both used to make specific diagnostic decisions. Speech and language disorders commonly include ... Aided systems are often electronic devices, and they may or may not provide some form of voice output. If a device does create ...
In practice most minor infectious diseases such as warts, cutaneous abscesses, respiratory system infections and diarrheal ... yet it usually needs additional diagnostic techniques to confirm the suspicion. Some signs are specifically characteristic and ... Lower respiratory infections include various pneumonias, influenzas and acute bronchitis. *^ Diarrheal diseases are caused by ... Other techniques (such as X-rays, CAT scans, PET scans or NMR) are used to produce images of internal abnormalities resulting ...
A limitation of this technique is that posterior valve tissue is translucent and can be pushed against the wall of the urethra ... More severe cases can have renal and respiratory failure from lung underdevelopment as result of low amniotic fluid volumes, ... Posterior urethral valve (PUV) disorder is an obstructive developmental anomaly in the urethra and genitourinary system of male ... Abdominal ultrasound is of some benefit, but not diagnostic. Features that suggest posterior urethral valves are bilateral ...
Veins are a draining system similar to a low pressure hydraulic system, with a laminar flow and a low velocity. This low ... Here the flow is either modulated by the respiratory rhythm or is continuous in cases where the flow is high. The thinner veins ... Training in Diagnostic Ultrasound: Essentials, Principles and Standards: Report of a Who Study Group (PDF). World Health ... To test these veins properly, the examiner will need to use some techniques like the Paraná maneuver, toe and foot flexion, and ...
... and mental retardation are confirmed with confidence by the aforementioned diagnostic techniques. Diagnosis is often confirmed ... Apart from diffuse abnormal cartilaginous calcification in pulmonary and wikt:otic systems, patients develop significant ... Perhaps emanating from diffuse laryngotracheal calcification, patients often present with recurrent respiratory infection, ... European Respiratory Journal. 17 (3): 566-569. doi:10.1183/09031936.01.17305660. PMID 11405537. Schurgers LJ, Aebert H, Vermeer ...
Hypoglycemia and hypotension depress the central nervous system and compromise the respiratory system. Respiratory muscle ... In any airway management technique, tidal volume should be 6 to 8 cc/kg and ventilator rate should be 8 to 10 breaths/min. The ... presence of a foreign body that is obstructing airways and commonly used as a diagnostic tool and treatment for respiratory ... Decreased respiratory effort: Central nervous system impairment leads to decreased respiratory effort. Central nervous systems ...
Respiratory effort is also measured in concert with nasal/oral airflow by the use of belts. These belts expand and contract ... Polysomnography (PSG), a type of sleep study, is a multi-parametric test used in the study of sleep and as a diagnostic tool in ... Video-EEG polysomnography is a technique combining polysomnography and video-recording, which has been described to be even ... which in turn is connected to a computer system for recording, storing and displaying the data. During sleep, the computer ...
It usually drains via the systemic venous system to the right atrium, vena cava, or azygous systems. Congenital anomalies occur ... CT technique for optimal depiction of lesions by using state-of-the-art volumetric scanning requires a fast intravenous (IV) ... ELS usually presents in infancy with respiratory compromise. Develops as an accessory lung contained within its own pleura. ELS ... Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology. 43 (3): 100-114. doi:10.1067/j.cpradiol.2014.01.005. Truitt AK; Carr SR; Cassese J; ...
When the specialty did begin to evolve, several discoveries were being made linking the respiratory system and the measurement ... They use radiographic techniques to view vasculature of the lungs and heart to assist with diagnosis. Medication is the most ... "Interventional Pulmonology Diagnostic and Therapeutic Procedures". Retrieved 2019-01-25. Luis M. Seijo & Daniel H ... Pulmonologists are involved in both clinical and basic research of the respiratory system, ranging from the anatomy of the ...
This technique is significantly faster but can be less sensitive and specific than the classical methods. A molecular test ... The simplest and cheapest method is to culture the fungus from a patient's respiratory fluids. However, such tests are not only ... Denning, D (September 2008). "Webinar on fungal diagnostics" (PDF). , Philippe Hauser, Lagrou K, Cui X, PerlinD S, Park S, ... This invasion triggers the immune system to respond by sending white blood cells responsible for attacking microorganisms ( ...
In each of these techniques, the antibodies for the protein of interest are added and the presence of the specific protein is ... This virus may be spread from person to person through respiratory droplets or by fomites (non-living material) due to its ... When either of these processes occur, the antibodies formed by the immune system no longer protect against these altered ... Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) is one method of serology that detects antibodies for diagnostic purposes. Western blot ( ...
All staff should be trained in Advanced Trauma Life Support techniques. Each hospital will have a list of criteria that require ... The team leader makes all diagnostic and therapeutic decisions regarding the patient. They are responsible for determining the ... The usual causes of death after a traumatic injury are airway obstruction, respiratory insufficiencies, shock, and central ... nervous system injuries. In a primary trauma survey, the physician looks at the airway and cervical spine, breathing, ...
Recently, the technique has also been used in clinical situations for diagnostic purposes to clarify the condition of the ... A system for discriminative touch has been intensely studied since long whereas a system for affective touch was understood and ... In contrast, the sympathetic activity in skin nerves (SSA/SSNA) lacks a tight relation to cardiac and respiratory events. On ... This has permitted that the technique that was initially felt to be unsuited as a diagnostic test can now be applied for ...
... (PFT) is a complete evaluation of the respiratory system including patient history, physical ... The nitrogen washout technique uses a non-rebreathing open circuit. The technique is based on the assumptions that the nitrogen ... Pulmonary function testing is a diagnostic and management tool used for a variety of reasons, such as: Chronic shortness of ... The helium dilution technique for measuring lung volumes uses a closed, rebreathing circuit. This technique is based on the ...
Therefore, to accurately perform volumetric respiratory measurements, a dual band respiratory sensor system must be required. ... Hammer J, MD, Newth C.J.L, MB, FRCP, and Deakers T.W, MD, PhD (1995), Validation of the Phase Angle Technique as an Objective ... Apnea & hypopnea detection - Diagnostic components of sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome and periodic breathing. Apnea & hypopnea ... Respiratory rate is the number of breaths per minute. A non-specific measure of respiratory disorder. Tidal volume (Vt) is the ...
... part of the oxidative and most of the microaerophilic and anaerobic respiratory chains, and numerous catabolic systems and ... This can be used as a diagnostic test for the presence of bacilli in body lesions of suspected leprosy patients. The difficulty ... osteological lesions suggestive of leprosy from different Europe geographic origins were obtained using DNA capture techniques ... Information from the completed genome can be useful to develop diagnostic skin tests, to understand the mechanisms of nerve ...
Security techniques - Secret sharing ISO/IEC 19592-1:2016 Part 1: General ISO 19600 Compliance management systems - Guidelines ... 2005 Respiratory equipment - Infant monitors - Particular requirements ISO 18788:2015 Management system for private security ... Risk assessment for records processes and systems ISO 18129:2015 Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines - Approaches ... Security techniques - Security assessment of operational systems ISO/IEC 19792:2009 Information technology - Security ...
If the patient has stable vital signs, they may undergo diagnostic imaging such as a CT scan. If the patient has unstable vital ... Blood loss can be estimated based on heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and mental status. Advanced trauma life ... Lee, Edward W.; Laberge, Jeanne M. (2004). "Differential Diagnosis of Gastrointestinal Bleeding". Techniques in Vascular and ... a patient's circulatory system is assessed through palpation of pulses and doppler ultrasonography. It is important to examine ...
Pulmonology - the branch of medicine that deals with the respiratory system. Psychiatry - a branch of medicine that deals with ... Surgery - a branch of medicine that uses operative techniques to investigate or treat both disease and injury, or to help ... Laboratory medicine - a branch of medicine that deals with diagnostic laboratory examinations and tests and their ... Urology - the branch of medicine that deals with the urinary system and the male reproductive system. Veterinary medicine - a ...
February 2005). "Diagnostic system for rapid and sensitive differential detection of pathogens". Emerg Infect Dis. 11 (2): 310- ... MassTag PCR is a more comprehensive and sensitive diagnostic technique, CII was able to determine the cause of this illness for ... "Multiplex MassTag-PCR for respiratory pathogens in pediatric nasopharyngeal washes negative by conventional diagnostic testing ... Unlike, conventional Multiplex PCR system, in MassTag PCR more than 15 primer pairs could be used. If DNA from any of the agent ...
... diagnostic technique, therapeutic practice and in their relationship to the medical mainstream.[44] Under a definition of ... "An alternative medical system is a set of practices based on a philosophy different from Western biomedicine."[17] ... Tonelli MR (2001). "The limits of evidence-based medicine". Respiratory Care. 46 (12): 1435-40, discussion 1440-1. PMID ... Unscientific belief systems. Alternative medicine, such as using naturopathy or homeopathy in place of conventional medicine, ...
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 8 (2): 44-6. doi:10.7860/JCDR/2014/6614.4003. PMC 3972594. PMID 24701478.. ... "Polymicrobial chronic endophthalmitis diagnosed by culture and molecular technique". Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology. 32 ... This species has a homothallic mating system and is often isolated from dairy products.[2] ... female genital infections and upper respiratory infections. Treatment with vancomycin and amphotericin B have been effective ...
Clinical laboratory sciences are the clinical diagnostic services that apply laboratory techniques to diagnosis and management ... Review of systems (ROS) or systems inquiry: a set of additional questions to ask, which may be missed on HPI: a general enquiry ... respiratory therapists, speech therapists, occupational therapists, radiographers, dietitians, and bioengineers, surgeons, ... Immunology is the study of the immune system, which includes the innate and adaptive immune system in humans, for example. ...
Tomato as a model system: I. Genetic and physical mapping of jointless". MGG Molecular & General Genetics. 242 (6). doi:10.1007 ... anthrax and respiratory syncytial virus.[41] Korean scientists are looking at using the tomato to express a vaccine against ... Agrobacterium-mediated genetic engineering techniques were developed in the late 1980s that could successfully transfer genetic ... "Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) S protein production in plants: development of recombinant vaccine". Proceedings of ...
... peripheral nervous system, and central nervous system.[61][84] Many of the signs and symptoms of Lyme disease are a consequence ... "Revue Scientifique et Technique. 23 (2): 569-81. doi:10.20506/rst.23.2.1503. PMID 15702720.. ... Diagnostic method. Based on symptoms, tick exposure, blood tests[3]. Prevention. Prevention of tick bites (clothing the limbs, ... Kirsch M, Ruben FL, Steere AC, Duray PH, Norden CW, Winkelstein A (May 1988). "Fatal adult respiratory distress syndrome in a ...
This technique requires the integration of the same doctor in two different capacities: surgeon as well as pathologist. In case ... UC Davis Health System, Department of Dermatology (2010-04-21). "ACGMC Procedural Dermatology Fellow". ... gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts.The various diseases often overlap in clinical and histological presentation and, ... The dermatologic subspecialty called Mohs surgery focuses on the excision of skin cancers using a tissue-sparing technique that ...
Grocke, D. & Wigram, T. (2007). Receptive methods in music therapy: Techniques and clinical applications for music therapy ... The rise of an understanding of the body and mind in terms of the nervous system led to the emergence of a new wave of music ... Live or recorded music: Live or recorded music has been effective in promoting respiratory regularity and oxygen saturation ... The DSM-IV TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) lists bereavement as a mental health diagnosis when the ...
In those with acute respiratory failure on mechanical ventilation, "the static compliance of the total respiratory system is ... Medical diagnostics. Flow-Volume loop showing successful FVC maneuver. Positive values represent expiration, negative values ... Irwin, Richard (2008). Procedures, techniques, and minimally invasive monitoring in intensive care medicine. Philadelphia: ... May 1985). "Measurement of static compliance of the total respiratory system in patients with acute respiratory failure during ...
"COPD diagnosis related to different guidelines and spirometry techniques". Respiratory Research. 8 (1): 89. doi:10.1186/1465- ... Diagnostic method. Lung function tests[4]. Differential diagnosis. Asthma,[3] Asbestosis, Bronchiectasis, Tracheobronchomalacia ... Many health systems have difficulty ensuring appropriate identification, diagnosis and care of people with COPD; Britain's ... Palange P (2013). ERS Handbook of Respiratory Medicine. European Respiratory Society. p. 194. ISBN 978-1-84984-041-5. .. ...
This system is more expensive, and is sometimes used with patients who have other coexisting respiratory problems and/or who ... Grigg-Damberger M (February 2006). "Why a polysomnogram should become part of the diagnostic evaluation of stroke and transient ... "Sleep-related breathing disorders in adults: recommendations for syndrome definition and measurement techniques in clinical ... "American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 191 (11): 1295-1309. doi:10.1164/rccm.201501-0169OC. PMC 4476519. ...
Vaccines and Diagnostic ProductsEdit. Production and marketing of diagnostic tests developed in the Institute laboratories are ... then entitled Cours de Microbie Technique (Course of microbe research techniques). ... Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov received the Nobel Prize in 1908 for contributions to scientific understanding of the immune system ... like the paralysis of the respiratory muscles.[1]:73 It is this last consequence of the diphtheria that provided the two ...
In biological systems, this means that its main reactions are with itself (dismutation) or with another biological radical such ... SOD2 knockout or null mutations cause growth inhibition on respiratory carbon sources in addition to decreased post-diauxic ... as superoxide dismutase as an indophenol oxidase by protein analysis of starch gels using the phenazine-tetrazolium technique.[ ... a likely diagnostic of NiSODs.[11][12] ... has been linked to lung diseases such as Acute Respiratory ...
... could compensate for both actual respiratory loading and potentially anticipated respiratory loading. The first dynamic ... The outer casing of pacemakers is so designed that it will rarely be rejected by the body's immune system. It is usually made ... The lead removal technique will vary depending on the surgeon's estimation of the probability that simple traction will suffice ... At the time of in-office follow-up, the device will be interrogated to perform diagnostic testing. These tests include: * ...
Respiratory onset[edit]. Respiratory-onset ALS is a rare variant that accounts for about 3% of all cases of ALS,[11] in which ... Diagnostic criteria[edit]. The diagnosis of ALS is based on the El Escorial Revised criteria and the Awaji criteria.[10] The ... Sontheimer, Harald (2015). Diseases of the Nervous System. Academic Press. p. 170. ISBN 978-0-12-800403-6. . Archived from the ... a special recording technique that detects electrical activity in muscles.[4] Certain EMG findings can support the diagnosis of ...
... optical techniques 3-60...3-69: representation of the vascular system 3-70...3-76: nuclear medicine diagnostic procedure 3-70: ... measures for the respiratory system 8-77...8-77: measures in the resuscitation 8-80...8-85: measures for the circulation 8-86 ... diagnostic endoscopy 1-70...1-79: function tests 1-84...1-85: exploratory diagnostic measures 1-90...1-99: Other diagnostic ... Diagnostic procedures 1-10...1-10: physical examination 1-20...1-33: study of individual body systems 1-40...1-49: biopsy ...
Szebeni Janos (2007-05-08)։ The Complement System: Novel Roles in Health and Disease (անգլերեն)։ Springer Science & Business ... Portnoy JM (2006)։ «Evidence-based Allergy Diagnostic Tests»։ Current Allergy and Asthma Reports 6 (6): 455-461։ doi:10.1007/ ... American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 176 (8): 735-41. doi:10.1164/rccm.200612-1793OC. PMC 2020829. PMID ... Revue Scientifique et Technique. 19 (1): 240-58. doi:10.20506/rst.19.1.1218. PMID 11189719. ...
Technique[edit]. Mechanism of action[edit]. Radiation therapy works by damaging the DNA of cancerous cells. This DNA damage is ... Effects on pituitary system[edit]. Hypopituitarism commonly develops after radiation therapy for sellar and parasellar ... Conventional refers to the way the treatment is planned or simulated on a specially calibrated diagnostic x-ray machine known ... Applications and Techniques. Philadelphia: LWW.. *^ Yashar CM, Blair S, Wallace A, Scanderbeg D (2009). "Initial clinical ...
Neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system[edit]. Alzheimer's Disease (AD)[edit]. Main article: Alzheimer's ... In the final stages, patients can lose voluntary control of eye muscles and often die of respiratory failure or pneumonia as a ... a CpG transformation technique which is sensitive to CpG methylation status, in which global hypomethylation has been observed. ... Peripheral nervous system (PNS) diseases may be further categorized by the type of nerve cell (motor, sensory, or both) ...
This would prove invaluable for diagnostic techniques.[7] Commonly treated infectious diseases[edit]. Bacterial[edit]. * ... The site at which a microbe enters the body is referred to as the portal of entry.[20] These include the respiratory tract, ... quantitative PCR does not require this, as the detection system uses fluorescence and probes to detect the DNA molecules as ... This technique is used for identifying viruses.. Microscopy[edit]. Culture techniques will often use a microscopic examination ...
... is a medical technique for visualizing the interior of blood vessels. In this technique, a flexible fiberoptic ... Other diagnostic. *Angioscopy. *Ankle brachial pressure index. *Toe pressure. *Tilt table test ...
Respiratory system. *Allergic rhinitis (hay fever). *Asthma. *Hypersensitivity pneumonitis. *Eosinophilic pneumonia. * ... Diagnostic method. Based on a medical history, elimination diet, skin prick test, oral food challenge[1][2]. ... Wüthrich B (2005). "Unproven techniques in allergy diagnosis". J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 15 (2): 86-90. PMID 16047707. ... According to two reviews, respiratory symptoms are common, but in some cases there has been progression to anaphylaxis.[62][63] ...
He produced the system still being used today. Freud's system divides the causes of the disorder into problems present at birth ... Diagnostic method. Based on child's development[1]. Treatment. Physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, external ... Phelps developed surgical techniques for operating on the muscles to address issues such as spasticity and muscle rigidity. ... Mothers who received magnesium sulphate could experience side effects such as respiratory depression and nausea.[87] However, ...
Diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals (V09). Central nervous system. *99mTc (Exametazime). *123I (Ioflupane ... Iodine-131 can be "seen" by nuclear medicine imaging techniques (i.e., gamma cameras) whenever it is given for therapeutic use ... It can also be detected by gamma cameras for diagnostic imaging, however it is rarely administered for diagnostic purposes only ... International Nuclear Information System. IAEA.. *^ Reis, John C. (1976). Environmental Control in Petroleum Engineering. Gulf ...
There are a number of methods or techniques that can be used in a diagnostic procedure, including performing a differential ... Clinical decision support system[edit]. Clinical decision support systems are interactive computer programs designed to assist ... Diagnostic criteria[edit]. Main article: Clinical case definition. The term diagnostic criteria designates the specific ... A diagnostic test is any kind of medical test performed to aid in the diagnosis or detection of disease. Diagnostic tests can ...
respiratory minute volume. FEV1/FVC ratio. Lung function tests. spirometry. body plethysmography. peak flow meter. nitrogen ... A variant of the molecule, called leghaemoglobin, is used to scavenge oxygen away from anaerobic systems, such as the nitrogen- ... This technique is often used for research in e.g. elite sports training, ergonomics, rehabilitation, patient monitoring, ... Diagnostic uses[edit]. Main article: Hemoglobinometer. A hemoglobin concentration measurement being administered before a blood ...
Cohen, W. D. (1982). "The cytomorphic system of anucleate non-mammalian erythrocytes". Protoplasma. 113: 23-32. doi:10.1007/ ... Jiang N, Tan NS, Ho B, Ding JL (October 2007). "Respiratory protein-generated reactive oxygen species as an antimicrobial ... diagnostic) red blood cell fragments called schistocytes. These pathologies generate fibrin strands that sever red blood cells ... advantage of the hemoglobin color change to directly measure the arterial blood oxygen saturation using colorimetric techniques ...
... the main issues that these residents would face is bioaccumulation of REEs and the impact on their respiratory system but ... Zhi Li, Ling; Yang, Xiaosheng (4 September 2014). China's rare earth ore deposits and beneficiation techniques (PDF). 1st ... The trends that are observed in "spider" diagrams are typically referred to as "patterns", which may be diagnostic of ... Of particular interest are the 138La-138Ce, 147Sm-143Nd, and 176Lu-176Hf systems.[22] ...
Medical organizations have created diagnostic criteria to ease and standardize the diagnostic process, especially in the early ... is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.[1] The symptoms ... Other effective techniques to promote relaxation include slow rotational movements of the extremities and trunk, rhythmic ... and respiratory dysfunctions in advanced Parkinson's disease, deep diaphragmatic breathing exercises are beneficial in ...
LCLC's have typically comprised around 10% of all NSCLC in the past, although newer diagnostic techniques seem to be reducing ... Tumours and neoplasia in the respiratory tract (C30-C34/D14, 160-163/212.0-212.4) ... a promising prognostic system". Clin. Cancer Res. 11 (12): 4400-5. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-04-2378. PMID 15958624.. ... Other treatments include percutaneous ablation and chemoembolization.[36] The most widely used ablation techniques for lung ...
Rechtschaffen, A. & Kales, A. (Eds.) (1968). A manual of standardized terminology, techniques, and scoring system for sleep ... Polysomnography (PSG), a type of sleep study,[1] is a multi-parametric test used in the study of sleep and as a diagnostic tool ... Respiratory effort is also measured in concert with nasal/oral airflow by the use of belts. These belts expand and contract ... This single-night diagnostic sleep study shows evidence for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). For the full night his apnea+ ...
Bronchoscopy Lungs Diagnostic Techniques, Respiratory System Radiology, Interventional Critical care medicine Imaging / ... Critical Care Medicine Oncology Pneumology Pneumology/Respiratory System Radiology, Medical Surgery Medicine & Public Health ... Techniques described in this volume are: laser therapy, argon plasma coagulation therapy, cryotherapy, brachytherapy, placement ... Diagnostic procedures that are covered are: medical thoracoscopy, flexible and rigid bronchoscopy, endobronchial ultrasound, ...
Respiratory System information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and health issues. ... Respiratory System. Description of Diagnostic Techniques, Respiratory System. Diagnostic Techniques, Respiratory System: ... Respiratory System: *Respiratory System *Respiratory System symptoms (5166 causes) *Diagnostic *Respiratory *Respiratory ... Respiratory disorder (35 causes) *System Hierarchical classifications of Diagnostic Techniques, Respiratory System. The ...
Techniques used for detecting early stages of pneumoconioses and the pathogenesis of dust related lung diseases were discussed ... Diagnostic-techniques; Respiratory-system-disorders; Occupational-diseases; Mineral-dusts; Visual-images; Chest-X-rays; ... Techniques used for detecting early stages of pneumoconioses and the pathogenesis of dust related lung diseases were discussed ... Standard posterior/anterior chest X-rays are regarded as the standard technique for detecting mineral dust pneumoconioses. It ...
Respiratory-system-disorders; Pulmonary-system-disorders; Lung-disease; Lung-disorders; Lung-function; Chest-X-rays; X-ray- ... diagnosis; X-ray-analysis; Diagnostic-tests; Diagnostic-techniques; Surveillance. Publication Date. 20090401 ...
In excretion: Respiratory system. *fistulas* In fistula. *percussion diagnostic techniques* In diagnosis: Percussion ... In addition to respiratory activities, the lungs perform other bodily functions. Through them, water, alcohol, and ... The main bronchus subdivides many times after entering the lung; the resulting system of tubules resembles an inverted tree. ... Healed lung tissue becomes a fibrous scar unable to perform respiratory duties. There is no functional evidence that lung ...
Diagnostic Techniques, Respiratory System. EN. dc.subject.mesh. Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures. EN. ... Pathways to better diagnostics for tuberculosis : a blueprint for the development of TB diagnostics by the new diagnostics ... Implementing tuberculosis diagnostics: policy framework. World Health Organization. dc.coverage.spatial ... Technique automatisée damplification de lacide nucléique en temps réel pour la détection rapide et simultanée de la ...
Diagnostic Techniques, Respiratory System / standards * Disease Progression * Forecasting * Humans * Lung Diseases, Obstructive ...
Diagnostic Techniques, Respiratory System / standards* * Global Health * Humans * Practice Guidelines as Topic* ...
Gastrointestinal system; Respiratory system; Cardiovascular and haemopoietic systems; Urogenital system; Neurology; Nutritional ... Diagnostic and surgical endoscopy; Therapeutics and medication; Anaesthesia and analgesia; Surgery: principles and techniques; ... reptile patients, including diagnosis, surgical techniques and euthanasia.. *Chapter dedicated to anatomy and physiology ... Each chapter describes diagnosis and treatment, with step-by-step operative techniques for selected procedures. ...
NIOSH-Publication; Coal-workers-pneumoconiosis; Lung-disorders; Radiology; Respiratory-system-disorders; Diagnostic-techniques ... an adequate number being not available for a full test of the proposed system. The recommendations cited in Section 2 of the ... report represent the investigators belief of what is needed to accomplish implementation of an automatic screening system for ...
Diagnostic techniques; Physical exercise; Respiratory system disorders; Dust exposure; Lung disease; Pulmonary disorders; ...
Diagnostic Techniques, Respiratory System. *Environmental Health. *Epithelial Cells. *Histology. *Immune System. *Immunity, ... of Internal Medicine; Chief, Medical Service, VACT Healthcare System; Medicine Service Line Director for VISN 1: VA New England ... Precipio Diagnostics, LLC; Former Director of Hematopathology, Yale Department of Pathology ...
Diagnostic Techniques, Respiratory System; Environmental Health; Epithelial Cells; Histology; Immune System; Immunity, Innate; ... Respiratory System; Rhinovirus; RNA Virus Infections; RNA Viruses; Viruses, Unclassified; Virology; Immunity, Mucosal; ... of Internal Medicine; Chief, Medical Service, VACT Healthcare System; Medicine Service Line Director for VISN 1: VA New England ... Aging; DNA Repair; Immune System; Immunity, Innate; Influenza Vaccines; Toll-Like Receptors; Infectious Disease Medicine ...
Respiratory-system-disorders; Diagnostic-techniques; Radiography; Cardiovascular-system-disorders; Noise-control; Toxicology; ... and environmental measurement techniques. The papers presented at the meeting, published by NIOSH, are an introductory text, ...
Diagnostic-techniques; Microscopic-analysis; Clinical-pathology; Clinical-diagnosis; Respiratory-system-disorders; Lung- ... the role of adjunct diagnostic techniques (tissue sampling, autopsy, lung biopsy, LM, extraction from tissues, SEM, XES, TEM, ... The authors conclude that microanalytical techniques are useful for confirming asbestos exposure diagnoses. ... The role of analytical techniques in the diagnosis of asbestos-associated disease. ...
Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures [E01.370]. *Diagnostic Techniques, Respiratory System [E01.370.386]. *Respiratory Function ... Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle. ... The Evaluation of a Noninvasive Respiratory Volume Monitor in Pediatric Patients Undergoing General Anesthesia. Anesth Analg. ...
Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures [E01.370]. *Diagnostic Techniques, Respiratory System [E01.370.386]. *Respiratory Function ... Respiratory Sensations in Dynamic Hyperinflation: Physiological and Clinical Applications. Respir Care. 2017 Sep; 62(9):1212- ...
Categories: Diagnostic Techniques, Respiratory System Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, ...
This course covers the circulatory and the respiratory systems. It attempts to integrate normal structure and function with ... and diagnostic techniques. Teaching modalities include lectures, case-based small group sessions, and laboratories. ... develop a system for categorizing general pathologic processes that underlie diseases in all of the organ systems and outline ... Instead emphasis will be placed on an understanding of the basic functions of these organ systems and the ways in which ...
... but also the diagnostic pitfalls and the grey areas between so as to enable the reader to give more evidence-based reports. In ... This edition stresses not just the diagnostic cytological features of the various conditions encountered, ... Section 2 Respiratory System. *Chapter 2 Respiratory tract. *Introduction. *Preparatory techniques and diagnostic applications ... This edition stresses not just the diagnostic cytological features of the various conditions encountered, but also the ...
Area of Interest Lung, Respiratory system ; Imaging Technique CT Procedure Diagnostic procedure ; No Special Focus ; ... Eosinophilic lung diseases: diagnostic accuracy of thin-section CT in 111 patients. Radiology 2000;216:773-780 doi:10.1148/ ... Most severe symptoms may regard central nervous system (neuropathy), kidneys and heart.. The American College of Rheumatology ... past pericarditis and onset respiratory symptoms. Imaging illustrates a ground-glass pattern attributable to eosinophilic ...
PCR and sequencing techniques provide highly sensitive diagnostic tools superior to microscopy. ... PCR and sequencing techniques provide highly sensitive diagnostic tools superior to microscopy. ... Although apparently rare, central nervous system involvement and acute respiratory distress syndrome may complicate TBRF caused ... Increasingly available PCR and sequencing techniques provide highly sensitive diagnostic tools superior to microscopy. ...
Chest, Radiography, Thoracic, Diagnostic Techniques, Respiratory System, Respiratory Tract Diseases, e-böcker ... Diagnostic and Therapeutic Techniques and Equipment, Case Reports, Diagnosis, Diagnostic Imaging, Diagnostic Techniques and ... Anesthesia, Respiration, Respiratory organs, Respiratory Physiological Phenomena, Respiratory System, e-böcker. Lumb, Andrew B ... Respiratory physiology. Respiratory organs, Respiratory Physiological Phenomena, Respiration, Examination Questions, Fulltext, ...
3 Examination of the Cardiovascular System. 4 Examination of the Respiratory System. 5 Examination of the Abdomen. 6 ... 14 Basic Examination, Notes and Diagnostic Principles. 15 Presenting Cases and Communication. 16 Imaging Techniques and ... 7 Examination of the Female Reproductive System. 8 Mental Health Assessment. 9 Examination of the Nervous System. 10 Ophthalmic ... 11 Examination of the Musculoskeletal System. 12 Assessment of the Child. 13 Assessment of Disability Including Care of the ...
Diagnostic Techniques, Respiratory System [E01.370.386]. *Respiratory Function Tests [E01.370.386.700]. *Blood Gas Analysis [ ... Finlay-Morreale HE, Louie C, Toy P. Computer-generated automatic alerts of respiratory distress after blood transfusion. J Am ... T1 mapping of the entire lung parenchyma: Influence of respiratory phase and correlation to lung function test results in ... Improved Oxygenation After Transport in Patients With Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure. Air Med J. 2015 Nov-Dec; 34(6):369-76. ...
... modern endoscopic and surgical techniques, and more. Classic Netter art, updated illustrations, and modern imaging make this ... Diagnostic Procedures. 3-1 - 3-3 Tests of Pulmonary Function Radiologic Examination of the Lungs ... Respiratory System, 2nd Edition provides a concise and highly visual approach to the basic sciences and clinical pathology of ... Access rare illustrations in one convenient source from the only Netter work devoted specifically to the respiratory system. ...
... respiratory and endocrine systems. Diagnostic imaging techniques, radiopharmaceutical agents, indications and limitations of ... Introduction to Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine procedures. Patient handling techniques and nursing and laboratory procedures ... Diagnostic imaging techniques, radiopharmaceutical agents, indications and limitations of nuclear medicine procedures, normal ... Prerequisite: Diagnostic Medical Imaging Nuclear Medicine 2500 with a grade of C or better, or equivalent and Diagnostic ...
Responses of the Respiratory System to Inhaled Agents. * Pathological Reactions to Inhaled Particles and Fibers ... Diagnostic Techniques. * Occupational and Environmental Lung Disease: The Role of Imaging Zelena A. Aziz, David M. Hansell ... There is particular emphasis on the role of thin-section computed tomography since this technique facilitates the detection of ... 1.Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hôpital ErasmeUniversité Libre de BruxellesBrusselsBelgium ...
  • Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the respiratory tract or its organs. (
  • Techniques used for detecting early stages of pneumoconioses and the pathogenesis of dust related lung diseases were discussed. (
  • The application of nanotechnology in drug delivery systems has created new treatments for respiratory diseases. (
  • The application of nanotechnology overcomes drug inherent deficiencies to a certain extent, and provides unlimited potential for the development of drugs to treat respiratory diseases. (
  • With the rise in air pollution levels, rapid changes in lifestyle and frequent outbreaks of microbial infections, the morbidity of respiratory diseases is increasing, particularly among children and the elderly population with weakened immune systems ( 1 ). (
  • Almost 4,000,000 people die from respiratory diseases every year worldwide ( 2 ). (
  • The main respiratory diseases include acute and chronic respiratory infections, lung cancer, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis and tuberculosis ( 2 ). (
  • The development of nanotechnology brings a novel broad perspective for improving the effects of treatment and diagnosis of respiratory diseases. (
  • For example, some NPs, similar to fine dusts and fibers in nature, may induce respiratory and cardiovascular diseases as environmental pollutants ( 9 , 10 ). (
  • Aids in the treatment of respiratory diseases. (
  • Diagnostic tests are obviously required to confirm the presence of many respiratory diseases in small animals. (
  • Regarding research it was felt that no immediate practical applications of new techniques in the diagnosis of mycobacterial diseases, in treatment, or in vaccination can be recommended, but that further basic research in the field of mycobacteria should be pursued and supported. (
  • An introducatory course of diagnostic pathology with emphasis on the common and uncommon diseases of the whole body and respiratory, urinary, and digestive (including liver and pancreas) systems. (
  • An advanced course that builds on the skills acquired in PABI*6090 and further enhances diagnostic beterinary patology skills to include diseases of all organ systems. (
  • French hospital group AP-HP, (Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris), and diagnostics technology developer Magnisense have signed a partnership agreement to develop rapid portable diagnostic tests for cardiovascular diseases. (
  • Written by an expert with more than 30 years of clinical experience in avian medicine, the new edition is thoroughly revised with updated diseases, new and expanded clinical techniques, and over 100 new color illustrations. (
  • Therapeutic bronchoscopy is a common procedure to treat respiratory diseases. (
  • Diagnostic bronchoscopy is an invasive procedure performed to diagnose respiratory diseases. (
  • Respiratory system manifestations of diseases of the respiratory tract or of other organs. (
  • It is occasionally seen in humans, who present symptoms similar to other diseases with respiratory manifestations, such as a chronic dry cough and chest pain, in addition to a "foreign body" sensation in the throat. (
  • Respiratory Diseases 7. (
  • Now, I am in the process of developing low-cost diagnostics systems to detect and differentiate infectious agents, including respiratory diseases (e.g. (
  • This work led to diagnostics platforms to detect viral diseases at or near points of sampling. (
  • These illustrations demonstrate hypothetical diagnostic symptoms of various diseases in respiratory system, central nervous system, digestive system, endocrine system, cardiovascular system, and urinary genital systems. (
  • Further, WGS has been extensively applied to investigate etiology, evolution and transmission of respiratory illnesses ( 5 ) and sexually transmitted diseases ( 6 ) as well as the acquisition and dissemination of antibiotic resistance in hospitals ( 7 , 8 ). (
  • From there, we move on to terminology related to a number of different diseases, diagnostic procedures, and treatment techniques. (
  • The auscultation of the respiratory system is a noninvasive, safe, easy-to-perform, and one of the oldest diagnostic techniques used by physiotherapists and physicians to diagnose various pulmonary diseases and assess the quality and changes in a patients lungs. (
  • The branches 3 mm and less in diameter are known as bronchioles , which lead to minute air sacs called alveoli ( see pulmonary alveolus ), where the actual gas molecules of oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged between the respiratory spaces and the blood capillaries. (
  • This volume in The Netter Collection of Medical Illustrations (the CIBA "Green Books") has been expanded and revised by Dr. David Kaminsky to cover important topics like pulmonary hypertension, COPD, asthma, drug-resistant TB, modern endoscopic and surgical techniques, and more. (
  • Grasp the nuances of the pathophysiology of today's major respiratory conditions-including pulmonary hypertension, COPD, asthma, environmental lung disease, sleep disorders, infections of the immunocompromised, neonatal breathing disorders, and drug-resistant TB, and modern endoscopic and surgical techniques-through advances in molecular biology and radiologic imaging. (
  • However, respiratory medicine is an underdeveloped subspecialty in veterinary medicine, and there are relatively few sophisticated tests that are available to the clinician that actually diagnose specific pulmonary disorders. (
  • This manuscript will review the diagnostic tests that are available to evaluate small animals with signs of respiratory disease, including the advantages, disadvantages and current controversies regarding many of these tests used to evaluate pets with signs of pulmonary impairment. (
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the transcription-reverse transcription concerted (TRC) method for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) 16S rRNA in clinical respiratory samples for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. (
  • The study can be referred to in the pulmonary diagnostics, treatment, and design of various medical devices or diagnostic systems. (
  • Nowadays, dynamic characteristics of respiratory system and models of different medical conditions are referred to in pulmonary diagnostics and treatments [ 21 - 29 ]. (
  • Our most advanced endoscopy system introduces a range of new, easy-to-use technologies that aim to revolutionize the way pulmonary disorders can be detected, characterized and sampled. (
  • Objective: Conventional bronchoscopy has a low diagnostic yield for peripheral pulmonary lesions. (
  • Radial-probe EBUS facilitates the localization of peripheral pulmonary nodules, thus increasing the diagnostic yield. (
  • This requires substantial knowledge of cardiorespiratory physiology and oncology, as well as capability in the use of heart assist devices, management of abnormal heart rhythms and drainage of the chest cavity, respiratory support systems, endoscopy and invasive and noninvasive diagnostic techniques. (
  • As part of the commitment by Olympus to improve education in respiratory endoscopy, various training software packages and applications have been developed. (
  • Husbandry, Grooming and Nutrition, Diagnostic Imaging, Endoscopy, and Oncology as well as new sections on cardiovascular anatomy and neuroanatomy. (
  • Bronchoscopy (also: endoscopy of the respiratory system) is of major importance. (
  • Rush Oak Park Hospital's endoscopy specialists - including gastroenterologists, colon and rectal surgeons, pulmonologists and hepatologists - use state-of-the-art visualization technology to examine and treat digestive and respiratory system issues. (
  • Our team offers a full range of screening, diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopy services, using both traditional endoscopes (thin, flexible tubing equipped with a camera, inserted through either the rectum or the mouth) and new techniques like the PillCam, a camera enclosed in a vitamin-sized capsule that you swallow. (
  • The endoscopy team at Rush Oak Park Hospital shares physicians, technologies and communications - even an electronic health record system - with Rush University Medical Center. (
  • Radiologic technologists operate x-ray and digital imaging machines, digital mammography equipment, computed tomography (CT scan) machines and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to provide physicians with images of the skeletal system, organs, tissues and other vessels of the body-important diagnostic tests that help doctors detect and treat illness and injury. (
  • An abnormal passage communicating between any component of the respiratory tract or between any part of the respiratory system and surrounding organs. (
  • Each lesson starts with a brief overview of the organs in that lesson's organ system. (
  • In addition to the lungs, is related to many organs and structures, which together form the respiratory system. (
  • In addition to respiratory activities, the lungs perform other bodily functions. (
  • Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle. (
  • It is more difficult to visualize the lungs on an X-ray than bones, but the technique can still be helpful in the diagnostic process. (
  • This technique involves the insertion of a thin tube with a miniature lens through the nasal passage and into the lungs, which allows the internal tissues of the lungs to be visualized and check for any abnormalities. (
  • Techniques to re-inflate air sacs in the lungs. (
  • 1 ] described the forced oscillation technique (FOT) as a tool to measure lung function using sinusoidal sound waves of single frequencies generated by a loud speaker and passed into the lungs during tidal breathing. (
  • As a specialist in internal medicine and pneumology, drug tumour therapy, sleep medicine, diving medicine and allergology he is specialized in lungs and lung diagnostics and also in developing individual treatment approaches. (
  • People are the lungs of the respiratory system. (
  • 16 Imaging Techniques and Clinical Investigations. (
  • Respiratory System, 2nd Edition provides a concise and highly visual approach to the basic sciences and clinical pathology of this body system. (
  • Although these data cannot be directly transferred to inhaled therapeutic NPs, before practical application, different in vitro and in vivo methods should be used in preclinical research and clinical trials to systematically detect the interaction between nanomedicines and various components of the respiratory system. (
  • Clinical and radiological findings should guide the diagnostic approach, depending on the size and location of the tumour, the presence of metastatic disease, and the clinical status of the patient. (
  • Adults (aged 15 to 88 years) with blunt thoracic or abdominal injuries USS by surgeons compared to the patients clinical outcome and other diagnostic techniques. (
  • Clinical biochemistry of selected organ systems including the renal, hepatic, pancreatic and endocrine organ systems. (
  • Spirometry is currently the most commonly performed lung function test in clinical practice and is considered to be the gold standard diagnostic test for asthma and COPD. (
  • These recent developments have created demand for the implementation of techniques enabling direct sequencing of microbial genomes in clinical samples without having to culture an isolate. (
  • This minisymposium on advanced cardiac imaging will focus on new techniques in cardiac MRI and its clinical applications. (
  • This study confirms the existence of obstacles in the diagnostic classification of suspected cases of SF by clinical signs and symptoms. (
  • Comparison of nasopharyngeal aspirate and nasopharyngeal swab specimens for respiratory syncytial virus diagnosis by cell culture, indirect immunofluorescence assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (
  • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a very common cause of respiratory tract infection especially in young children. (
  • Diagnostic procedures that are covered are: medical thoracoscopy, flexible and rigid bronchoscopy, endobronchial ultrasound, electromagnetical navigation, and trends in personalized treatment for lung cancer and other benign lung conditions. (
  • A bronchoscopy oxygenation system having a channel for inserting alternately an instrument or fluids and for delivering oxygen to a patient. (
  • The bronchoscopy oxygenation system may be used during bronchoscopy and with patient suctioning, bronchoalveolar lavage or biopsy. (
  • The bronchoscopy oxygenation system is intended to be used with a conventional bronchoscope. (
  • Therapeutic bronchoscopy is to provide a treatment or therapy, and diagnostic is to aid in the diagnosis of an underlying condition. (
  • In the respiratory field, Olympus provides a wide range of innovative solutions - not only bronchoscopes but also solutions for endobronchial ultrasound, peripheral and pediatric bronchoscopy, as well as EndoTherapy instruments. (
  • In diagnostic bronchoscopy, a flexible bronchoscope is used to visually inspect the trachea and bronchi. (
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate outcomes following electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy™ (ENB™) procedures using the superDimension™ navigation system. (
  • Rigid bronchoscopy is one of the oldest medical techniques used in the respiratory and thoracic fields. (
  • Neonatal bronchoscopy: Role in respiratory disease of the newborn-A 7 year experience. (
  • Flexible bronchoscopy has been well established for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in critically ill patients. (
  • Development and evaluation of 3-dimensional printed models of the human tracheobronchial system for training in flexible bronchoscopy. (
  • The Emory Cardiac Imaging Center is a state-of-the-art facility where our team of cardiac imaging specialists from cardiology and radiology work together to provide patients with the most accurate and appropriate diagnostic medical imaging services available. (
  • Each chapter describes diagnosis and treatment, with step-by-step operative techniques for selected procedures. (
  • Radionuclide identification, radionuclide energies and half-lives, and commonly used radiopharmaceuticals for Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine procedures. (
  • Introduction to Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine procedures. (
  • Patient handling techniques and nursing and laboratory procedures relating to Nuclear Medicine. (
  • Chest X-rays and CT (computed tomography) scans are standard procedures in this division, providing a comprehensive evaluation of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. (
  • While they are much more rapid than any culture-based method, these systems still require several hours to get results and involve some complicated procedures ( 14 ). (
  • We also go over different diagnostic and treatment procedures for each system. (
  • Dr Darwiche and his colleagues have modern highly-efficient medical techniques available enabling them to make precise diagnoses, i.e. first and foremost endoscopic and imaging procedures. (
  • Using various newly developed procedures (such as implantation of small valves into the respiratory system) success is usually achieved in improving symptoms where drug therapies have failed to make further improvement. (
  • Most severe symptoms may regard central nervous system (neuropathy), kidneys and heart. (
  • As we know, allergic disease can present with symptoms from various different body systems, including the respiratory and the skin. (
  • There are many other viruses that infect the respiratory tract and there is a large overlap of symptoms among these infections. (
  • In this practical and beautifully illustrated book, early chapters cover physical examination, advice on interpreting diagnostic tests, and avian anatomy and physiology. (
  • More than 400 illustrations demonstrate key concepts related to radiographic interpretation, relevant anatomy, and diagnostic, surgical, and therapeutic techniques. (
  • Respiratory System Anatomy. (
  • Get a complete overview of the respiratory system through multidisciplinary coverage from physiology and biochemistry to adult and pediatric medicine and surgery. (
  • A total of 201 respiratory samples from patients diagnosed with or suspected of having tuberculosis were tested. (
  • The rapid detection and identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) in respiratory samples are extremely important for optimal diagnosis and effective treatment, as well as for prevention and control of tuberculosis transmission. (
  • 3. Availability of specialized tuberculosis personnel at regional and provincial level, responsible for close monitoring of the diagnostic skills and patient prioritization in general health institutions. (
  • Swiss NGO FIND is joining forces with UK diagnostics developer QuantuMDx Group to develop a combined solution for the rapid detection of tuberculosis and determination of drug resistance. (
  • Although the current diagnostic and therapeutic techniques have improved, effective treatment of severe and chronic disease is still lacking ( 3 , 4 ). (
  • Over 400 photographs and illustrations highlight key concepts such as radiographic interpretation and the main points of diagnostic, surgical, and therapeutic techniques. (
  • Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) account for an estimated 75% of all acute morbidities in industrialized countries and continue to be the leading cause of acute illness worldwide . (
  • Respiratory viruses also can cause serious lung infections. (
  • Overall goals include (1) to identify natural defense mechanisms the body uses to block replication of respiratory viruses, (2) to understand how environmental exposures influence airway defenses and thereby impact the outcome of respiratory virus infections, and (3) to develop new diagnostic tests for respiratory pathogens based on the host response to infection. (
  • Techniques described in this volume are: laser therapy, argon plasma coagulation therapy, cryotherapy, brachytherapy, placement of intrapleural drainage systems, endoscopic treatment of emphysema, stents in the airway, and thermoplasty for bronchial asthma. (
  • Particular breeds tend to have increased rates of certain respiratory disease, including asthma in Siamese breed felines. (
  • Respiratory viruses cause one billion colds per year in the U.S. and are also the most common trigger of exacerbations of asthma, a disease affecting about 10% of the population. (
  • The role of analytical techniques in the diagnosis of asbestos -associated disease. (
  • T1 mapping of the entire lung parenchyma: Influence of respiratory phase and correlation to lung function test results in patients with diffuse lung disease. (
  • Respiratory disease is a common disease with a high incidence worldwide, which is a serious threat to human health, and is considered a societal and economic burden. (
  • Therefore, there is an urgent need to efficiently and affordably enhance the quality of treatments for respiratory disease. (
  • Diagnostic tests are also used to evaluate or monitor the progress a patient is making during treatment of disease. (
  • 2. Maintenance (or development) of properly designed disease surveillance and a programme monitoring system. (
  • An intermediate course that builds on the skills acquired in PABI*6080 and further enhances diagnostic veterinary pathology skills to include disease of the nervous, endocrine and muscoloskeletal systems. (
  • Basic and interpretive tissue and biochemical concepts of disease in the liver, pancreas, kidney, endocrine and hemiclymphatic systems. (
  • Disease processes of the respiratory, integumentary, reproductive and skeletal systems. (
  • Disease processes of the alimentary, central-nervous, cardiovascular and muscular systems and special senses. (
  • Aspects of immune and non-specific host resistance, diagnostic immunology and immune-mediated disease. (
  • Whole genome sequencing (WGS) plays an increasing role in communicable disease control through high-resolution outbreak tracing, laboratory surveillance and diagnostics. (
  • The Ruhrlandklinik as the West German Lung Centre is one of the leading hospitals for surgical and drug treatment of all respiratory organ disease. (
  • Minimally invasive diagnostics allow tissue samples to be atraumatically removed and immediately examined in the laboratory (on-site diagnostics), achieving very fast clarity about the disease and saving the patient an invasive diagnostic procedure. (
  • To gain insight into what tips the balance between health and disease during respiratory virus infection, we are studying the antiviral defense mechanisms of airway epithelial cells, the cells that form the lining of the respiratory tract. (
  • Given this scenario, it is essential to analyze the efficacy of the Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação-SINAN (Disease Notification Information System) in capturing, managing, and confirming suspected human cases of SF, and for providing information for analysis of its morbidity profile, thus contributing to decision-making at the municipal, state, and federal levels in Brazil. (
  • In addition, it is difficult for most drugs to reach the lower respiratory tract with adequate dose and minimum side effects. (
  • Unique opportunity to repair high tech equipment such as pharmacy packaging systems, scrub suit dispensers, UV Disinfectant machines, DNA Testing Laboratory equipment, ultrasound equipment etc with manufacturers training. (
  • Ultrasound findings were compared against a combination of other diagnostic methods including supine chest x-ray, intercostal drain, computed tomography or tube thoracotomy. (
  • Molecular-based culture independent diagnostics test (CIDT) methods offer significant advantages for diagnostic microbiology laboratories, the most important being a reduction in cost and an decrease in turn-around-time ( 15 - 17 ). (
  • In addition to diagnostic imaging and orthopedic coverage, it includes in-depth information on anesthesia, the integumentary system (including wound management, reconstructive surgery, and skin grafting), the alimentary system, respiratory, and urogenital systems. (
  • Section on integumentary system contains information on wound management, reconstructive surgery, and skin grafting. (
  • Accurate history taking is probably the single most important diagnostic test the clinician can perform in veterinary pulmonology. (
  • Fully updated and expanded to keep pace with the developments in this area of small animal practice, this new edition covers all aspects of treating reptile patients, including diagnosis, surgical techniques and euthanasia. (
  • The Evaluation of a Noninvasive Respiratory Volume Monitor in Pediatric Patients Undergoing General Anesthesia. (
  • Improved Oxygenation After Transport in Patients With Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure. (
  • Massachusetts Life Sciences Center has awarded Cambridge Consultants and non-profit enterprise Diagnostics For All $1m to develop a low-cost point-of-care device for testing patients in remote areas for the Ebola virus. (
  • 3) Respiratory care means the treatment, management, diagnostic testing, control and care of patients with deficiencies and abnormalities associated with the cardiopulmonary system in accordance with the prescription of a licensed physician and under a qualified medical director. (
  • Although T&A may not be universally effective in paediatric patients 18 , several studies have shown that post-operative recovery from OSA treated with T&A includes normalisation of sleep and respiratory measures 16 , 17 , 19 - 21 , and improvements in school performance 2 , cognitive function 13 , 22 , 23 , behaviour 24 and quality of life 25 , 26 . (
  • There are a number of methods available to laboratories to detect RSV in respiratory specimens from patients. (
  • ARGENE ® Respiratory kits are ready-to-use molecular kits for the detection of pathogens by real-time PCR after viral DNA & RNA extraction. (
  • Combining these technologies in primers with components of a self-avoiding molecular recognition system (SAMRS), we detect 50 copies of MERS-CoV RNA in a multiplexed respiratory virus panel by generating fluorescence signal visible to human eye and/or camera. (
  • Starting from the abdomen, the entire respiratory system is used in a relaxed and fully connected cycle. (
  • Finlay-Morreale HE, Louie C, Toy P. Computer-generated automatic alerts of respiratory distress after blood transfusion. (
  • The invention is particularly useful for rapidly assessing the status of a patient in acute respiratory distress in order to more accurately and objectively determine the severity of the patient's condition. (
  • When an RSV infection becomes more serious and progresses to bronchiolitis, patient management goals are to relieve respiratory distress, alleviate airway obstruction and improve oxygen levels. (
  • 9 Examination of the Nervous System. (
  • The Nervous System / David Pleasure and Darryl C. De Vivo -- Ch. 26. (
  • The research is interdisciplinary and focuses on measurement problems with the cardiovascular system, central nervous system, respiratory system and musculoskeletal system, together with applications in biomedicine and eHealth. (
  • George R, Vedam SS, Chung TD, Ramakrishnan V, Keall PJ (2005) The application of the sinusoidal model to lung cancer patient respiratory motion. (
  • Correlating patient information with the flight-path data enabled the team to determine there was no increase in specific diagnoses that are considered most likely to be associated with pesticide exposure, including respiratory, gastrointestinal, skin, eye and neurological conditions. (
  • Disorders affecting the different body regions and systems make up the majority of the book from the external-skin, feathers, eyes, legs and feet-to the internal including the gastrointestinal tract and the cardiovascular system. (
  • The nanodrug delivery system is the application of nanotechnology in the pharmaceutical field, and has shown development prospects in targeted diagnosis and treatment, delaying drug release, improving drug solubility and availability, reducing drug side effects and overcoming barriers of the human body ( 6 ). (
  • 2) Qualified medical director means the medical director of any inpatient or outpatient respiratory care service, department or home care agency who is a physician licensed by the State of Oregon and who has special interest and knowledge in the diagnosis and treatment of respiratory problems. (
  • Olympus continually innovates in order to provide the most advanced equipment to support progress in respiratory diagnosis and treatment. (
  • Auscultation of the lung is an important part of respiratory examination and is helps in diagnosing various respiratory disorders. (
  • RSV is readily spread from contact with respiratory secretions from infected individuals or contaminated surfaces and objects. (
  • Parasites may be found externally or internally in the digestive tract, respiratory tract and blood or circulatory system. (
  • The Circulatory System / Julien I. E. Hoffman -- Ch. 23. (
  • There is particular emphasis on the role of thin-section computed tomography since this technique facilitates the detection of early subclinical abnormalities. (
  • Additionally, diagnostic imaging techniques are often needed to investigate the cause of abnormalities noted in the consultation and physical examination. (
  • A chest X-ray is useful to detect abnormalities in the structure of the lung and differentiate IPF from other similar conditions of the respiratory system. (
  • In the presence of a suspected lung cancer, it is necessary to go through an appropriate diagnostic process that provides a careful diagnosis of the lung cancer based on cytology and/or histology (typing) as well as a careful assessment of the disease's extent (staging). (
  • The bronchoscopic department of the Ruhrlandklinik is the largest across Germany and one of the largest lung cancer diagnostics centres. (
  • The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) have revised the Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System (HCPCS) for 2008. (
  • There's also a pronunciation guide for the term, an example of its correct usage, and important information you should know related to the disorder, diagnostic procedure, or treatment. (
  • NPA specimen collection was less traumatic for the patient, was an easier procedure for the physician to perform, and provided a superior laboratory specimen for RSV diagnosis than the NPS technique. (
  • Since symptomatologies are similar, appropriate diagnostic testing is essential to identifying infectious agents . (
  • The most important part of the physical examination of the respiratory system is inspection , to determine whether the respiratory difficulty can be identified primarily during inspiration or during expiration. (
  • Because of the physical analogies between pneumatic and electrical systems, the structure of the human respiratory tract is usually presented as analogous to an electrical system [ 31 - 36 ]. (
  • A pilot study evaluating predictors of postoperative outcomes after major abdominal surgery: Physiological capacity compared with the ASA physical status classification system. (
  • Standard posterior/anterior chest X-rays are regarded as the standard technique for detecting mineral dust pneumoconioses. (
  • The CyberKnife system (Accuray, Inc., Sunnyvale/CA) uses a polynomial correlation model to relate externally measured surrogate data (optical fibres on the patient's chest emitting red light) to infrequently acquired internal measurements (X-ray data). (
  • The authors conclude that microanalytical techniques are useful for confirming asbestos exposure diagnoses. (
  • Although radiation exposure by CT (and angiography) has decreased consistently due to the improvements in dose management techniques, the major advantage of MRI is the complete lack of ionizing radiation. (
  • We are investigating basic mechanisms whereby the body maintains airway health in the setting of frequent exposure to respiratory viruses. (
  • Prerequisite: Admission to Nuclear Medicine Technology program and Diagnostic Medical Imaging Nuclear Medicine 1100, Diagnostic Medical Imaging Nuclear Medicine 1101, and Diagnostic Medical Imaging Nuclear Medicine 1111 or equivalent or consent of instructor. (
  • Comprehensive study of imaging and non-imaging techniques, instrumentation quality control, patient care, radiopharmacy, computer analysis and quality assurance. (
  • We use the latest, innovative techniques and state-of-the-art equipment for screening and diagnostic imaging. (
  • Medical Imaging at LIU Post has been a provider of education in diagnostic imaging since 1973 and is one of only a few programs in the country to offer the entry-level baccalaureate degree in Radiologic Technology. (
  • Advances in cardiac imaging techniques (including echocardiography, CT, MRI and 3-D rotational angiography) have expanded the diagnostic imaging capabilities for evaluating a wide variety of congenital and acquired cardiac disorders in children, including the effects of cardiotoxic drugs. (
  • However, imaging evaluation of the pediatric cardiac system is often challenging, particularly in young and uncooperative children when respiratory and motion artifacts might degrade image quality. (
  • Therefore, robust and fast imaging techniques allowing for both morphological and functional cardiac evaluation are needed to overcome these challenges. (
  • Berbeco RI, Jiang SB, Sharp GC, Chen GTY, Mostafavi H, Shirato H (2004) Integrated radiotherapy imaging system (IRIS): design considerations of tumour tracking with linac gantry-mounted diagnostic X-ray systems with flat-panel detectors. (
  • Cho BC, Suh Y, Dieterich S, Keall PJ (2008) A monoscopic method for real-time tumour tracking using combined occasional X-ray imaging and continuous respiratory monitoring. (
  • Much of the pathology caused by RSV is related to damage of the lining of the small airways of the respiratory tract. (
  • In particular, the invention relates to an improved non-invasive system and method for monitoring the presence and degree of pulsus paradoxus within a patient. (
  • Thus it is possible to remove tissue by minimally invasive means, clear the respiratory system and relieve dyspnoea. (
  • Newcastle company OJ Bio has successfully completed the prototype development of a portable wireless point-of-care diagnostic system that accurately and quickly identifies the presence of a range of viruses and bacteria in patient fluid samples. (
  • The vast majority of respiratory illnesses are caused by bacteria and viruses. (
  • Translational research focuses on development of new diagnostic tests using patient samples from the Yale New Haven hospital virology laboratory. (
  • Parallel processing with the pathogens detected with the ARGENE ® Respiratory range. (
  • The adoption of CIDT by diagnostic laboratories has led to significant increases in testing and diagnosis of enteric pathogens, but has reduced the number of isolates available for typing, resulting in notifications to public health registries without corresponding culture. (
  • A study of diagnostic hematology and cytology, with emphasis on the hematopoietic system. (