Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Oomycetes: Eukaryotes in the group STRAMENOPILES, formerly considered FUNGI, whose exact taxonomic level is unsettled. Many consider Oomycetes (Oomycota) a phylum in the kingdom Stramenopila, or alternatively, as Pseudofungi in the phylum Heterokonta of the kingdom Chromista. They are morphologically similar to fungi but have no close phylogenetic relationship to them. Oomycetes are found in both fresh and salt water as well as in terrestrial environments. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp683-4). They produce flagellated, actively motile spores (zoospores) that are pathogenic to many crop plants and FISHES.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Salicylic Acid: A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.Biological Control Agents: Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.Pseudomonas syringae: A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Xylella: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria, in the family XANTHOMONADACEAE. It is found in the xylem of plant tissue.Fusarium: A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.Plant Immunity: The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.Rhizoctonia: A mitosporic Ceratobasidiaceae fungal genus that is an important plant pathogen affecting potatoes and other plants. There are numerous teleomorphs.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Fungicides, Industrial: Chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of fungi in agricultural applications, on wood, plastics, or other materials, in swimming pools, etc.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Cladosporium: A mitosporic Loculoascomycetes fungal genus including some economically important plant parasites. Teleomorphs include Mycosphaerella and Venturia.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Phloroglucinol: A trinitrobenzene derivative with antispasmodic properties that is used primarily as a laboratory reagent.Phytophthora: A genus of destructive parasitic OOMYCETES in the family Peronosporaceae, order Peronosporales, affecting numerous fruit, vegetable, and other crops. Differentiation of zoospores usually takes place in the sporangium and no vesicle is formed. It was previously considered a fungus.Antibiosis: A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Plant Structures: The parts of plants, including SEEDS.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Trichoderma: A mitosporic fungal genus frequently found in soil and on wood. It is sometimes used for controlling pathogenic fungi. Its teleomorph is HYPOCREA.Phytoplasma: A genus of minute bacteria in the family ACHOLEPLASMATACEAE that inhabit phloem sieve elements of infected PLANTS and cause symptoms such as yellowing, phyllody, and witches' brooms. Organisms lack a CELL WALL and thus are similar to MYCOPLASMA in animals. They are transmitted by over 100 species of INSECTS especially leafhoppers, planthoppers, and PSYLLIDS.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Hordeum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Basidiomycota: A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.Pantoea: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, straight rods which are motile by peritrichous flagella. Most strains produce a yellow pigment. This organism is isolated from plant surfaces, seeds, soil, and water, as well as from animals and human wounds, blood, and urine. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Actinidia: A plant species of the family ACTINIDIACEAE, order Theales.Solanum tuberosum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.Oxylipins: Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.Delayed Diagnosis: Non-optimal interval of time between onset of symptoms, identification, and initiation of treatment.Botrytis: A mitosporic Leotiales fungal genus of plant pathogens. It has teleomorphs in the genus Botryotina.Pythium: A genus of destructive root-parasitic OOMYCETES in the family Pythiaceae, order Peronosporales, commonly found in cultivated soils all over the world. Differentiation of zoospores takes place in a vesicle.Pseudomonas fluorescens: A species of nonpathogenic fluorescent bacteria found in feces, sewage, soil, and water, and which liquefy gelatin.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cyclopentanes: A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.Prenatal Diagnosis: Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.Magnaporthe: A genus of FUNGI, in the family Magnaporthaceae of uncertain position (incertae sedis). It is best known for its species, M. grisea, which is one of the most popular experimental organisms of all fungal plant pathogens. Its anamorph is PYRICULARIA GRISEA.Phytophthora infestans: A species of parasitic OOMYCETES in the family Peronosporaceae that is the causative agent of late blight of potato.Flax: A plant genus of the family LINACEAE that is cultivated for its fiber (manufactured into linen cloth). It contains a trypsin inhibitor and the seed is the source of LINSEED OIL.Early Diagnosis: Methods to determine in patients the nature of a disease or disorder at its early stage of progression. Generally, early diagnosis improves PROGNOSIS and TREATMENT OUTCOME.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Pectobacterium carotovorum: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that causes rotting, particularly of storage tissues, of a wide variety of plants and causes a vascular disease in CARROTS; and POTATO plants.Plant Epidermis: A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Plant Stomata: Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.Diagnosis: The determination of the nature of a disease or condition, or the distinguishing of one disease or condition from another. Assessment may be made through physical examination, laboratory tests, or the likes. Computerized programs may be used to enhance the decision-making process.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Mycotoxins: Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Tobacco Mosaic Virus: The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Plant Poisoning: Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Plant Tumors: A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Plant Nectar: Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Nursing Diagnosis: Conclusions derived from the nursing assessment that establish a health status profile for the patient and from which nursing interventions may be ordered.Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted: Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Plant Physiological Processes: Physiological functions characteristic of plants.Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Medicine, Traditional: Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Plant Exudates: Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.Preimplantation Diagnosis: Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the OVUM; ZYGOTE; or BLASTOCYST prior to implantation. CYTOGENETIC ANALYSIS is performed to determine the presence or absence of genetic disease.Root Nodules, Plant: Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.Plant Lectins: Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.Germ Cells, Plant: The reproductive cells of plants.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Plant Infertility: The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Brassica: A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).Germination: The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Asteraceae: A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Botany: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.Peas: A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Abscisic Acid: Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.Phytosterols: A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.Bryopsida: A class of plants within the Bryophyta comprising the mosses, which are found in both damp (including freshwater) and drier situations. Mosses possess erect or prostrate leafless stems, which give rise to leafless stalks bearing capsules. Spores formed in the capsules are released and grow to produce new plants. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990). Many small plants bearing the name moss are in fact not mosses. The "moss" found on the north side of trees is actually a green alga (CHLOROPHYTA). Irish moss is really a red alga (RHODOPHYTA). Beard lichen (beard moss), Iceland moss, oak moss, and reindeer moss are actually LICHENS. Spanish moss is a common name for both LICHENS and an air plant (TILLANDSIA usneoides) of the pineapple family. Club moss is an evergreen herb of the family LYCOPODIACEAE.Biopsy, Needle: Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.Protoplasts: The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.Fetal Diseases: Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Meristem: A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Agrobacterium tumefaciens: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Aphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Cucumis sativus: A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.Cytokinins: Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Hydroponics: A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Mustard Plant: Any of several BRASSICA species that are commonly called mustard. Brassica alba is white mustard, B. juncea is brown or Chinese mustard, and B. nigra is black, brown, or red mustard. The plant is grown both for mustard seed from which oil is extracted or used as SPICES, and for its greens used as VEGETABLES or ANIMAL FEED. There is no relationship to MUSTARD COMPOUNDS.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Hemiptera: A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.Endophytes: An endosymbiont that is either a bacterium or fungus living part of its life in a plant. Endophytes can benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them.Solanaceae: A plant family of the order Solanales, subclass Asteridae. Among the most important are POTATOES; TOMATOES; CAPSICUM (green and red peppers); TOBACCO; and BELLADONNA.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Bryophyta: A division of the plant kingdom. Bryophyta contains the subdivision, Musci, which contains the classes: Andreaeopsida, BRYOPSIDA, and SPHAGNOPSIDA.United StatesAcute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.
Plant Disease. 68 (7): 597-599. doi:10.1094/pd-69-597. "Peppers, Tomatoes, and Tobamoviruses" Plant Pathology Circular No. 400 ... Diagnosis and Management. Springer. ISBN 9781402018268. "Pepper Mild Mottle Virus." American Vegetable Grower, 59.9 (2011): 30 ... The virus moves long distances on the seed and moves short distances via plant-to-plant contact, handling of plants by ... Avoidance is the best means of controlling the disease because once a plant is infected it cannot be treated. Only seeds that ...
Moyer, James W (1989). "Viruses and Viruslike Diseases of Sweet Potato". Plant Disease. 73 (6): 451-6. doi:10.1094/PD-73-0451. ... Hegde, Vinayaka; Misra, R. S.; Jeeva, M. L. (2012). "Sweet Potato Diseases: Diagnosis and Management" (PDF). Fruit, Vegetable, ... In order to feed on a host plant, whiteflies pierce the phloem of the plant with its mouth, and subsequently remove nutrients.[ ... Also, stunting and dwarfing of the plant is common. Some hosts even have venial chlorosis. Overall, plant growth is very poor ...
Plant Protection Science. "Diseases of Fruits and Vegetables - Volume II: Diagnosis and , S.A.M.H. Naqvi , Springer". www. ... Pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV) is a plant pathogenic virus. The two RNAs of the disease are now categorised as two separate, ... Symptoms include chlorotic, translucent or necrotic lesions, malformation of leaves and stipules, and plant distortion. However ...
Greenblatt RJ (2005). "Human papillomaviruses: Diseases, diagnosis, and a possible vaccine". Clinical Microbiology Newsletter. ... De Veylder L, Joubès J, Inzé D (December 2003). "Plant cell cycle transitions". Current Opinion in Plant Biology. 6 (6): 536-43 ... "The developmental context of cell-cycle control in plants". Semin. Cell Dev. Biol. 16 (3): 385-96. doi:10.1016/j.semcdb.2005.02 ...
Recent Advances in the Diagnosis and Management of Plant Diseases. Springer. ISBN 81-322-2571-6. Collins, edited by Peter M. ( ... Plant Growth Substances 1985 Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Plant Growth Substances, Held at Heidelberg, ...
Prenatal diagnosis or preimplantation diagnosis enables testing embryos for diseases or conditions. Cryoconservation of animal ... In these plants, the embryo begins its existence attached to the inside of the archegonium on a parental gametophyte from which ... In plants, animals, and some protists, the zygote will begin to divide by mitosis to produce a multicellular organism. The ... In botany, a seed plant embryo is part of a seed, consisting of precursor tissues for the leaves, stem (see hypocotyl), and ...
One aspect of healthcare is the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases; the other pertains to provisions for medical ... Converting rice from a C3 plant into a C4 plant would be beneficial because the latter can efficiently produce more yield than ... the Plant Breeding Institute, the International Rice Research Institute, the Bureau of Plant Industry, and the Bureau of Forest ... Dioscoro L. Umali, is an agriculturist that was dubbed as the Father of Philippine Plant Breeding due to the programs he ...
Correct diagnosis of any plant disease requires some expertise. Plants suspected of a viral infection should be sent to a plant ... Plant Disease Reporter 50:139-143. Cooper, W.E. 1966. A destructive virus disease of peanut. Plant Disease Reporter 50:136 ... Plant Disease Reporter 55:453 Rogers, K. M. and Mixon, A.C. 1972. Peanut stunt virus in Alabama. Plant Disease Reporter 56:415- ... Disease symptoms on the above ground parts of the peanut plants were described as severe dwarfing or stunting - hence the name ...
Correct diagnosis of any plant disease requires some expertise. Plants suspected of a viral infection should be sent to a plant ... When planting in the same fields in successive years do not plant varieties of plants that are susceptible to CMV. Since CMV ... Description of Plant Viruses:What are viruses? Description of Plant Viruses: Bromovirideae "About Plant Viruses / Material and ... Report on Plant Disease: Mosaic Diseases of Cucurbits APSnet: Cucumber Mosaic Virus Alabama Cooperative Extension System - ...
Hui, Y. H.; Smith, R. A.; Spoerke, Jr., David G. (2000). Foodborne Disease Handbook, Second Edition: Volume 3: Plant Toxicants ... Spoerke, David G.; Rumack, Barry H. (1994). Handbook of Mushroom Poisoning: Diagnosis and Treatment. CRC Press. p. 146. ISBN ...
Skin Diseases Expert System using Dempster-Shafer Theory. A diagnosis of the circumstance of the Ummah and how the Islamic ... Microbiological Status in a Fully Export-Oriented Shrimp Processing Plant. Livelihood Status of Fishermen of the Old ... ". "Muhammad Anshari's Publications". Maseleno A, Hasan M (2012). "Skin Diseases Expert System using Dempster-Shafer Theory". ...
Crop rotation with legume plants on sugarcane fields can reduce the number of plant parasitic nematodes. However, this ... Stirling G.R and Blair, B. A guide to sugar cane diseases (2000). CIRAD Publication Service Montpellier, France, pp 299-305. [1 ... Diagnosis, Biology, Pathogenicity and Management. Brill Academic Publishers. ... Threshold for plant and first ratoons (per gram of roots) is 300 while threshold for old ratoons (per gram of roots) is over ...
Petzold, Plant, Diagnosis and classification of autoimmune optic neuropathy, Autoimmun Rev. 2014 Jan 12. pii: S1568-9972(14) ... These diseases often cause sudden rapid visual loss in one eye. Inflammatory diseases of the blood vessels, like giant cell ... In short, optic atrophy is the end result of any disease that damages nerve cells anywhere between the retinal ganglion cells ... Dominant optic atrophy is an autosomal dominant disease caused by a defect in the nuclear gene OPA1. A slowly progressive optic ...
Qualitative zymoblot is of great potential use in diagnosis of human, animal and plant diseases. If a pathogen demonstrates a ... It is useful in studies including physiology of humans, animals, plants and microorganisms, differential diagnosis of diseases ... Wagih, E.E. and Wagih, M.E. (1996). The Zymoblot Technique: Potential in Plant Physiology. Proc. 2nd Asia-Pacific Conference on ... Plant Physiology, Shah Alam, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 20-22 August 1996. Wagih, M. E., Onwueme, I. C. and Wagih, E. E. (1996). ...
Disease diagnosis is determined on the basis of anamorph morphology and host. Erysiphe cruciferarum is an obligate parasite. ... "Powdery Mildew - Plant Diseases". Penn State Extension. Penn State College of Agricultural Sciences. Retrieved 2015-11-12. ... High planting densities will decrease the distance and time needed to travel to a new healthy host. Lowering the planting ... They are dispersed primarily by wind and germinate on the surface of plant tissue. They infect and feed on the plant via ...
... "disease entity", "disease category", "illness", or simply "diagnosis". The latter, and more important one, is usually ... Learning TCM pulse diagnosis can take several years. The term "herbal medicine" is somewhat misleading in that, while plant ... Interior (里, pinyin: lǐ) refers to disease manifestation in the zàng-fǔ, or (in a wider sense) to any disease that can not be ... This is called 异病同治,同病异治 (pinyin: yì bìng tóng zhì, tóng bìng yì zhì,"different diseases, same treatment; same disease, ...
There is evidence that 990 mg of extract from the Buxus plant per day might delay the disease progression of HIV-infected ... Examination of the individual would be necessary for a correct diagnosis. Cyclobuxine has been studied for the treatment of HIV ... Murray, A.P., et al., Natural AChE Inhibitors from Plants and their Contribution to Alzheimer's Disease Therapy. Current ... Wink, M., Mode of action and toxicology of plant toxins and poisonous plants. 2009. Catherine Barr, A., Chapter 27 - Household ...
However this is noticeable in many different plant diseases and can not be used as a diagnosis tool. There are only two ways to ... It is a fungus that infects the bottom 4-5 feet (120-150 cm) of the plant also rotting the roots. It has been known to be in ... In places where a palm has been infected with G. zonatum, no other palm should be planted as the spores can survive in the soil ... The hyphae then grow over the plant roots and up into the woody trunk. The fungus damages the palm trunk closest to the soil ...
Plant breeding, Plant diseases & Root pests, Crop production technology; Laboratories of Biotechnology, Cytogenetics & breeding ... This research department focuses primarily on diagnosis and control of animal disease (horses, domestic cattle). This ... Soil Science and Plant; Plant Breeding and Acclimatization; Zootechnics; Land development; Animal physiology and Nutrition ... Green area, tree planted, Registered on Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship heritage list On the plot stands two greenhouses: they ...
2004). Diseases of Fruits and Vegetables: Diagnosis and Management. Springer. pp. 246-248. ISBN 1402018231. CS1 maint: Extra ... Plant Disease. 94 (10): 1206-1210. doi:10.1094/PDIS-11-09-0733. Daltro, Cleidiane B. Daltro; Álvaro J. Pereira; Renan S. ... that causes lethal yellowing disease of the papaya plant. The virus infects only Carica papaya, Jacaratia heterophylla, J. ... Cross protection of plants is important and is used to induce an immunity to a specific pathogen. This immunity is just like a ...
The disease is mainly controlled by the elimination of the western flower thrip vector and by destroying any infected plant ... and has numerous symptoms often making diagnosis more difficult. Symptoms of Impatiens necrotic spot virus in an Orchid species ... Furthermore, larger distance between plants could help the spread of the disease not allowing the virus to be transmitted ... If virus remains a problem, other plants can be planted in that area that do not have the traits required for infection of INSV ...
... and therapies for loss-of-function genetic diseases. In chemical engineering, in situ often refers to industrial plant " ... It has tremendous applications for cancer treatment, vaccination, diagnosis, regenerative medicine, and therapies for loss-of- ... It has tremendous applications for cancer treatment, vaccination, diagnosis, regenerative medicine, ... function genetic diseases. In situ leaching or in situ recovery refers to the mining technique of injecting water underground ...
... non-cancer diseases and plants. By using the S&S algorithm, mutations and genes that cause different forms of cancer, including ... the S&S technology platform in modern clinical genomics research will advance diagnosis and treatment of human diseases. In ... In addition, other diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, marfan syndrome, cystic fibrosis, cardiac diseases, eye disorders, ... exons and genes in animals and plants . This algorithm has the ability to discover disease-causing mutations in splice ...
"A Guide for Diagnosis and Detection of Quarantine Pests: Bacterial wilt of carnation" (PDF). Bureau of Plant Pest Surveillance ... In checking for the presence of disease before further planting, induced high temperatures should be employed to accelerate ... Post-planting dissemination may occur from one root system to the next via an existing canker in the infected plant. When the ... Bacterial Wilt of Carnations is a bacterial disease caused by the plant pathogen Burkholderia caryophylli. Previously, named ...
Diseases of Fruits and Vegetables: Diagnosis and Management. Springer. pp. 397-439. ISBN 978-1-4020-1822-0. "Carrot cavity spot ... As the plant grows, the bases of the seed leaves, near the taproot, are pushed apart. The stem, located just above the ground, ... There are several diseases that can reduce the yield and market value of carrots. The most devastating carrot disease is ... The plant is depicted and described in the Eastern Roman Juliana Anicia Codex, a 6th-century AD Constantinopolitan copy of the ...
The clinician's diagnosis was equivalent to the scientist's hypothesis: both medical diagnosis and hypothesis required the test ... while imbalance results in disease. Such disease-inducing imbalances can be adjusted and balanced using traditional herbs, ... De Smet, Peter A.G.M. (December 1997). "The Role of Plant-Derived Drugs and Herbal Medicines in Healthcare". Drugs. 54 (6): 801 ... A belief that a substance that causes the symptoms of a disease in healthy people cures similar symptoms in sick people.[n 8] ...
... Melissa B. Riley1, Margaret R. Williamson1, and Otis Maloy2. 1Department of Plant Pathology and ... parasitic plants and viral diseases associated with the specific plant. Westcotts Plant Disease Handbook is useful because ... Plant disease diagnosis: present and future prospects. Advances in Plant Pathology 10:65-126. *Holmes, G. J., E. A. Brown, and ... The plant disease clinic and field diagnosis of abiotic diseases. American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, MN. *United ...
Teaching the art and science of plant disease diagnosis: Training students with DIAGNOSIS for Crop Problems. The Plant Health ... Teaching the art and science of plant disease diagnosis: Training students with DIAGNOSIS for Crop Problems. ... DIAGNOSIS), a computer-based authoring tool and scenario presenter which facilitates training in plant disease diagnosis. ... Diagnosis. A Microcomputer-based teaching-aid: Plant Dis. 76:644-647.. (11)Stewart T.M., Duncan, S., and Rankin, L. 1992. Plant ...
The possibility of using Oxford Nanopore sequencing as a general method for diagnosis of plant diseases was examined. This ... Diagnostic methods commonly used to detect plant pathogens are limited. ... study demonstrated that Oxford Nanopore sequencing technology was able to identify and classify plant pathogens within one or ... Reliable detection and identification of plant pathogens are essential for disease control strategies. ...
... Diego F. Gomez-Casati,1,2 Maria I ... Applications in the Prevention and Diagnosis of Diseases," BioMed Research International, vol. 2013, Article ID 792527, 11 ... Diego F. Gomez-Casati, Maria I. Zanor, and María V. Busi, "Metabolomics in Plants and Humans: ...
... and instructions for collecting and submitting your plant sample can be found on the Submit a Plant Sample for Diagnosis page ... The UNH-PDL is directed by the Cooperative Extension Plant Health Specialist and serves as a resource for information and ... The diagnostic services offered by the UNH Plant Diagnostic Lab include identification of plant pathogens, stress-related ... and instructions for collecting and submitting your plant sample can be found on the Submit a Plant Sample for Diagnosis page ...
Plants are infected by different microbial pathogens, of which fungal pathogens form the highly evolved and earliest recognized ... Disease Management Disease diagnosis Fungal Pathogen detection Pathogen environment Pathogen variability Authors and ... Immunoassays have been shown to be effective in detecting several fungal pathogens present in plants, planting materials, soil ... Plants are infected by different microbial pathogens, of which fungal pathogens form the highly evolved and earliest recognized ...
Diagnosis and Monitoring of Plant Diseases. *Plant Disease Diagnostic Centers *Plant Quarantines. Index. click here to see ... Plant Pathogen Reference Guide. from C.H.I.P.S.. Plant Pathogen Detection and Disease Diagnosis. Second Edition. Revised and ... Nature and Causes of Plant Diseases *Disease Diagnosis and Management Strategies. *Characteristics of Pathogenic Microbes. * ... Plant Pathogen Detection and Disease Diagnosis. Second Edition Revised and Expanded. by P. Narayanasamy. 544 pages $218.95 + ...
This review therefore focuses on the use of PCR for diagnosis of plant diseases and other applications in plant pathology. ... The use of PCR grew rapidly in plant pathology, as in other disciplines, with the introduction in 1988 of Thermus aquaticus ( ... Several reviews on its use and methodology in fields other than plant pathology have been published recently (4, 10, I1, 46, ... PCR offers several advantages compared to more traditional methods of diagnosis: organisms need not be cultured prior to their ...
Microwave Assisted Identification of Plant Virus Infection Rapid Diagnosis of Plant Virus Disease by TEM - Microwave Assisted ... Rapid Diagnosis of Plant Virus Disease by TEM. ... Diagnosis of Plant Virus Diseases by TEM. The application of ... Rapid Diagnosis of Plant Virus Disease by TEM. Microwave Assisted Identification of Plant Virus Infection. *. Rapid Diagnosis ... The rapid and unambiguous diagnosis of plant virus diseases is of great importance for agriculture and scientific ...
Plants also suffer from illness (i.e., diseases) like humans and animals. Groundnut plant is more prone to diseases in the ... An Integrated Image Processing Approach for Diagnosis of Groundnut Plant Leaf Disease using ANN and GLCM. ... Cercospora is the most common leaf disease in the groundnut. Entire plant gets infected by the diseases which include stem, ... For controlling and managing the diseases human involvement is necessary as it is time consuming for classification and ...
Diagnosis;Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP);plant disease;RNA infectious agents;viroid; ... The Detection and Diagnosis Methods of Infectious Viroids caused Plant Diseases - ... The Detection and Diagnosis Methods of Infectious Viroids caused Plant Diseases. Lee, Se Hee; Kim, Yang-Hoon; Ahn, Ji-Young; ... Plant Pathogen Detection and Disease Diagnosis. pp. 197-257, 2nd ed. : CRC Press, Florida, USA. ...
... and nearly 100 of these were digital images rather than actual samples of diseased plants. Clarissa Balbalian, diagnostician ... and lab manager with the MSU Extension Service, said the lab made reasonably confident diagnoses of 75 percent of these digital ... The plant disease diagnostic lab at Mississippi State University handled 726 samples in 2009, ... Balbalian identifies the plant first, and then considers the time of year and the diseases commonly affecting the plant. If she ...
... plant disease: Variable factors affecting diagnosis: …or early fall freezes cause blasting (sudden death) of leaf and flower ... In plant disease: Variable factors affecting diagnosis. …or early fall freezes cause blasting (sudden death) of leaf and flower ... AIDS, transmissible disease of the immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV… ... Photosynthesis, the process by which green plants and certain other organisms transform light energy… ...
Disease: signs and symptoms: Disease may be acute, chronic, malignant, or benign. Of these terms, chronic and acute have to do ... with the duration of a disease, malignant and benign with its potentiality for causing death. ... diagnosis of plant diseases. *. In plant disease: Signs. Besides symptoms, the diagnostician recognizes signs characteristic of ... In human disease: Disease: signs and symptoms. Disease may be acute, chronic, malignant, or benign. Of these terms, chronic and ...
Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles for Plant Disease Diagnosis. Author: Pawan Kumar, Sunil Chopra, Maninder Singh, Anil ... overview of green synthesis and application of silver nanoparticles for the disease diagnosis and detection methods in plants. ... But food losses occur due to crop diseases caused by pathogens such as bacteria, viruses and fungi. So it is important to ... The introduction of nano silver offers an alternative where all detection and identification of plant pathogens. Green ...
The accurate diagnosis of specific plant diseases depends upon several factors. The specimen must arrive at the laboratory in a ... How to Collect and Package Plant Disease Specimens for Diagnosis. Filed Under: Plant Diseases ... When mailing plant specimens for disease diagnosis, wrap a dry paper towel around the specimen and place it in a zipper-seal ... The accurate diagnosis of specific plant diseases depends upon several factors. The specimen must arrive at the laboratory in a ...
wrong bioinformatics saw to Usenet strongly am issued ebook Serological Diagnosis of Certain Human, Animal efforts. To press ... Animal And Plant Diseases. Ebook Serological Diagnosis Of Certain Human, Animal And Plant Diseases body{font-family:Open Sans, ... The ebook Serological Diagnosis of Certain Human, Animal and Plant Diseases of the Gospel of Luke However is together from the ... The ebook Serological Diagnosis of Certain Human, Animal and Plant Diseases is utilized to be broken same of equal addition ...
Diagnosis. This is based on the appearance of typical skin blisters and erosions and the availability of plants containing the ... Similar diseases. The early blisters and erosion on the nose could be mistaken for foot and mouth disease, swine vesicular or ... There is no antidote to these photosensitising plant substances.. *Affected pigs should be removed from the plants and from ... vesicular stomatitis but the history of exposure to plants containing furocoumarins and the progress of the disease over a day ...
objects in ebook Serological Diagnosis of Certain Human, placode or need to international contact, briefly, and federal ... Ebook Serological Diagnosis Of Certain Human, Animal And Plant Diseases 2012. Ebook Serological Diagnosis Of Certain Human, ... Where ebook Serological Diagnosis of Certain Human, Animal and Plant Diseases lists the ectoderm, taking secret of it is a ... ebook Serological Diagnosis of Certain Human, Animal and Plant Diseases out the government loyalty in the Chrome Store. 27; ...
3. Setting up the monitoring systems for the major infectious diseases of domestic animals.. Developing the disease control ... 1.Operating the animal disease control center.. Setting up the field service systems such as epidemiological survey on the area ... Setting up the field service systems such as epidemiological survey on the area of disease outbreak as well as providing ... 175 Anyangro, manan-gu,anyangsi gyeonggido, 480-757, republic of korea/tel 31-467-1700 COPTRIGHT © ANIMAL PLANT & FISHERIES ...
Plant pathology is the study of plant disease including the reasons why plants get sick and how to control or manage healthy ... Proper diagnosis of plant problems is a key factor in plant health management. As urban forester Alan Siewert quips: ... This is the third fact sheet in a series of 10 designed to provide an overview of key concepts in plant pathology. ... Introduction to Plant Disease Series. *Plants Get Sick Too! An Introduction to Plant Diseases ...
Introduction to Plant Disease Series. * Plants Get Sick Too! An Introduction to Plant Diseases ... Plant pathology is the study of plant disease including the reasons why plants get sick and how to control or manage healthy ... Plant problem diagnostics should be guided by the axiom: dont make the symptoms fit the diagnosis; do make the diagnosis fit ... All plants have their own set of diseases, insect problems, and cultural dilemmas; there are no problem-free plants. Pondering ...
The leading cause of death in the world is heart disease. It accounts for about 30% of all deaths and is most prominent in ... Diagnosis. The doctors have made a diagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome. More on this disease from the article:. ... Bio-compounds from plants are effective in controlling a gene that has been linked to cardiovascular disease and plaque buildup ... The cause of the disease that affects one or two in a million isnt known, according to the Centers for Disease Control and ...
A new study says that symptoms associated with ovarian cancer start much earlier before the diagnosis is made and being alert ... Syndrome Ovarian Pain Premature Ovarian Failure Common Lifestyle Habits that Cause Diseases Health Benefits of Dandelion Plant ... The information should not be used for either diagnosis or treatment or both for any health related problem or disease. Always ... Common Lifestyle Habits that Cause Diseases. Cigarette, smoking and diets are some of the most common lifestyle habits that ...
Plant disease diagnosis. Plant disease, insect and weed diagnosis is available for field crops, ornamentals, vegetables, fruits ... Plant and insect samples may be brought to the extension office for identification or disease diagnosis. Recommendations for ... Consult the Soil and Plant Testing Laboratory website for specific instructions. Results are typically provided within two ... managing pests, weeds and diseases are provided.. ... Plant health and production. *Agricultural business and policy ...
  • Smith SA, Samokhin AO, Alfadi M, Murphy EC, Rhodes D, Kiss-Toth E, Storey RF, Yee S-P, Francis SE & Qwarnstrom EE (2017) The IL-1RI Co-Receptor TILRR (FREM1 Isoform 2) Controls Aberrant Inflammatory Responses and Development of Vascular Disease . (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • Li Y, Wilson HL & Kiss-Toth E (2017) Regulating STING in health and disease . (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • Plant Pathogen Reference Guide from C.H.I.P.S. (chipsbooks.com)
  • During the past few decades, his research directions have also included pathogen discovery and the development of new strategies for identifying previously unrecognized microbial agents of disease. (nap.edu)
  • The pathogen overwinters in soil and infected plant debris by producing thick-walled oospores that can survive for several years in the absence of a suitable host of favorable weather conditions. (unl.edu)
  • Diseases may still develop, however, in spite of their activity, such as during extended periods of inclement weather or under severe pathogen pressure. (unl.edu)
  • Sporulation on tissue placed on various media or in a moist chamber does occur and is an aid in accurate diagnosis of the pathogen in the laboratory. (plantmanagementnetwork.org)
  • Additionally, it may be easier to cut the plant a few inches above ground level and leave the crown and roots, but the main difference between crown and stalk rots is where the pathogen is infected. (unl.edu)
  • Only seeds that have been tested and treated for the pathogen should be planted. (wikipedia.org)
  • PMMoV is a rigid rod shaped virus pathogen that can be easily transmitted to healthy plants via mechanical inoculation or contact between plants or another medium that can carry the pathogen such as hands, gloves, and clothing. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3. Setting up the monitoring systems for the major infectious diseases of domestic animals. (qia.go.kr)
  • David A. Relman, M.D. ( Chair ), is the Thomas C. and Joan M. Merigan Professor in the Departments of Medicine and of Microbiology and Immunology at Stanford University, and Chief of Infectious Diseases at the VA Palo Alto Health Care System in Palo Alto, California. (nap.edu)
  • He received an S.B. (biology) from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1977), received his M.D. (magna cum laude) from Harvard Medical School (1982), completed his clinical training in internal medicine and infectious diseases at Massachusetts General Hospital, served as a postdoctoral fellow in microbiology at Stanford University, and joined the faculty at Stanford in 1994. (nap.edu)
  • This work helped to spearhead the application of molecular methods to the diagnosis of infectious diseases in the 1990s. (nap.edu)
  • Dr. Relman advises the U.S. government, as well as nongovernmental organizations, in matters pertaining to microbiology, emerging infectious diseases, and biosecurity. (nap.edu)
  • He has served as Chair of the Board of Scientific Counselors of the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (National Institutes of Health [NIH]) and as a member of the Board of Directors, Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). (nap.edu)
  • James M. Hughes, M.D. ( Vice-Chair ), is professor of medicine and public health at Emory University's School of Medicine and Rollins School of Public Health, serving as director of the Emory Program in Global Infectious Diseases, executive director of the Southeastern Center for Emerging Biologic Threats, and senior advisor to the Emory Center for Global Safe Water. (nap.edu)
  • The phyto-chemical compounds after manipulation provide a new and improved drug for the treatment and management of these infectious diseases. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The course is concerned with plant disease problems in agriculture, horticulture (greenhouses, orchards and field crops) and forestry with special reference to North European conditions. (ku.dk)
  • BVT has developed and owns a unique and patent-pending bee vectoring technology (consisting of a proprietary tray dispenser containing a unique carrier agent) that is designed to utilize bees as natural delivery mechanisms for a variety of powdered mixtures comprised of organic compounds that inhibit or eliminate common crop diseases, while at the same time fertilizing the same crops without the use of water. (globenewswire.com)
  • The bees are dusted with the mixtures as they exit their hive en route to the fields containing the crops of interest. (globenewswire.com)
  • The so-called Green Revolution of the 1950s and 1960s bypassed such farmers because planting the new high yield crops and maintaining them through the use of pesticides and fertilizers was too costly for impoverished landowners. (fao.org)
  • Viral infection is one of the most serious biotic stresses, which disturbs the growth and productivity of many horticultural crops, including that of fig ( Ficus carica L.). The production of plants free of viruses, such as fig mosaic virus (FMV), has become a priority in many plant breeding programs. (springer.com)
  • 1994. Diseases and Pests of Vegetable Crops in Canada. (umn.edu)
  • Epidemiology and control of diseases of seed crops, onion, potato and fruit crops. (uidaho.edu)
  • The University of Georgia Extension recommends waiting at least five years to plant blackberries in ground where tomatoes, potatoes, peppers or eggplant have grown, as these "solanaceous crops" all carry verticillium wilt. (ehow.com)
  • Applying biotechnology tools to improve control diseases of some tropical crops. (academicjournals.org)
  • Even lab-based plant pathologists should have an appreciation of the diagnostic process as they may also engage in it at some stage in their careers. (apsnet.org)
  • This volume provides exhaustive information on various methods of detection of fungal pathogens and the diagnosis of the diseases caused by them based on extensive literature search that will be useful to the researchers, teachers and graduate students of different disciplines of biological sciences, in addition to the extension pathologists, personnel of plant quarantines and certification programs. (springer.com)
  • However, with the exploding world popu- lation and the growing demand for food, plant pathologists became increasingly aware of the need for a more considered, measured, precise and even holistic approach to their subject and, particularly, to plant disease management. (springer.com)
  • Groundnut plant is more prone to diseases in the agriculture sector. (niscair.res.in)
  • HHE Report No. HETA-98-0339-2806: United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Riverdale, Maryland. (cdc.gov)
  • The course will introduce commonly occurring plant diseases in agriculture, horticulture and orchards etc. (ku.dk)
  • Professor Jamal, now Director General of the General Direction of Scientific Research, Ministry of Agriculture for Syria, continues to build relationships between plant scientists in our two countries. (pomme-pidou.pl)
  • Green nanotechnology formulations of using phytochemicals from plant material to produce nanofungicides are feasible in the agriculture due to no toxic effect towards human and animal health. (springer.com)
  • The Group also has a technical-scientific collaboration within the business sector of fertilizers and plant protection products (Dr. Begoña Martín-López from Adama Agriculture S.A. (unizar.es)
  • It may be too late to help the specific plant when the question is asked, but proper diagnosis may be extremely important in preventing the problem on other plants or in preventing the problem in the future. (apsnet.org)
  • Proper diagnosis of the pest is the first step in gaining control. (psu.edu)
  • Raspberry bushy dwarf and tobacco streak virus require chemical tests for proper diagnosis. (ehow.com)
  • As you continue to scout fields late in the season, it is important to collect the right kind of sample to ensure proper diagnosis. (unl.edu)
  • This will be a multi-center, randomized, double-blind, parallel group, dose-ranging trial to assess the safety and efficacy of prGCD in 30 untreated patients with Gaucher disease. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This is an open-label expanded access trial of prGCD in patients with Gaucher disease who require enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and who have been treated with imiglucerase but for whom the dose has been reduced or discontinued due to shortage of the product. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Medicinal plants are used for the treatment of human and animal diseases from the ancient time. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Screening of medicinal plants for bioactive compound leads to development of new and cheap antimicrob ial agents. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The present study was carried out to investigate the molecular identification of Mycoplasma putrefaciens and to evaluate the antimycoplasmal activity of methanolic extract of three medicinal plants, i.e. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Therefore, medicinal plants have been extensively used in Unani, Ayurveda and Homeopathic medicine (Kausik et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • 2001). Screening of medicinal plants for animal infections, especially for caprine antimycoplasmal activity, is neglected chapter. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Meanwhile, Washington State University agricultural economist Shannon Neibergs, PhD, said plant promoters must be mindful of investor concerns over financial market fluctuations. (thehorse.com)
  • Diagnostic methods commonly used to detect plant pathogens have limitations such as requirement of prior knowledge of the genome sequence, low sensitivity and are limited in ability to detect several pathogens simultaneously. (nanoporetech.com)
  • The sap of at least 30wilds and cultivated plants including parsnip tops, parsley, celery tops and giant hogweed contains substances (furocoumarins) which , in contact with bare skin, enhance the skin's sensitivity to the ultra violet rays in direct sunlight. (thepigsite.com)
  • However, IGRAs have little advantage over the TST in sensitivity, and both methods have reduced sensitivity in immunocompromised children, including children with severe TB disease. (aappublications.org)
  • Not all patients who have influenza are tested for it, and these diagnoses would be classed as false negatives, influencing the sensitivity downward. (cdc.gov)
  • UTV) joined the Group, as well as Dr. Ana M. Sánchez-Gómez and Dr. Vicente González-García, starting its activity in the Units of Horticulture and Plant Protection, respectively in 2015. (unizar.es)
  • 2002. Plant disease diagnosis. (apsnet.org)
  • 2002). It is estimated that only 1% out of 0.26 million flowering plants on earth have been studied for their bio-active compounds for their medicinal properties (Cox et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The Group of Applied Research on Sustainable Plant Production (PROVESOS, by its initials in Spanish) maintains its official recognition by the Government of Aragon (Spain) since December 31, 2015.Currently renewed until 2016 since the moment of its creation in 2002. (unizar.es)
  • The UNH-PDL is directed by the Cooperative Extension Plant Health Specialist and serves as a resource for information and examples for training and educational programs offered throughout New Hampshire and the New England region. (unh.edu)
  • Clarissa Balbalian, diagnostician and lab manager with the MSU Extension Service, said the lab made reasonably confident diagnoses of 75 percent of these digital samples without requiring physical samples. (msstate.edu)
  • Stephanie Pendleton, the Extension director for Jackson County, submitted several disease samples last year, many of them digitally. (msstate.edu)
  • Please visit the Extension Plant Diagnostic Lab online at extension.msstate.edu/lab for current fees, including fees for out-of-state samples. (msstate.edu)
  • Plant Disease Sample Submission Form (Form 1139) available at http://extension.msstate.edu/publications/forms/plant-disease-sample-submission-form . (msstate.edu)
  • Contact James Woodhall for more information on plant science research projects at the Parma Research and Extension Center, [email protected] or 208-722-6701. (uidaho.edu)
  • The University of Iowa Extension Service suggests planting blackberries in well-drained sandy loam with an acidic pH of 6.0 to 6.7. (ehow.com)
  • Control measures depend on proper identification of diseases and of the causal agents. (apsnet.org)
  • Without proper identification of the disease and the disease-causing agent, disease control measures can be a waste of time and money and can lead to further plant losses. (apsnet.org)
  • 1.Operating the animal disease control center. (qia.go.kr)
  • Setting up the field service systems such as epidemiological survey on the area of disease outbreak as well as providing control information, etc. (qia.go.kr)
  • An outstanding success has been discovery and implementation of fungicidal control of Texas Root Rot, a soil-borne disease that otherwise defied a research solution for over 100 years. (cottoninc.com)
  • and other groups or individuals to control occupational health hazards and to prevent related trauma and disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Kiss-Toth E, Harlock E, Lath D, Quertermous T & Wilkinson JM (2013) A TNF Variant that Associates with Susceptibility to Musculoskeletal Disease Modulates Thyroid Hormone Receptor Binding to Control Promoter Activation . (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • Control: Good sanitation will help prevent infestation as will keeping plant hosts (flowers. (scribd.com)
  • Direct ELISA analysis of shoots micropropagated from meristem tip explants indicated that there were virus-free shoots, when compared to infected plants (positive control), while there were no significant differences between these explants and healthy samples (negative control). (springer.com)
  • 1986. Vegetable Diseases and their Control, 2nd edition. (umn.edu)
  • The 'shotgun' approach to plant disease 'control' was quickly perceived to be too inexact and almost every aspect of the subject was being reviewed, refined and advanced. (springer.com)
  • Current issues in plant disease control: Biotechnology and plant disease. (academicjournals.org)
  • Due to the short durations required for virus acquisition and inoculation, this type of disease spread is difficult to control. (usda.gov)
  • For controlling and managing the diseases human involvement is necessary as it is time consuming for classification and recognition of groundnut leaf diseases. (niscair.res.in)
  • These segmented images are fed to feature extraction by Gray Level Co-ocurrance Matrix (GLCM) and feature selection by rough set approach and the leaf diseases are classified by ANN and SVM classifier. (niscair.res.in)
  • Lost leaf area (due to leaf diseases, hail, etc. (unl.edu)
  • Bio-compounds from plants are effective in controlling a gene that has been linked to cardiovascular disease and plaque buildup in arteries. (collective-evolution.com)
  • There is a general misconception that cardiovascular disease affects only men, leading women to believe that they are not at risk. (diagnose-me.com)
  • MISSISSIPPI STATE - The plant disease diagnostic lab at Mississippi State University handled 726 samples in 2009, and nearly 100 of these were digital images rather than actual samples of diseased plants. (msstate.edu)
  • Can I compost plants with powdery mildew in the City of Portland's yard debris pickup? (oregonstate.edu)
  • The person that I talked to wasn't familiar with powdery mildew, but suggested that I put the infected plants in the garbage rather than the yard debris. (oregonstate.edu)
  • In the spring, bacteria surviving in plant debris, infected the previous year, become active. (umn.edu)
  • Remove and dispose of all plant debris at the end of the growing season. (umn.edu)
  • PMMoV is exceptionally stable and it is known to survive for extended periods of time in plant debris and on greenhouse structures, pots, and horticultural tools. (wikipedia.org)