Kaolin: The most common mineral of a group of hydrated aluminum silicates, approximately H2Al2Si2O8-H2O. It is prepared for pharmaceutical and medicinal purposes by levigating with water to remove sand, etc. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) The name is derived from Kao-ling (Chinese: "high ridge"), the original site. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Automatism: Automatic, mechanical, and apparently undirected behavior which is outside of conscious control.Emetics: Agents that cause vomiting. They may act directly on the gastrointestinal tract, bringing about emesis through local irritant effects, or indirectly, through their effects on the chemoreceptor trigger zone in the postremal area near the medulla.Pica: The persistent eating of nonnutritive substances for a period of at least one month. (DSM-IV)Delayed Diagnosis: Non-optimal interval of time between onset of symptoms, identification, and initiation of treatment.Vertebral Artery: The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.Prenatal Diagnosis: Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.Early Diagnosis: Methods to determine in patients the nature of a disease or disorder at its early stage of progression. Generally, early diagnosis improves PROGNOSIS and TREATMENT OUTCOME.Lateral Medullary Syndrome: INFARCTION of the dorsolateral aspect of MEDULLA OBLONGATA in the BRAIN STEM. It is caused by occlusion of the VERTEBRAL ARTERY and/or the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. Clinical manifestations vary with the size of infarction, but may include loss of pain and temperature sensation in the ipsilateral face and contralateral body below the chin; ipsilateral HORNER SYNDROME; ipsilateral ATAXIA; DYSARTHRIA; VERTIGO; nausea, hiccup; dysphagia; and VOCAL CORD PARALYSIS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p801)Mangifera: A plant genus of the family ANACARDIACEAE best known for the edible fruit.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Psychological Techniques: Methods used in the diagnosis and treatment of behavioral, personality, and mental disorders.Diagnosis: The determination of the nature of a disease or condition, or the distinguishing of one disease or condition from another. Assessment may be made through physical examination, laboratory tests, or the likes. Computerized programs may be used to enhance the decision-making process.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Cerebellar Diseases: Diseases that affect the structure or function of the cerebellum. Cardinal manifestations of cerebellar dysfunction include dysmetria, GAIT ATAXIA, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.Fenthion: Potent cholinesterase inhibitor used as an insecticide and acaricide.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Crows: Common name for the largest birds in the order PASSERIFORMES, family Corvidae. These omnivorous black birds comprise most of the species in the genus Corvus, along with ravens and jackdaws (which are often also referred to as crows).Ageusia: Complete or severe loss of the subjective sense of taste, frequently accompanied by OLFACTION DISORDERS.Intellectual Disability: Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Bezoars: Concretions of swallowed hair, fruit or vegetable fibers, or similar substances found in the alimentary canal.Posterior Cerebral Artery: Artery formed by the bifurcation of the BASILAR ARTERY. Branches of the posterior cerebral artery supply portions of the OCCIPITAL LOBE; PARIETAL LOBE; inferior temporal gyrus, brainstem, and CHOROID PLEXUS.Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Vomiting: The forcible expulsion of the contents of the STOMACH through the MOUTH.Radiography, Abdominal: Radiographic visualization of the body between the thorax and the pelvis, i.e., within the peritoneal cavity.Aneurysm, Ruptured: The tearing or bursting of the weakened wall of the aneurysmal sac, usually heralded by sudden worsening pain. The great danger of a ruptured aneurysm is the large amount of blood spilling into the surrounding tissues and cavities, causing HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK.Polygalacturonase: A cell wall-degrading enzyme found in microorganisms and higher plants. It catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. EC 220.127.116.11.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Vertebral Artery Dissection: Splitting of the vessel wall in the VERTEBRAL ARTERY. Interstitial hemorrhage into the media of the vessel wall can lead to occlusion of the vertebral artery, aneurysm formation, or THROMBOEMBOLISM. Vertebral artery dissection is often associated with TRAUMA and injuries to the head-neck region but can occur spontaneously.Nursing Diagnosis: Conclusions derived from the nursing assessment that establish a health status profile for the patient and from which nursing interventions may be ordered.Tannins: Polyphenolic compounds with molecular weights of around 500-3000 daltons and containing enough hydroxyl groups (1-2 per 100 MW) for effective cross linking of other compounds (ASTRINGENTS). The two main types are HYDROLYZABLE TANNINS and CONDENSED TANNINS. Historically, the term has applied to many compounds and plant extracts able to render skin COLLAGEN impervious to degradation. The word tannin derives from the Celtic word for OAK TREE which was used for leather processing.Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted: Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.Reinforcement, Social: The strengthening of a response with a social reward such as a nod of approval, a parent's love or attention.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Biflavonoids: Dimers (homo and hetero) of FLAVONOIDS.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Anemia, Iron-Deficiency: Anemia characterized by decreased or absent iron stores, low serum iron concentration, low transferrin saturation, and low hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit value. The erythrocytes are hypochromic and microcytic and the iron binding capacity is increased.Preimplantation Diagnosis: Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the OVUM; ZYGOTE; or BLASTOCYST prior to implantation. CYTOGENETIC ANALYSIS is performed to determine the presence or absence of genetic disease.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Basilar Artery: The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.Punishment: The application of an unpleasant stimulus or penalty for the purpose of eliminating or correcting undesirable behavior.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Aneurysm, Dissecting: Aneurysm caused by a tear in the TUNICA INTIMA of a blood vessel leading to interstitial HEMORRHAGE, and splitting (dissecting) of the vessel wall, often involving the AORTA. Dissection between the intima and media causes luminal occlusion. Dissection at the media, or between the media and the outer adventitia causes aneurismal dilation.Foreign Bodies: Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the body.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Chemistry Techniques, Analytical: Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.Anemia, Hypochromic: Anemia characterized by a decrease in the ratio of the weight of hemoglobin to the volume of the erythrocyte, i.e., the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is less than normal. The individual cells contain less hemoglobin than they could have under optimal conditions. Hypochromic anemia may be caused by iron deficiency from a low iron intake, diminished iron absorption, or excessive iron loss. It can also be caused by infections or other diseases, therapeutic drugs, lead poisoning, and other conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Miale, Laboratory Medicine: Hematology, 6th ed, p393)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Madagascar: One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)Ice: The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.District of Columbia: A federal area located between Maryland and Virginia on the Potomac river; it is coextensive with Washington, D.C., which is the capital of the United States.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Biopsy, Needle: Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.Aluminum Silicates: Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Cerebral Revascularization: Microsurgical revascularization to improve intracranial circulation. It usually involves joining the extracranial circulation to the intracranial circulation but may include extracranial revascularization (e.g., subclavian-vertebral artery bypass, subclavian-external carotid artery bypass). It is performed by joining two arteries (direct anastomosis or use of graft) or by free autologous transplantation of highly vascularized tissue to the surface of the brain.Fetal Diseases: Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.Lead PoisoningProanthocyanidins: Dimers and oligomers of flavan-3-ol units (CATECHIN analogs) linked mainly through C4 to C8 bonds to leucoanthocyanidins. They are structurally similar to ANTHOCYANINS but are the result of a different fork in biosynthetic pathways.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.ChileHair: A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.Xanthones: A group of XANTHENES that contain a 9-keto OXYGEN.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Embolization, Therapeutic: A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.False Negative Reactions: Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.United StatesUltrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Molecular Diagnostic Techniques: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Biopsy, Fine-Needle: Using fine needles (finer than 22-gauge) to remove tissue or fluid specimens from the living body for examination in the pathology laboratory and for disease diagnosis.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Ferritins: Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.Physical Examination: Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Microscopy: The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Genetic Testing: Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Diagnostic Imaging: Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Bronchoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.Radiography, Thoracic: X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.Cytodiagnosis: Diagnosis of the type and, when feasible, the cause of a pathologic process by means of microscopic study of cells in an exudate or other form of body fluid. (Stedman, 26th ed)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Rare Diseases: A large group of diseases which are characterized by a low prevalence in the population. They frequently are associated with problems in diagnosis and treatment.Parasitology: The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Diagnostic Tests, Routine: Diagnostic procedures, such as laboratory tests and x-rays, routinely performed on all individuals or specified categories of individuals in a specified situation, e.g., patients being admitted to the hospital. These include routine tests administered to neonates.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Endosonography: Ultrasonography of internal organs using an ultrasound transducer sometimes mounted on a fiberoptic endoscope. In endosonography the transducer converts electronic signals into acoustic pulses or continuous waves and acts also as a receiver to detect reflected pulses from within the organ. An audiovisual-electronic interface converts the detected or processed echo signals, which pass through the electronics of the instrument, into a form that the technologist can evaluate. The procedure should not be confused with ENDOSCOPY which employs a special instrument called an endoscope. The "endo-" of endosonography refers to the examination of tissue within hollow organs, with reference to the usual ultrasonography procedure which is performed externally or transcutaneously.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Autopsy: Postmortem examination of the body.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Diagnosis, Oral: Examination of the mouth and teeth toward the identification and diagnosis of intraoral disease or manifestation of non-oral conditions.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.International Classification of Diseases: A system of categories to which morbid entries are assigned according to established criteria. Included is the entire range of conditions in a manageable number of categories, grouped to facilitate mortality reporting. It is produced by the World Health Organization (From ICD-10, p1). The Clinical Modifications, produced by the UNITED STATES DEPT. OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, are larger extensions used for morbidity and general epidemiological purposes, primarily in the U.S.Immunologic Tests: Immunologic techniques involved in diagnosis.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures: Methods, procedures, and tests performed to diagnose disease, disordered function, or disability.Medical History Taking: Acquiring information from a patient on past medical conditions and treatments.Cysts: Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues.Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry): The co-existence of a substance abuse disorder with a psychiatric disorder. The diagnostic principle is based on the fact that it has been found often that chemically dependent patients also have psychiatric problems of various degrees of severity.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.Clinical Enzyme Tests: Analyses for a specific enzyme activity, or of the level of a specific enzyme that is used to assess health and disease risk, for early detection of disease or disease prediction, diagnosis, and change in disease status.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.BrazilAbdomen, Acute: A clinical syndrome with acute abdominal pain that is severe, localized, and rapid in onset. Acute abdomen may be caused by a variety of disorders, injuries, or diseases.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Genetic Counseling: An educational process that provides information and advice to individuals or families about a genetic condition that may affect them. The purpose is to help individuals make informed decisions about marriage, reproduction, and other health management issues based on information about the genetic disease, the available diagnostic tests, and management programs. Psychosocial support is usually offered.Heterozygote Detection: Identification of genetic carriers for a given trait.Pleural Effusion: Presence of fluid in the pleural cavity resulting from excessive transudation or exudation from the pleural surfaces. It is a sign of disease and not a diagnosis in itself.Abnormalities, MultipleChi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Endoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Abortion, Eugenic: Abortion performed because of possible fetal defects.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Sputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Medical Records: Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or illnesses.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Dementia: An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the gastrointestinal tract.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Pulmonary Embolism: Blocking of the PULMONARY ARTERY or one of its branches by an EMBOLUS.Appendicitis: Acute inflammation of the APPENDIX. Acute appendicitis is classified as simple, gangrenous, or perforated.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Incidental Findings: Unanticipated information discovered in the course of testing or medical care. Used in discussions of information that may have social or psychological consequences, such as when it is learned that a child's biological father is someone other than the putative father, or that a person tested for one disease or disorder has, or is at risk for, something else.Early Detection of Cancer: Methods to identify and characterize cancer in the early stages of disease and predict tumor behavior.Cerebrospinal Fluid: A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Chorionic Villi Sampling: A method for diagnosis of fetal diseases by sampling the cells of the placental chorionic villi for DNA analysis, presence of bacteria, concentration of metabolites, etc. The advantage over amniocentesis is that the procedure can be carried out in the first trimester.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Amniocentesis: Percutaneous transabdominal puncture of the uterus during pregnancy to obtain amniotic fluid. It is commonly used for fetal karyotype determination in order to diagnose abnormal fetal conditions.Great BritainDNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Skin DiseasesAbscess: Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of infection.Lymphatic Diseases: Diseases of LYMPH; LYMPH NODES; or LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.
... an Axis II diagnosis (personality disorders and mental retardation), to an Axis I diagnosis (clinical disorders). The TARA-APD ... Criteria for pica and rumination disorder were changed and can now refer to people of any age. Binge eating disorder graduated ... For the diagnosis of acute stress disorder and PTSD, the stressor criteria (Criterion A1 in DSM-IV) was modified to some extent ... A new diagnosis is genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder which combines vaginismus and dyspareunia from DSM-IV. Sexual ...
Lateral medullary syndrome
Since lateral medullary syndrome is often caused by a stroke, diagnosis is time dependent. Diagnosis is usually done by ... It is the clinical manifestation resulting from occlusion of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) or one of its ... The cross body finding is the chief symptom from which a diagnosis can be made. Patients often have difficulty walking or ... The most commonly affected artery is the vertebral artery, followed by the PICA, superior middle and inferior medullary ...
Diagnosis is generally confirmed by blood tests. Prevention is by eating a diet high in iron or iron supplementation in those ... Pica may also develop; pagophagia has been suggested to be "the most specific for iron deficiency." Other possible symptoms and ... The diagnosis of iron-deficiency anemia will be suggested by history that includes common causes of the condition, such as a ... A diagnosis of iron-deficiency anemia requires further investigation into its cause. It can be caused by increased iron demand ...
My Strange Addiction
Rather, the cause of their behavior varies and may include a variety of psychiatric diagnosis. Examples of disorders on the ... the large number of Pica-like cases where subjects claim they consume materials that are known to be fatal when swallowed in ... show are: obsessive-compulsive disorder, pica, paraphilia, schizophrenia, psychosis, Alzheimer's disease, exercise bulimia, ...
... in humans would be considered a form of pica. Unlike calcium and phosphorus in most animals, pica is associated with ... "Mineral Deficiency - symptoms, meaning, Definition, Description, Demographics, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis". www. ... Geophagy, the eating of earthen materials like clay, can be another form of pica that is more commonly observed than osteophagy ... Pica is the craving and consumption of non-nutrient substances that can cause health risks. ...
George Huang (Law & Order: Special Victims Unit)
His diagnosis of the suspect as being brain damaged due to lead poisoning also motivated ADA Alexandra Cabot to seek a more ... In the 2009 episode "Lead" (#217), he is attacked in the interrogation room by a murder suspect who had pica, which indirectly ... He diagnoses the boy with psychopathy and makes arrangements to get him into a treatment facility. He complains about having to ... He sometimes agrees with the diagnoses of mental illness provided by defense attorneys and their psychiatrists, making it ...
List of dog diseases
The behavioral condition pica, especially when involving the eating of concrete dust, tile grout, or sand, may be a sign of ... Diagnosis of Valley Fever may include multiple tests, including serology and radiology. According to a study performed in the ... Diagnosis can be difficult as there are no tests with both high sensitivity and specificity. Treatments inclulde mitotane, ... Skin testing has proved unreliable, and a trial of a hypoallergenic diet is usually used for diagnosis. Follicular dysplasia is ...
Ocular larva migrans
Refractory cytopenia of childhood
In such instances, pica should not be noted as an additional diagnosis. Treatment for pica may vary by patient and suspected ... Pica can also be found in other animals and is commonly found in dogs. Pica is the consumption of substances with no ... Behavioral treatments for pica have been shown to reduce pica severity by 80% in people with intellectual disabilities. These ... There is no single test that confirms pica. However, because pica can occur in people who have lower than normal nutrient ...
Eating disorders and development
Pica typically presents in children, but the DSM-5 specifies that it can be diagnosed at any age. Pica is most often a co- ... Due to the recency of the diagnosis, less research is currently available on Binge Eating Disorder compared to the other ... Pica is an eating disorder characterized by the ingestion of non-food or non-nutritive substances. The DSM-5 criteria for Pica ... For pica to be considered, the eating of non-food items must be inappropriate to the child's developmental level, with a ...
799.9 Diagnosis deferred on Axis II 799.9 Diagnosis or condition deferred on Axis I V65.2 Malingering Clinical coder Diagnostic ... onset 312.89 Unspecified onset 313.81 Oppositional Defiant Disorder 312.9 Disruptive Behavior Disorder NOS 307.52 Pica 307.53 ... NOS is often a provisional diagnosis pending additional information or testing. For an alphabetical list, see DSM-IV Codes ( ... Parkinsonism 333.82 Tardive dyskinesia 333.92 Neuroleptic malignant syndrome V71.09 No diagnosis on Axis II V71.09 No diagnosis ...
Pica is a condition in which animals chew or eat unusual things such as fabric, plastic or wool. In cats, this is mostly ... In 20 to 30% of the cases, cats have concurrent allergic diseases (atopy / flea-allergic dermatitis). A reliable diagnosis can ... Allen AL (2003). "The diagnosis of acetaminophen toxicosis in a cat". Can Vet J. 44 (6): 509-10. PMC 340185 . PMID 12839249. " ...
This can make diagnosis very difficult. N. americanus and A. duodenale eggs can be found in warm, moist soil where they ... eosinophilia and pica caused by iron deficiency anemia are also experienced by some hookworm-infected patients. Recently, ... Diagnosis depends on finding characteristic worm eggs on microscopic examination of the stools, although this is not possible ... Recent research has focused on the development of a DNA-based tool that can be used for diagnosis of infection, specific ...
1] The diagnosis may be confirmed by assay of enzyme levels in tissue samples and gene sequencing. Prenatal diagnosis is ... pica and sleep disturbance. As affected children have normal muscle strength and mobility, the behavioural disturbances are ... If an early diagnosis is made, bone marrow replacement may be beneficial. Although the missing enzyme can be manufactured and ... Neonatal screening programs would provide the earliest possible diagnosis. The flavonoid genistein decreases the pathological ...
Hergüner S, Ozyildirim I, Tanidir C (December 2008). "Is Pica an eating disorder or an obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorder ... Hypochondriacs go to numerous outpatient facilities for confirmation of their own diagnosis. Hypochondriasis is the belief that ... Hypochondriasis Impulse control disorders in general Olfactory reference syndrome Paraphilias Pathological gambling Pica Non- ...
Other specified feeding or eating disorder
For example, in a population of 215 young patients presenting for ED treatment, the diagnosis of EDNOS to OSFED decreased from ... or pica. This category was called Atypical Eating Disorder. Atypical Eating Disorder was described in one sentence in the DSM- ... Though not defined specifically in DSM-5, research criteria for this diagnosis proposed adding the following criteria (1) the ... DSM-5, published in 2013, sought to address these issues by adding new diagnoses and revising existing criteria. American ...
Diagnosis is by examination of a stool sample with a microscope. The disease can be prevented on an individual level by not ... This long-term blood loss can manifest itself physically through facial and peripheral edema; eosinophilia and pica caused by ... This can make diagnosis very difficult. N. americanus and A. duodenale eggs can be found in warm, moist soil where they will ... Recent research has focused on the development of DNA-based tools for diagnosis of infection, specific identification of ...
Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder
Clinical diagnosis. Clinicians will often follow a diagnostic checklist to test whether or not an individual is ... Chatoor, I.; Hamburger, E.; Fullard, R.; Fivera, Y. (1994). "A survey of picky eating and pica behaviors in toddlers". ... Children are often picky eaters, this does not necessarily mean they meet the criteria for an ARFID diagnosis. In addition, ... Although many people with ARFID have symptoms of these disorders, they usually do not qualify for a full diagnosis. Strict ...
Recognizing this, the diagnosis-related group (DRG) manually splits certain DRGs based on the presence of secondary diagnoses ... Daveluy, C.; Pica, L.; Audet, N. (2001). Enquête Sociale et de Santé 1998 (2nd ed.). Québec: Institut de la statistique du ... Schellevis, F.G.; Van De Lisdonk, E.; Van Der Velden, J.; Van Eijk, J.Th.M.; Van Weel, C. (1993). "Validity of diagnoses of ... Psychiatric Diagnosis and Classification. pp. 79-106. doi:10.1002/047084647X.ch4. ISBN 978-0-471-49681-6. Kaplan, Moreson H.; ...
It is rare for humans to manifest all of the identified symptoms of the syndrome; three or more are required for diagnosis. ... Characterized by eating inappropriate objects (pica), or overeating, or both. Hyperorality. This was described by Ozawa et al. ... Other conditions may also contribute to a diagnosis of Klüver-Bucy syndrome, including Pick Disease, Alzheimer's Disease, ...
Mental disorders diagnosed in childhood
307.52 Pica 307.53 Rumination disorder 307.59 Feeding disorder of infancy or early childhood: Diagnosed if met by the following ... Nearly 30 to 50% of individuals with intellectual disability will never know the cause of their diagnosis even after thorough ... This unspecified diagnosis is given when there is a strong assumption that the child is mentally retarded, but cannot be tested ... Pica of infancy and childhood (F98.4) Stereotyped movement disorders (F98.5) Stuttering (stammering) (F98.6) Cluttering (F98.8 ...
Recognizing this, the diagnosis-related group (DRG) manually splits certain DRGs based on the presence of secondary diagnoses ... Daveluy, C.; Pica, L.; Audet, N. (2001). Enquête Sociale et de Santé 1998 (2nd ed.). Québec: Institut de la statistique du ... The final diagnosis] (in Russian). Moscow: GEOTAR-Media. ISBN 978-5-9704-0920-6. .. [page needed] ... Diagnosis. There is no doubt in the significance of comorbidity, but how to evaluate (measure) it in a given patient? ...
DSM-IV Codes (alphabetical)
Related Disorder NOS 292.0 Withdrawal 307.47 Nightmare Disorder V71.09 No Diagnosis on Axis II V71.09 No Diagnosis or Condition ... 307.52 Pica 304.80 Polysubstance Dependence 309.81 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder 302.75 Premature Ejaculation 307.44 Primary ... 311 Depressive Disorder NOS 315.4 Developmental Coordination Disorder 799.9 Diagnosis Deferred on Axis II 799.9 Diagnosis or ...
ICD-10 Chapter V: Mental and behavioural disorders
Subacute combined degeneration of spinal cord
These contrast agents are able to label the tumor cells, making the compounds important tools in cancer diagnosis; they are ... Polyakov, V., Sharma, V., Dahlheimer, J. L., Pica, C. M., Luker, G. D. & Piwnica-Worms, D. Bioconjugate Chem. 2000(11), 762-771 ... Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful tool for disease diagnosis such as cancer metastasis and inflammation, using ...
DiagnosisEdit. *A complete blood count can reveal microcytic anemia, although this is not always present - even when iron ... pica. *brittle or grooved nails. *hair thinning. *Plummer-Vinson syndrome: painful atrophy of the mucous membrane covering the ... Upon diagnosis, the condition can be treated with iron supplements. The choice of supplement will depend upon both the severity ... Before commencing treatment, there should be definitive diagnosis of the underlying cause for iron deficiency. This is ...
Since - for example - two people with a diagnosis of 'schizophrenia' or 'personality disorder' may possess no two symptoms in ... Criteria for pica and rumination disorder were changed and can now refer to people of any age. ... an Axis II diagnosis (personality disorders and mental retardation), to an Axis I diagnosis (clinical disorders). ... "Transforming Diagnosis". National Institute of Mental Health. Retrieved May 23, 2013.. *^ "NIMH Research Domain Criteria (RDoC ...
Ferri, Fred F. (2010). Ferri's differential diagnosis : a practical guide to the differential diagnosis of symptoms, signs, and ... Many young children display pica, eating things that are not food. Even a small amount of a lead-containing product such as a ... DiagnosisEdit. Diagnosis includes determining the clinical signs and the medical history, with inquiry into possible routes of ... Kosnett M.J. (2005). "Lead". In Brent, J. Critical Care Toxicology: Diagnosis and Management of the Critically Poisoned Patient ...
Effects of cannabis
Cannabis use disorder is defined as a medical diagnosis in the fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of ... 5F-PY-PICA. *5F-PY-PINACA. *5F-3-pyridinoylindole. *A-836,339. *A-955,840 ... "Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome: Clinical diagnosis of an underrecognised manifestation of chronic cannabis abuse". World ...
Superficial temporal artery
Pica, the consumption of non-food items such as ice, but also paper, wax, or grass, and even hair or dirt, may be a symptom of ... When the diagnosis remains difficult, a bone marrow examination allows direct examination of the precursors to red cells, ... "Haemoglobin concentrations for the diagnosis of anaemia and assessment of severity" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on ... The diagnosis of iron deficiency mandates a search for potential sources of loss, such as gastrointestinal bleeding from ulcers ...
زونا - ویکیپدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
Gatti A, Pica F, Boccia MT, De Antoni F, Sabato AF, Volpi A (2010). "No evidence of family history as a risk factor for herpes ... Differential diagnosis. Shingles can be confused with herpes simplex, dermatitis herpetiformis and impetigo, and skin reactions ... Diagnosis of complications of varicella-zoster, particularly in cases where the disease reactivates after years or decades of ... PCR is not a foolproof method of diagnosis, but because so many other indicators have turned out to not be reliable in ...
The PICA arrives at the undersurface, where it divides into a medial branch and a lateral branch. The medial branch continues ... 2006). The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy (18th ed.). Whitehouse Station, New Jersey: Merck Research Libraries. pp. 1886 ... PICA). The SCA supplies the upper region of the cerebellum. It divides at the upper surface and branches into the pia mater ...
Maternal physiological changes in pregnancy
Pica, which is the intense craving for unusual materials such as clay and ice has also been reported in pregnancy. ... The Normal Puerperium". CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment: Obstetrics & Gynecology (11 ed.). The McGraw-Hill Companies.. ... "Diagnosis and management of iliac vein thrombosis in pregnancy resulting from May-Thurner Syndrome". Journal of Perinatology ... "Deep vein thrombosis in pregnancy: Epidemiology, pathogenesis, and diagnosis". www.uptodate.com. Retrieved 4 December 2017 ...
Early diagnosis and treatment with a gluten-free diet can improve ataxia and prevent its progression. The effectiveness of the ... After exclusion of coeliac disease and wheat allergy, the subsequent step for diagnosis and treatment of NCGS is to start a ... Added difficulties for diagnosis are the fact that serological markers (anti-tissue transglutaminase [TG2]) are not always ... Healthcare professionals recommend against undertaking a gluten-free diet as a form of self-diagnosis, because tests for ...
Pica pica): Evidence of Self-Recognition". PLOS Biology. 6 (8): e202. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060202. PMC 2517622. PMID ... In the DSM-5, to receive a diagnosis of schizophrenia, they must have two or more of the following symptoms in the duration of ... These patients met the "International Classification of Diseases - 10 diagnostic criteria for a diagnosis of bipolar disorder I ... self-awareness of diagnoses of schizophrenia after treatment is rare, as well as subsequent to onset and prevalence in the ...
Signs and symptoms of pregnancy
Pica. Pica is a craving for nonedible items such as dirt or clay. It is caused by iron deficiency which is normal during ... European guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of pelvic girdle pain.Eur Spine J. 2008 Feb 8 Vleeming A, Albert HB, ... O'Sullivan, Peter B.; Beales, Darren J. (May 2007). "Diagnosis and classification of pelvic girdle pain disorders-Part 1: A ...
Causes of autism
Each mutation is itself associated with a variety of clinical diagnoses, and can also be found in a small percentage of ... along with habitual mouthing and pica, make it hard to determine whether increased lead levels are a cause or a consequence of ... The theory hypothesizes that individuals with these diagnoses inhabit the identities that have been ascribed to them, and ... individuals with no clinical diagnosis. Thus the genetic disorders that comprise autism are not autism-specific. The ...
Gastric bypass surgery
Pica is a compulsive tendency to eat substances other than normal food. Some examples would be people eating paper, clay, ... Gastric bypass is indicated for the surgical treatment of morbid obesity, a diagnosis which is made when the patient is ... There have been reported cases in which pica recurs after gastric bypass in patients with a pre-operative history of the ... This deficiency in the patient's iron levels may have led to the increase Pica activity. The patient was then given iron ...
This condition, pica, can threaten their health, depending on the amount and toxicity of the items eaten. Though cats usually ... Allen, A. L. (1 June 2003). "The Diagnosis of Acetaminophen Toxicosis in a Cat". Canadian Veterinary Journal. 44 (6): 509-510. ... Bradshaw, John W. S. (April 1997). "Factors affecting pica in the domestic cat". Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 52 (3-4): ... doi:10.1016/S0168-1591(96)01136-7. "Pica: The Un-finicky Feline - Chewing or Eating Cords, Fabric, Houseplants, Etc". ...
Wallenberg Syndrome PICA Syndrome Lateral Medullary Infarction | Iowa Head and Neck Protocols
PICA Syndrome or Lateral Medullary Infaction) return to: Unilateral Laryngeal Paralysis or Vocal Cord Paralysis; see: Tapia ... 4. A complete Wallenberg syndrome is not common with key factors in clinical diagnosis being crossed hemiparesis or ... Wallenberg Syndrome PICA Syndrome Lateral Medullary Infarction. last modified on: Tue, 04/09/2019 - 06:05. ... Wallenberg Syndrome (PICA Syndrome or Lateral Medullary Infaction). return to: Unilateral Laryngeal Paralysis or Vocal Cord ...
This topic will review the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, an ... The content on the UpToDate website is not intended nor recommended as a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment ... The hazards of vinyl glove ingestion in the mentally retarded patient with pica: new implications for surgical management. Can ...
Pica Archives - Celebrity Diagnosis
Celebrity Diagnosis (CelebrityDx). We give you the medical facts behind Hollywoods health headlines plus information that ... Kelly Ripa Diagnoses Herself With Mysterious Neurological Disorder comment by Kevin Li. Mental disorders, in addition to ... Gina Rodriguez Surprised by Hashimotos Diagnosis- UPDATED comment by Hannah Willey. I found this article regarding Gina ... ","Pica","Pierce Brosnan","Pierre Cossette","Pierre Dukan","Piers Morgan","Pink","Pititary","Placebo Effect","Placenta Accreta ...
Pica: Practice Essentials, Background, Etiology
Pica is an eating disorder typically defined as the persistent ingestion of nonnutritive substances for at least 1 month at an ... Diagnosis. No specific laboratory studies are indicated in the evaluation of pica. However, certain laboratory studies may be ... encoded search term (Pica) and Pica What to Read Next on Medscape. Related Conditions and Diseases. * Binge Eating Disorder ( ... The broad range of complications arising from the various forms of pica and the delay in accurate diagnosis may result in mild- ...
Pica | National Eating Disorders Association
EVALUATION & DIAGNOSIS. *There are no laboratory tests for pica. Instead, the diagnosis is made from a clinical history of the ... Pica is an eating disorder that involves eating items that are not typically thought of as food and that do not contain ... Pica can affect children, adolescents, and adults of any genders.. *Those who are pregnant and craving nonfood items should ... In these individuals, pica is a sign that the body is trying to correct a significant nutrient deficiency. Treating this ...
Pica: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Pica is a pattern of eating non-food materials, such as dirt or paper. ... This pattern of eating must last for at least 1 month to fit the diagnosis of pica. ... There is no single test for pica. Because pica can occur in people who have poor nutrition, the health care provider may test ... Treating pica involves behaviors, the environment, and family education. One form of treatment associates the pica behavior ...
10 Oddest Medical Conditions | Mental Disorders slideshows | Emotional & Mental Health center | SteadyHealth.com
Pica. Pica is the consumption of non-nutritive substances. More common in children but also occurring in adults, pica may ... In some cases, pica is caused by the lack of an intellectual ability to recognize edible food, and in others, the condition is ... Young SL, Wilson MJ, Miller D, Hillier S. Toward a comprehensive approach to the collection and analysis of pica substances, ...
Unilateral isolated hypoglossal nerve palsy due to pathologically adherent PICA fusiform aneurysm - A case report.
Pathological adhesions between hypoglossal rootlets and the PICA aneurysm wall could be a possible contributor in the ... The PICA has a very close relationship to the hypoglossal nerve, and its fusiform dilatation could cause isolated hypoglossal ... Diagnosis and Treatment of Scalp Arteriovenous Malformations With Intracranial Extension. Scalp arteriovenous malformations ( ... CONCLUSION: The PICA has a very close relationship to the hypoglossal nerve, and its fusiform dilatation could cause isolated ...
Podiatric Success and PICA Debuts "Lunchtime with the Masters"
Podiatric Success, home of Meet the Masters, has partnered with the Podiatric Insurance Company of America (PICA) to launch a ... The information should not be used for either diagnosis or treatment or both for any health related problem or disease. Always ... Podiatric Success and PICA Debuts "Lunchtime with the Masters". Wednesday, August 24, 2016 General News ... Ross Taubman, President of PICA. "The greatest type of communication is interactive. That is why we have decided to build a ...
Pica DSM-5 307.52 (F98.3) (F50.8) - Therapedia
Theravive does not provide medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment.. Read here for more info. ... Pica DSM-5 307.52 (F98.3) (F50.8). DSM-5 Category: Feeding and Eating Disorders. Introduction. Pica involves an individual ... Pica in children over five years of age can be a sign of age-inappropriate behavior. Adults engaging in pica often have ... Pica is more common in areas of low economic status. Africa has a higher incidence of pica than western countries, for example ...
A Guide to the World's Strangest and Rarest Diseases
Pica. Pica is an unusual disorder that causes people to eat non-food substances such as chalk, clay, dirt, feces, paper, soap, ... Lymphatic Filariasis Diagnosis: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention explains how medical professionals diagnose ... Eating Disorder, Pica: Medscape gives a brief background of pica and its manifestations. ... Pica does not refer to one or two isolated incidents of eating non-food items. The disorder must persist for at least a month ...
Pancreatitis aguda severa temprana postcolangiopancreatograf a retr grada endosc pica, presentaci n de un caso
Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction: Diagnosis and treatment. J Pancreas 2001; 2: 382-400. ... Revistas ,Revista Mexicana de Cirug a Endosc pica ,A o 2009, No. 1 Murillo ZA, Vidal GP, C rdenas SC, Robles CJ, Sarue SN. ... Se le realiz colangiopancreatograf a retr grada endosc pica (CPRE) cursando posterior a sta con disfunci n org nica m ltiple y ... Guitr n A, Adalid R, Guti rrez JA, Nieves A, lvarez G. Complicaciones en colangiopancreatograf a endosc pica diagn stica y ...
Rumination disorder: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Rumination and pica. In: Kliegman RM, St. Geme JW, Blum NJ, Shah SS, Tasker RC, Wilson KM, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. ... The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any ... A licensed physician should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all ... Sleisenger and Fordtrans Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease: Pathophysiology/Diagnosis/ Management. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA ...
ARFID: Symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Diagnosis. Doctors use the criteria in the DSM-5 to diagnose ARFID. People with ARFID typically have an eating disturbance, ... People with ARFID usually receive a diagnosis at a younger age than people with anorexia and bulimia, and a higher percentage ... The DSM-5 defines mental disorders to help doctors and psychiatrists improve diagnosis and treatment. ...
What Are Some of the Problems Associated with Pica? | PediatricEducation.org™
The diagnosis of a healthy female was made. Her parents were counseled that pica was normal in this age group but that they ... Pica. J R Soc Health. 1997 Oct;117(5):280-4.. Williams DE, McAdam D. Assessment, behavioral treatment, and prevention of pica: ... Many different animal species practice pica including several primate species. Pagophagia is a type of pica where one consumes ... Pica is a disorder of ingestion of non-food items that is unusual in the type of item or the quantity. What is defined as food ...
Mysophobia (ocd) anxiety disorder possibly bipolar kleptomania pica epilepsy why do I have so many problems all at once? -...
HealthTap does not provide medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. For these services, please use HealthTap Prime or Concierge ... Pica may be a sign of anemia. These disorders are not as bad as cancer, terminal illnesses or other sicknesses that they leave ... Mysophobia (ocd) anxiety disorder possibly bipolar kleptomania pica epilepsy why do I have so many problems all at once? ... HealthTap does not provide medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. For these services, please use HealthTap Prime or Concierge ...
My 5 yr old has pdd-nos and pica. Her wt is normal for her age + ht. She wants to eat all the time! every 40-50 minutes she...
HealthTap does not provide medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. For these services, please use HealthTap Prime or HealthTap ... My 5 yr old has pdd-nos and pica. Her wt is normal for her age + ht. She wants to eat all the time! every 40-50 minutes she ... My 5 yr old has pdd-nos and pica. Her wt is normal for her age + ht. She wants to eat all the time! every 40-50 minutes she ...
Pica (disorder) - Wikipedia
In such instances, pica should not be noted as an additional diagnosis. Treatment for pica may vary by patient and suspected ... Pica can also be found in other animals and is commonly found in dogs. Pica is the consumption of substances with no ... Behavioral treatments for pica have been shown to reduce pica severity by 80% in people with intellectual disabilities. These ... There is no single test that confirms pica. However, because pica can occur in people who have lower than normal nutrient ...
Bálsamo de la alergia de Perú
Pica Disorder - InfoBarrel
This article provides basic information about Pica. It is intended for informational purposes only and should not replace the ... Treatment of Pica. The first thing that must be done when the diagnosis of Pica is applied is to have a thorough health ... The diagnosis of Pica is usually not given with these diagnoses unless the problems need special attention that will not be ... In these cases, the eating of these substances still needs to be addressed by a professional and then the diagnosis of Pica is ...
What Are the Health Risks of Eating Cornstarch? | Reference.com
Blood test for mineral deficiency is used in the diagnosis of pica. Treatment of pica focuses on behavior change, replacement ... Pica affects both adults and children. Symptoms of pica include eating non-food materials such as clay, paint, ice and sand. ... Pica is the medical condition of craving for cornstarch. Amylophagia is a type of pica characterized by compulsive consumption ...
Pica Eating Disorder and How to Treat It | Newport Academy
The Pica eating disorder is a condition that causes people to ingest non-food items. If untreated, it can lead to serious ... Diagnosing Pica. Once an expert detects pica symptoms, the next step is diagnosis. However, no laboratory tests for pica ... However, this does not mean that they have pica.. Why Pica Can Be Deadly. Pica symptoms can have dangerous and even deadly ... Medical Complications as a Result of Pica. Once an individual receives a pica diagnosis, medical professionals will check for ...
Eating Disorders | The Recovery Village
Diagnosis for Pica is usually made from the clinical history of the person with Pica. Once a person is diagnosed with Pica, it ... Pica is often the result of an iron deficiency and malnutrition. Pica is the bodys way of trying to supplement a significant ... Pica. This eating disorder isnt necessarily related to losing or maintaining a certain weight - Pica involves eating things ... Treatment for Pica typically involves finding the deficiency and then using medication or vitamins to balance everything out. ...
Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency in Dogs (EPI) - PetPlace
A thorough knowledge of the history and clinical signs is very important in the diagnosis of EPI. Tests may include:. * Fecal ... Pica (eating unusual things such as dirt). * Borborygmus (a rumbling noise caused by gas passing through the intestines) ... Diagnosis of Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency in Dogs. Veterinary care includes diagnostic tests and subsequent treatment ...
DSM-5 - Wikipedia
... an Axis II diagnosis (personality disorders and mental retardation), to an Axis I diagnosis (clinical disorders). The TARA-APD ... Criteria for pica and rumination disorder were changed and can now refer to people of any age. Binge eating disorder graduated ... For the diagnosis of acute stress disorder and PTSD, the stressor criteria (Criterion A1 in DSM-IV) was modified to some extent ... A new diagnosis is genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder which combines vaginismus and dyspareunia from DSM-IV. Sexual ...
What is the role of lab testing in the diagnosis of hemorrhagic stroke?
The posterior inferior cerebellar arteries (PICA) arise from the distal vertebral arteries. The anterior inferior cerebellar ... encoded search term (What is the role of lab testing in the diagnosis of hemorrhagic stroke?) and What is the role of lab ... Diagnosis of acute ischaemic stroke with fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and diffusion-weighted sequences. Neuroradiology. ... What is the role of lab testing in the diagnosis of hemorrhagic stroke?. Updated: Apr 22, 2019 ...
Funduplicatura laparosc pica con tr cares de 5 mm. Evita las hernias postincisionales? .
Kopelman D, Schein M, Assalia A, Hashmonai M. Small bowel obstruction following laparoscopic cholecystectomy: Diagnosis of ... Objetivo: Describir la t cnica de funduplicatura por v a laparosc pica, utilizando s lo tr cares de 5 mm y demostrar su ... Funduplicatura laparosc pica con tr cares de 5 mm. Evita las hernias postincisionales? Cir Gen 2001; 23 (1) ... Lasky D, Bernbassat M, Rescala E, Cervantes F, Greenspun M. Tr car de Lasky para cierre de puertos en cirug a laparosc pica. An ...
Lead toxicity - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice US
Case Study 19: Lead Toxicity | Environmental Medicine: Integrating a Missing Element into Medical Education | The National...
The diagnosis was "mild iron deficiency anemia," and iron therapy was prescribed. The family failed to keep several follow-up ... If pica or accidental ingestion of lead-containing objects (such as curtain weights or fishing sinkers) is suspected, an ... In the differential diagnosis of microcytic anemia, lead poisoning can usually be ruled out by obtaining a venous blood lead ... If a child does not have pica and there is nothing to suggest that a lead-containing object has recently been ingested, an ...
Movement Disorders III
Pica in children, and feeding.... *How useful a diagnosis is borderline personality disorder? Davis, Derek Russell // British ... Pica: Symptom or Eating Disorder?: A Historical Assessment. Parry-Jones, B.; Parry-Jones, W. LL. // British Journal of ... In DSM-III-R, pica, with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and rumination disorder of infancy, is accorded the status of a ... Focuses on the significance of diagnosis of borderline personality disorder. Introduction of the word borderline to describe ...
Iron Deficiency Anemia - Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, Diagnosis - Canada.com
TreatmentCravingsFecesSYMPTOMS OF PICASymptomDisordersHistory of picaIndividuals with picaAdultsPregnancyPrevalenceSubstancesCompulsiveIngestionDevelopmentalEtiologyRuminationSigns of picaDirtBehaviorsSchizophreniaType of picaLead to picaForm of picaForms of picaExample of picaPosteriorPersistentAneurysmUnusualPsychiatric diagnosesTreatmentGeophagiaGastrointestinal tractIron deficiencyInvolvesAnemiaComplicationsExaminationSyndromesObstructionEating DisorderIncludeMedicalPracticeAbnormalitiesCirugEats almostLatinLaboratory testsFoodCommonDiagnosingAbnormalityPregnant woman
- Those who are pregnant and craving nonfood items should only be diagnosed with pica when their cravings lead to ingesting nonfood items, and the ingestion of those items poses a potential medical risk (either due to the quantity or type of item being ingested). (nationaleatingdisorders.org)
- Pregnant women experience pica, which may be part of pregnancy 'cravings' for different types of food. (theravive.com)
- Furthermore, pregnancy sometimes causes pica cravings. (newportacademy.com)
- Pica is the medical term for unusual cravings, particularly for substances that are considered indigestible (not food stuffs). (healthhype.com)
- Cravings for ice, paint or dirt (pica). (rxmed.com)
- A person who has experienced such food cravings may have been diagnosed with pica. (medicalcodingbuff.com)
- The pica cravings are less common in pregnant women. (medicalcodingbuff.com)
- In fact, in pregnant women, anemia (low iron) is often the cause of pica, because the body develops unusual cravings in response to low nutrient levels. (medicalcodingbuff.com)
- Therefore, understanding about pica, food cravings and aversions during pregnancy is important in ensuring a mother and fetus attains adequate health and nutrition. (scirp.org)
- Pica is an unusual condition where patients develop cravings for non-nutritive substances that can cause significant health risks. (biomedcentral.com)
- Diagnosis is confirmed by demonstrating eggs in the feces. (aafp.org)
- However, eating feces (coprophagia) is not considered by most to be an example of pica, no doubt in acknowledgement that most dogs love the stuff, sometimes including their own, and that is often might have some food value in it. (patriciamcconnell.com)
- Pica doesn't include the ingestion of trash or feces, since the consumption of such things is often driven by different motivations. (bestfriends.org)
- Dogs can also develop gastritis from eating the feces of other animals, an unpleasant habit called "pica. (petwave.com)
SYMPTOMS OF PICA4
- There is some research to show that women who are lacking some vitamins during or after pregnancy will develop some symptoms of Pica. (infobarrel.com)
- The symptoms of Pica are pretty straightforward as I have described above. (infobarrel.com)
- Symptoms of pica include eating non-food materials such as clay, paint, ice and sand. (reference.com)
- We describe three patients who presented with symptoms of pica. (biomedcentral.com)
- Although a link is often made between pica and obsessive-compulsive disorder, at this time pica is not classified as a symptom or specifier of OCD, although it was suggested as part of the DSM-5 reclassifications. (theravive.com)
- In addition, the DISC is DSM-IV loyal and all symptom criteria must be met to meet the diagnosis. (cdc.gov)
- However, eating foods or drinks that have little or no nutritional value is not a symptom of pica. (newportacademy.com)
- Pica: Symptom or Eating Disorder? (ebscohost.com)
- Pica can even be a symptom of normal exploratory behavior. (patriciamcconnell.com)
- Pica is a symptom associated with nutritional deficiencies but may also be noticed in persons with mental disabilities (retardation). (healthhype.com)
- Pica is a symptom associated with severe iron-deficiency anemia ( low blood iron ) and may also sometimes be present in pregnancy. (healthhype.com)
- Although pica can impair physical functioning, it rarely causes impairment of social functioning, which is typically associated with comorbid disorders. (medscape.com)
- Pica often occurs with other mental health disorders associated with impaired functioning (e.g., intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia). (nationaleatingdisorders.org)
- Pica, formerly under a section for disorders with onset in childhood and adolescence, now falls under the eating disorders umbrella of "Feeding and Eating Disorders" in DSM-5. (theravive.com)
- Pica is often co-morbid with other mental disorders and may be seen in autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, anorexia nervosa and nonsuicidal self-injury. (theravive.com)
- In fact, pica has a higher prevalence rate in individuals with intellectual disabilities than those with eating disorders (Karlsson, Råstam, & Wentz, 2013). (theravive.com)
- The DSM-5 defines mental disorders to help doctors and psychiatrists improve diagnosis and treatment. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- According to DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition) criteria, for these actions to be considered pica, they must persist for more than one month at an age where eating such objects is considered developmentally inappropriate, not part of culturally sanctioned practice and sufficiently severe to warrant clinical attention. (wikipedia.org)
- Pica has been linked to other mental and emotional disorders. (wikipedia.org)
- However, pica is currently recognized as a mental disorder by the widely used Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). (wikipedia.org)
- For these reasons, it does not cover diagnoses such as pervasive developmental disorders, speech and language disorders, or the organic brain syndromes. (cdc.gov)
- This relationship is referred to as co-occurring disorders and can often make the diagnosis and treatment more difficult to go through. (therecoveryvillage.com)
- A note under Anxiety Disorders says that the "sequential order" of at least some DSM-5 chapters has significance that reflects the relationships between diagnoses. (wikipedia.org)
- Concern about the categorical system of diagnosis is expressed, but the conclusion is the reality that alternative definitions for most disorders is scientifically premature. (wikipedia.org)
- DSM-5 has discarded the multiaxial system of diagnosis (formerly Axis I, Axis II, Axis III), listing all disorders in Section II. (wikipedia.org)
- Girls are nine to ten times more likely than boys are to receive a diagnosis of anorexia, though that discrepancy may be related to challenges in identifying eating disorders in males. (mountsinai.org)
- Incidence and risk factors high risk: The diagnosis of benign disorders. (cadasb.org)
- The Center of Excellence in Eating and Weight Disorders provides diagnosis and treatment on East 96th Street, near The Mount Sinai Hospital. (mountsinai.org)
- Several other diagnoses work along these lines - where a biomedical tests results are listed but are not necessary to make the diagnosis: the substance/medication-induced mental disorders, delirium, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, neurocognitive disorders, and so on. (mindhacks.com)
- These therapy options are often effective in treating different types of eating disorders, including anorexia, bulimia, pica and night eating syndrome. (montenido.com)
- Therapists will develop an individualized treatment, based on the individual's unique diagnosis, history and co-occurring disorders. (montenido.com)
- Each patient fully meets the criteria for pica from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders [ 5 ] and suffered from severe iron deficiency anemia. (biomedcentral.com)
- According to the American Psychiatric Association (APA), feeding and eating disorders, including pica, are closely aligned with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) . (verywellhealth.com)
History of pica4
- There was history of pica. (pediatriconcall.com)
- In our patient too, there was a history of pica which may have lead to stone aspiration. (pediatriconcall.com)
- A history of pica, is called ing permanent brain damage. (wellchild.org)
- Both parents gave history of pica, history of prolong breast feeding with inadequate and improper weaning food. (pediatriconcall.com)
Individuals with pica3
- Some evidence suggests that drugs that enhance dopaminergic functioning (eg, olanzapine) may provide treatment alternatives in individuals with pica that is refractory to behavioral intervention. (medscape.com)
- Like those with OCD, individuals with pica are conscious of their behavior even though it is unhealthy and illogical behavior. (theravive.com)
- however, biological abnormalities are rarely found in individuals with pica. (wikipedia.org)
- Pica can affect children, adolescents, and adults of any genders. (nationaleatingdisorders.org)
- Pica is seen more in young children than adults. (medlineplus.gov)
- Pica may also occur in adults who crave a certain texture in their mouth. (medlineplus.gov)
- Adults engaging in pica often have intellectual disabilities. (theravive.com)
- Pica can affect children, teens, and adults. (newportacademy.com)
- Pica affects both adults and children. (reference.com)
- When pica develops in adults, there is usually a co-existing intellectual disability or other mental disorder involved. (medicalcodingbuff.com)
- Iron-deficiency anemia and malnutrition are two of the most common causes of pica, followed by pregnancy. (nationaleatingdisorders.org)
- Pica can also occur during pregnancy. (medlineplus.gov)
- Stressors such as emotional trauma, maternal deprivation, family issues, parental neglect, pregnancy, and a disorganized family structure are strongly linked to pica as a form of comfort. (wikipedia.org)
- If the eating in No. 1 occurs in the presence of another mental disorder (autistic spectrum disorder), or during a medical condition (pregnancy), and severe enough to warrant independent clinical attention, then it is diagnoses as pica. (healthproadvice.com)
- The aim of this study was to investigate the association of postpartum depression with pica during pregnancy. (healthdocbox.com)
- Result: In this study, there wasn t a significant association between PPD and pica during pregnancy (P=0.153, OR=2.043, CI=0.767, 5.438), but, postpartum depression has a significant association with type (clay) (P= 0.024) and duration (more than 2 months) (P= 0.023) of pica practice. (healthdocbox.com)
- Conclusions: In the present study, pregnancy pica was not important risk factor for PPD but there were similar risk factors such as iron supplementation during and postpartum pregnancy with pica and PPD. (healthdocbox.com)
- Keywords: Postpartum depression, pica, pregnancy 1. (healthdocbox.com)
- Pica is not limited to a geographical area, race, sex, culture, or social position (Mortazavi & Mohammadi, 2010), and its prevalence during pregnancy varies from 0.02% to 74% (Boatin et al. (healthdocbox.com)
- The aim of this study was to determine the pica and its association with biochemical profiles of pregnant women and its relation to pregnancy outcome. (scirp.org)
- Maternal biochemical profiles (hemoglobin and ferritin) during pregnancy, mean gestational age and pregnancy outcome namely height, weight, and head circumferences of neonates were compared to pregnant women who reported pica (pica group) and women who did not (without pica group). (scirp.org)
- Women in pica group had lower hemoglobin levels during the three trimesters of pregnancy than without pica group. (scirp.org)
- The findings suggest that the pica practices during pregnancy are associated with lower maternal hemoglobin during the pregnancy periods, and also significantly lower head circumferences of neonates. (scirp.org)
- This study therefore sought to determine the pica and its association with biochemical profiles of pregnant women and its relation to pregnancy outcome. (scirp.org)
- Pica is an eating disorder typically defined as the persistent ingestion of nonnutritive substances for at least 1 month at an age for which this behavior is developmentally inappropriate. (medscape.com)
- The clinical presentation of pica is highly variable and is associated with the specific nature of the resulting medical conditions and the ingested substances. (medscape.com)
- Diagnosing pica should be accompanied by tests for anemia, potential intestinal blockages, and toxic side effects of substances consumed (i.e., lead in paint, bacteria or parasites from dirt). (nationaleatingdisorders.org)
- Pica is the consumption of non-nutritive substances. (steadyhealth.com)
- Young SL, Wilson MJ, Miller D, Hillier S. Toward a comprehensive approach to the collection and analysis of pica substances, with emphasis on geophagic materials. (steadyhealth.com)
- Pica involves an individual persistently and compulsively eating nonfood substances that are nonnutritious. (theravive.com)
- Pica is the consumption of substances with no significant nutritional value such as soil, soap or ice. (wikipedia.org)
- Pica is defined as the eating of one or more substances that are not made to be eaten. (infobarrel.com)
- In these cases, the eating of these substances still needs to be addressed by a professional and then the diagnosis of Pica is given to treat the disorder. (infobarrel.com)
- Pica is the compulsive eating of non-nutritive substances and it may have a serious medical complications. (pediatriconcall.com)
- Children who eat sand and other unusual substances may not be doing so due to pica but rather this may be a way of exploring their surroundings with their different senses. (healthhype.com)
- Pica is an eating disorder characterized by persistent ingestion of substances that the consumer does not define as food. (healthdocbox.com)
- Etiology of pica is unknown, but some hypotheses attribute pica to deficiency of nutrients such as iron, calcium, copper, zinc, etc., leading to consumption of inedible substances containing these nutrients (Janbabai et al. (healthdocbox.com)
- Pica is the eating of nonfood substances such as rocks and clothing. (vetsecure.com)
- Pets with pica or coprophagy eat substances that are not considered food. (vetsecure.com)
- A physician who suspects pica will need to perform an evaluation to assess for possible intestinal blockages, anemia, or toxicity from the consumed substances. (medicalcodingbuff.com)
- Pica is an unusual craving for and ingestion of either edible or inedible substances. (biomedcentral.com)
- Pica, by definition, is the abnormal and excessive eating of non-nutritive substances, including ice, for longer than one month that is 'inappropriate to the development of the individual. (verywellhealth.com)
- In pica, the compulsive behavior has been linked to low economic status. (theravive.com)
- More recently, cases of pica have been tied to the obsessive-compulsive spectrum, and there is a move to consider OCD in the cause of pica. (wikipedia.org)
- Amylophagia is a type of pica characterized by compulsive consumption of cornstarch. (reference.com)
- Pica refers to the ingestion of non-food items, often with an assumed compulsive component to it. (patriciamcconnell.com)
- This, by the way, is why I wonder if compulsive grass eating might be considered a kind of pica. (patriciamcconnell.com)
- What we do know is that pica can be compulsive, very dangerous and preventing it can also be very difficult (Sturmey & Williams, 2016). (autism.org.uk)
- Although pica is observed most frequently in children, it is the most common eating disorder in individuals with developmental disabilities. (medscape.com)
- Medicines may help reduce the abnormal eating behavior if pica is part of a developmental disorder such as intellectual disability. (medlineplus.gov)
- citation needed] Pica is most commonly seen in pregnant women, small children, and those with developmental disabilities such as autism. (wikipedia.org)
- In fact, 10 to 15 percent of people with mental disabilities and developmental issues also have pica. (newportacademy.com)
- Consider Baylisascaris infection in persons with severe developmental disabilities or pica/geophagia and sudden onset of eosinophilic encephalitis. (cdc.gov)
- We do know that pica in humans is more common in children with developmental disabilities, but that doesn't help us much with dogs. (patriciamcconnell.com)
- The Panel concluded that appropriate diagnosis of autism requires a dual-level approach: (a) routine developmental surveillance, and (b) diagnosis and evaluation of autism. (springer.com)
Signs of pica2
- Pica is an eating disorder that involves eating items that are not typically thought of as food and that do not contain significant nutritional value, such as hair, dirt, and paint chips. (nationaleatingdisorders.org)
- Pica is a pattern of eating non-food materials, such as dirt or paper. (medlineplus.gov)
- It is unclear how many children with pica intentionally consume dirt (geophagy). (medlineplus.gov)
- In rare cases, a child with iron-deficiency anemia may develop pica , a craving to eat nonfood items such as paint chips, chalk, or dirt. (kidshealth.org)
- Pica, The Need to Eat Dirt. (medicalcodingbuff.com)
- A person diagnosed with Pica has a need to eat such non-food items as dirt or chalk. (medicalcodingbuff.com)
Type of pica2
Lead to pica2
Form of pica2
Forms of pica2
- People practicing forms of pica, such as geophagy, pagophagy and amylophagy, are more likely anemic, have low hemoglobin concentration in their blood, lower levels of red blood cells (hematocrit), or have lower plasma zinc levels. (wikipedia.org)
- Pagophagia and other forms of pica are by nature habitual but may worsen when there are additional stresses in one's life. (verywellhealth.com)
Example of pica1
- Se le realiz colangiopancreatograf a retr grada endosc pica (CPRE) cursando posterior a sta con disfunci n org nica m ltiple y paro cardiorrespiratorio a las 31 h del procedimiento. (medigraphic.com)
- Knowledge of this entity would be helpful in the differential diagnosis of a posterior fossa subarachnoid hemorrhage. (biomedsearch.com)
- BACKGROUND: Dissecting aneurysm of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) uninvolved with the vertebral artery is rare. (biomedsearch.com)
- Three cases of ruptured aneurysm of the distal posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) presenting with isolated intraventricular hematoma are reported. (thejns.org)
- Everyone has eaten something that is nonnutritive but for the classification of Pica to be considered this must be on a persistent basis for at least one month. (infobarrel.com)
- Pica as a medical term refers to the persistent eating of non-nutritive, or non-food, items (American Psychiatric Association 2013). (autism.org.uk)
- Pathological adhesions between hypoglossal rootlets and the PICA aneurysm wall could be a possible contributor in the development and progression of hypoglossal nerve palsy. (medworm.com)
- INTERVENTION: The patient underwent surgical exploration of his PICA, which confirmed a PICA fenestration without an associated saccular aneurysm. (biomedsearch.com)
- In our cases, after trapping the PICA at both just proximal and distal to the aneurysm, the abnormal portion was successfully resected with/without an end-to-end anastomosis. (biomedsearch.com)
- The diagnosis of distal PICA aneurysm should be considered if isolated intraventricular hematoma is found without obvious parenchymal hemorrhage or subarachnoid blood in the basal cisterns. (thejns.org)
- These diseases cause unusual physical and psychological symptoms and often stump medical professionals when it comes to making a diagnosis. (onlinenursingdegrees.org)
- We believe pica is an important sign of iron deficiency that should never be ignored, and the craving for any unusual substance should compel clinicians to search for occult blood loss with secondary iron deficiency. (biomedcentral.com)
- The Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-IV) is a fully structured diagnostic instrument that assesses thirty-four common psychiatric diagnoses of children and adolescents. (cdc.gov)
- In the United States, the DSM serves as a universal authority for psychiatric diagnoses. (wikipedia.org)
- I've been a long - term critic of psychiatric diagnoses but I've become increasingly frustrated by the myths and over-generalisations that get repeated and recycled in the diagnosis debate. (mindhacks.com)
- In reality, some psychiatric diagnoses do classify distress, some don't. (mindhacks.com)
- No medical treatment is specific for pica. (medscape.com)
- Currently, behavioral strategies are considered the most effective in the treatment of pica. (medscape.com)
- The first-line treatment for pica involves testing for mineral or nutrient deficiencies and correcting those. (nationaleatingdisorders.org)
- One form of treatment associates the pica behavior with negative consequences or punishment (mild aversion therapy). (medlineplus.gov)
- The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. (medlineplus.gov)
- A licensed physician should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. (medlineplus.gov)
- The information should not be used for either diagnosis or treatment or both for any health related problem or disease. (medindia.net)
- Always seek the advice of a qualified physician for medical diagnosis and treatment. (medindia.net)
- HealthTap does not provide medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. (healthtap.com)
- Treatment of pica focuses on behavior change, replacement of missing minerals and resolving underlying medical conditions such as iron deficiency anemia. (reference.com)
- The pediatrician is faced with the challenging task of suspecting an ASD diagnosis as early as possible and implementing a timely treatment plan to achieve the best outcome for the child and family. (aappublications.org)
- For this reason, it is very important to get a proper diagnosis and treatment as early as possible. (mountsinai.org)
- Fortunately, with proper diagnosis and treatment, the prognosis for most dogs with gastritis is good. (petwave.com)
- The book first introduces readers to a disorder, followed by discussions of assessment and diagnosis, and concludes with methods of treatment. (pearson.ch)
- The information on Health24 is for educational purposes only, and is not intended as medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. (health24.com)
- Pica symptoms abated in one of our patients upon iron supplementation, while the other two are currently under treatment as of this writing. (biomedcentral.com)
- Some of the common problems associated with pica include gastrointestinal tract obstruction, lead toxicity, iron deficiency anemia, parasites (especially Toxocara canis and ascariasis) and industrial pollutant exposure. (pediatriceducation.org)
- The presence of lead foreign bodies in the gastrointestinal tract (caused by pica) may highlight the diagnosis and prompt immediate intervention. (medscape.com)
- The diagnosis was "mild iron deficiency anemia," and iron therapy was prescribed. (nap.edu)
- Pica: Iron deficiency accelerates iron absorption. (cadasb.org)
- The diagnosis was "mild iron deficiency anemia," and elemental iron 5 milligrams/kilograms (mg/kg) per 24 hours (divided 3 times daily without food) was prescribed. (cdc.gov)
- The diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia was delayed and became fully obvious when her Still's disease remitted and serum ferritin decreased to 6.5 μ g/L. The coexistence of iron deficiency should be considered when evaluating a patient with anemia of chronic inflammation even when the ferritin level is elevated several hundredfold. (hindawi.com)
- Here we present three patients who demonstrated subtle changes in pica associated with iron deficiency. (biomedcentral.com)
- Pica may be a sign of anemia . (healthtap.com)
- Moreover, pica disorder can result in serious medical conditions, such as anemia, intestinal blockages, and other life-threatening issues. (newportacademy.com)
- A. duodenale and N. americanus are hookworms that cause blood loss, anemia, pica and wasting. (aafp.org)
- Dietitians should ask pregnant women with anemia about pica and should counsel pregnant women who report pica. (scirp.org)
- A child that swallows a penny and must be taken to the emergency room for an examination would not be considered Pica. (infobarrel.com)
- Therefore, after making a pica diagnosis, physicians should administer a medical examination and a series of tests. (newportacademy.com)
- We cannot actually make a diagnosis by matching a list of symptoms with a patient's behavior without the examination required for the condition. (healthproadvice.com)
- Definitive diagnosis of atrophic gastritis can only be achieved via the processes of gastroscopy , in which a small tube with a camera is led into the stomach for examination, and a biopsy of tissues in the stomach lining is taken for examination and diagnosis. (petmd.com)
- A study analysed pitfalls in the diagnosis of cerebellar infarction in a busy emergency department (1) and the following example: a 67 year old lady presented with rapid onset dizziness and vomiting and on examination was found to have normal strength of all limbs and cranial nerves. (eso-stroke.org)
- Definitive diagnosis of toxocariasis is by histological examination for Toxocara larvae in biopsy materials. (hindawi.com)
- Kopelman D, Schein M, Assalia A, Hashmonai M. Small bowel obstruction following laparoscopic cholecystectomy: Diagnosis of incisional hernia by computed tomography. (medigraphic.com)
- Stress to the liver, right up- diagnosis or the right-ventricular outflow obstruction, the incidence of low-birth- ment. (wellchild.org)
- What Is The Pica Eating Disorder? (newportacademy.com)
- Pica is a rare eating disorder that may develop at any stage of life, but it tends to occur in young children, adolescents, and pregnant women. (medicalcodingbuff.com)
- Pica is an eating disorder in which non-nutritional objects are frequently eaten, and may have serious side effects for both the mother and neonate. (scirp.org)
- Pica is an eating disorder in which non- nutritional objects are frequently eaten. (scirp.org)
- Use these tips to zero in on the most accurate codes while avoiding common coding errors when your provider diagnoses a patient with an eating disorder. (supercoder.com)
- Based in Franklin, TN , Podiatry Insurance Company of America (PICA) is the nation's leading provider of professional liability insurance for podiatric physicians in the U.S. PICA has been protecting and supporting podiatric physicians by providing medical malpractice coverage for over30 years. (medindia.net)
- Pica is the medical condition of craving for cornstarch. (reference.com)
- Since some pica seems to be caused by medical problems or a nutritional deficit , I'd start there. (patriciamcconnell.com)
- If you think your pet has pica, a thorough medical work-up is recommended. (bestfriends.org)
- Please note that any information or feedback on this website is not intended to replace a consultation with a health care professional and will not constitute a medical diagnosis. (healthhype.com)
- Retrieved on February 26, 2020 from https://www.news-medical.net/health/Cellulitis-Diagnosis.aspx. (news-medical.net)
- You should consult a medical practitioner or other appropriate health care professional for a physical exmanication, diagnosis and formal advice. (health24.com)
- Pica poses significant health risks that often require medical interventions. (biomedcentral.com)
- In some societies, pica is a culturally sanctioned practice and is not considered pathologic. (medscape.com)
- Many different animal species practice pica including several primate species. (pediatriceducation.org)
- 1. What potential patients in your practice setting may be at risk for pica? (pediatriceducation.org)
- However, pica can also be a cultural practice not associated with a deficiency or disorder. (wikipedia.org)
- The Child Neurology Society and American Academy of Neurology recently proposed to formulate Practice Parameters for the Diagnosis and Evaluation of Autism for their memberships. (springer.com)
- The term pica is the medieval Latin name for the magpie bird which is known to eat food and non-food items. (pediatriceducation.org)
- The word "pica" is Latin for magpie-a bird known for eating almost anything. (newportacademy.com)
- Pica comes from the Latin word that means magpie , which is a bird that is known for a big appetite to eat anything and everything. (healthproadvice.com)
- The word pica is Latin for magpie, a bird known for its willingness to eat just about anything, according to Psychology Today . (medicalcodingbuff.com)
- Generally, those with pica are not averse to ingesting food. (nationaleatingdisorders.org)
- On the other hand, I couldn't find any references that included grass eating as pica, although clearly it's not food, at least to a dog. (patriciamcconnell.com)
- The definition of pica might be a bit fuzzy, but it usually refers both to the item (is it dangerous for the dog or beyond anyone's definition of food? (patriciamcconnell.com)
- However, often the non-food items that an individual chooses to consume will not contain the mineral of which they are deficient, so pica is not an alternative means of obtaining nutrients. (nursingcrib.com)
- However abnormal craving for and intake of some food items, such as corn starch or baking soda, are also considered examples of pica. (scirp.org)
- In this article, Dr Liz Shea from the Birmingham Food Refusal Clinic tells the story of James Frankish, a young autistic man who sadly died from issues related to pica. (autism.org.uk)