Early Detection of Cancer: Methods to identify and characterize cancer in the early stages of disease and predict tumor behavior.Early Diagnosis: Methods to determine in patients the nature of a disease or disorder at its early stage of progression. Generally, early diagnosis improves PROGNOSIS and TREATMENT OUTCOME.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Delayed Diagnosis: Non-optimal interval of time between onset of symptoms, identification, and initiation of treatment.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Limit of Detection: Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.United StatesNeoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Mammography: Radiographic examination of the breast.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Prenatal Diagnosis: Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted: Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Mouth Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Molecular Diagnostic Techniques: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Breast Self-Examination: The inspection of one's breasts, usually for signs of disease, especially neoplastic disease.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.False Negative Reactions: Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Diagnosis: The determination of the nature of a disease or condition, or the distinguishing of one disease or condition from another. Assessment may be made through physical examination, laboratory tests, or the likes. Computerized programs may be used to enhance the decision-making process.National Cancer Institute (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. Through basic and clinical biomedical research and training, it conducts and supports research with the objective of cancer prevention, early stage identification and elimination. This Institute was established in 1937.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Survivors: Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Genetic Testing: Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Diagnostic Imaging: Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Self-Examination: The inspection of one's own body, usually for signs of disease (e.g., BREAST SELF-EXAMINATION, testicular self-examination).Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Rectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.Medical Oncology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of neoplasms.Biopsy, Needle: Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.CA-125 Antigen: Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Endometrial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Colonoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Receptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.JapanCross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Neoplasms, Second Primary: Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.SEER Program: A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.American Cancer Society: A voluntary organization concerned with the prevention and treatment of cancer through education and research.Carcinoma in Situ: A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Physical Examination: Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.Gastrointestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Genes, BRCA1: A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human CHROMOSOME 17 at locus 17q21. Mutations of this gene are associated with the formation of HEREDITARY BREAST AND OVARIAN CANCER SYNDROME. It encodes a large nuclear protein that is a component of DNA repair pathways.Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Neoplasm Grading: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Pharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PHARYNX.IndiaProstate: A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Neoplastic Cells, Circulating: Exfoliate neoplastic cells circulating in the blood and associated with metastasizing tumors.Preventive Psychiatry: A discipline concerned with the prevention of mental illness and the promotion of mental health.Protein Array Analysis: Ligand-binding assays that measure protein-protein, protein-small molecule, or protein-nucleic acid interactions using a very large set of capturing molecules, i.e., those attached separately on a solid support, to measure the presence or interaction of target molecules in the sample.Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Virology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced: Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Neonatal Screening: The identification of selected parameters in newborn infants by various tests, examinations, or other procedures. Screening may be performed by clinical or laboratory measures. A screening test is designed to sort out healthy neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN) from those not well, but the screening test is not intended as a diagnostic device, rather instead as epidemiologic.Papanicolaou Test: Cytological preparation of cells collected from a mucosal surface and stained with Papanicolaou stain.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques: Laboratory techniques that involve the in-vitro synthesis of many copies of DNA or RNA from one original template.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Cytodiagnosis: Diagnosis of the type and, when feasible, the cause of a pathologic process by means of microscopic study of cells in an exudate or other form of body fluid. (Stedman, 26th ed)Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial: Neoplasms composed of glandular tissue, an aggregation of epithelial cells that elaborate secretions, and of any type of epithelium itself. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the various glands or in epithelial tissue.Public Health Informatics: The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Neoplastic Stem Cells: Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.Radiotherapy: The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Germ-Line Mutation: Any detectable and heritable alteration in the lineage of germ cells. Mutations in these cells (i.e., "generative" cells ancestral to the gametes) are transmitted to progeny while those in somatic cells are not.
Prognosis is generally poor unless the cancer is detected in its early stages. Out of all patients diagnosed with lung cancer, ... A biopsy is needed to confirm a diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma. Mesothelioma has a poor prognosis, with most patients ... have been evaluated for diagnostic purposes to allow early detection of this disease. Novel biomarkers such as volatile organic ... It is estimated that 3%-8% of all lung cancers are related to asbestos. The risk of developing lung cancer depends on the level ...
... early detection measure as evidenced by recently sponsored tests by the Early Detection Research Network of the National Cancer ... April 2007). "MESOMARK: a potential test for malignant pleural mesothelioma". Clinical Chemistry. 53 (4): 666-672. doi:10.1373/ ... FDA recommends that doctors use the MESOMARK assay in conjunction with other tests to ensure an accurate mesothelioma diagnosis ...
Early detection through screening is useful for cervical and colorectal cancer. The benefits of screening in breast cancer ... For example, cancers of the liver parenchyma arising from malignant epithelial cells is called hepatocarcinoma, while a ... People may become anxious or depressed post-diagnosis. The risk of suicide in people with cancer is approximately double. ... lung cancer, lymphoma, pancreatic cancer, prostate cancer, skin cancer, and thyroid cancer as well as other cancer types. ...
The eventual diagnosis was "ductal carcinoma with medullary features".[not in citation given] Due to somewhat early detection ... In 1991, Wadler was diagnosed with breast cancer and had a malignant tumor "the size of a robin's egg" removed from her left ... Her memoir about breast cancer, My Breast: One Woman's Cancer Story (ISBN 0671017756; ISBN 978-0-671-01775-0) was originally a ... She has been in remission since 2000. Books My Breast: One Woman's Cancer Story Liaison: The True Story of the ...
Head and Neck Cancer Alliance
... provides opportunities for earlier diagnosis of malignant cancer. Screenings for oral, head and neck cancer are generally ... Early detection is imperative for increasing chances of survival. Free screening clinics for head and neck cancers during Oral ... Interventions to improve public knowledge about oral cancer and attitudes towards early diagnosis and treatment are urgently ... and detection of cancers of the head and neck region. The Head and Neck Cancer Alliance was established in 2008. Formerly the ...
Diagnosis. Diagnosis is by biopsy and histopathological examination. Non-invasive skin cancer detection methods ... "Early detection and treatment of skin cancer". American Family Physician. 62 (2): 357-68, 375-6, 381-2. PMID 10929700. Archived ... basal-cell skin cancer (basal-cell carcinoma) (BCC), squamous-cell skin cancer (squamous-cell carcinoma) (SCC) and malignant ... Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer, globally accounting for at least 40% of cancer cases. The most common ...
Jason Rivers (dermatologist)
The Case for Early Detection of Melanoma. In: Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery. • The Case Control Study. In: ... Clinical characteristics of malignant melanomas developing in persons with dysplastic nevi. • Skin Cancer: Basal Cell and ... Prevention Strategies, Early Diagnosis and Results of Education Campaign. In: Textbook of Melanoma. • Precursor Lesions - ... Rivers, Jason K.; Wulkan, Sarah (2010-01-01). "The Case for Early Detection of Melanoma". Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and ...
... improves the detection of bladder cancer and reduces the rate of early tumour recurrence, compared with white-light cystoscopy ... www.nature.com/nrurol/journal/v7/n11/full/nrurol.2010.183.html Bladder cancer: Photodynamic diagnosis can improve surgical ... confirmed that fluorescence-guided biopsy and resection are more sensitive than conventional procedures in detecting malignant ... Hexvix is designed to enhance detection of bladder cancer, in particular carcinoma in situ (CIS). It reveals lesions that may ...
"Early detection of malignant melanoma: The role of physician examination and self-examination of the skin". CA Cancer J Clin. ... Diagnosis and treatment of early melanoma". JAMA. 268 (10): 1314-9. Sep 1992. doi:10.1001/jama.1992.03490100112037. PMID ... or for early detection of existing tumors. Examination by a dermatologist has been shown to be beneficial for early melanoma ... Evolution: The evolution (i.e. change) of a mole or lesion may be a hint that the lesion is becoming malignant. The E is ...
... improves the detection of bladder cancer and reduces the rate of early tumour recurrence, compared with white-light cystoscopy ... In 2016, the American Urological Association (AUA) updated the Diagnosis and Treatment of Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer ... confirmed that fluorescence-guided biopsy and resection are more sensitive than conventional procedures in detecting malignant ... for the detection of non-muscle-invasive papillary cancer of the bladder in patients with known or suspected bladder cancer. ...
"Early detection of malignant melanoma: the role of physician examination and self-examination of the skin". CA Cancer J Clin. ... Goldstein BG, Goldstein AO (April 2001). "Diagnosis and management of malignant melanoma". American Family Physician. 63 (7): ... He stated that the only chance for a cure depends upon the early removal of the disease (i.e., early excision of the malignant ... benign or malignant but usually malignant, but today the narrower sense referring only to malignant types has become ...
Thymidine kinase in clinical chemistry
Early detection would reduce the mortality. Another reason is that lung cancer, particularly small cell lung cancer, is very ... bladder cancer, gastric cancer, liver cancer, neurological cancers and melanoma. There are several non-malignant causes for ... the public awareness that has allowed earlier diagnosis. One contributing factor is the widespread use of mammography for early ... in cancer and polyps in colon, in breast cancer, in lung cancer, in gastric cancers, in ovarian cancer, in mesotheliomas, in ...
Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia
Insinga RP, Glass AG, Rush BB (July 2004). "Diagnoses and outcomes in cervical cancer screening: a population-based study". ... needed for diagnosis. A colposcopy with directed biopsy is the standard for disease detection. Endocervical brush sampling at ... The earliest microscopic change corresponding to CIN is dysplasia of the epithelium, or surface lining, of the cervix, which is ... 40 are known to affect the epithelial tissue of the anogenital area and have different probabilities of causing malignant ...
International Cancer Genome Consortium
... markers for early detection of disease, more specific criteria and methods for diagnoses and prognoses, and interventions based ... Pediatric Pilocytic Astrocytoma and Malignant Lymphoma and Prostate Cancer India: Oral Cancer - Gingivobuccal Italy: Rare ... liver cancer), Germany (brain cancer), Japan (liver cancer), Spain (blood cancer), the UK (blood, breast, lung and skin cancer ... The Cancer Genome Atlas - National Cancer Institute Cancer Genome Project - Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute "Scientists Form ...
... possibly malignant (cancerous); and 3 or frankly malignant. If frankly malignant, the tumor is a cancer for which additional ... Detection of AFP may help to confirm the diagnosis and is often used as a marker for recurrence or treatment efficacy, but is ... Large tumors are more likely to be diagnosed early on. Sacrococcygeal and cervical teratomas are often detected by prenatal ... "NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms". National Cancer Institute. Retrieved 20 December 2017. Davies, Mark; Inglis, Garry; Jardine, ...
"Reprimo as a Potential Biomarker for Early Detection in Gastric Cancer". Clinical Cancer Research. 14 (19): 6264-6269. doi: ... In contrast to non-malignant tissues, in which it has been found in less than eleven percent of samples, methylations to ... expression status within specific tissues may be useful information for the diagnosis or prognosis of certain types of cancer. ... In terms of early detection, the methylation status of reprimo in esophageal and gastric tissues have had some success in ...
This study outlined the importance of early detection and prompt treatment as of utmost important in the treatment of PNP. In ... Patients with cancer are therefore a group at risk. Although PNP has been known to affect all age groups, it is more likely to ... Prompt diagnosis of PNP is crucial due to the high mortality rate of the disease. Camisa and Helm revised the original criteria ... While patients with malignant and benign tumors are both at risk, malignancy is associated with high mortality rates (near 90 ...
... and thyroid cancer. In fact, some degree of overdiagnosis in cancer early detection is probably the rule, not the exception[ ... Rate of over-diagnosis of breast cancer 15 years after end of Malmö mammographic screening trial: follow-up study. BMJ 2006; ... It has been proposed that some pre-malignant conditions have the words cancer or carcinoma removed from their name. Another ... Cancer screening is the effort to detect cancer early, during its pre-clinical phase - the time period that begins with an ...
"Hematoporphyrin derivative for detection and management of cancer". Cancer. 20 (12): 2255-7. doi:10.1002/1097-0142(196712)20:12 ... In early diagnosis patients 92 percent experienced complete resolution. Russian scientists collaborated with NASA ... It also treats malignant cancers including head and neck, lung, bladder and particular skin. The technology has also been ... derivatives are used for gastrointestinal cancers and for the diagnosis of bladder cancer. ...
... s can affect all parts of the eye, and can be a benign tumor or a malignant tumor (cancer). Eye cancers can be ... Early detection has allowed for cures exceeding 95%.. *The second most common is medulloepithelioma (also called diktyoma) ... DiagnosisEdit. ClassificationEdit. Choroidal tumorsEdit. *Choroidal hemangioma. *Choroidal melanoma ... "Epibulbar Dermoid - The Eye Cancer Network". Retrieved 2010-03-10.. *^ "General Information: Malignant Conjunctival Tumors - ...
Secreted frizzled-related protein 1
Methylation-specific PCR (MSP) is able to detect this epigenetic change and could be used for cancer detection. Detection and ... Breast cancers (46%) Malignant mesotheliomas (48%) Colorectal cancers (76%) DNA methylation involves the addition of a methyl ... Combined MSP analyses of multiple genes in voided urine could provide a reliable way to improve cancer diagnosis. Urakami et al ... Loss of SFRP1 protein expression is associated with poor overall survival (OS) in patients with early breast cancer (pT1 ...
Ultrasonography of liver tumors
... determination is an effective method for early detection and treatment monitoring for this type of tumor . Clinically, HCC ... Diagnosis and characterization of liver tumors require a distinct approach for each group of conditions, using the available ... Characteristic elements of malignant circulation are vascular density, presence of vessels with irregular paths and size, some ... Spiral CT scan remains the method of choice in monitoring cancer therapies because it provides an overview of tumor extension ...
List of hematologic conditions
A blood cancer or hematological malignancy is a type of malignant cancer that originates, affects, or involves the blood, bone ... due in part to early detection methods and subsequent advancements in the treatment of the diseases, mortality rates have ... with some form of anemia as their primary diagnosis. A nutritional anemia is a type of anemia that can be directly attributed ... These cancers include leukemias, lymphomas, and myelomas. These particular types of cancers can arise as defected mature cell ...
Postal Service with a 13-cent stamp for early cancer detection. The fact that malignant cells could be seen under the ... His method of cancer diagnosis was published in a French medical journal, Presse Médicale, on 11 April 1928, but it is unlikely ... Παπανικολάου [papanikoˈlau]; 13 May 1883 - 19 February 1962) was a Greek pioneer in cytopathology and early cancer detection, ... of Diagnosis of Uterine Cancer by the Vaginal Smear in 1943. The book discusses the preparation of vaginal and cervical smears ...
"Breast Cancer: Screening". United States Preventive Services Task Force. "Breast Cancer Early Detection". cancer.org. 2013-09- ... A critical key to a continued reduction in mortality is early detection and accurate diagnosis made in a cost-effective manner ... November 2009). "Differentiation of benign and malignant breast lesions by mechanical imaging". Breast Cancer Research and ... The goal of mammography is the early detection of breast cancer, typically through detection of characteristic masses and/or ...
Early detection through screening is useful for cervical and colorectal cancer. The benefits of screening in breast cancer are ... In children under 15 at diagnosis the five-year survival rate in the developed world is on average 80%. For cancer in the ... For example, cancers of the liver parenchyma arising from malignant epithelial cells is called hepatocarcinoma, while a ... In females, the most common types are breast cancer, colorectal cancer, lung cancer and cervical cancer. If skin cancer other ...
December 2006). "PET-imaging as a useful tool for early detection of the relapse site in the management of primary myeloid ... most often as having a malignant lymphoma. However, with advances in diagnostic techniques, the diagnosis of chloromas can be ... Cancer. 73 (8): 2107-12. doi:10.1002/1097-0142(19940415)73:8. 3.0.CO;2-W. PMID 7512442. Vega F, Medeiros LJ, Bueso-Ramos CE, ... Definitive diagnosis of a chloroma usually requires a biopsy of the lesion in question. Historically, even with a tissue biopsy ...
Polymerase chain reaction
PCR permits early diagnosis of malignant diseases such as leukemia and lymphomas, which is currently the highest-developed in ... increasing chances for detection of genes associated with genetic diseases such as cancer. Laboratories use RT-qPCR for the ... The high sensitivity of PCR permits virus detection soon after infection and even before the onset of disease. Such early ... and detection of pathogens in nucleic acid tests for the diagnosis of infectious diseases. ...
It also identified HCC at an earlier stage. A 1987 report described the use of DCP determination in the detection of ... It differentiates HCC from non-malignant liver diseases. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that a combined analysis of DCP and ... Lefrere JJ, Gozin D (1987). "Use of des-gamma-carboxyprothrombin in retrospective diagnosis of hidden intoxication of ... Cancer Biomark. 3 (2): 79-87. PMID 17522429. Lamerz R, Runge M, Stieber P, Meissner E (1999). "Use of serum PIVKA-II (DCP) ...
Positron emission tomography
... and most cancers. As a result, FDG-PET can be used for diagnosis, staging, and monitoring treatment of cancers, particularly in ... and also to make early diagnoses of Alzheimer's disease. The advantage of FDG-PET for these uses is its much wider availability ... "Promise Seen for Detection of Alzheimer's", The New York Times, June 23, 2010. Accessed June 23, 2010. ... whose mitochondrial form is greatly elevated in rapidly growing malignant tumors). A typical dose of FDG used in an oncological ...
... 's early notion of innate intelligence can be thought of as a metaphor for homeostasis. ... Chiropractic diagnosis may involve a range of methods including skeletal imaging, observational and tactile assessments, and ... which increases cancer risk in proportion to the amount of radiation received. Research suggests that radiology ... straight chiropractors are concerned primarily with the detection and correction of vertebral subluxation via adjustment and do ...
Cervical cancer. Anal cancer. Penile cancer. Vulvar cancer. Vaginal cancer. Oropharyngeal cancer. KSHV Kaposi's sarcoma. EBV ... Immunohistochemical detection of JC virus protein (stained brown) in a brain biopsy (glial cells demonstrating progressive ... The protein encoded by these early sequences, T-antigen, also plays a key role in viral proliferation, directing the ... as JCV has been found in malignant colon tumors, but these findings are still controversial. ...
It is a malignant neoplasm and is one of the most treatable and curable cancers, with a survival rate above 95% if discovered ... The average age of diagnosis is between 35 and 50 years. This is about 5 to 10 years older than men with other germ cell tumors ... in early stages. Testicular seminoma originates in the germinal epithelium of the seminiferous tubules. About half of ... "Detection of alpha-fetoprotein mRNA in seminoma". Journal of Andrology. 20 (3): 336-40. doi:10.1002/j.1939-4640.1999.tb02526.x ...
Some authors have suggested that MRCP should supplant ERCP in the diagnosis of biliary cancers, as it may more accurately ... the Mayo Clinic has reported significant success treating early bile duct cancer with liver transplantation using a ... Lu H, Ye MQ, Thung SN, Dash S, Gerber MA (December 2000). "Detection of hepatitis C virus RNA sequences in cholangiocarcinomas ... Yeh TS, Jan YY, Tseng JH, Chiu CT, Chen TC, Hwang TL, Chen MF (February 2000). "Malignant perihilar biliary obstruction: ...
Minimal residual disease
Research into MRD detection of several solid tumors such as breast cancer and neuroblastoma has been performed. These assays ... Monitoring people for early signs of recurring leukaemia. Another possible use is to identify if or when someone starts ... Immature white blood cells may be present in the patient, although they are not necessarily malignant cells. In most cases, a ... "The diagnosis of BCR/ABL-negative chronic myeloproliferative diseases (CMPD): a comprehensive approach based on morphology, ...
سرطان پروستات - ویکیپدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
Diagnosis. The American Cancer Society's position regarding early detection is "Research has not yet proven that the potential ... Prostate cancer is considered a malignant tumor because it is a mass of cells that can invade other area of the body. This ... American Cancer Society American Cancer Society Guidelines for the early detection of cancer Cited: September 2011 ... "Prostate Cancer". National Cancer Institute. Retrieved 12 October 2014. *↑ ۲٫۰ ۲٫۱ ۲٫۲ ۲٫۳ ۲٫۴ ۲٫۵ ۲٫۶ World Cancer Report 2014 ...
It has tremendous applications for cancer treatment, vaccination, diagnosis, regenerative medicine, and therapies for loss-of- ... In oncology: for a carcinoma, in situ means that malignant cells are present as a tumor but have not metastasized, or invaded, ... as the early HTML model dictated. Arguably, all asynchronous data transfers or any background task is in situ as the normal ... such as the detection of energetic particles in the solar wind, or magnetic field measurements from a magnetometer. ...
... examination may lead to the detection of extraoral manifestations of LP that provide additional support for the diagnosis or ... Oral cancer *Benign: Squamous cell papilloma. *Keratoacanthoma. *Malignant: Adenosquamous carcinoma. *Basaloid squamous ... changes in symptoms or even detect early signs of malignancy. ... 5.3 Differential diagnosis *5.3.1 Cutaneous Lichen Planus. *5.3.2 Oral Lichen Planus *22.214.171.124 Oral lichenoid drug reaction ...
Other criteria that play a role in a cancer diagnosis include: *The degree to which the malignant cells resemble their normal, ... The high frequency of mutations in the total genome within carcinomas suggests that, often, an early carcinogenic alteration ... "O(6)-methylguanine methyltransferase in colorectal cancers: detection of mutations, loss of expression, and weak association ... While cancer is generally considered a disease of old age, children can also develop cancer. In contrast to adults, ...
Some evidence has found that early detection may decrease the risk of developing health complications, such as osteoporosis, ... DiagnosisEdit. Diagnosis is often very difficult so that most cases are diagnosed with great delay. There are several tests ... it may result in cancers such as intestinal lymphoma and a slightly increased risk of early death. Rates vary between ... "Adult Celiac Disease and Its Malignant Complications" (PDF). Gut and Liver. 3 (4): 237-46. doi:10.5009/gnl.2009.3.4.237. PMC ...
Its uses include diagnosis and staging of cancer, as well as follow up after cancer treatment to assess response. It is ... prior history of cancer and whose solid nodules have not grown over a two-year period are unlikely to have any malignant cancer ... Production ceased in early 2006.. In multislice computed tomography (MSCT) or multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), a ... CT colonography (also known as virtual colonoscopy or VC for short) is far more accurate than a barium enema for detection of ...
... imaging with potential clinical applications expected in cancer screening to detect malignant tumors at their earliest stage of ... Early detection of treatment response and major adverse events by contrast-enhanced US". Liver International. 33 (4): 605-15. ... Kearon, Clive; Julian, JA; Newman, TE; Ginsberg, JS (1998). "Noninvasive Diagnosis of Deep Venous Thrombosis". Annals of ... Metastatic thyroid cancer neck lymph nodes: The other thyroid therapy use for HFUS is to treat metastatic thyroid cancer neck ...
... liver and renal cancer (hamsters), ovarian papillary carcinoma (canines), and malignant uterine mesothelioma (squirrel monkeys ... Diagnosis and Treatment: Pathology, Diagnosis and Treatment. CRC Press. pp. 294, 297-. ISBN 978-1-85317-422-3. .. ... In the early 1950s, a double-blind clinical trial at the University of Chicago assessed pregnancy outcomes in women who were ... and Detection. Lippincott. pp. 243-253.. ... Prostate cancer and breast cancer. *Prevention of tall stature ...
Familial adenomatous polyposis
... a histologic diagnosis (cell/cancer type detection) and (d) where polyps exist, it can suggest whether out patient excision ( ... While these polyps start out benign, malignant transformation into colon cancer occurs when they are left untreated. Three ... Colon resection surgery is recommended if numerous colon polyps are found due to high risk of early death from colon cancer. ... Making the diagnosis of FAP before the development of colon cancer is important not just for the individual, but also for the ...
Health effects of tobacco
Early observational studies. From the 1890s onwards, associations of tobacco use with cancers and vascular disease were ... Primary malignant growths of the lung. Isaac A. Adler, A.M., M.D". Ca. 30 (5): 295-301. doi:10.3322/canjclin.30.5.295. PMID ... "Determination of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes in cigarette smoke by gas chromatography with flame photometric detection". ... lives than among individuals who had never experienced major depression or among individuals with no psychiatric diagnosis.[135 ...
جراحی مغز و اعصاب - ویکیپدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
... treatment of benign and malignant central and peripheral nervous system cancers and pre-cancerous lesions in adults and ... Development in the early 1900s. Looking at the structure of the skull without operating became possible with the advent of X- ... Neuroradiology plays a key role not only in diagnosis but also in the operative phase of neurosurgery. ... "Alexander Hughes Bennett (1848-1901): Rickman John Godlee (1849-1925)". CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 24 (3): 169-170. ...
Oral cancer *Benign: Squamous cell papilloma. *Keratoacanthoma. *Malignant: Adenosquamous carcinoma. *Basaloid squamous ... Diagnosis. The diagnosis of DH may be challenging. It is a diagnosis of exclusion, reached once all other possible ... Due to differences in populations studied and methods of detection, the reported incidence ranges from 4-74%. Dentists may ... Canadian Advisory Board on Dentin Hypersensitivity (2003). "Consensus-based recommendations for the diagnosis and management of ...
... screening for this cancer is effective for both early detection and for prevention. Diagnosis of cases of colorectal ... have been used to describe pre-malignant or pre-neoplastic tissue in which new cancers are likely to arise. ... Colorectal cancer (CRC), also known as bowel cancer and colon cancer, is the development of cancer from the colon or rectum ( ... Survival rates for early stage detection are about five times that of late stage cancers. People with a tumor that has not ...
The CEA blood test is not reliable for diagnosing cancer or as a screening test for early detection of cancer. Most types of ... suggested functions and expression in normal and malignant tissues*1". Seminars in Cancer Biology. 9 (2): 67-81. doi:10.1006/ ... CEACAM21 List of histologic stains that aid in diagnosis of cutaneous conditions Boehm, M. K.; Perkins, S. J. (2000). " ... However, the serum levels are raised in some types of cancer, which means that it can be used as a tumor marker in clinical ...
... a potentially pre-malignant lesion of dysplastic keratinocytes), or squamous cell carcinoma (a form of skin cancer). These can ... Diagnosis. Cutaneous horn usually arises due to an underlying epidermal lesion, the most common being verruca vulgaris ( ... Wang, W; Wang, C; Xu, S; Chen, C; Tong, X; Liang, Y; Dong, X; Lei, Y; Zheng, X (2007). "Detection of HPV-2 and identification ... Madame Dimanche, called Widow Sunday, a French woman living in Paris in the early 19th century, grew a 24.9 cm (9.8") horn from ...
Diabetes mellitus type 1
The diagnosis of other types of diabetes is usually made in other ways. These include ordinary health screening, detection of ... and for treating metastatic cancer of the pancreatic islet cells in patients whose cancer cannot be removed by surgery. ... Some research has suggested breastfeeding decreases the risk in later life and early introduction of gluten-containing ... Other pancreatic problems, including trauma, pancreatitis, or tumors (either malignant or benign) can also lead to loss of ...
Paget's disease of bone
... a bone affected by Paget's disease can transform into a malignant bone cancer. ... Mild or early cases of Pagets are asymptomatic, and so most people are diagnosed with Paget's disease incidentally during ... If a bone scan suggests Paget's disease, the affected bone(s) should be X-rayed to confirm the diagnosis. ... April 2007). "Multicenter blinded analysis of RT-PCR detection methods for paramyxoviruses in relation to Paget disease of bone ...
... is used for detection and diagnosis of breast, thyroid, and prostate cancers. Certain types of elastography are ... a malignant cancer. The cancer (red) is much stiffer than the healthy tissue. ... There are numerous elastographic techniques, in development stages from early research to extensive clinical application. Each ... In the modern Western world, palpation became considered a respectable method of diagnosis in the 1930s. Since then, the ...
Reshamwala PA, Darwin PE (2006). "Endoscopic management of early gastric cancer". Current Opinion in Gastroenterology. 22 (5): ... Diagnosis. Micrograph of Barrett's esophagus (left of image) and normal stratified squamous epithelium (right of image), ... Its malignant sequela, esophagogastric junctional adenocarcinoma, has a mortality rate of over 85%. The risk of developing ... although a recent study found the detection of three different genetic abnormalities was associated with as much as a 79% ...
The breast cancer studies Cancer in the Augmented Breast: Diagnosis and Prognosis (1993) and Breast Cancer after Augmentation ... "Breast implants following mastectomy in women with early-stage breast cancer: prevalence and impact on survival". Breast Cancer ... Breast Cancer Detection and Survival among Women with Cosmetic Breast Implants: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of ... cancer, nor any other malignant disease. . . . EQUAM continues to believe that there is no scientific evidence that silicone ...
Mesothelioma Diagnosis | Diagnostic Tests, Early Detection & Process
Imaging scans, blood tests and biomarkers can help with early detection during the diagnostic process. A mesothelioma doctor ... American Cancer Society. Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging.. *2 American Cancer Society. How Is Malignant Mesothelioma ... Importance of Early Detection of Mesothelioma. When diagnosed early, mesothelioma treatment is more effective. Early diagnosis ... This delay in symptoms makes early diagnosis difficult. Misdiagnosis is also common due to the rarity and nonspecific symptoms. ...
Malignant Lymphoma facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Malignant Lymphoma
Make research projects and school reports about Malignant Lymphoma easy with credible articles from our FREE, online ... and pictures about Malignant Lymphoma at Encyclopedia.com. ... Early detection affords the best chance for a cure.. KEY TERMS ... Diagnosis. Like all cancers, lymphomas are best treated when found early. However, they are often difficult to diagnose. There ... Diagnosis. Like all cancers, lymphomas are best treated when found early. However, it is often difficult to diagnose lymphomas ...
10 Testicular Cancer Symptoms: Read About Early Detection
... early detection of testicular cancer is simple. It only takes a three-minute self-examination once a month. The best time for ... Read about 10 symptoms and signs of testicular cancer; ... A lump may not be malignant, but only a doctor can make the ... MedicineNet does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. See additional information. ... "Testicular Cancer." American Cancer Society, Testicular Cancer. Feb. 12, 2016. ,http://www.cancer.org/cancer/testicularcancer/ ...
Prevention and Early Detection of Malignant Melanoma - American Family Physician
In addressing the problem of malignant melanoma, family physicians should emphasize primary prevention. This includes educating ... Delay in the diagnosis of cutaneous malignant melanoma. Cancer. 1991;68:2064-8. ... Diagnosis and treatment of early melanoma. JAMA. 1992;268:1314-9.. 25. Austoker J. Melanoma prevention and early diagnosis. BMJ ... Screening and surveillance of patients at high risk for malignant melanoma result in detection of earlier disease. J Am Acad ...
Circ-NOLC1 promotes epithelial ovarian cancer tumorigenesis and progression by binding ESRP1 and modulating CDK1 and RhoA...
Among ovarian cancer cell lines, circ-NOLC1 expression was the highest in A2780, and lowest in CAOV3. Overexpression of circ- ... In this case, we demonstrated the role of circ-NOLC1 in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Our results have shown that Circ-NOLC1 ... play important roles in cancer tumorigenesis and progression, representing prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets. ... Thus, research into the mechanism of ovarian cancer development is important for its early detection, diagnosis, and treatment. ...
Laser Light Endoscopy Aids Early Cancer Detection | Imaging Special Section | Dec 2016 | BioPhotonics
J.R. Leonard and W.L. Beck (March 1971). Hematoporphyrin fluorescence: An aid in diagnosis of malignant neoplasms. Laryngoscope ... 2009). Fluorescence detection and diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer at an early stage. Lasers Surg Med, Vol. 41, Issue 2, ... Laser Light Endoscopy Aids Early Cancer Detection. BioPhotonics. Dec 2016 Compound laser light sources are transforming the ... However, using autofluorescence imaging (AFI), they were able to catch 91 percent of the total early cancer diagnoses in ...
Potential Lung Nodules Identification for Characterization by Variable Multistep Threshold and Shape Indices from CT Images
Early detection of malignant nodule is helpful for treatment. Computer aided diagnosis of lung cancer involves lung ... CT technology is helpful for early detection of malignant nodules. CT technology for diagnosis of lung cancer is entering into ... Computer aided diagnosis methods are useful for radiologists for detection of these nodules and early diagnosis of lung cancer ... Early diagnosis of lung cancer is a must for success of therapy. Imaging modalities play an important role in diagnosis of lung ...
Toolbox - the ABCDE criteria for pigmented skin lesions | Feature | Pulse Today
1985) Early detection of malignant melanoma: the role of physician examination and self-examination of the skin. CA: a cancer ... 2004) Early diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma: revisiting the ABCD criteria. JAMA, 292 (22); 2771-2776 ... Where possible involvement of a partner can lead to earlier detection. *Family history of melanoma, pancreatic cancer, or a ... 1990) Accuracy in the clinical diagnosis of malignant melanoma. Archives of dermatology, 126 (6); 763-766 ...
Enhanced Breast Cancer Diagnosis System Using Fuzzy Clustering Means Approach in Digital Mammography: Computer Science & IT...
Breast cancer or malignant breast neoplasm is the most common type of cancer in women. Researchers are not sure of the exact ... Enhanced Breast Cancer Diagnosis System Using Fuzzy Clustering Means Approach in Digital Mammography: 10.4018/978-1-5225-5204-8 ... Early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer represent the key for breast cancer control and can increase the success of ... Breast cancer is one of the major causes of death among women, especially in developed countries. The early detection of this ...
End of Life Planning | Resources for Mesothelioma Patients
A malignant mesothelioma diagnosis is often unexpected and can be scary for patients and their loved ones. Early detection is ... After a diagnosis of terminal cancer, families face a variety of hard decisions. Patient care must be taken into account as ... Locate a Mesothelioma Cancer Center Near You. *Information on top cancer centers in your area ... The hospice care worker will have a deep understanding of the patients diagnosis and symptoms, allowing them to offer advice ...
Multiparametric Examination: Basic and Innovative Methods of Ultrasound in Diagnosis of Breast Cancer | SpringerLink
Nodular type of breast cancer (up to 80% of breast carcinoma) is... ... is the principal ultrasound imaging modality to diagnose breast diseases and breast cancer in particular. ... Assessment of the elasticity (stiffness) of tissues for early diagnosis and differentiation of malignant breast conditions is ... Yang WT, Ahuja AT, Tang A et al (1996) High frequency ultrasound detection of axillary lymph node metastases in breast cancer. ...
Can Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in Children Be Found Early?
Read the American Cancer Societys experts discussion on whether non-Hodgkin lymphoma in children can be detected early through ... CategoryCancer A-Z. Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging * Can Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in Children Be Found Early? ... Malignant non-Hodgkin lymphomas in children. In: Pizzo PA, Poplack DG, eds. Principles and Practice of Pediatric Oncology. 7th ... Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging * Can Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in Children Be Found Early? ...
Cancer Services | Hillcrest Hospital
Learn about the cancer services and treatment options at Hillcrest Hospital. To learn more about Radiation Oncology, download ... Visit Cleveland Clinic Cancer Center website. Early Detection and Diagnosis. *The best weapon against cancer will always be to ... Positron Emission Tomography scanners use color-coded imagery to map data about malignant tumors. The anatomical imaging of a ... Cancer Genetic Counseling. Exploring your personal and/or family history of cancer can help assess your cancer risk. For more ...
Soft tissue, lumps and bumps clinic | Manchester Hospital | Spire Healthcare
The clinic enables early detection and diagnosis in improving outcomes for anyone with a concerning lump. ... Sarcomas are very rare cancers which form approximately 1% of all malignant tumours. Signs to look out for are lumps larger ... It is the UKs second biggest cancer killer - claiming a life every 30 minutes - yet bowel cancer spotted early can be s… ... Soft tissue and bone tumours (benign or malignant) are usually found on the arms, legs and chest. ...
Diagnostics | Free Full-Text | Circulating Tumor Cells for the Management of Renal Cell Carcinoma
... and molecular complexity of this particular cancer. Although further analytical and clinical studies are needed to pinpoint the ... most suitable approach for highly sensitive CTC detection in RCC patients, it is clear that this field can bring a relevant ... an important issue for the study of CTC from any type of solid cancer. ... to the mesenchymal phenotype when they circulate in blood constitute a challenge for their sensitive and specific detection. ...
Melanoma and Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer | Cooper University Health Care
40 to 50 percent of Americans who live to age 65 will have skin cancer at least once. ... Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer in the United States. More than one million cases are diagnosed each year and ... Early detection and diagnosis are key.. What Are the Types of Skin Cancer?. There are four types of skin cancer: actinic ... Malignant melanoma is less common than basal or squamous cell carcinoma, but it is more dangerous. It usually appears as an ...
Molecular Imaging with MRI: Potential Application in Pancreatic Cancer
... the detection and diagnosis of PC in the early stage are extremely urgent. At present, the methods used to diagnosis PC include ... Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a serious threat to human health, due to malignant tumors with concealed onset, rapid development, ... "Early detection and biomarkers in pancreatic cancer," JNCCN Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, vol. 5, no. ... X.-Y. He and Y.-Z. Yuan, "Advances in pancreatic cancer research: moving towards early detection," World Journal of ...
Advanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic and Surgical Guidance Systems XV | (2017) | Publications | Spie
The analysis of biofluids for disease diagnosis becomes very attractive in the diagnosis of cancers due to the ease in the ... Early detection of flap failure secondary to compromise of vascular perfusion would significantly increase the chances of flap ... An objective endoscopic classification method would allow hyperplastic polyps, with no malignant potential, to be left in situ ... Cervical cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in female worldwide; the present method for diagnosis is the biopsy, Pap ...
A robust system for melanoma diagnosis using heterogeneous image databases
Many melanoma detection systems have been developed in recent years. The growth of interest in telemedicine pushes for the ... Early diagnosis of melanoma is essential for the fight against this skin cancer. ... 2009) Cancer Facts and Figures. American Cancer Society, Atlanta.  Friedman, R.J. (1985) Early detection of malignant ... Early diagnosis of melanoma is essential for the fight against this skin cancer. Many melanoma detection systems have been ...
Comparison of ThinPrep and TriPath PREP liquid-based preparations in nongynecologic specimens: a pilot study. | Semantic Scholar
SCC where keratin and malignant cells were more readily identified among lymphocytes, and carcinoid which was easier to ... All 5 participants, none of whom had prior knowledge of the clinical history or histologic diagnosis, reviewed and interpreted ... AVENUES TO EARLY DETECTION OF ORAL PREMALIGNANT AND MALIGNANT LESIONS: A REVIEW OF THE CURRENT TECHNOLOGIES. Mohsin Muzaffar ... Current Trends in Diagnosis of Oral Cancer and Premalignant Lesions : An Update. Sunil R. Panat, Keshav Agarwal, Anuraag Gurtu ...
Quantitative Detection of Promoter Hypermethylation of Multiple Genes in the Tumor, Urine, and Serum DNA of Patients with Renal...
The specific clinical signs and symptoms of malignant renal disease are not usually helpful in making an early diagnosis. The ... Eisenberger CF, Schoenberg M, Enger C, et al Diagnosis of renal cancer by molecular urinalysis. J Natl Cancer Inst, 91: 2028-32 ... Apart from early detection, it would be interesting to see whether the detection of aberrant methylation in the urine or serum ... Cancer Research Online ISSN: 1538-7445. Cancer Research Print ISSN: 0008-5472. Journal of Cancer Research ISSN: 0099-7013. ...
Defining the pathologic diagnosis of metaplasia, atrophy, dysplasia, and gastric adenocarcinoma. - PubMed - NCBI
... make possible the detection of not only early gastric cancers but also the mucosal alterations that predate malignant ... Defining the pathologic diagnosis of metaplasia, atrophy, dysplasia, and gastric adenocarcinoma.. Lauwers GY1. ... It has also been established that the pathogenesis of gastric cancer is a multifactorial process in which both environmental ... We review the histopathologic steps that predate the development of gastric cancer and evaluate the risks of transformation ...
Cancers | Free Full-Text | Gastric Cancer: Current Status of Diagnosis and Treatment
Because curative surgery is regarded as the only option for cure, early detection of resectable gastric cancer is extremely ... To date, early gastric cancer is being treated using minimally invasive methods such as endoscopic treatment and laparoscopic ... In this review, we summarize the current status of diagnostic technology and treatment for gastric cancer. ... recent advances of molecular targeted agents would play an important role as one of the modalities for advanced gastric cancer ...
Research | X-Ray Tomography | Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI)
The identification of (clustered) microcalcifications plays an important role in early detection of pre-malignant and malignant ... By probing these information, a descriptor could be established with the goal to improve breast cancer diagnosis. The project ... Breast cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer in the world and it is the first leading cause of cancer-related ... Design and construction of an X-ray phase-contrast mammography prototype for the in-vivo investigation of early breast cancer ...
Malignant Colorectal Polyps: Diagnosis, Treatment and Prognosis | IntechOpen
Diagnosis, Treatment and Prognosis , IntechOpen, Published on: 2013-02-13. Authors: Luis Bujanda Fernández de Piérola, ... 36 - Walgenbach-Bruenagel G. Detection of lymphatic invasion in early stage primary colorectal cancer with the monoclonal ... Cancer 1974;33: 206-217.. 14 - Robert ME. The malignant colon polyp: diagnosis and therapeutic recommendations. Clin ... Cancer 2010;116: 544-573.. 8 - Regula J. Colonoscopy in colorectal-cancer screening for detection of advanced neoplasia. N Engl ...
High-Risk Lung Cancer Patients May Not Need Annual Screenings
Most high-risk lung cancer patients might not need annual low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screenings if they are cleared of ... disease in their initial test, according to a study led by a Duke Cancer Institute researcher. The research... ... Early detection of lung cancer is very important for the survival of an individual, and is a significant challenging problem. ... Generally, chest radiographs (X-ray) and computed tomography (CT) scans are used initially for the diagnosis of the malignant ...
Canceration - definition of canceration by The Free Dictionary
... detection of aberrant gene methylation could serve as a potentially powerful approach for early diagnosis of tumors, such as ... Abnormal methylation occurs before cellular canceration and throughout all stages of malignant transformation, which have the ... lung cancer and breast cancer [89-91].. Liquid biopsy of hepatocellular carcinoma: circulating tumor-derived biomarkers ...
New software key to early cancer detection - CSIRO
A new algorithm that detects the early formation of blood vessels could lead to early diagnosis of malignant tumours and ... Earlier detection of blood vessel growth may therefore lead to a faster diagnosis of malignant tumour growth, which is a key ... A new algorithm that detects the early formation of blood vessels could lead to early diagnosis of malignant tumours and ... "Our robust algorithms for the early detection and quantification of angiogenesis could potentially be a great step forward in ...
TumorsLesionsPrognosisPleural mesotheliomaOvarianRisk of developing malignaTreatmentDiagnosePotentiallyProgressionDiagnosed with malignant melanomaDetectStages of malignant transformationTransformationNeoplasmComputer aided diaPancreaticMalignancyCervicalMelanoma diagnosisNoninvasiveHighly malignant cancerPathologyLymphomasBiopsiesMetastasisAdenocarcinomaPrevention and Early DetectionDevelopment of malignantBasal cell carcSquamous cell carcDuctal carcResearchersDiseaseSurrounding the tumorAbnormalSurvival rateOutcomesProstate CancerSymptomsMammographyClassification
- During the diagnostic process, imaging tests help identify tumors, tumor location and metastasis of cancer. (mesothelioma.com)
- This chapter investigates a new CAD system for the diagnosis process of benign and malignant breast tumors from digital mammography. (igi-global.com)
- Different classifications of breast cancer, including breast imaging-reporting and data system (BI-RADS), morphological types of tumors, and ultrasound correlations are also provided. (springer.com)
- Positron Emission Tomography scanners use color-coded imagery to map data about malignant tumors. (clevelandclinic.org)
- The anatomical imaging of a CT Scan is combined with the molecular and cellular information provided by a PET Scan for early diagnosis and more accurate detection and precise localization of tumors. (clevelandclinic.org)
- Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a serious threat to human health, due to malignant tumors with concealed onset, rapid development, and poor prognosis. (hindawi.com)
- Unlike other solid malignancies in which established serum or urinary biomarkers are available for early detection, relatively few diagnostic tools are available for the early detection of renal tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
- thus, detection of aberrant gene methylation could serve as a potentially powerful approach for early diagnosis of tumors, such as lung cancer and breast cancer [89- (thefreedictionary.com)
- Concentrations of 24 cytokines (cytokines/chemokines, growth, and angiogenic factors) in combination with cancer antigen-125 (CA-125), were measured in sera of 44 patients with early-stage ovarian cancer, 45 healthy women, and 37 patients with benign pelvic tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
- Transvaginal sonography alone or combined with Doppler and morphologic indices, are only sensitive and specific for established tumors, and are, therefore, not suitable for early diagnostics of ovarian cancer ( 6 , 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- However, some mutant cells may escape immune detection and survive to become tumors or cancers. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Tumors are of two types, benign or malignant. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Recently, the role of ultrasound (US) imaging in the diagnosis and monitoring of breast tumors besides X-ray mammography has been increasing. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
- Several computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems were proposed to improve the classification of breast tumors. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
- This work presents a fast and computationally-efficient technique to distinguish between malignant and benign breast tumors. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
- It will enable doctors to distinguish between malignant tumors and benign lumps by scanning instead of cutting. (eurekalert.org)
- In addition, more research will be done on using 3TP scanning to track the response of tumors to anti-cancer therapies. (eurekalert.org)
- The malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are cancerous in nature. (wearethecure.org)
- Symptoms - It is very difficult to diagnose malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors of the thoracic limb (forelimb).Clinically, most patients exhibit chronic progressive thoracic limb lameness, which cannot be distinguished from musculoskeletal lameness. (wearethecure.org)
- Ultrasonography and immunohistochemical analysis are important for diagnosis of distal malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. (wearethecure.org)
- A clinical case-control study was performed in which the levels of serum HE4 and CA-125 of subjects with malignant, borderline, benign ovarian tumors and healthy women were measured before surgery. (degruyter.com)
- When the level of HE4 in the serum was 58.66 pmol/L, the sensitivity and specificity of HE4 in diagnosing malignant ovarian tumors was 82.35% and 96.03%, respectively. (degruyter.com)
- In the groups of malignant and borderline tumors, the levels of HE4 were higher than the other groups. (degruyter.com)
- HE4 can be used as a novel clinical biomarker for predicting malignant ovarian tumors and its expression was closely related with the clinical pathological features of malignant ovarian tumors. (degruyter.com)
- Although a reliable method for detection of cancer cells in blood would be an important tool for diagnosis and monitoring of solid tumors in early stages, current technologies cannot reliably detect the extremely low concentrations of these rare cells. (pnas.org)
- Occult tumor cells (OTCs) shed from tumors can travel through the blood stream to anatomically distant sites and form metastatic disease, the major cause of cancer-related death in patients with solid tumors. (pnas.org)
- In the past, cancer was a certain death sentence for animals, but today there are a variety of cancers and tumors that can be successfully treated. (vcahospitals.com)
- Early detection and treatment are very important in the successful management of tumors in pets. (vcahospitals.com)
- For example, researchers at Stanford University and Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center developed multimodal nanoparticles capable of delineating the margins of brain tumors both preoperatively and intraoperatively. (cancer.gov)
- We apply such genomic biomarkers for the early detection, diagnosis, and monitoring of diverse tumors including lymphomas and solid tumors. (stanford.edu)
- Primary malignant tumors can arise from different cellular lines of the liver such as hepatocytes and bile duct epithelium. (springer.com)
- However, secondary malignant tumors are the most common liver malignancies. (springer.com)
- Malignant hepatic tumors are more common than benign ones. (springer.com)
- Malignant melanoma is the third most frequent type of skin cancer and one of the most malignant tumors, accounting for 79% of skin cancer deaths. (spie.org)
- Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. (semanticscholar.org)
- His complex computational research has led to a fast, inexpensive new method for using ultrasound and advanced algorithms to differentiate between benign and malignant tumors with a high degree of accuracy. (healthcanal.com)
- Early detection is crucial for combating cancer, and beginning at age 40 women are urged to undergo yearly mammograms, which cannot reliably distinguish between benign and malignant tumors. (healthcanal.com)
- It uses a new technique to analyze images captured with a noninvasive, radiation-free ultrasound device, locate tumors, and determine if the tumor is malignant. (healthcanal.com)
- In a clinical study, Goenezen used this strategy to analyze 10 data sets, five of which were from patients with benign tumors, and five with malignant tumors. (healthcanal.com)
- Nowadays, photomedicine has been successfully used in the diagnosis and treatment of superficial skin cancer, lung and tracheobronchial cancer, oesophageal cancer, Barrett's esophagus, bladder cancer and pituitary tumors (3). (gfmer.ch)
- The Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) was established nearly two decades ago by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer and the National Cancer Institute of the United States. (mesotheliomacenter.org)
- Small intestine neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) comprise well-differentiated NET (benign carcinoid), well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (malignant carcinoid) and poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC). (enets.org)
- Benign tumors usually grow slowly and do not cause serious health problems while malignant tumors grow rapidly and spread, posing a threat to life. (newhealthguide.org)
- Other risk factors for melanoma include melanocytic precursor lesions (atypical moles), increased numbers of acquired nevi (more than 50), a family history of melanoma, a personal history of nonmelanoma skin cancer, giant congenital nevi (more than 20 cm) and immunosuppression. (aafp.org)
- The ABCDE criteria represent a method used to evaluate pigmented (melanocytic) skin lesions in order to aid the detection of malignant melanoma. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
- There is no score and all points in the list are regarded as suspicious - not all of them will be malignant melanomas but these criteria can help in selecting suspicious lesions. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
- The ABCD criteria, first introduced in 1985 and expanded to ABCDE in 2004, was introduced to aid non-experts' diagnosis of pigmented lesions, and over the years has been promoted widely. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
- Photographs - for clinicians, combining dermoscopy and photographs (with and without dermoscopy) will increase the chance of detecting malignant change in lesions over time. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
- The main goal of computerized breast cancer detection in digital mammography is to identify the presence of abnormalities such as mass lesions and Micro calcification Clusters (MCCs). (igi-global.com)
- Fisenko EP (1999) Ultrasound diagnosis of tumoral lesions of the breast in surgical clinic. (springer.com)
- These dismal outcomes can be attributed to the lack of early diagnoses and the inability to detect precancerous lesions [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been used to diagnose and stage the majority of PCs with tumor detection limits of 5-8 mm, when the earliest precursor lesions are in the microscopic range [ 4 , 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Schmid-Saugeon, P., Guillod, J. and Thiran, J.P. (2003) Towards a computer-aided diagnosis system for pigmented skin lesions. (scirp.org)
- Commonly occurring canine dental and oral lesions include: variations in number of teeth and roots, periodontal disease, endodontic disease, dental caries, dental attrition/abrasion, discolored teeth and oral masses (benign and malignant). (akcchf.org)
- The diagnosis of skin cancers such as basal cell carcinoma, intraepidermal carcinoma, and malignant skin lesions requires early detection for optimal disease management. (pharmiweb.com)
- Peripheral neural sheath lesions can be divided into both benign and malignant. (wearethecure.org)
- An improvement in the detection rate of early proliferative lesions within the stomach depends on several factors including the individual skills of physicians and imaging techniques they use as well as the health awareness of society and implementation of screening programs. (termedia.pl)
- A method and apparatus for the fast detection of spiculated lesions in a digital mammogram, the method for use in a computer aided diagnosis system for assisting a radiologist in identifying and recognizing the spiculations among a multiplicity of lines corresponding to standard fibrous breast tissue. (google.com)
- Autofluorescence imaging has been used successfully to rapidly and noninvasively distinguish malignant oral lesions from surrounding tissue in several pilot studies ( 3 - 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Menges M, Lerch MM, Zeitz M (2000) The double duct sign in patients with malignant and benign pancreatic lesions. (springer.com)
- Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems based on epiluminescense light microscopy can provide an objective second opinion on pigmented skin lesions (PSL). (spie.org)
- Pts who are placed on high dose PPI therapy should receive early GERD evaluation in order to determine an actual diagnosis, extent of disease, and the presence of pre/malignant lesions. (sages.org)
- Dermoscopy is one of the major imaging modalities used in the diagnosis of melanoma and other pigmented skin lesions. (biomedcentral.com)
- Some malignant melanomas arise in "precursor" pigmented lesions, while others arise in normal-appearing skin. (cancernetwork.com)
- Two types of pigmented lesions have been reported to be precursors for malignant melanoma: congenital melanocytic nevi and dysplastic nevi, better known today as atypical moles . (cancernetwork.com)
- Evaluation of mast cells in oral premalignant and malignant lesions: A histochemical study. (bioportfolio.com)
- Oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral lichen planus are the precancerous or potentially malignant lesions and conditions whereas oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a cancerous or mal. (bioportfolio.com)
- S100 Proteins as Biomarkers in Risk Estimations for Malignant Transformation in Oral Lesions. (bioportfolio.com)
- The carcinogenesis in the oral cavity occurs as a multistep process and is often preceded by potentially malignant lesions. (bioportfolio.com)
- The study is designed to measure serum and salivary CYFRA21-1 levels using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in patients with oral malignancy, oral potentially malignant lesions, a. (bioportfolio.com)
- Conversely, the prognosis for patients with early disease is excellent, and this stage is often curable with simple surgical excision. (aafp.org)
- Tumour development, histology and grade of breast cancers: prognosis and progression. (who.int)
- The prognosis of cancer treatment is highly dependent on the stage at which the disease is diagnosed, thus prompting doctors to take proactive measures to find neoplasms before they mature or metastasize. (photonics.com)
- At these late stages, the cancer has spread, treatment options are limited and patients typically face a poor prognosis. (mesothelioma.com)
- Despite the variety of approaches that have been improved to achieve a good understanding of pancreatic cancer (PC), the prognosis of PC remains poor, and the survival rates are dismal. (hindawi.com)
- White, R., Rigel, D.S. and Friedman, R.J. (1991) Computer applications in the diagnosis and prognosis of malignant melanoma. (scirp.org)
- Genetic markers can be used to determine predisposition to tumor development, but molecularly targeted treatment strategies that improve patient prognosis are not widely available for most cancers. (mcponline.org)
- Here we describe how biological mass spectrometry and proteome analysis interact with other major patient care and research initiatives and present vignettes illustrating efforts in discovery of diagnostic biomarkers for ovarian cancer, development of treatment strategies in lung cancer, and monitoring prognosis and relapse in multiple myeloma patients. (mcponline.org)
- Using arrays that can profile gene expression, many groups have been able to define gene expression signatures related to diagnosis (cancer versus benign, subtype of leukemia, etc.), prognosis (likelihood of cure), and prediction (probability of response to therapy). (mcponline.org)
- This confounds the observation that "early" cancer has a better prognosis than "late stage" cancer. (bmj.com)
- CA125 is also used to monitor response to therapy and in early detection of ovarian cancer recurrence after treatment ( 8-11 ), but the value of preoperative CA125 is not associated with prognosis of patients with EOC ( 12, 13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop new methods for EOC diagnosis and prognosis. (aacrjournals.org)
- Hence, diagnosing at early stage is crucial to improve the prognosis of ovarian cancer. (degruyter.com)
- Information about the depth of early cancer invasion and the status of regional lymph node involvement is essential for the prognosis. (termedia.pl)
- The use of DNA as a biomarker in clinical medicine for early diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of therapy has been a significant advancement in the field. (mdpi.com)
- As a result, patient prognosis is poor, with a median survival of nine to 12 months from diagnosis. (businessweekly.co.uk)
- The identification of individuals among this population who are either predisposed to developing malignant mesothelioma or who already have early disease stage, would likely dramatically improve prognosis by limiting disease progression through earlier therapeutic interventions. (businessweekly.co.uk)
- No population-based study has examined the risk for, and prognosis of, metachronous cancers and SICs. (enets.org)
- PQA5: How does the level, type or duration of physical activity influence cancer risk and prognosis? (nih.gov)
- The stage of the disease is a determining factor in deciding the prognosis of head and neck cancer. (wikipedia.org)
- Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a fast-growing cancer of the mesothelium. (survivingmesothelioma.com)
- To test its presence in mesothelioma cells, researchers took blood serum samples from 36 patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma, 98 patients with other types of malignant chest disease, and 23 patients with benign chest diseased. (survivingmesothelioma.com)
- Patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma were found to have a higher level of integrin-linked kinase (8.89 ng/mL) in their serum than the other test subjects (0.66 mg/mL for malignant chest disease, 0.78 mg/mL for benign chest disease). (survivingmesothelioma.com)
- Watzka, SB et al, "Detection of integrin-linked kinase in the serum of patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma, May 25, 2011, Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Epub ahead of print. (survivingmesothelioma.com)
- The success of a recent Phase II clinical trial in malignant pleural mesothelioma has scientists and researchers excited about the possibility of adding a new treatment that will not only improve survival, but also improve quality of life of the cancer patient. (mesotheliomacenter.org)
- In malignant pleural mesothelioma, mesothelin - a protein that can be over expressed in many cancers - is present in 80 percent to 90 percent of all these cases. (mesotheliomacenter.org)
- In this case, we demonstrated the role of circ-NOLC1 in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). (nature.com)
- Among ovarian cancer cell lines, circ-NOLC1 expression was the highest in A2780, and lowest in CAOV3. (nature.com)
- Thus, research into the mechanism of ovarian cancer development is important for its early detection, diagnosis, and treatment. (nature.com)
- The occurrence and development of ovarian cancer is a complex process, comprising multi-step, multi-gene, and multi-factor regulations, especially the regulation of transcription factor regulatory networks, signaling pathways, and regulatory loops. (nature.com)
- Improving the prevention and early detection of ovarian carcinomas will be a critical component of reducing morbidity and mortality from ovarian cancer. (nap.edu)
- This chapter discusses the genetic and nongenetic risk factors of the disease along with potential prevention strategies and methods for early detection and screening of ovarian cancer. (nap.edu)
- The chapter also explains how gaps in knowledge about the basic biology of ovarian carcinomas (as discussed in Chapter 2 ) hinder the development of better methods to prevent ovarian carcinomas or detect them at the earliest stage of disease progression. (nap.edu)
- Although scientists' understanding about the early carcinogenic events of ovarian cancer is incomplete (see Chapter 2 ), researchers have identified several factors associated with either an increased or a decreased risk of developing ovarian cancer (see Table 3-1 ). (nap.edu)
- A critical drawback, however, is that nearly all of the identified risk factors are associated predominantly with the less common and less lethal ovarian cancer subtypes and not with the most common and lethal type-high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC). (nap.edu)
- 2015). Race and ethnicity have variable associations with ovarian cancer (see Chapter 1 for more on the role of race and ethnicity in ovarian cancer demographics). (nap.edu)
- A family history of ovarian cancer has a strong association with risk for ovarian cancer, and having a large number of first-degree biological relatives with an ovarian carcinoma increases a woman's risk (Jervis et al. (nap.edu)
- As a result, specific germline (inherited) genetic mutations are among the most well-established risk factors associated with ovarian cancer (Shulman and Dungan, 2010). (nap.edu)
- Table 3-2 describes some common genetic mutations and hereditary cancer syndromes that are found among women with ovarian cancer. (nap.edu)
- Early detection of ovarian cancer might improve clinical outcome. (aacrjournals.org)
- Some studies have shown the role of cytokines as a new group of tumor markers for ovarian cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
- Six markers, i.e., interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, epidermal growth factor (EGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and CA-125, showed significant differences in serum concentrations between ovarian cancer and control groups. (aacrjournals.org)
- The classification tree analysis for discrimination of benign condition from ovarian cancer used CA-125, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), IL-6, EGF, and VEGF resulting in 86.5% sensitivity and 93.0% specificity. (aacrjournals.org)
- The presented data show that simultaneous testing of a panel of serum cytokines and CA-125 using LabMAP technology may present a promising approach for ovarian cancer detection. (aacrjournals.org)
- Ovarian cancer represents the third most frequent cancer of the female genital tract. (aacrjournals.org)
- The majority of early-stage ovarian cancers are asymptomatic, and over three-quarters of clinical diagnoses are made at a time when the disease has already established regional or distant metastases. (aacrjournals.org)
- These statistics provide the primary rationale to improve ovarian cancer screening and early detection. (aacrjournals.org)
- Due to the low prevalence of spontaneous ovarian cancer in the general population, a screening strategy must have sensitivity of at least 80% in early-stage disease and near-perfect specificity of at least 99.6% ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- At present, there are two screening tests for ovarian cancer: serologic screening for tumor antigen using cancer antigen-125 (CA-125), and imaging using transvaginal sonography ( 2 - 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Recently, a novel technology, surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry has been offered for early detection of ovarian cancer ( 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- However, in two other studies of early detection of ovarian cancer using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, the results were less optimistic, demonstrating 72.8% to 95.7% sensitivity and 82.6% to 94.9% specificity ( 12 , 13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Therefore, at present, proteomic profiling, whereas promising, does not possess the required diagnostic discrimination for primary ovarian cancer screening. (aacrjournals.org)
- Additional approaches are necessary to provide the required high level of specificity and positivity for an effective high-throughput screening for ovarian cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
- During the last two decades, a large number of serologic tumor markers have been evaluated for their ability to detect early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
- Cancers that are known to have a hereditary link are breast cancer, colon cancer, ovarian cancer , and uterine cancer. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The aim of this work was to analyze the diagnostic and prognostic value of serum human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) and Risk for Ovarian Malignancy Algorithm (ROMA) in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). (aacrjournals.org)
- Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most frequent cause of death from gynecologic cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
- Although survival has improved with the use of maximal cytoreductive surgery along with platinum- and taxol-based chemotherapy, nearly 80% of ovarian cancers relapse and patients inevitably succumb to the development of chemotherapy-resistant disease ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Elevated levels of serum integrin-linked kinase, a protein associated with multiple cellular functions, have already been found in cases of ovarian cancer. (survivingmesothelioma.com)
- Training dogs to detect malignant ovarian cancer - and using them to help p. (eventbrite.com)
- There is currently no early diagnosis system for ovarian cancer resulting in later diagnoses and poorer prognoses of the disease. (eventbrite.com)
- T ] he Penn Vet Working Dog Center is training dogs to alert on malignant ovarian cancer when presented with plasma samples of human patients. (eventbrite.com)
- Second, can we use dogs to inform us in our end-goal to make an early-detection system for ovarian cancer? (eventbrite.com)
- Together with collaborators at the University of Pennsylvania and the Monell Center, the Penn Vet Working Dog Center is hoping to make an 'electronic nose' early detection system that can be used to diagnose ovarian cancer at earlier stages, when the disease has a significantly higher survival rate. (eventbrite.com)
- Her major research project presently involves training dogs to detect malignant ovarian cancer, working in collaboration with other researchers to hopefully result in an early detection screening for ovarian cancer. (eventbrite.com)
- To evaluate the value of individual and combined measurement of human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) and cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. (degruyter.com)
- The level of HE4 in the serum was significantly elevated in the malignant ovarian cancer group compared with other groups. (degruyter.com)
- Nearly 70% of patients with ovarian cancer are diagnosed at an advanced stage, and the 5 year survival rate for patients with ovarian cancer rises up to 90% through early effective treatment [ 2 ]. (degruyter.com)
- Currently, the most commonly used serum biomarkers for early diagnosis of ovarian cancer is CA125. (degruyter.com)
- So the application of CA125 in ovarian cancer diagnosis showed high false positive rate, and sometimes this would lead to unnecessary surgery. (degruyter.com)
- Human epididymis protein 4 (Human epididymis gene product 4, HE4) is considered a new biomarker for early diagnosis of ovarian cancer. (degruyter.com)
- In this study, we included a case-control study to determine the serum level as well as the expression of HE4 and CA125 in clinical ovarian cancer tissues. (degruyter.com)
- The disclosure relates to use of the HE4/HE4a marker(s) together with one or more other markers to assess ovarian cancers in a patient. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 1. A method of assessing whether a patient is afflicted with ovarian cancer, the method comprising assessing at least two markers, including both the HE4 marker and another marker selected from the group consisting of SMRP, CA125, and CA72-4, in a sample obtained from the patient, wherein elevated levels of the markers is correlated with increased likelihood that the patient is afflicted with ovarian cancer. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 13. A method of assessing recurrence in a patient who has been treated for ovarian cancer, the method comprising assessing at least two markers, including both the HE4 marker and another marker selected from the group consisting of SMRP, CA125, and CA72-4, in a sample obtained from the patient following treatment, wherein elevated levels of the markers indicates that the ovarian cancer is recurring in the patient. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 14. The method of claim 13, wherein the markers are assessed multiple times following the treatment, and wherein increasing levels of the markers indicates that the ovarian cancer is recurring in the patient. (freepatentsonline.com)
- The researchers used data from the Pan-Cancer project and The Cancer Genome Atlas (ICGC) to create tumour development timelines for several cancer types including glioblastoma, and colorectal and ovarian adenocarcinoma. (innovations-report.com)
- PDD is especially useful in detecting macroscopically invisible intraperitoneal ovarian cancer nodules. (gfmer.ch)
- In animal models and in one clinical report, PDT was effective in treating intraperitoneal ovarian cancer nodules. (gfmer.ch)
- Because of its high tumor selectivity, excellent cosmetic effect and low toxicity, photomedicine seems to be a promising tool for diagnosing (CIN and small intraperitoneal ovarian cancer nodules) and treating some gynecological neoplasm (VIN, intraperitoneal ovarian cancer and endometrial cancer). (gfmer.ch)
- To ascertain its clinical utility, we did a comprehensive assessment of HE4 protein expression in benign and malignant ovarian and nonovarian tissues by immunohistochemistry. (aacrjournals.org)
- Using reverse transcription-PCR, we identified ovarian cancer cell lines that endogenously overexpress HE4. (aacrjournals.org)
- Ovarian cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death of women in the United States. (aacrjournals.org)
- It is estimated that in 2004, ∼24,000 American women will be diagnosed with ovarian cancer and that 14,000 women will die of the disease (1) . (aacrjournals.org)
- Cures are rare at advanced clinical stages, placing emphasis on early detection to reduce ovarian cancer mortality. (aacrjournals.org)
- A sensitive and specific screening test that could detect ovarian cancer at a curative stage has yet to be developed. (aacrjournals.org)
- We previously validated the expression of several of the most frequently identified and most highly expressed genes ( Mucin1 , EpCAM , Mesothelin , and CD9 ) in human ovarian cancer by immunohistochemistry on tumor samples (20) . (aacrjournals.org)
Risk of developing maligna1
- Once the diagnosis is confirmed through biopsy, a medical team can determine treatment options. (mesothelioma.com)
- MedicineNet does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. (medicinenet.com)
- Early detection of malignant nodule is helpful for treatment. (hindawi.com)
- If the cancer can be detected early, the options of treatment and the chances of total recovery will increase. (igi-global.com)
- Early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer represent the key for breast cancer control and can increase the success of treatment. (igi-global.com)
- Our longstanding commitment to excellence in cancer treatment has been proven and recognized nationwide. (clevelandclinic.org)
- With expertise and advanced technology, Cleveland Clinic Cancer Center at Hillcrest Hospital emphasizes prevention, early detection, personalized, aggressive treatment and customized support. (clevelandclinic.org)
- Learn more about the causes, symptoms, variations and treatment options for cancer. (clevelandclinic.org)
- The best weapon against cancer will always be to identify it as early as possible and begin treatment to stop the disease from spreading. (clevelandclinic.org)
- The American Cancer Society offers programs and services to help people with cancer manage their lives through treatment and recovery while finding the emotional support they need. (clevelandclinic.org)
- Molecular imaging is a medical imaging technique that combines molecular biology, chemistry, material science, radiation medicine, and computer science and has created a profile for the diagnosis and treatment of this disease that exhibits wide application prospects from the bench to the clinic [ 6 - 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
- To date, early gastric cancer is being treated using minimally invasive methods such as endoscopic treatment and laparoscopic surgery, while in advanced cancer it is necessary to consider multimodality treatment including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery. (mdpi.com)
- In this review, we summarize the current status of diagnostic technology and treatment for gastric cancer. (mdpi.com)
- Takahashi T, Saikawa Y, Kitagawa Y. Gastric Cancer: Current Status of Diagnosis and Treatment. (mdpi.com)
- The prevalence of cancerous polyps in series of endoscopically removed polyps is between 0.2% and 11% [ 4 - 6 ].Currently, screening programs allow the detection and treatment of a great number of adenomas and malignant polyps, and this contributes to a reduction of the mortality by colorectal cancer (CRC) [ 1 , 7 ]. (intechopen.com)
- Earlier detection of blood vessel growth may therefore lead to a faster diagnosis of malignant tumour growth, which is a key factor in successful treatment and patient survival. (www.csiro.au)
- Anti-angiogenesis treatment aims at preventing cancers from growing blood vessels. (www.csiro.au)
- Our robust algorithms for the early detection and quantification of angiogenesis could potentially be a great step forward in the detection and treatment of cancer," Dr Wang said. (www.csiro.au)
- Nonetheless proteomics techniques should be implemented with basic clinical medicine along with DNA- and/or mRNA-based profiling strategies to enhance cancer screening, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up. (mcponline.org)
- Because tests to discover metastasis in other organs may not be sensitive enough to reveal minute deposits of cancer cells, the evaluation of the axilla for regional metastasis becomes very important in making treatment decisions for this disease. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The AMAS test can detect most types of cancer in the very early stage, which allows the patient to begin treatment almost immediately. (knowcancer.com)
- The patient would need to take the test early enough to receive effective treatment. (knowcancer.com)
- the patient would need to undergo additional testing for a proper diagnosis and appropriate treatment. (knowcancer.com)
- It is not a form of cancer treatment. (knowcancer.com)
- knowcancer.com is intended to be solely for informational purposes and should not be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. (knowcancer.com)
- According to the 3-yearly analysis of the FIGO Annual Report on the Results of Treatment in Gynaecological Cancer, stage, grade, and residual tumor have the greatest prognostic value ( 14 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- First, the preoperative diagnosis of EOC would refer patients to centers specialized in optimal tumor debulking and complete surgical staging, as it has been shown that optimal surgery treatment improves overall survival (OS) in patients with EOC ( 15-20 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- This website is not a substitute for professional medical advice, examination, diagnosis or treatment. (survivingmesothelioma.com)
- Accurately identifying the extent of disease and the makeup of your cancer is imperative when determining the best possible approach to treatment. (roswellpark.org)
- Early detection and early treatment can reduce breast cancer mortality. (iospress.com)
- The bladder cancer should be detected as early as possible, so that the dog has increased chances of survival and several treatment options. (vetinfo.com)
- Development of new endoscopic techniques has a potential to improve treatment results due to detection of early gastric cancer. (termedia.pl)
- The aim of this study was to summarize our experience in diagnosis and treatment of early gastric cancer patients. (termedia.pl)
- We analyzed the results of endoscopic examination, histopathological findings and treatment methods in 16 patients who were diagnosed with early gastric cancer in the Endoscopy Unit of the Oncology Center in Bydgoszcz between 2014 and 2016. (termedia.pl)
- All patients were qualified for treatment by the Gastric Cancer Treatment Interdisciplinary Team consisting of a surgeon, clinical oncologist, radiologist, pathologist, radiotherapist and gastroenterologist . (termedia.pl)
- Advances in the knowledge of tumor biology, nutrition, surgery, and chemotherapeutic agents have provided options for cancer treatment like never before. (vcahospitals.com)
- Surgical resection is the only potentially curative treatment for pancreatic and periampullary cancer. (essentialevidenceplus.com)
- Nanotechnology provides new molecular contrast agents and materials to enable earlier and more accurate initial diagnosis as well as in continual monitoring of cancer patient treatment. (cancer.gov)
- And even when visible, the nature of the tumor-malignant or benign-and the characteristics that might make it responsive to a particular treatment must be assessed through tissue biopsies. (cancer.gov)
- Moreover, current nanoscale imaging platforms are enabling novel imaging modalities not traditional utilized for clinical cancer treatment and diagnosis, for example photoacoustic tomography (PAT), Raman spectroscopic imaging and multimodal imaging (i.e., contrast agents specific to several imaging modalities simultaneously). (cancer.gov)
- The general aim of this PhD thesis was to explore reasons for delay in care seeking, diagnosis, and treatment of malignant melanoma. (diva-portal.org)
- We aimed to describe and compare patients diagnosed with malignant melanoma (MM), depending on their initial contact with care andwith regard to age, sex, andMMtype and thickness, and to explore pathways and time intervals (lead times) between clinics from the initial contact to diagnosis and treatment.The sample from northern Sweden was identified via the Swedish melanoma register. (diva-portal.org)
- To describe and compare patients diagnosed with MM, depending on their initial contact with care, and with regard to age, sex, and MM type and thickness, and to explore pathways and time intervals between clinics from the initial contact to diagnosis and treatment. (diva-portal.org)
- Despite the easy accessibility of the oral cavity to examination, most patients present with advanced disease, when treatment is associated with higher morbidity, more expense, and less success than earlier interventions. (aacrjournals.org)
- Early detection of oral cancer can greatly improve treatment outcomes. (aacrjournals.org)
- The chance of survival depends on the type of cancer and extent of disease at the start of treatment. (wikipedia.org)
- Fully understanding the molecular progression of the disease is the first step towards identifying targets for early detection and perhaps treatment. (innovations-report.com)
- While it may be challenging for patients who live in prohibitionist states to access medical cannabis, the multiple benefits of medical marijuana for esophageal cancer and its most widely used treatment, chemotherapy, are indisputable. (marijuanadoctors.com)
- This marijuana and esophageal cancer guide provides you with information on the disease and how medical cannabis can help you manage the condition and its treatment side effects. (marijuanadoctors.com)
- Surgery is the most common treatment for either type of esophageal cancer. (marijuanadoctors.com)
- Since then, it's seen a steady diagnosis and treatment rate. (marijuanadoctors.com)
- Early diagnosis and treatment could save thousands of lives. (innovations-report.com)
- From basic information about cancer and its causes to in-depth information on specific cancer types - including risk factors, early detection, diagnosis, and treatment options - you'll find it here. (cancer.org)
- One study using PDT in 9 endometrial cancer patients reported 1 complete response 12 months after treatment. (gfmer.ch)
- Among patients whose nodules were malignant, the test classified over 40 percent as high risk for cancer, with a specificity of over 94 percent, meaning these patients could be directed to more invasive diagnostic procedures and treatment, with a low rate of false positive results. (morningstar.com)
- Darrell S. Rigel, M.D. and colleagues from the Ronald O. Perelman Department of Dermatology at New York University School of Medicine say that, despite all of the advances in melanoma diagnosis, timely recognition, detection, and rapid treatment of melanoma remain critical, according to an American Cancer Society press release. (massagemag.com)
- Our colon and rectal specialists are fully trained surgeons with board certification in the surgical and non-surgical treatment of benign and malignant colon and rectal conditions. (browardhealth.org)
- We are focused on helping you achieve comfort through accurate diagnosis, specialized treatment and follow-up care. (browardhealth.org)
- Early diagnosis is crucial for the treatment, because malignant melanoma is very invasive when it affects melanocyte. (biomedcentral.com)
- A mesothelioma diagnosis and the treatment involved take a dramatic toll on the body and the mind, and with no known cure for mesothelioma, it is understandable that many feel loss of hope and despair. (mesotheliomacenter.org)
- Until now, due to the perceived rarity of malignant mesothelioma, little research has been conducted to date on either the early identification or treatment of individuals with disease. (businessweekly.co.uk)
- The overall survival rate has more than doubled from 40% in the 1960s to more than 80% today, but this increase is attributable to earlier diagnosis rather than to treatment advances . (cancernetwork.com)
- This type of preventive diagnosis and treatment can save many people from contracting a life-threatening disease. (hoise.com)
- News came through to me the other day of a very expensive treatment for Malignant Melanoma. (pattayamail.com)
- There are a number of treatment options available but the key is early diagnosis with the help of knowledge about vulvar cancer symptoms discussed in this article. (newhealthguide.org)
- The Head and Neck Cancer Alliance (HNCA) is a non-profit organization that works with health professionals and organizations, celebrities and survivors to enhance the overall effort in prevention, treatment, and detection of cancers of the head and neck region. (wikipedia.org)
- Educating children and adults in the disease process, treatment and prevention of head and neck cancer In addition to year-round events and awareness efforts such as benefit concerts and walkathons, the Alliance sponsors a week-long series of events to promote early detection and public awareness of this disease. (wikipedia.org)
- one such chapter is the Louisiana Chapter, which has the main focus of conducting research to raise funding for treatment of local head and neck cancer patients. (wikipedia.org)
- Interventions to improve public knowledge about oral cancer and attitudes towards early diagnosis and treatment are urgently indicated. (wikipedia.org)
- Treatment of cervical cancer may consist of some combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. (wikipedia.org)
- While early stages are significantly easier to treat, they are also more difficult to diagnose. (photonics.com)
- Grayscale ultrasound (US) is the principal ultrasound imaging modality to diagnose breast diseases and breast cancer in particular. (springer.com)
- The procedure is likely to be used in the future to diagnose a variety of cancers and, while it is moving from the trial stages to clinical use on breast and prostate, research is starting on the lungs. (eurekalert.org)
- The AMAS test was first used to diagnose brain cancer , but is now widely used to detect and diagnose other forms of the disease. (knowcancer.com)
- Dermatology endoscopes are noninvasive devices used to diagnose dermatological diseases such as skin cancer, psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis among others. (pharmiweb.com)
- There has been another potential breakthrough in the ongoing worldwide effort to find an effective way to diagnose mesothelioma earlier. (survivingmesothelioma.com)
- Unfortunately, there is no method to adequately screen and diagnose early oral cancers and precancers because detection still relies on the clinicians' ability to visually identify subtle neoplastic changes, and to distinguish these changes from more common inflammatory conditions. (aacrjournals.org)
- Additionally, he said he believes this new method could be adapted to diagnose other diseases, including prostate cancer, cervical cancer, liver cirrhosis, and atherosclerosis. (healthcanal.com)
- The colorectal program also has specialized ultrasound capability to accurately diagnose rectal cancer and polyps. (browardhealth.org)
- Conventional MRI can accurately diagnose pancreatic cancer and evaluate the resectability of pancreatic cancer before surgery. (portlandpress.com)
- Testicular cancer is a potentially deadly disease. (medicinenet.com)
- If treated early, however, this type of cancer is potentially curable. (cooperhealth.org)
- If caught early, melanoma is potentially curable. (cooperhealth.org)
- Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common form of malignancy of the lip and oral cavity, often being proceeded by potentially malignant disorders (PMD). (essentialevidenceplus.com)
- Potentially curative surgery may be an option if you're in otherwise good health and the cancer can be removed completely. (cancer.org)
- Still, potentially curative surgery is being done in some major cancer centers, and a small number of people who have had the surgery have had long periods of time with no sign of cancer. (cancer.org)
- Detecting somatic mutations from plasma DNA in advanced cancer patients may be potentially preferable when repeated tumor biopsies are not feasible and genomic analysis of archival tumor is deemed insufficient [ 9 ]. (mdpi.com)
- Millions of pts could potentially be treated with PPI therapy expectantly without a definitive diagnosis. (sages.org)
- To identify OSCC biomarkers, salivary proteomes of OSCC patients, individuals with oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs), and healthy volunteers were comparatively profiled with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based mass spectrometry (MS). The salivary levels of 67 and 18 proteins in the OSCC group are elevated and decreased compared to that in the noncancerous group (OPMD and healthy groups), respectively. (mcponline.org)
- Oral potentially malignant disorders: clinical diagnosis and current screening aids: a narrative review. (bioportfolio.com)
- In 2005, at the Congress of WHO, the term potentially malignant di. (bioportfolio.com)
- Circular RNAs (circRNAs) play important roles in cancer tumorigenesis and progression, representing prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets. (nature.com)
- This exciting project seeks to bring to life the tumour micro-environment through 3D synchrotron images of the vessels and will help to advance our understanding of this critical cancer progression process," Professor Aranda said. (www.csiro.au)
- Breast cancer follows this classic progression though it often becomes systemic or widespread early in the course of the disease. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The diagnostic potential of fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy lies in the ability to noninvasively probe alterations in tissue morphology and biochemistry that occur during malignant progression. (aacrjournals.org)
- Artist's interpretation of pinpointing the onset of cancer progression. (innovations-report.com)
- Access to this resource has significant implications for aiding the understanding of tumour progression, as well as opening up possibilities for early diagnosis and clinical intervention. (innovations-report.com)
- Their findings suggest that tumour development can span the entire lifetime of an individual, so the mutations that initiate cancer progression may arise decades before diagnosis. (innovations-report.com)
- Being able to determine whether a mutation typically occurs early or late during cancer progression may also help to guide early detection. (innovations-report.com)
- This was the starting point for 16 working groups to study multiple aspects of cancer development, causation, progression, and classification. (innovations-report.com)
- In the following study, we developed a comprehensive nomogram for predicting the malignant progression of OL, based on analysis of clinicopathological variables. (bioportfolio.com)
Diagnosed with malignant melanoma1
- A type of imaging specifically designed to detect breast cancer. (clevelandclinic.org)
- The test will positively detect cancer, but cannot identify where in the body the cancer was found. (knowcancer.com)
- Current imaging methods can only detect cancers once they have made a visible change to a tissue, by which time, thousands of cells will have proliferated and perhaps metastasized. (cancer.gov)
- The observation that many genetic alterations were already present years before the cancer was diagnosed provides a window of opportunity to detect aberrant cells before they become fully malignant. (innovations-report.com)
- It's also important to follow recommended screening guidelines, which can help detect certain cancers early. (cancer.org)
- Liver cancer symptoms in women usually present themselves in the advanced stages, keep yourself well-informed of the possible signs may help you to detect the disease earlier. (newhealthguide.org)
- Experts advise women to perform breast self-examination regularly to detect any changes that could develop into breast cancer. (newhealthguide.org)
Stages of malignant transformation1
- We review the histopathologic steps that predate the development of gastric cancer and evaluate the risks of transformation that they confer. (nih.gov)
- The probability of high grade dysplasia and carcinomatous transformation increases with polyp size, a villous component, when there are many polyps or the age at diagnosis is more than 60 years [ 2 ]. (intechopen.com)
- Despite preliminary clinical evidence indicating the potential role of fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy for improved detection of early neoplasia in the oral cavity, there is a limited understanding of the biological basis for optical changes associated with neoplastic transformation of oral tissue. (aacrjournals.org)
- Development and Validation of Nomogram for Prediction of Malignant Transformation in Oral Leukoplakia: A Large-Scale Cohort Study. (bioportfolio.com)
- Oral leukoplakia is a precancerous lesion with relatively high malignant transformation potential. (bioportfolio.com)
- Malignant transformation of vulvar cells is referred to as vulvar cancer. (newhealthguide.org)
Computer aided dia3
- Early detection testing is recommended for individuals at elevated risk for the development of Pancreatic Cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Our inclusion criteria has a strong focus on the risk for pancreatic cancer imparted by the presence of hereditary cancer genes, as well as by family history. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Premalignant or malignant pancreatic conditions found with alternating EUS and MRI testing. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Prospective collection and reporting of non-pancreatic cancers detected during this Protocol, including pancreatic cysts. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Recent technological advances in CT and MRI technology further improve the performance of CT and MRI scanners resulting in early detection of pancreatic cancer and proper staging. (springer.com)
- Tummala P, Junaidi O, Agarwal B (2011) Imaging of pancreatic cancer: an overview. (springer.com)
- Raptopoulos V, Steer ML, Sheiman RG et al (1997) The use of helical CT and CT angiography to predict vascular involvement from pancreatic cancer: correlation with findings at surgery. (springer.com)
- Mourmouris C.N. (2018) Imaging in Pancreatic Cancer. (springer.com)
- Currently, there is no absolute standard for the choice of b-value for diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for pancreatic cancer. (portlandpress.com)
- The b-value is rarely reported in animal model study, especially in pancreatic cancer/mass pancreatitis rabbit models. (portlandpress.com)
- The authors' aim was to determine the different b-values to differentiate the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer and mass pancreatitis in rabbit models using DWI. (portlandpress.com)
- In this research, 30 healthy New Zealand rabbits were selected and divided into three groups by random number table method: group 1 (pancreatic cancer), group 2 (mass pancreatitis) and the control group (healthy). (portlandpress.com)
- The present study determined that the effective differential diagnosis of pancreatic cancer and pancreatitis was determined at low b-values (333 s/mm 2 ) when performed DWI inspection in rabbit models. (portlandpress.com)
- Pancreatic cancer is a common tumor and a highly malignant cancer in human. (portlandpress.com)
- The diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) sequence can reflect the characteristics of microstructure changes, and is frequently used as the early detection approach for pancreatic cancer. (portlandpress.com)
- Furthermore, as described, a particular subtype of RCC-the ccRCC-can be used as a model to study the relationship between cytomorphological and genetic cellular markers of malignancy, an important issue for the study of CTC from any type of solid cancer. (mdpi.com)
- Hence, the intention of this study was to apply near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy in the high wavenumber (HW) region (2500−3400 cm −1 ) for the diagnosis of oral malignancy using blood plasma. (spie.org)
- The malignant cells originate in the lining of the milk glands or ducts of the breast (ductal epithelium), defining this malignancy as a cancer. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The stage before invasive cancer is called in situ , meaning that the early malignancy has not yet become capable of invasion. (thefreedictionary.com)
- It has the highest fatality-to-case ratio of all gynecologic malignancies, being characterized by early widespread metastasis and high-grade malignancy at diagnosis. (aacrjournals.org)
- When the mammography image shows typical malignant microcalcification, it can be diagnosed as breast cancer without any other signs of malignancy. (iospress.com)
- High-Dose Rate (HDR) brachytherapy is a safe, effective option for treating breast, prostate, cervical and uterine cancers. (clevelandclinic.org)
- In this regard, non invasive optical detection of cervical cancer using urine samples by Raman Spectroscopy combined with LDA diagnostic algorithm yields an accuracy of 100% for original and cross validated group respectively. (spie.org)
- As the results were appreciable it is necessary to carry out the analysis for more number of samples to explore the facts hidden at different stages during the development of cervical cancer. (spie.org)
- Early detection through screening is useful for cervical and colorectal cancer . (wikipedia.org)
- PDD is used in early detection and noninvasive staging of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. (gfmer.ch)
- Cervical cancer is a cancer arising from the cervix. (wikipedia.org)
- While bleeding after sex may not be serious, it may also indicate the presence of cervical cancer. (wikipedia.org)
- most people who have had HPV infections, however, do not develop cervical cancer. (wikipedia.org)
- Cervical cancer typically develops from precancerous changes over 10 to 20 years. (wikipedia.org)
- About 90% of cervical cancer cases are squamous cell carcinomas, 10% are adenocarcinoma, and a small number are other types. (wikipedia.org)
- HPV vaccines protect against between two and seven high-risk strains of this family of viruses and may prevent up to 90% of cervical cancers. (wikipedia.org)
- Cervical cancer screening using the Pap test or acetic acid can identify precancerous changes which when treated can prevent the development of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
- Worldwide, cervical cancer is both the fourth-most common cause of cancer and the fourth-most common cause of death from cancer in women. (wikipedia.org)
- About 70% of cervical cancers occur in developing countries. (wikipedia.org)
- In developed countries, the widespread use of cervical screening programs has dramatically reduced rates of cervical cancer. (wikipedia.org)
- In medical research, the most famous immortalised cell line, known as HeLa, was developed from cervical cancer cells of a woman named Henrietta Lacks. (wikipedia.org)
- The early stages of cervical cancer may be completely free of symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
- Also, moderate pain during sexual intercourse and vaginal discharge are symptoms of cervical cancer. (wikipedia.org)
- Bleeding after douching or after a pelvic exam is a common symptom of cervical cancer. (wikipedia.org)
- Infection with some types of HPV is the greatest risk factor for cervical cancer, followed by smoking. (wikipedia.org)
- Not all of the causes of cervical cancer are known, however, and several other contributing factors have been implicated. (wikipedia.org)
- However, these serotypes are usually not related to cervical cancer. (wikipedia.org)
- It is common to have multiple strains at the same time, including those that can cause cervical cancer along with those that cause warts. (wikipedia.org)
- Infection with HPV is generally believed to be required for cervical cancer to occur. (wikipedia.org)
- Cigarette smoking, both active and passive, increases the risk of cervical cancer. (wikipedia.org)
- Smoking has also been linked to the development of cervical cancer. (wikipedia.org)
- Smoking can increase the risk in women a few different ways, which can be by direct and indirect methods of inducing cervical cancer. (wikipedia.org)
- A direct way of contracting this cancer is a smoker has a higher chance of CIN3 occurring which has the potential of forming cervical cancer. (wikipedia.org)
- Taouil, K. , Chtourou, Z. and Romdhane, N. (2010) A robust system for melanoma diagnosis using heterogeneous image databases. (scirp.org)
- Blanzieri, E. (2000) Exploiting classifier combination for early melanoma diagnosis support. (scirp.org)
- So far, melanoma diagnosis is depending subjectively on the dermatologist's expertise. (spie.org)
- This noninvasive high-throughput approach needs to be evaluated in large studies to assess its value in the early detection and surveillance of renal cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
- Therefore, noninvasive diagnostic modalities such as evolutionary endoscopy and positron emission tomography are utilized as screening tools for gastric cancer. (mdpi.com)
- This shall improve the early detection of breast cancer via developing real-time and noninvasive computer-aided diagnostic software. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
- 5 Autofluorescence spectroscopy has also emerged as a noninvasive technology for diagnosing precancers and cancers in several organ sites ( 7 - 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Although examining tumor cells under a microscope remains the gold standard for diagnosing melanoma, it is one of very few cancers that has the potential to be diagnosed at an early stage through noninvasive approaches because it appears on the outside of the body," the release stated. (massagemag.com)
Highly malignant cancer1
- Lymphomas are a group of cancers in which cells of the lymphatic system become abnormal and start to grow uncontrollably. (encyclopedia.com)
- Malignant non-Hodgkin lymphomas in children. (cancer.org)
- Kamdar KY, Sandlund JT, Bollard CM. Malignant lymphomas in childhood. (cancer.org)
- In addition, cancer of the kidneys, ovaries, uterus, pancreas, bladder, rectum, and blood and lymph node cancer (leukemias and lymphomas) are also included among the 12 major cancers that affect most Americans. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The 3TP scans were sent to Degani's lab in Israel for analysis, and her diagnoses were later compared with the results of the biopsies. (eurekalert.org)
- Prospective validation of an immunohistochemical panel (glypican 3, heat shock protein 70 and glutamine synthetase) in liver biopsies for diagnosis of very early hepatocellular carcinoma. (semanticscholar.org)
- Epidemiologic and pathologic studies have confirmed that the development of gastric cancer spans over several decades starting with Helicobacter pylori chronic active gastritis followed, over time and only in a subset of patients, with the development of intestinal metaplasia and atrophy, dysplasia, and finally gastric adenocarcinoma. (nih.gov)
- All patients with pathologic diagnoses of adenocarcinoma underwent contrast-enhanced abdominal and chest computed tomography (CT). (termedia.pl)
- There are two types of esophageal cancer: squamous cell cancer and adenocarcinoma. (marijuanadoctors.com)
- These changes can lead to cancer in granular cells called adenocarcinoma. (marijuanadoctors.com)
Prevention and Early Detection1
Development of malignant3
- Breast cancer is caused by the development of malignant cells in the breast. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Exposure to sunlight is an important risk factor for the development of malignant melanoma. (cancernetwork.com)
- Epidemiologic studies have identified certain phenotypic factors consistently associated with increased risk for the development of malignant melanoma. (cancernetwork.com)
Basal cell carc2
Squamous cell carc5
- Squamous cell carcinoma can look like basal cell cancers, but it is usually more scaly and rough. (cooperhealth.org)
- Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer in organ transplant recipients. (cooperhealth.org)
- Malignant melanoma is less common than basal or squamous cell carcinoma, but it is more dangerous. (cooperhealth.org)
- Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. (mcponline.org)
- Such squamous cell cancers are usually termed, squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck or head and neck squamous-cell carcinoma (HNSCC). (wikipedia.org)
- Researchers are not sure of the exact cause of breast cancer. (igi-global.com)
- Researchers at CSIRO's Data61 are developing a software tool that could significantly improve the detection of angiogenesis - the development of new blood vessels - which is known to precede the growth of cancers. (www.csiro.au)
- In the study, Data61 researchers teamed up with researchers at the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences to produce images of the brains and livers of mice at various stages of cancer growth. (www.csiro.au)
- Integration of these data allows cancer researchers to ask complex questions about the mechanism of specific disease manifestations and to retrieve data sets containing disparate data that can be further analyzed using statistical methods to reveal new insights that should be further investigated. (mcponline.org)
- Researchers at the Emory/Georgia Tech Center of Cancer Nanotechnology Excellence synthesize, by vapor-solid process, aligned ZnO nanowire arrays as shown in the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image. (cancer.gov)
- Researchers finally made progress in the 21st century in early detection, diagnosis and survival rates. (marijuanadoctors.com)
- Using radio frequency or microwave technology for breast cancer detection has been proven by researchers in the US, Canada and UK. (innovations-report.com)
- Cancer Research UK commissioned BMRB Omnibus and LVQ Research to carry out interviews using questions developed after extensive consultation with researchers. (bmj.com)
- The researchers determined the genomic test's ability to identify patients as high risk and low risk for cancer and then modeled its impact on patient care when the cancer prevalence is 25 percent. (morningstar.com)
- Breast cancer is a common and frequently fatal disease, and the second ranking cause of cancer death in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. (who.int)
- Region present for the first time at stages two and three, indicating the need for increased community awareness and early detection of the disease. (who.int)
- The analysis of biofluids for disease diagnosis becomes very attractive in the diagnosis of cancers due to the ease in the collection of samples, easy to transport, multiple sampling for regular screening of the disease and being less invasive to the patients. (spie.org)
- The specific clinical signs and symptoms of malignant renal disease are not usually helpful in making an early diagnosis. (aacrjournals.org)
- Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of death from malignant disease worldwide and most frequently discovered in advanced stages. (mdpi.com)
- If we can stop cancers spreading we can reduce the number of people who die from the disease. (www.csiro.au)
- Our current understanding of the disease is primarily limited to clinical hallmarks of cancer, but many specific molecular mechanisms remain elusive. (mcponline.org)
- The multigenic nature of cancer has hindered progress in understanding the underlying mechanisms that lead to a specific disease phenotype. (mcponline.org)
- With the comprehensive cataloging of human genes and links between gene function and disease, the future of medicine looks toward mechanistic personalized medicine approaches to cure diseases such as cancer. (mcponline.org)
- A non-aggressive course is associated with a long subclinical period with a high chance of early detection, whereas aggressive growth with a rapid onset of severe clinical symptoms leaves little chance of recognition of disease in an early stage. (bmj.com)
- 98%, for early-stage disease ( 4 , 7 , 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- The more important classification is related to the evaluated tumor's capability to invade, as this characteristic defines the disease as a true cancer. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Cancer is not just one disease, but a large group of almost 100 diseases. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Cancer, by definition, is a disease of the genes. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Furthermore, CA125 has low sensitivity in identifying patients with early EOC disease, being increased in only 50% of patients with stage I ( 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is a common disease in women. (iospress.com)
- Next generation devices couple capture with genetic analysis to further elucidate a patient's cancer and potential treatments and disease course. (cancer.gov)
- Nearly 200,000 women are diagnosed with breast cancer annually in the United States, and the disease takes the lives of more than 40,000 women every year, according to the National Institutes of Health. (healthcanal.com)
- The poor outcome of OSCC patients is principally ascribed to the fact that this disease is often advanced at the time of diagnosis, suggesting that early detection of OSCC is urgently needed. (mcponline.org)
- Minimally-invasive laparoscopic colon resections are also available for both benign conditions, such as diverticulitis and Crohn's disease, as well as for cancer, in order to minimize postoperative pain and allow earlier return to work and daily activities. (browardhealth.org)
- On the rare instance that mesothelioma is diagnosed in the early stages of the disease, patients have the option for surgery. (mesotheliomacenter.org)
- Diagnosing mesothelioma in the early stages of the disease has proven to be a difficult task, and to better improve chances of survival from this aggressive cancer, the cancer needs to be found and treated quickly. (mesotheliomacenter.org)
- At the time of diagnosis, three quarters of patients have locally advanced or disseminated disease that is characterized by diffuse intraperitoneal spread and in many cases, malignant ascites (reviewed in refs. (aacrjournals.org)
- A disease breathalyser devised in Cambridge is being trialled to counter malignant mesothelioma - an often lethal cancer caused almost exclusively by exposure to asbestos. (businessweekly.co.uk)
- Early detection of malignant mesothelioma is highly challenging, as a long latency period of 40-50 years between first asbestos exposure and disease onset is typical, and symptoms, when present, may be non-specific. (businessweekly.co.uk)
- The trade union's general president, James McCourt said: "The population of those who have been exposed to asbestos and are at risk of having existing early-stage disease or developing malignant mesothelioma later in their lives includes a substantial portion of our membership. (businessweekly.co.uk)
- The long-term health of our members is of primary importance to the IAHFIAW, and we are confident that our partnership with Owlstone Medical will provide significant advances in the early diagnosis of this disease. (businessweekly.co.uk)
- Through this partnership, we are looking not only to advance the early diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma, but also to demonstrate that breath-based screening has the potential to have a substantial impact on a wide range of environment-driven disease. (businessweekly.co.uk)
- Early primary melanoma is highly curable, but once the disease becomes disseminated, it is nearly always fatal. (cancernetwork.com)
- It is a disease affecting persons of all ages, with a median age at diagnosis in the mid-40s. (cancernetwork.com)
- Pancreatitis is a common non-malignant disease that affects the same organ, pancreas. (portlandpress.com)
- Nearly 8000 people die every year due to head and neck cancer, which is attributed to advanced stage disease at the time of diagnosis. (wikipedia.org)
Surrounding the tumor1
- Personal history of pre-cancers, such as dysplastic nevi (abnormal moles) or actinic keratosis. (cooperhealth.org)
- Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. (wikipedia.org)
- Cancers are a large family of diseases that involve abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. (wikipedia.org)
- Invasive breast cancer affects many women, and the spread of abnormal, malignant cells carry a great risk to one's life. (newhealthguide.org)
- PC is the fourth leading cause of death among all cancers in the USA, with a dismal 5-year survival rate of less than 5% [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Melanoma is highly curable if diagnosed early and treated properly as survival rate varies between 15% and 65% from early to terminal stages, respectively. (spie.org)
- Thus, early diagnosis is crucial for improving the survival rate for patients. (semanticscholar.org)
- The clinic enables early detection and diagnosis in improving outcomes for anyone with a concerning lump. (spirehealthcare.com)
- Because curative surgery is regarded as the only option for cure, early detection of resectable gastric cancer is extremely important for good patient outcomes. (mdpi.com)
- Outcomes, however, depend very much on how early the cancer is detected. (wikipedia.org)
- This extended time period between asbestos exposure and symptoms leads to delayed diagnosis. (mesothelioma.com)
- What are the possible signs and symptoms of testicular cancer? (medicinenet.com)
- The signs and symptoms of cancer of the testicle may include. (medicinenet.com)
- There can be some overlap of symptoms and signs between advanced and early testicular cancer in some individuals. (medicinenet.com)
- The hospice care worker will have a deep understanding of the patient's diagnosis and symptoms , allowing them to offer advice for how to alleviate pain and discomfort. (mesothelioma.com)
- Screening is testing for cancer in people who don't have any symptoms. (cancer.org)
- The best way to find this cancer early is to be aware of its possible signs and symptoms and to take your child to the doctor if something concerns you. (cancer.org)
- Early symptoms can not be easily detected in colorectal cancer so it is vital that regular screening takes place. (onlinecancerguide.com)
- These symptoms may not be the cancer but caution is encouraged. (onlinecancerguide.com)
- The diagnostics of urinary bladder cancer can be done based on the symptoms displayed by the pet and several other clinical tests. (vetinfo.com)
- Bladder cancer usually has a silent development and there will be no symptoms during the initial stages. (vetinfo.com)
- If the dog has bladder cancer, he will not respond to this medication and the symptoms will worsen in time. (vetinfo.com)
- While these symptoms may indicate cancer, they may have other causes. (wikipedia.org)
- Cancer can be detected by certain signs and symptoms or screening tests . (wikipedia.org)
- Symptoms of esophageal cancer include difficulty swallowing, severe weight loss, pain in the throat, back or behind the breastbone, vomiting or hoarseness. (marijuanadoctors.com)
- There are typically no symptoms in earlier stages of esophageal cancer. (marijuanadoctors.com)
- Having some of these symptoms doesn't always indicate the presence of esophageal cancer. (marijuanadoctors.com)
- The goal of this surgery is to ease or prevent symptoms, not to cure the cancer. (cancer.org)
- For many patients who are suffering from malignant mesothelioma, their diagnosis came quickly after experiencing symptoms. (mesotheliomacenter.org)
- In many cases, this is because symptoms of mesothelioma typically do not appear until the cancer has fully developed and it's in the later stages. (mesotheliomacenter.org)
- Some symptoms of head and neck cancer are soreness of the throat, difficulty in jaw movement or swallowing, and the presence of a nodule or lump. (wikipedia.org)
- Early on, typically no symptoms are seen. (wikipedia.org)