Common foot problems in persons with DIABETES MELLITUS, caused by any combination of factors such as DIABETIC NEUROPATHIES; PERIPHERAL VASCULAR DISEASES; and INFECTION. With the loss of sensation and poor circulation, injuries and infections often lead to severe foot ulceration, GANGRENE and AMPUTATION.
The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.
Lesion on the surface of the skin of the foot, usually accompanied by inflammation. The lesion may become infected or necrotic and is frequently associated with diabetes or leprosy.
Anatomical and functional disorders affecting the foot.
The removal of a limb or other appendage or outgrowth of the body. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of foot disorders and injuries and anatomic defects of the foot.
The TARSAL BONES; METATARSAL BONES; and PHALANGES OF TOES. The tarsal bones consists of seven bones: CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid; navicular; internal; middle; and external cuneiform bones. The five metatarsal bones are numbered one through five, running medial to lateral. There are 14 phalanges in each foot, the great toe has two while the other toes have three each.
Distortion or disfigurement of the foot, or a part of the foot, acquired through disease or injury after birth.
'Shoes' are not a medical term, but an item of footwear designed to provide protection, support, and comfort to the feet during various activities, although ill-fitting or inappropriate shoes can contribute to various foot conditions such as blisters, corns, calluses, and orthopedic issues.
Chronic progressive degeneration of the stress-bearing portion of a joint, with bizarre hypertrophic changes at the periphery. It is probably a complication of a variety of neurologic disorders, particularly TABES DORSALIS, involving loss of sensation, which leads to relaxation of supporting structures and chronic instability of the joint. (Dorland, 27th ed)
KIDNEY injuries associated with diabetes mellitus and affecting KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; ARTERIOLES; KIDNEY TUBULES; and the interstitium. Clinical signs include persistent PROTEINURIA, from microalbuminuria progressing to ALBUMINURIA of greater than 300 mg/24 h, leading to reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE.
Disease of the RETINA as a complication of DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the progressive microvascular complications, such as ANEURYSM, interretinal EDEMA, and intraocular PATHOLOGIC NEOVASCULARIZATION.
General or unspecified injuries involving the foot.
'Osteomyelitis' is a medical condition defined as an inflammation or infection of the bone or marrow, often caused by bacteria or fungi, which can lead to symptoms such as pain, swelling, warmth, and redness in the affected area, and may require antibiotics or surgical intervention for treatment.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
The removal of foreign material and devitalized or contaminated tissue from or adjacent to a traumatic or infected lesion until surrounding healthy tissue is exposed. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Invasion of the site of trauma by pathogenic microorganisms.
Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)
The therapeutic intermittent administration of oxygen in a chamber at greater than sea-level atmospheric pressures (three atmospheres). It is considered effective treatment for air and gas embolisms, smoke inhalation, acute carbon monoxide poisoning, caisson disease, clostridial gangrene, etc. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992). The list of treatment modalities includes stroke.
Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.
Maintenance of the hygienic state of the skin under optimal conditions of cleanliness and comfort. Effective in skin care are proper washing, bathing, cleansing, and the use of soaps, detergents, oils, etc. In various disease states, therapeutic and protective solutions and ointments are useful. The care of the skin is particularly important in various occupations, in exposure to sunlight, in neonates, and in PRESSURE ULCER.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
Alterations or deviations from normal shape or size which result in a disfigurement of the foot.
Death and putrefaction of tissue usually due to a loss of blood supply.
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
A plant genus of the family CAPPARACEAE that contains mabinlin, a sweet protein.
The forepart of the foot including the metatarsals and the TOES.
Material used for wrapping or binding any part of the body.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.
Aerobic bacteria are types of microbes that require oxygen to grow and reproduce, and use it in the process of respiration to break down organic matter and produce energy, often found in environments where oxygen is readily available such as the human body's skin, mouth, and intestines.
Nonexpendable items used in the performance of orthopedic surgery and related therapy. They are differentiated from ORTHOTIC DEVICES, apparatus used to prevent or correct deformities in patients.
A sweet viscous liquid food, produced in the honey sacs of various bees from nectar collected from flowers. The nectar is ripened into honey by inversion of its sucrose sugar into fructose and glucose. It is somewhat acidic and has mild antiseptic properties, being sometimes used in the treatment of burns and lacerations.
A condition in which one or more of the arches of the foot have flattened out.
The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.
The articulations extending from the ANKLE distally to the TOES. These include the ANKLE JOINT; TARSAL JOINTS; METATARSOPHALANGEAL JOINT; and TOE JOINT.
Alterations or deviations from normal shape or size which result in a disfigurement of the foot occurring at or before birth.
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.
Synthetic material used for the treatment of burns and other conditions involving large-scale loss of skin. It often consists of an outer (epidermal) layer of silicone and an inner (dermal) layer of collagen and chondroitin 6-sulfate. The dermal layer elicits new growth and vascular invasion and the outer layer is later removed and replaced by a graft.
A skin ulcer is a breakdown of the skin's surface and underlying tissues, often caused by prolonged pressure, infection, or poor circulation, leading to a loss of continuity in the epidermis and dermis, potentially extending into deeper layers such as subcutaneous tissue, muscle, and bone.
A branch of internal medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of INFECTIOUS DISEASES.
The medical use of honey bee products such as BEE VENOM; HONEY; bee pollen; PROPOLIS; and royal jelly.
Infections of non-skeletal tissue, i.e., exclusive of bone, ligaments, cartilage, and fibrous tissue. The concept is usually referred to as skin and soft tissue infections and usually subcutaneous and muscle tissue are involved. The predisposing factors in anaerobic infections are trauma, ischemia, and surgery. The organisms often derive from the fecal or oral flora, particularly in wounds associated with intestinal surgery, decubitus ulcer, and human bites. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1688)
An inward slant of the thigh in which the knees are close together and the ankles far apart. Genu valgum can develop due to skeletal and joint dysplasias (e.g., OSTEOARTHRITIS; HURLER SYNDROME); and malnutrition (e.g., RICKETS; FLUORIDE POISONING).
A pathologic process consisting in the formation of pus.
The application of a vacuum across the surface of a wound through a foam dressing cut to fit the wound. This removes wound exudates, reduces build-up of inflammatory mediators, and increases the flow of nutrients to the wound thus promoting healing.
Localized hyperplasia of the horny layer of the epidermis due to pressure or friction. (Dorland, 27th ed)
An antibiotic that is produced by Stretomyces achromogenes. It is used as an antineoplastic agent and to induce diabetes in experimental animals.
The refined fixed oil obtained from the seed of one or more cultivated varieties of Sesamum indicum. It is used as a solvent and oleaginous vehicle for drugs and has been used internally as a laxative and externally as a skin softener. It is used also in the manufacture of margarine, soap, and cosmetics. (Dorland, 28th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used primarily in skeletal scintigraphy. Because of its absorption by a variety of tumors, it is useful for the detection of neoplasms.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A vascular connective tissue formed on the surface of a healing wound, ulcer, or inflamed tissue. It consists of new capillaries and an infiltrate containing lymphoid cells, macrophages, and plasma cells.
Any one of five terminal digits of the vertebrate FOOT.
An alternative to amputation in patients with neoplasms, ischemia, fractures, and other limb-threatening conditions. Generally, sophisticated surgical procedures such as vascular surgery and reconstruction are used to salvage diseased limbs.
Inorganic compounds that contain silver as an integral part of the molecule.
Dressings comprised of a self-adhesive matrix to which hydrophilic absorbent particles are embedded. The particles consist of CELLULOSE derivatives; calcium ALGINATES; PECTINS; or GELS. The utility is based on providing a moist environment for WOUND HEALING.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The application of technology to the solution of medical problems.
Ulceration of the skin and underlying structures of the lower extremity. About 90% of the cases are due to venous insufficiency (VARICOSE ULCER), 5% to arterial disease, and the remaining 5% to other causes.
Glucose in blood.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.
A mild, highly infectious viral disease of children, characterized by vesicular lesions in the mouth and on the hands and feet. It is caused by coxsackieviruses A.
Skin diseases of the foot, general or unspecified.
A building block of penicillin, devoid of significant antibacterial activity. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
An antiseptic with mild fungistatic, bacteriostatic, anthelmintic, and amebicidal action. It is also used as a reagent and metal chelator, as a carrier for radio-indium for diagnostic purposes, and its halogenated derivatives are used in addition as topical anti-infective agents and oral antiamebics.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.
A country in northern Africa bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between MOROCCO and TUNISIA. Its capital is Algiers.
Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum, AMPICILLIN derived ureidopenicillin antibiotic proposed for PSEUDOMONAS infections. It is also used in combination with other antibiotics.
Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.
Diabetes complications in which VENTRICULAR REMODELING in the absence of CORONARY ATHEROSCLEROSIS and hypertension results in cardiac dysfunctions, typically LEFT VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION. The changes also result in myocardial hypertrophy, myocardial necrosis and fibrosis, and collagen deposition due to impaired glucose tolerance.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE with strong-smelling foliage. It is a source of SANTONIN and other cytotoxic TERPENES.

Use of computed tomography and plantar pressure measurement for management of neuropathic ulcers in patients with diabetes. (1/586)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Total contact casting is effective at healing neuropathic ulcers, but patients have a high rate (30%-57%) of ulcer recurrence when they resume walking without the cast. The purposes of this case report are to describe how data from plantar pressure measurement and spiral x-ray computed tomography (SXCT) were used to help manage a patient with recurrent plantar ulcers and to discuss potential future benefits of this technology. CASE DESCRIPTION: The patient was a 62-year-old man with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) of 34 years' duration, peripheral neuropathy, and a recurrent plantar ulcer. Although total contact casting or relieving weight bearing with crutches apparently allowed the ulcer to heal, the ulcer recurred 3 times in an 18-month period. Spiral x-ray computed tomography and simultaneous pressure measurement were conducted to better understand the mechanism of his ulceration. OUTCOMES: The patient had a severe bony deformity that coincided with the location of highest plantar pressures (886 kPa). The results of the SXCT and pressure measurement convinced the patient to wear his prescribed footwear always, even when getting up in the middle of the night. The ulcer healed in 6 weeks, and the patient resumed his work, which required standing and walking for 8 to 10 hours a day. DISCUSSION: Following intervention, the patient's recurrent ulcer healed and remained healed for several months. Future benefits of these methods may include the ability to define how structural changes of the foot relate to increased plantar pressures and to help design and fabricate optimal orthoses.  (+info)

Possible sources of discrepancies in the use of the Semmes-Weinstein monofilament. Impact on prevalence of insensate foot and workload requirements. (2/586)

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of different testing sites and buckling strengths on the sensitivity and specificity of using the Semmes-Weinstein monofilament to detect patients with insensate foot. The impact on workload required to educate and follow up these high-risk individuals was estimated by modeling in our patient population with a documented status of neuropathy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Using the 5.07/10-g monofilament, one observer tested 132 randomly selected subjects with diabetes at five sites on the right foot. The sensitivity and specificity of each site and combinations of sites in detecting vibration perception threshold > 40 was calculated. In addition, two monofilaments, one with a buckling force of 5 g and the other with a force of 15 g, were compared by testing 200 randomly selected patients. An estimate of the prevalence of insensate foot and workload was made by modeling the findings to the 5,270 patients with neuropathy status registered on our computerized database. RESULTS: Specificity of the 5.07/10-g monofilament to detect insensate foot at each of the five sites is high, at approximately 90%, but there is considerably more variation and lower sensitivity, ranging from 44-71%. Data derived from the use of different combinations of sites showed that more stringent criteria are associated with lower sensitivity but higher specificity. If the foot is considered insensate when either of sites 3 and 4 (plantar aspect of the first and fifth metatarsal heads, respectively) cannot feel the monofilament, there is reasonable sensitivity and specificity (80-86%, respectively). By modeling on our diabetes center population, it can be demonstrated that the choice of different methodologies leads to different conclusions about the prevalence of severe neuropathy, ranging from 3.4 to 29.3%. CONCLUSIONS: Using a combination of sites 3 and 4 for monofilament testing gives a reasonable compromise for time, sensitivity, and specificity. Minor changes in sensitivity and specificity can lead to major changes in the prevalence of neuropathy, with implications for workload.  (+info)

Amputation prevention by vascular surgery and podiatry collaboration in high-risk diabetic and nondiabetic patients. The Operation Desert Foot experience. (3/586)

OBJECTIVE: To describe a unique multidisciplinary outpatient intervention for patients at high risk for lower-extremity amputation. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Patients with foot ulcers and considered to be high risk for lower-extremity amputation were referred to the High Risk Foot Clinic of Operation Desert Foot at the Carl T. Hayden Veterans Affairs' Medical Center in Phoenix, Arizona, where patients received simultaneous vascular surgery and podiatric triage and treatment. Some 124 patients, consisting of 90 diabetic patients and 34 nondiabetic patients, were initially seen between 1 October 1991 and 30 September 1992 and followed for subsequent rate of lower-extremity amputation. RESULTS: In a mean follow-up period of 55 months (range 3-77), only 18 of 124 patients (15%) required amputation at the level of the thigh or leg. Of the 18 amputees, 17 (94%) had type 2 diabetes. The rate of avoiding limb loss was 86.5% after 3 years and 83% after 5 years or more. Furthermore, of the 15 amputees surviving longer than 2 months, only one (7%) had to undergo amputation of the contralateral limb over the following 12-65 months (mean 35 months). Compared with nondiabetic patients, patients with diabetes had a 7.68 odds ratio for amputation (95% CI 5.63-9.74) (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: A specialized clinic for prevention of lower-extremity amputation is described. Initial and contralateral amputation rates appear to be far lower in this population than in previously published reports for similar populations. Relative to patients without diabetes, patients with diabetes were more than seven times as likely to have a lower-extremity amputation. These data suggest that aggressive collaboration of vascular surgery and podiatry can be effective in preventing lower-extremity amputation in the high-risk population.  (+info)

Healing of diabetic neuropathic foot ulcers receiving standard treatment. A meta-analysis. (4/586)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the percentage of individuals with neuropathic diabetic foot ulcers receiving good wound care who heal within a defined period of time. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of the control groups of clinical trials that evaluated a treatment for diabetic neuropathic foot ulcers. The meta-analytic techniques used include an estimation of the weighted mean percentage healed by end point, an evaluation of the homogeneity of trials, and an estimate of the 95% CI of the grouped data. Grouped-data univariate and multivariate logistic regression was conducted to assess the impact of mean age, ulcer size, and duration on the percentage of ulcers healed at end point. RESULTS: We found a total of 10 control groups meeting our criteria. Six control groups used 20 weeks as the end point for healing or nonhealing. For the six control arms with a 20-week end point, we found a weighted mean healing rate of 30.9% (95% CI 26.6-35.1). A similar analysis for the four 12-week arms found a mean healing rate of 24.2% (19.5-28.8). We failed to detect any statistically significant heterogeneity for either the 20-week or the 12-week trials. CONCLUSIONS: After 20 weeks of good wound care, approximately 31% of diabetic neuropathic ulcers heal. Similarly, after 12 weeks of good care, approximately 24% of neuropathic ulcers attain complete healing. Further patient-level analyses are necessary to definitively determine the associations of age, wound size, and wound duration with likelihood of healing.  (+info)

Transcutaneous oxygen tension and toe blood pressure as predictors for outcome of diabetic foot ulcers. (5/586)

OBJECTIVE: The present study was undertaken to compare the predictive values of transcutaneous oxygen tension (TcPO2) and toe blood pressure (TBP) measurements for ulcer healing in patients with diabetes and chronic foot ulcers. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Investigated prospectively were 50 diabetic patients (37 men) with chronic foot ulcers. The age was 61 +/- 12 (mean +/- SD), and the diabetes duration was 26 +/- 14 years. TBP (mmHg) was measured in dig I and TcPO2 (mmHg) at the dorsum of the foot. Ulcer healing was continuously evaluated by measuring the ulcer area every 4-6 weeks. After a follow-up time of 12 months, the patients were divided into three groups according to clinical outcome: healed with intact skin, improved ulcer healing, or impaired ulcer healing. RESULTS: Of the 13 patients who deteriorated, 11 had TcPO2 < 25 mmHg, while 34 of the 37 patients who improved had TcPO2 > or = 25 mmHg. The sensitivity and specificity for TcPO2 were 85 and 92%, respectively, when a cutoff level of 25 mmHg was used for determination of outcome of ulcer healing (healing or nonhealing). The corresponding values for TBP at 30 mmHg were 15 and 97%. Measurement of TcPO2 provided a higher positive predictive value (79%) than TBP (67%). CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that TcPO2 is a better predictor for ulcer healing than TBP in diabetic patients with chronic foot ulcers, and that the probability of ulcer healing is low when TcPO2 is < 25 mmHg.  (+info)

Correlation of imaging techniques to histopathology in patients with diabetic foot syndrome and clinical suspicion of chronic osteomyelitis. The role of high-resolution ultrasound. (6/586)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of ultrasound in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis in the diabetic foot compared with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), bone scintigraphy (BS), and plain film radiography (PFR). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We investigated 19 consecutive diabetic patients (2 women, 17 men, age 60.7 +/- 9.8 years, BMI 27.0 +/- 3.8 kg/m2) with clinical suspicion of bone infection of the foot. A high-resolution ultrasound system (Esaote/Biosound, Munich) with a linear array transducer up to 13.0 MHz was used. The prospective and blinded results of each method were compared with histopathology as the reference method after metatarsal resection. RESULTS: In 14 of 19 patients, histopathology confirmed osteomyelitis. Ultrasound showed a sensitivity of 79% (PFR, 69%; BS, 83%; MRI, 100%), a specificity of 80% (PFR, 80%; BS, 75%; MRI, 75%), a positive predictive value of 92% (PFR, 90%; BS, 91%; MRI, 93%), and a negative predictive value of 57% (PFR, 50%; BS, 60%; MRI, 100%). CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that ultrasound might have a better diagnostic power for detecting chronic osteomyelitis in the diabetic foot than PFR and has similar sensitivity and specificity as BS. MRI is superior to the other three methods. We conclude that the use of ultrasound in the management of the diabetic foot is worthy of further investigation.  (+info)

Cooperation between general practitioners and diabetologists and clinical audit improve the management of type 2 diabetic patients. (7/586)

A programme was set up in the Essonne (France) between 1994 and 1998 to improve the quality of care for Type 2 diabetic patients. A consensus panel of general practitioners and diabetes specialists established guidelines based on the French St. Vincent recommendations. An audit involving 73 volunteer general practitioners (out of 965 in the Essonne) then evaluated compliance with these guidelines. Care and outcome were assessed in 505 (1995) and 604 (1996) Type 2 diabetic patients. The first audit cycle showed that defined standards were not met for several criteria and also revealed a lack of standardisation of HbA1c measurements and delayed intervention when blood glucose control was inadequate. Corrective measures were adopted: cooperative protocols for foot care, prevention of nephropathy and retinopathy, standardisation of HbA1c, and an educational programme at the primary health care level. The second audit cycle showed improvement in foot care (+33.6%), quality (+39.9%), prescription of HbA1c (+11.9%), and control of blood pressure (+11.9%) and blood lipids (+12.8%). The proportion of early interventions in case of inadequate glucose control increased significantly (+10.5%). However, some gaps persisted, mainly regarding screening for complications, diet counselling and patient education. This study shows that cooperation between general practitioners and diabetes specialists is feasible and effective in the context of a district-wide approach, and that it facilitates the adoption of international guidelines by local physicians. A project has been developed to provide structured diabetes care in general practice and better access to specialist services in order to improve the outcome of Type 2 diabetic patients.  (+info)

The 14-year incidence of lower-extremity amputations in a diabetic population. The Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy. (8/586)

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cumulative 14-year incidence of lower-extremity amputations (LEAs) and evaluate risk factors for LEA. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Study subjects consisted of population-based cohorts of younger-onset (diagnosed before age 30 years and taking insulin, n = 906) and older-onset (diagnosed after age 30 years, n = 984) individuals with diabetes. Subjects participated in baseline (1980-1982), 4-year, 10-year, and 14-year examinations or interviews. LEAs were determined by history. RESULTS: The cumulative 14-year incidence of LEA was 7.2% in younger- and 9.9% in older-onset patients. In multivariable analyses based on the discrete linear logistic model, LEA in the younger-onset group was more likely for males (odds ratio [OR] 5.21 [95% CI 2.50-10.88]), older age (OR for 10 years 1.71 [1.30-2.24]), higher glycosylated hemoglobin (OR for 1% 1.39 [1.22-1.59]), higher diastolic blood pressure (OR for 10 mmHg 1.58 [1.20-2.07]), history of ulcers of the feet (3.19 [1.71-5.95]), and more severe retinopathy (OR for one step 1.16 [1.08-1.24]). In younger-onset patients aged > or = 18, pack-years smoked (OR for 10 years 1.20 [1.03-1.41]) was also associated with LEAs, and daily aspirin use was inversely associated (OR 0.11 [0.01-0.83]). In the older-onset group, LEA was more likely for men (2.66 [1.49, 4.76]) and if the subject had higher glycosylated hemoglobin (OR for 1% 1.25 [1.09-1.43]), higher pulse pressure (OR for 10 mmHg 1.19 [1.04-1.37]), history of ulcers (3.56 [1.84-6.89]), and more severe retinopathy (OR for one step 1.07 [1.00-1.13]). CONCLUSIONS: There are several risk factors for LEA with potential for modification and preventive strategies.  (+info)

The term "diabetic foot" refers to a condition that affects the feet of people with diabetes, particularly when the disease is not well-controlled. It is characterized by a combination of nerve damage (neuropathy) and poor circulation (peripheral artery disease) in the feet and lower legs.

Neuropathy can cause numbness, tingling, or pain in the feet, making it difficult for people with diabetes to feel injuries, cuts, blisters, or other foot problems. Poor circulation makes it harder for wounds to heal and increases the risk of infection.

Diabetic foot ulcers are a common complication of diabetic neuropathy and can lead to serious infections, hospitalization, and even amputation if not treated promptly and effectively. Preventive care, including regular foot exams, proper footwear, and good blood glucose control, is essential for people with diabetes to prevent or manage diabetic foot problems.

In medical terms, the foot is the part of the lower limb that is distal to the leg and below the ankle, extending from the tarsus to the toes. It is primarily responsible for supporting body weight and facilitating movement through push-off during walking or running. The foot is a complex structure made up of 26 bones, 33 joints, and numerous muscles, tendons, ligaments, and nerves that work together to provide stability, balance, and flexibility. It can be divided into three main parts: the hindfoot, which contains the talus and calcaneus (heel) bones; the midfoot, which includes the navicular, cuboid, and cuneiform bones; and the forefoot, which consists of the metatarsals and phalanges that form the toes.

A foot ulcer is a wound or sore on the foot that occurs most commonly in people with diabetes, but can also affect other individuals with poor circulation or nerve damage. These ulcers can be challenging to heal and are prone to infection, making it essential for individuals with foot ulcers to seek medical attention promptly.

Foot ulcers typically develop due to prolonged pressure on bony prominences of the foot, leading to breakdown of the skin and underlying tissues. The development of foot ulcers can be attributed to several factors, including:

1. Neuropathy (nerve damage): This condition causes a loss of sensation in the feet, making it difficult for individuals to feel pain or discomfort associated with pressure points, leading to the formation of ulcers.
2. Peripheral artery disease (PAD): Reduced blood flow to the lower extremities can impair wound healing and make the body more susceptible to infection.
3. Deformities: Structural foot abnormalities, such as bunions or hammertoes, can cause increased pressure on specific areas of the foot, increasing the risk of ulcer formation.
4. Poorly fitting shoes: Shoes that are too tight, narrow, or ill-fitting can create friction and pressure points, contributing to the development of foot ulcers.
5. Trauma: Injuries or trauma to the feet can lead to the formation of ulcers, particularly in individuals with neuropathy who may not feel the initial pain associated with the injury.
6. Foot care neglect: Failure to inspect and care for the feet regularly can result in undetected wounds or sores that progress into ulcers.

Foot ulcers are classified based on their depth, severity, and extent of tissue involvement. Proper assessment, treatment, and prevention strategies are crucial in managing foot ulcers and minimizing the risk of complications such as infection, gangrene, and amputation.

Foot diseases refer to various medical conditions that affect the foot, including its structures such as the bones, joints, muscles, tendons, ligaments, blood vessels, and nerves. These conditions can cause symptoms like pain, swelling, numbness, difficulty walking, and skin changes. Examples of foot diseases include:

1. Plantar fasciitis: inflammation of the band of tissue that connects the heel bone to the toes.
2. Bunions: a bony bump that forms on the joint at the base of the big toe.
3. Hammertoe: a deformity in which the toe is bent at the middle joint, resembling a hammer.
4. Diabetic foot: a group of conditions that can occur in people with diabetes, including nerve damage, poor circulation, and increased risk of infection.
5. Athlete's foot: a fungal infection that affects the skin between the toes and on the soles of the feet.
6. Ingrown toenails: a condition where the corner or side of a toenail grows into the flesh of the toe.
7. Gout: a type of arthritis that causes sudden, severe attacks of pain, swelling, redness, and tenderness in the joints, often starting with the big toe.
8. Foot ulcers: open sores or wounds that can occur on the feet, especially in people with diabetes or poor circulation.
9. Morton's neuroma: a thickening of the tissue around a nerve between the toes, causing pain and numbness.
10. Osteoarthritis: wear and tear of the joints, leading to pain, stiffness, and reduced mobility.

Foot diseases can affect people of all ages and backgrounds, and some may be prevented or managed with proper foot care, hygiene, and appropriate medical treatment.

Amputation is defined as the surgical removal of all or part of a limb or extremity such as an arm, leg, foot, hand, toe, or finger. This procedure is typically performed to remove damaged or dead tissue due to various reasons like severe injury, infection, tumors, or chronic conditions that impair circulation, such as diabetes or peripheral arterial disease. The goal of amputation is to alleviate pain, prevent further complications, and improve the patient's quality of life. Following the surgery, patients may require rehabilitation and prosthetic devices to help them adapt to their new physical condition.

Podiatry is the branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of disorders of the foot, ankle, and lower extremities. Podiatrists are healthcare professionals who specialize in this field, also known as doctors of podiatric medicine (DPM). They receive specialized medical education and training to provide comprehensive care for various conditions such as bunions, hammertoes, heel pain, nerve damage, diabetic foot problems, and sports injuries among others. Treatment options may include medication, physical therapy, orthotics, or surgery.

'Foot bones,' also known as the tarsal and metatarsal bones, are the 26 bones that make up the foot in humans. The foot is divided into three parts: the hindfoot, midfoot, and forefoot.

The hindfoot contains two bones: the talus, which connects to the leg bone (tibia), and the calcaneus (heel bone). These bones form the ankle joint and heel.

The midfoot is made up of five irregularly shaped bones called the navicular, cuboid, and three cuneiform bones. These bones help form the arch of the foot and connect the hindfoot to the forefoot.

The forefoot contains the metatarsals (five long bones) and the phalanges (14 small bones). The metatarsals connect the midfoot to the toes, while the phalanges make up the toes themselves.

These bones work together to provide stability, support, and movement for the foot, allowing us to walk, run, and jump.

Acquired foot deformities refer to structural abnormalities of the foot that develop after birth, as opposed to congenital foot deformities which are present at birth. These deformities can result from various factors such as trauma, injury, infection, neurological conditions, or complications from a medical condition like diabetes or arthritis.

Examples of acquired foot deformities include:

1. Hammertoe - A deformity where the toe bends downward at the middle joint, resembling a hammer.
2. Claw toe - A more severe form of hammertoe where the toe also curls under, forming a claw-like shape.
3. Mallet toe - A condition where the end joint of a toe is bent downward, causing it to resemble a mallet.
4. Bunions - A bony bump that forms on the inside of the foot at the big toe joint, often causing pain and difficulty wearing shoes.
5. Tailor's bunion (bunionette) - A similar condition to a bunion, but it occurs on the outside of the foot near the little toe joint.
6. Charcot foot - A severe deformity that can occur in people with diabetes or other neurological conditions, characterized by the collapse and dislocation of joints in the foot.
7. Cavus foot - A condition where the arch of the foot is excessively high, causing instability and increasing the risk of ankle injuries.
8. Flatfoot (pes planus) - A deformity where the arch of the foot collapses, leading to pain and difficulty walking.
9. Pronation deformities - Abnormal rotation or tilting of the foot, often causing instability and increasing the risk of injury.

Treatment for acquired foot deformities varies depending on the severity and underlying cause but may include orthotics, physical therapy, medication, or surgery.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "shoes" are not a medical term. Shoes are items of footwear intended to protect and comfort the feet. They typically have a durable sole that provides protection from sharp objects, hot surfaces, and the effects of moisture. The upper part of a shoe can be made from various materials such as leather, plastic, or textiles, and is designed to provide coverage and support for the foot.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I'd be happy to help!

Neurogenic arthropathy is a joint disease that occurs as a result of nerve damage or dysfunction. Also known as Charcot joint, this condition is characterized by joint destruction and deformity due to the loss of sensation and proprioception, which normally help protect the joint from excessive stress and injury.

Neurogenic arthropathy often affects people with diabetes, syphilis, leprosy, spinal cord injuries, or other conditions that damage nerves. The damage impairs the ability to feel pain, temperature, and position, making it difficult for individuals to notice or respond to joint injuries. Over time, this can lead to joint degeneration, fractures, dislocations, and severe deformities if left untreated.

Treatment typically involves managing the underlying nerve condition, immobilizing the affected joint with a brace or cast, and in some cases, surgical intervention to repair or replace damaged joints. Regular exercise, physical therapy, and maintaining a healthy lifestyle can also help manage symptoms and prevent further complications.

Diabetic nephropathy is a kidney disease that occurs as a complication of diabetes. It is also known as diabetic kidney disease (DKD). This condition affects the ability of the kidneys to filter waste and excess fluids from the blood, leading to their accumulation in the body.

Diabetic nephropathy is caused by damage to the small blood vessels in the kidneys, which can occur over time due to high levels of glucose in the blood. This damage can lead to scarring and thickening of the kidney's filtering membranes, reducing their ability to function properly.

Symptoms of diabetic nephropathy may include proteinuria (the presence of protein in the urine), edema (swelling in the legs, ankles, or feet due to fluid retention), and hypertension (high blood pressure). Over time, if left untreated, diabetic nephropathy can progress to end-stage kidney disease, which requires dialysis or a kidney transplant.

Preventing or delaying the onset of diabetic nephropathy involves maintaining good control of blood sugar levels, keeping blood pressure under control, and making lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, eating a healthy diet, and getting regular exercise. Regular monitoring of kidney function through urine tests and blood tests is also important for early detection and treatment of this condition.

Diabetic retinopathy is a diabetes complication that affects the eyes. It's caused by damage to the blood vessels of the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye (retina).

At first, diabetic retinopathy may cause no symptoms or only mild vision problems. Eventually, it can cause blindness. The condition usually affects both eyes.

There are two main stages of diabetic retinopathy:

1. Early diabetic retinopathy. This is when the blood vessels in the eye start to leak fluid or bleed. You might not notice any changes in your vision at this stage, but it's still important to get treatment because it can prevent the condition from getting worse.
2. Advanced diabetic retinopathy. This is when new, abnormal blood vessels grow on the surface of the retina. These vessels can leak fluid and cause severe vision problems, including blindness.

Diabetic retinopathy can be treated with laser surgery, injections of medication into the eye, or a vitrectomy (a surgical procedure to remove the gel-like substance that fills the center of the eye). It's important to get regular eye exams to detect diabetic retinopathy early and get treatment before it causes serious vision problems.

Foot injuries refer to any damage or trauma caused to the various structures of the foot, including the bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, blood vessels, and nerves. These injuries can result from various causes such as accidents, sports activities, falls, or repetitive stress. Common types of foot injuries include fractures, sprains, strains, contusions, dislocations, and overuse injuries like plantar fasciitis or Achilles tendonitis. Symptoms may vary depending on the type and severity of the injury but often include pain, swelling, bruising, difficulty walking, and reduced range of motion. Proper diagnosis and treatment are crucial to ensure optimal healing and prevent long-term complications.

Osteomyelitis is a medical condition characterized by an infection that involves the bone or the bone marrow. It can occur as a result of a variety of factors, including bacterial or fungal infections that spread to the bone from another part of the body, or direct infection of the bone through trauma or surgery.

The symptoms of osteomyelitis may include pain and tenderness in the affected area, fever, chills, fatigue, and difficulty moving the affected limb. In some cases, there may also be redness, swelling, and drainage from the infected area. The diagnosis of osteomyelitis typically involves imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans, as well as blood tests and cultures to identify the underlying cause of the infection.

Treatment for osteomyelitis usually involves a combination of antibiotics or antifungal medications to eliminate the infection, as well as pain management and possibly surgical debridement to remove infected tissue. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and manage the condition.

Wound healing is a complex and dynamic process that occurs after tissue injury, aiming to restore the integrity and functionality of the damaged tissue. It involves a series of overlapping phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling.

1. Hemostasis: This initial phase begins immediately after injury and involves the activation of the coagulation cascade to form a clot, which stabilizes the wound and prevents excessive blood loss.
2. Inflammation: Activated inflammatory cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages, infiltrate the wound site to eliminate pathogens, remove debris, and release growth factors that promote healing. This phase typically lasts for 2-5 days post-injury.
3. Proliferation: In this phase, various cell types, including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and keratinocytes, proliferate and migrate to the wound site to synthesize extracellular matrix (ECM) components, form new blood vessels (angiogenesis), and re-epithelialize the wounded area. This phase can last up to several weeks depending on the size and severity of the wound.
4. Remodeling: The final phase of wound healing involves the maturation and realignment of collagen fibers, leading to the restoration of tensile strength in the healed tissue. This process can continue for months to years after injury, although the tissue may never fully regain its original structure and function.

It is important to note that wound healing can be compromised by several factors, including age, nutrition, comorbidities (e.g., diabetes, vascular disease), and infection, which can result in delayed healing or non-healing chronic wounds.

Debridement is a medical procedure that involves the removal of dead, damaged, or infected tissue to improve the healing process or prevent further infection. This can be done through various methods such as surgical debridement (removal of tissue using scalpel or scissors), mechanical debridement (use of wound irrigation or high-pressure water jet), autolytic debridement (using the body's own enzymes to break down and reabsorb dead tissue), and enzymatic debridement (application of topical enzymes to dissolve necrotic tissue). The goal of debridement is to promote healthy tissue growth, reduce the risk of infection, and improve overall wound healing.

A wound infection is defined as the invasion and multiplication of microorganisms in a part of the body tissue, which has been damaged by a cut, blow, or other trauma, leading to inflammation, purulent discharge, and sometimes systemic toxicity. The symptoms may include redness, swelling, pain, warmth, and fever. Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics and proper wound care. It's important to note that not all wounds will become infected, but those that are contaminated with bacteria, dirt, or other foreign substances, or those in which the skin's natural barrier has been significantly compromised, are at a higher risk for infection.

Diabetic angiopathies refer to a group of vascular complications that occur due to diabetes mellitus. Prolonged exposure to high blood sugar levels can damage the blood vessels, leading to various types of angiopathies such as:

1. Diabetic retinopathy: This is a condition where the small blood vessels in the retina get damaged due to diabetes, leading to vision loss or blindness if left untreated.
2. Diabetic nephropathy: In this condition, the kidneys' glomeruli (the filtering units) become damaged due to diabetes, leading to protein leakage and eventually kidney failure if not managed properly.
3. Diabetic neuropathy: This is a type of nerve damage caused by diabetes that can affect various parts of the body, including the legs, feet, and hands, causing numbness, tingling, or pain.
4. Diabetic cardiomyopathy: This is a condition where the heart muscle becomes damaged due to diabetes, leading to heart failure.
5. Diabetic peripheral arterial disease (PAD): In this condition, the blood vessels that supply the legs and feet become narrowed or blocked due to diabetes, leading to pain, cramping, or even gangrene in severe cases.

Overall, diabetic angiopathies are serious complications of diabetes that can significantly impact a person's quality of life and overall health. Therefore, it is crucial for individuals with diabetes to manage their blood sugar levels effectively and undergo regular check-ups to detect any early signs of these complications.

Diabetic neuropathies refer to a group of nerve disorders that are caused by diabetes. High blood sugar levels can injure nerves throughout the body, but diabetic neuropathies most commonly affect the nerves in the legs and feet.

There are four main types of diabetic neuropathies:

1. Peripheral neuropathy: This is the most common type of diabetic neuropathy. It affects the nerves in the legs and feet, causing symptoms such as numbness, tingling, burning, or shooting pain.
2. Autonomic neuropathy: This type of neuropathy affects the autonomic nerves, which control involuntary functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, and bladder function. Symptoms may include dizziness, fainting, digestive problems, sexual dysfunction, and difficulty regulating body temperature.
3. Proximal neuropathy: Also known as diabetic amyotrophy, this type of neuropathy affects the nerves in the hips, thighs, or buttocks, causing weakness, pain, and difficulty walking.
4. Focal neuropathy: This type of neuropathy affects a single nerve or group of nerves, causing symptoms such as weakness, numbness, or pain in the affected area. Focal neuropathies can occur anywhere in the body, but they are most common in the head, torso, and legs.

The risk of developing diabetic neuropathies increases with the duration of diabetes and poor blood sugar control. Other factors that may contribute to the development of diabetic neuropathies include genetics, age, smoking, and alcohol consumption.

Hyperbaric oxygenation is a medical treatment in which a patient breathes pure oxygen in a pressurized chamber, typically at greater than one atmosphere absolute (ATA). This process results in increased levels of oxygen being dissolved in the blood and delivered to body tissues, thereby promoting healing, reducing inflammation, and combating infection. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is used to treat various medical conditions, including carbon monoxide poisoning, decompression sickness, gangrene, and wounds that are slow to heal due to diabetes or radiation injury.

I couldn't find a medical definition specifically for "Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental." However, I can provide you with information about experimental diabetes research and its relevance to understanding the disease.

Experimental diabetes models are used in biomedical research to study the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus and to test potential therapies or treatments. These models can be broadly categorized into two types: chemically-induced and genetically modified.

1. Chemically-induced diabetes models: These involve administering chemicals, such as alloxan or streptozotocin, to animals (commonly mice or rats) to destroy their pancreatic β-cells, which produce insulin. This results in hyperglycemia and symptoms similar to those seen in type 1 diabetes in humans.
2. Genetically modified diabetes models: These involve altering the genes of animals (commonly mice) to create a diabetes phenotype. Examples include non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, which develop an autoimmune form of diabetes similar to human type 1 diabetes, and various strains of obese mice with insulin resistance, such as ob/ob or db/db mice, which model aspects of type 2 diabetes.

These experimental models help researchers better understand the mechanisms behind diabetes development and progression, identify new therapeutic targets, and test potential treatments before moving on to human clinical trials. However, it's essential to recognize that these models may not fully replicate all aspects of human diabetes, so findings from animal studies should be interpreted with caution.

Skin care, in a medical context, refers to the practice of maintaining healthy skin through various hygienic, cosmetic, and therapeutic measures. This can include:

1. Cleansing: Using appropriate cleansers to remove dirt, sweat, and other impurities without stripping the skin of its natural oils.
2. Moisturizing: Applying creams or lotions to keep the skin hydrated and prevent dryness.
3. Sun Protection: Using sunscreens, hats, and protective clothing to shield the skin from harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays which can cause sunburn, premature aging, and skin cancer.
4. Skin Care Products: Using over-the-counter or prescription products to manage specific skin conditions like acne, eczema, psoriasis, or rosacea.
5. Regular Check-ups: Regularly examining the skin for any changes, growths, or abnormalities that may indicate a skin condition or disease.
6. Lifestyle Factors: Maintaining a healthy lifestyle, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, adequate sleep, and avoiding habits like smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, which can negatively impact skin health.

It's important to note that while some general skincare advice applies to most people, individual skincare needs can vary greatly depending on factors like age, skin type (oily, dry, combination, sensitive), and specific skin conditions or concerns. Therefore, it's often beneficial to seek personalized advice from a dermatologist or other healthcare provider.

Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 is a metabolic disorder characterized by high blood glucose (or sugar) levels resulting from the body's inability to produce sufficient amounts of insulin or effectively use the insulin it produces. This form of diabetes usually develops gradually over several years and is often associated with older age, obesity, physical inactivity, family history of diabetes, and certain ethnicities.

In Type 2 diabetes, the body's cells become resistant to insulin, meaning they don't respond properly to the hormone. As a result, the pancreas produces more insulin to help glucose enter the cells. Over time, the pancreas can't keep up with the increased demand, leading to high blood glucose levels and diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes is managed through lifestyle modifications such as weight loss, regular exercise, and a healthy diet. Medications, including insulin therapy, may also be necessary to control blood glucose levels and prevent long-term complications associated with the disease, such as heart disease, nerve damage, kidney damage, and vision loss.

Foot deformities refer to abnormal changes in the structure and/or alignment of the bones, joints, muscles, ligaments, or tendons in the foot, leading to a deviation from the normal shape and function of the foot. These deformities can occur in various parts of the foot, such as the toes, arch, heel, or ankle, and can result in pain, difficulty walking, and reduced mobility. Some common examples of foot deformities include:

1. Hammertoes: A deformity where the toe bends downward at the middle joint, resembling a hammer.
2. Mallet toes: A condition where the end joint of the toe is bent downward, creating a mallet-like shape.
3. Claw toes: A combination of both hammertoes and mallet toes, causing all three joints in the toe to bend abnormally.
4. Bunions: A bony bump that forms on the inside of the foot at the base of the big toe, caused by the misalignment of the big toe joint.
5. Tailor's bunion (bunionette): A similar condition to a bunion but occurring on the outside of the foot, at the base of the little toe.
6. Flat feet (pes planus): A condition where the arch of the foot collapses, causing the entire sole of the foot to come into contact with the ground when standing or walking.
7. High arches (pes cavus): An excessively high arch that doesn't provide enough shock absorption and can lead to pain and instability.
8. Cavus foot: A condition characterized by a very high arch and tight heel cord, often leading to an imbalance in the foot structure and increased risk of ankle injuries.
9. Haglund's deformity: A bony enlargement on the back of the heel, which can cause pain and irritation when wearing shoes.
10. Charcot foot: A severe deformity that occurs due to nerve damage in the foot, leading to weakened bones, joint dislocations, and foot collapse.

Foot deformities can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired (develop later in life) due to various factors such as injury, illness, poor footwear, or abnormal biomechanics. Proper diagnosis, treatment, and management are essential for maintaining foot health and preventing further complications.

Gangrene is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when there is a loss of blood flow to a specific area of the body, resulting in tissue death. It can be caused by various factors such as bacterial infections, trauma, diabetes, vascular diseases, and smoking. The affected tissues may become discolored, swollen, and emit a foul odor due to the accumulation of bacteria and toxins.

Gangrene can be classified into two main types: dry gangrene and wet (or moist) gangrene. Dry gangrene develops slowly and is often associated with peripheral arterial disease, which reduces blood flow to the extremities. The affected area turns black and shriveled as it dries out. Wet gangrene, on the other hand, progresses rapidly due to bacterial infections that cause tissue breakdown and pus formation. This type of gangrene can spread quickly throughout the body, leading to severe complications such as sepsis and organ failure if left untreated.

Treatment for gangrene typically involves surgical removal of the dead tissue (debridement), antibiotics to control infections, and sometimes revascularization procedures to restore blood flow to the affected area. In severe cases where the infection has spread or the damage is irreversible, amputation of the affected limb may be necessary to prevent further complications and save the patient's life.

Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by the destruction of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas, leading to an absolute deficiency of insulin. This results in an inability to regulate blood glucose levels, causing hyperglycemia (high blood sugar). Type 1 diabetes typically presents in childhood or early adulthood, although it can develop at any age. It is usually managed with regular insulin injections or the use of an insulin pump, along with monitoring of blood glucose levels and adjustments to diet and physical activity. Uncontrolled type 1 diabetes can lead to serious complications such as kidney damage, nerve damage, blindness, and cardiovascular disease.

'Capparis' is a genus name that refers to a group of plants commonly known as caper bushes, which belong to the family Capparaceae. These plants are native to various regions around the world, including the Mediterranean, tropical Africa, and Asia. They are well-known for their edible flower buds, also called capers, which are often pickled and used as a seasoning or condiment in cooking.

The term 'Capparis' itself does not have a specific medical definition, but some species of Capparis have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes. For example, the bark and roots of Capparis decidua (also known as kair) are used in Ayurvedic medicine to treat rheumatism, inflammation, and skin diseases. However, it's important to note that the use of these plants in traditional medicine has not been extensively studied or proven in clinical trials, so their effectiveness and safety are not well-established.

The forefoot is the front part of the human foot that contains the toes and the associated bones, muscles, ligaments, and tendons. It is made up of five long bones called metatarsals and fourteen phalanges, which are the bones in the toes. The forefoot plays a crucial role in weight-bearing, balance, and propulsion during walking and running. The joints in the forefoot allow for flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction of the toes, enabling us to maintain our footing on various surfaces and adapt to different terrain.

A bandage is a medical dressing or covering applied to a wound, injury, or sore with the intention of promoting healing or preventing infection. Bandages can be made of a variety of materials such as gauze, cotton, elastic, or adhesive tape and come in different sizes and shapes to accommodate various body parts. They can also have additional features like fasteners, non-slip surfaces, or transparent windows for monitoring the condition of the wound.

Bandages serve several purposes, including:

1. Absorbing drainage or exudate from the wound
2. Protecting the wound from external contaminants and bacteria
3. Securing other medical devices such as catheters or splints in place
4. Reducing swelling or promoting immobilization of the affected area
5. Providing compression to control bleeding or prevent fluid accumulation
6. Relieving pain by reducing pressure on sensitive nerves or structures.

Proper application and care of bandages are essential for effective wound healing and prevention of complications such as infection or delayed recovery.

Diabetes complications refer to a range of health issues that can develop as a result of poorly managed diabetes over time. These complications can affect various parts of the body and can be classified into two main categories: macrovascular and microvascular.

Macrovascular complications include:

* Cardiovascular disease (CVD): People with diabetes are at an increased risk of developing CVD, including coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, and stroke.
* Peripheral arterial disease (PAD): This condition affects the blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the limbs, particularly the legs. PAD can cause pain, numbness, or weakness in the legs and may increase the risk of amputation.

Microvascular complications include:

* Diabetic neuropathy: This is a type of nerve damage that can occur due to prolonged high blood sugar levels. It commonly affects the feet and legs, causing symptoms such as numbness, tingling, or pain.
* Diabetic retinopathy: This condition affects the blood vessels in the eye and can cause vision loss or blindness if left untreated.
* Diabetic nephropathy: This is a type of kidney damage that can occur due to diabetes. It can lead to kidney failure if not managed properly.

Other complications of diabetes include:

* Increased risk of infections, particularly skin and urinary tract infections.
* Slow healing of wounds, which can increase the risk of infection and amputation.
* Gum disease and other oral health problems.
* Hearing impairment.
* Sexual dysfunction.

Preventing or managing diabetes complications involves maintaining good blood sugar control, regular monitoring of blood glucose levels, following a healthy lifestyle, and receiving routine medical care.

Aerobic bacteria are a type of bacteria that require oxygen to live and grow. These bacteria use oxygen as the final electron acceptor in their respiratory chain to generate energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate). Aerobic bacteria can be found in various environments, including soil, water, and the air, as well as on the surfaces of living things. Some examples of aerobic bacteria include species of Pseudomonas, Bacillus, and Staphylococcus.

It's worth noting that some bacteria can switch between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism depending on the availability of oxygen. These bacteria are called facultative anaerobes. In contrast, obligate anaerobes are bacteria that cannot tolerate oxygen and will die in its presence.

Orthopedic equipment refers to devices or appliances used in the practice of orthopedics, which is a branch of medicine focused on the correction, support, and prevention of disorders, injuries, or deformities of the skeletal system, including bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, and muscles. These devices can be categorized into various types based on their function and application:

1. Mobility aids: Equipment that helps individuals with impaired mobility to move around more easily, such as walkers, crutches, canes, wheelchairs, and scooters.
2. Immobilization devices: Used to restrict movement of a specific body part to promote healing, prevent further injury, or provide support during rehabilitation, including casts, braces, splints, slings, and collars.
3. Prosthetics: Artificial limbs that replace missing body parts due to amputation, illness, or congenital defects, enabling individuals to perform daily activities and maintain independence.
4. Orthotics: Custom-made or off-the-shelf devices worn inside shoes or on the body to correct foot alignment issues, provide arch support, or alleviate pain in the lower extremities.
5. Rehabilitation equipment: Devices used during physical therapy sessions to improve strength, flexibility, balance, and coordination, such as resistance bands, exercise balls, balance boards, and weight training machines.
6. Surgical instruments: Specialized tools used by orthopedic surgeons during operations to repair fractures, replace joints, or correct deformities, including saws, drills, retractors, and screwdrivers.
7. Diagnostic equipment: Imaging devices that help healthcare professionals assess musculoskeletal conditions, such as X-ray machines, CT scanners, MRI machines, and ultrasound systems.

These various types of orthopedic equipment play a crucial role in the diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation, and management of orthopedic disorders and injuries, enhancing patients' quality of life and functional abilities.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "honey" is not typically considered a medical term. It is a natural sweet substance produced by honeybees from the nectar of flowers. Honey is composed primarily of fructose and glucose, with small amounts of other sugars, water, proteins, amino acids, vitamins, minerals, enzymes, and various organic compounds.

While honey does have some potential health benefits, such as its antimicrobial properties and its use in wound healing, it is not a medical treatment or intervention. If you have any questions about the medicinal uses of honey or its role in health, I would recommend consulting with a healthcare professional.

Medical professionals define "flatfoot" or "pes planus" as a postural deformity in which the arch of the foot collapses, leading to the entire sole of the foot coming into complete or near-complete contact with the ground. This condition can be classified as flexible (the arch reappears when the foot is not bearing weight) or rigid (the arch does not reappear). Flatfoot can result from various factors such as genetics, injury, aging, or certain medical conditions like rheumatoid arthritis and cerebral palsy. In some cases, flatfoot may not cause any symptoms or problems; however, in other instances, it can lead to pain, discomfort, or difficulty walking. Treatment options for flatfoot depend on the severity of the condition and associated symptoms and may include physical therapy, orthotics, bracing, or surgery.

'Pregnancy in Diabetics' refers to the condition where an individual with pre-existing diabetes mellitus becomes pregnant. This can be further categorized into two types:

1. Pre-gestational diabetes: This is when a woman is diagnosed with diabetes before she becomes pregnant. It includes both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. Proper control of blood sugar levels prior to conception and during pregnancy is crucial to reduce the risk of complications for both the mother and the baby.

2. Gestational diabetes: This is when a woman develops high blood sugar levels during pregnancy, typically in the second or third trimester. While it usually resolves after delivery, women with gestational diabetes have a higher risk of developing Type 2 diabetes later in life. Proper management of gestational diabetes is essential to ensure a healthy pregnancy and reduce the risk of complications for both the mother and the baby.

"Foot joints" is a general term that refers to the various articulations or connections between the bones in the foot. There are several joints in the foot, including:

1. The ankle joint (tibiotalar joint): This is the joint between the tibia and fibula bones of the lower leg and the talus bone of the foot.
2. The subtalar joint (talocalcaneal joint): This is the joint between the talus bone and the calcaneus (heel) bone.
3. The calcaneocuboid joint: This is the joint between the calcaneus bone and the cuboid bone, which is one of the bones in the midfoot.
4. The tarsometatarsal joints (Lisfranc joint): These are the joints that connect the tarsal bones in the midfoot to the metatarsal bones in the forefoot.
5. The metatarsophalangeal joints: These are the joints between the metatarsal bones and the phalanges (toes) in the forefoot.
6. The interphalangeal joints: These are the joints between the phalanges within each toe.

Each of these foot joints plays a specific role in supporting the foot, absorbing shock, and allowing for movement and flexibility during walking and other activities.

Congenital foot deformities refer to abnormal structural changes in the foot that are present at birth. These deformities can vary from mild to severe and may affect the shape, position, or function of one or both feet. Common examples include clubfoot (talipes equinovarus), congenital vertical talus, and cavus foot. Congenital foot deformities can be caused by genetic factors, environmental influences during fetal development, or a combination of both. Treatment options may include stretching, casting, surgery, or a combination of these approaches, depending on the severity and type of the deformity.

Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by elevated levels of glucose in the blood (hyperglycemia) due to absolute or relative deficiency in insulin secretion and/or insulin action. There are two main types: Type 1 diabetes, which results from the autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells leading to insulin deficiency, and Type 2 diabetes, which is associated with insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency.

Type 1 diabetes typically presents in childhood or young adulthood, while Type 2 diabetes tends to occur later in life, often in association with obesity and physical inactivity. Both types of diabetes can lead to long-term complications such as damage to the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and cardiovascular system if left untreated or not well controlled.

The diagnosis of diabetes is usually made based on fasting plasma glucose levels, oral glucose tolerance tests, or hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels. Treatment typically involves lifestyle modifications such as diet and exercise, along with medications to lower blood glucose levels and manage associated conditions.

Artificial Skin is a synthetic substitute or equivalent that is used to replace, support, or enhance the function of damaged or absent skin. It can be made from various materials such as biopolymers, composites, or biosynthetic materials. The main purpose of artificial skin is to provide a temporary or permanent covering for wounds, burns, or ulcers that cannot be healed with conventional treatments. Additionally, it may serve as a platform for the delivery of medications or as a matrix for the growth of cells and tissues during skin grafting procedures. Artificial skin must possess properties such as biocompatibility, durability, flexibility, and permeability to air and water vapor in order to promote optimal healing and minimize scarring.

A skin ulcer is a defined as a loss of continuity or disruption of the skin surface, often accompanied by inflammation and/or infection. These lesions can result from various causes including pressure, venous or arterial insufficiency, diabetes, and chronic dermatological conditions. Skin ulcers are typically characterized by their appearance, depth, location, and underlying cause. Common types of skin ulcers include pressure ulcers (also known as bedsores), venous leg ulcers, arterial ulcers, and diabetic foot ulcers. Proper evaluation, wound care, management of underlying conditions, and prevention strategies are crucial in the treatment of skin ulcers to promote healing and prevent complications.

Infectious disease medicine is a specialized field of medicine that focuses on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of infectious diseases. These are illnesses caused by microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or prions that can be spread from one person to another through various modes of transmission like air, water, food, bodily fluids, or direct contact.

Practitioners in this field, known as infectious disease specialists, often work in hospitals or public health settings. They collaborate with other healthcare professionals to manage outbreaks, develop infection control policies, and provide care for individuals with complex or severe infections. This may involve prescribing antibiotics or antiviral medications, monitoring treatment response, and conducting research into new diagnostic methods and therapies.

Apitherapy is a form of alternative medicine that uses products derived from honey bees, such as honey, pollen, propolis, royal jelly, and venom, for therapeutic purposes. It has been practiced for thousands of years in various cultures and is believed to provide a range of health benefits, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and analgesic effects. Some proponents also claim that apitherapy can help boost the immune system, reduce pain and swelling, and treat a variety of medical conditions, such as arthritis, allergies, and wound healing. However, it is important to note that while some studies suggest potential health benefits of certain bee products, more research is needed to fully understand their safety and effectiveness. Additionally, the use of bee venom in apitherapy carries a risk of allergic reactions and anaphylaxis, so it should only be administered under the supervision of a trained healthcare professional.

Soft tissue infections are medical conditions that involve infection of the soft tissues of the body, which include the skin, muscles, fascia (the connective tissue that surrounds muscles), and tendons. These infections can be caused by various types of bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites.

Soft tissue infections can range from mild to severe, depending on the type of organism causing the infection, the extent of tissue involvement, and the patient's overall health status. Some common types of soft tissue infections include:

1. Cellulitis: This is a bacterial infection that affects the skin and underlying tissues. It typically presents as a red, swollen, warm, and painful area on the skin, often accompanied by fever and chills.
2. Abscess: An abscess is a localized collection of pus in the soft tissues, caused by an infection. It can appear as a swollen, tender, and warm lump under the skin, which may be filled with pus.
3. Necrotizing fasciitis: This is a rare but severe soft tissue infection that involves the rapid destruction of fascia and surrounding tissues. It is often caused by a mixture of bacteria and can progress rapidly, leading to shock, organ failure, and even death if not treated promptly.
4. Myositis: This is an inflammation of the muscle tissue, which can be caused by a bacterial or viral infection. Symptoms may include muscle pain, swelling, weakness, and fever.
5. Erysipelas: This is a superficial skin infection that affects the upper layers of the skin and the lymphatic vessels. It typically presents as a raised, red, and painful rash with clear borders.

Treatment for soft tissue infections depends on the type and severity of the infection but may include antibiotics, drainage of pus or abscesses, and surgery in severe cases. Preventive measures such as good hygiene, wound care, and prompt treatment of injuries can help reduce the risk of developing soft tissue infections.

"Genu valgum," also known as "knock-knee," is a condition where there is an excessive angle between the thighbone (femur) and the shinbone (tibia), causing the knees to touch or come close together while the ankles remain separated when standing with the feet and knees together. This abnormal alignment can lead to difficulty walking, running, and participating in certain activities, as well as potential long-term complications such as joint pain and osteoarthritis if not properly addressed. Genu valgum is typically diagnosed through physical examination and imaging studies such as X-rays, and treatment may include observation, physical therapy, bracing, or surgery depending on the severity of the condition and the individual's age and overall health.

Suppuration is the process of forming or discharging pus. It is a condition that results from infection, tissue death (necrosis), or injury, where white blood cells (leukocytes) accumulate to combat the infection and subsequently die, forming pus. The pus consists of dead leukocytes, dead tissue, debris, and microbes (bacteria, fungi, or protozoa). Suppuration can occur in various body parts such as the lungs (empyema), brain (abscess), or skin (carbuncle, furuncle). Treatment typically involves draining the pus and administering appropriate antibiotics to eliminate the infection.

Negative-Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT) is a medical treatment used to promote wound healing and prevent infection in acute or chronic wounds. It involves the application of controlled sub-atmospheric pressure to the surface of the wound, usually through the use of a vacuum-assisted device.

The negative pressure helps to remove excess fluid and infectious materials from the wound, while also promoting the growth of new tissue by increasing blood flow and stimulating cell proliferation. NPWT can be used in various types of wounds, including diabetic foot ulcers, pressure ulcers, surgical wounds, and traumatic injuries.

The therapy is typically administered through a sealed dressing that covers the wound and is connected to a vacuum pump. The negative pressure is applied continuously or intermittently, depending on the specific needs of the patient and the type of wound being treated. NPWT has been shown to be effective in reducing wound size, promoting healing, and improving overall clinical outcomes in many patients with complex wounds.

Callosities are areas of thickened and hardened skin that develop as a result of repeated friction, pressure, or irritation. They typically appear on the hands and feet, particularly on the palms and soles, and can vary in size and shape. Callosities are not harmful but can cause discomfort or pain if they become too thick or develop cracks or sores. They are often seen in people who have jobs or hobbies that involve manual labor or frequent use of their hands, such as musicians, athletes, and construction workers.

Streptozocin is an antibiotic and antineoplastic agent, which is primarily used in the treatment of metastatic pancreatic islet cell carcinoma (a type of pancreatic cancer). It is a naturally occurring compound produced by the bacterium Streptomyces achromogenes.

Medically, streptozocin is classified as an alkylating agent due to its ability to interact with DNA and RNA, disrupting the growth and multiplication of malignant cells. However, it can also have adverse effects on non-cancerous cells, particularly in the kidneys and pancreas, leading to potential side effects such as nephrotoxicity (kidney damage) and hyperglycemia (high blood sugar).

It is essential that streptozocin be administered under the supervision of a healthcare professional, who can monitor its effectiveness and potential side effects. The drug is typically given through intravenous infusion, with the dosage and duration tailored to individual patient needs and treatment responses.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sesame Oil" is not a medical term. It is a type of oil that is extracted from sesame seeds. Sesame oil is often used in cooking and has some traditional uses in medicine, such as being used as a carrier oil for certain herbal remedies. However, it does not have a specific medical definition. If you have any questions about the use of sesame oil in a medical context or its potential health benefits, I would recommend consulting with a healthcare professional.

Technetium Tc 99m Medronate is a radiopharmaceutical agent used in nuclear medicine for bone scintigraphy. It is a technetium-labeled bisphosphonate compound, which accumulates in areas of increased bone turnover and metabolism. This makes it useful for detecting and evaluating various bone diseases and conditions, such as fractures, tumors, infections, and arthritis.

The "Tc 99m" refers to the radioisotope technetium-99m, which has a half-life of approximately 6 hours and emits gamma rays that can be detected by a gamma camera. The medronate component is a bisphosphonate molecule that binds to hydroxyapatite crystals in bone tissue, allowing the radiolabeled compound to accumulate in areas of active bone remodeling.

Overall, Technetium Tc 99m Medronate is an important tool in nuclear medicine for diagnosing and managing various musculoskeletal disorders.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Granulation tissue is the pinkish, bumpy material that forms on the surface of a healing wound. It's composed of tiny blood vessels (capillaries), white blood cells, and fibroblasts - cells that produce collagen, which is a protein that helps to strengthen and support the tissue.

Granulation tissue plays a crucial role in the wound healing process by filling in the wound space, contracting the wound, and providing a foundation for the growth of new skin cells (epithelialization). It's typically formed within 3-5 days after an injury and continues to develop until the wound is fully healed.

It's important to note that while granulation tissue is a normal part of the healing process, excessive or overgrowth of granulation tissue can lead to complications such as delayed healing, infection, or the formation of hypertrophic scars or keloids. In these cases, medical intervention may be necessary to manage the excess tissue and promote proper healing.

In medical terms, toes are the digits located at the end of the foot. Humans typically have five toes on each foot, consisting of the big toe (hallux), second toe, third toe, fourth toe, and little toe (fifth toe). The bones of the toes are called phalanges, with the exception of the big toe, which has a different bone structure and is composed of a proximal phalanx, distal phalanx, and sometimes a sesamoid bone.

Toes play an essential role in maintaining balance and assisting in locomotion by helping to push off the ground during walking or running. They also contribute to the overall stability and posture of the body. Various medical conditions can affect toes, such as ingrown toenails, bunions, hammertoes, and neuromas, which may require specific treatments or interventions to alleviate pain, restore function, or improve appearance.

Limb salvage is a medical term used to describe the surgical procedures and treatments aimed at preserving and restoring the functionality of a severely injured or diseased limb, rather than amputating it. The goal of limb salvage is to improve the patient's quality of life by maintaining their mobility, independence, and overall well-being.

Limb salvage may involve various surgical techniques such as vascular reconstruction, bone realignment, muscle flap coverage, and external fixation. These procedures aim to restore blood flow, stabilize bones, cover exposed tissues, and prevent infection. Additionally, adjuvant therapies like hyperbaric oxygen treatment, physical therapy, and pain management may be employed to support the healing process and improve functional outcomes.

Limb salvage is typically considered when a limb is threatened by conditions such as severe trauma, tumors, infections, or peripheral arterial disease. The decision to pursue limb salvage over amputation depends on factors like the patient's overall health, age, and personal preferences, as well as the extent of the injury or disease, potential for recovery, and likelihood of successful rehabilitation.

Silver compounds refer to chemical substances that combine silver (Ag) with one or more other elements. In the medical context, silver compounds are known for their antimicrobial properties and have been used in various medical applications such as wound dressings, creams, and coatings on medical devices.

Some examples of silver compounds include:

* Silver sulfadiazine (AgSD): a common topical antibiotic used to prevent and treat bacterial infections in burn wounds.
* Silver nitrate (AgNO3): a strong antiseptic used to treat wounds, skin infections, and eye conditions such as neonatal conjunctivitis.
* Silver chloride (AgCl): a compound used in some wound dressings for its antimicrobial properties.
* Silver proteinate: a silver compound that is often used in dietary supplements and claimed to have immune-boosting and anti-inflammatory effects, although its efficacy is not well established.

It's important to note that while silver compounds can be effective antimicrobial agents, they can also have potential side effects such as skin irritation, discoloration, and in some cases, argyria (a bluish-gray discoloration of the skin caused by excessive accumulation of silver). Therefore, they should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Hydrocolloid bandages are a type of dressing used in wound care. They consist of an outer waterproof layer and an inner hydrophilic layer made of materials such as gelatin, pectin, or carboxymethylcellulose. When the bandage comes into contact with moisture from the wound, it forms a gel that helps to maintain a moist environment, which can promote healing.

Hydrocolloid bandages are useful for managing a variety of wound types, including partial-thickness burns, pressure ulcers, and diabetic foot ulcers. They can help to protect the wound from external contaminants, reduce pain and discomfort, and provide sustained release of medications such as analgesics or antibiotics.

One advantage of hydrocolloid bandages is that they can be left in place for several days at a time, which can reduce the frequency of dressing changes and minimize trauma to the wound bed. However, it's important to monitor the wound regularly to ensure that it is healing properly and to check for signs of infection or other complications.

In medical terms, pressure is defined as the force applied per unit area on an object or body surface. It is often measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) in clinical settings. For example, blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the arteries and is recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (when the heart beats and pushes blood out) and diastolic pressure (when the heart rests between beats).

Pressure can also refer to the pressure exerted on a wound or incision to help control bleeding, or the pressure inside the skull or spinal canal. High or low pressure in different body systems can indicate various medical conditions and require appropriate treatment.

Biomedical technology is a field that applies technological principles and methods to the development of medical solutions, diagnostics, and treatments. It combines engineering, physics, biology, and chemistry to create devices, instruments, software, and systems used in healthcare. This can include things like medical imaging equipment, prosthetics, genetic testing technologies, and biocompatible materials for use in the body. The goal of biomedical technology is to improve patient outcomes, enhance diagnostic capabilities, and advance medical research.

A leg ulcer is a chronic wound that occurs on the lower extremities, typically on the inner or outer ankle. It's often caused by poor circulation, venous insufficiency, or diabetes. Leg ulcers can also result from injury, infection, or inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus. These ulcers can be painful, and they may take a long time to heal, making them prone to infection. Proper diagnosis, treatment, and wound care are essential for healing leg ulcers and preventing complications.

Blood glucose, also known as blood sugar, is the concentration of glucose in the blood. Glucose is a simple sugar that serves as the main source of energy for the body's cells. It is carried to each cell through the bloodstream and is absorbed into the cells with the help of insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas.

The normal range for blood glucose levels in humans is typically between 70 and 130 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) when fasting, and less than 180 mg/dL after meals. Levels that are consistently higher than this may indicate diabetes or other metabolic disorders.

Blood glucose levels can be measured through a variety of methods, including fingerstick blood tests, continuous glucose monitoring systems, and laboratory tests. Regular monitoring of blood glucose levels is important for people with diabetes to help manage their condition and prevent complications.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

Bacterial infections are caused by the invasion and multiplication of bacteria in or on tissues of the body. These infections can range from mild, like a common cold, to severe, such as pneumonia, meningitis, or sepsis. The symptoms of a bacterial infection depend on the type of bacteria invading the body and the area of the body that is affected.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that can live in many different environments, including in the human body. While some bacteria are beneficial to humans and help with digestion or protect against harmful pathogens, others can cause illness and disease. When bacteria invade the body, they can release toxins and other harmful substances that damage tissues and trigger an immune response.

Bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics, which work by killing or inhibiting the growth of bacteria. However, it is important to note that misuse or overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, making treatment more difficult. It is also essential to complete the full course of antibiotics as prescribed, even if symptoms improve, to ensure that all bacteria are eliminated and reduce the risk of recurrence or development of antibiotic resistance.

Vascular surgical procedures are operations that are performed to treat conditions and diseases related to the vascular system, which includes the arteries, veins, and capillaries. These procedures can be invasive or minimally invasive and are often used to treat conditions such as peripheral artery disease, carotid artery stenosis, aortic aneurysms, and venous insufficiency.

Some examples of vascular surgical procedures include:

* Endarterectomy: a procedure to remove plaque buildup from the inside of an artery
* Bypass surgery: creating a new path for blood to flow around a blocked or narrowed artery
* Angioplasty and stenting: using a balloon to open a narrowed artery and placing a stent to keep it open
* Aneurysm repair: surgically repairing an aneurysm, a weakened area in the wall of an artery that has bulged out and filled with blood
* Embolectomy: removing a blood clot from a blood vessel
* Thrombectomy: removing a blood clot from a vein

These procedures are typically performed by vascular surgeons, who are trained in the diagnosis and treatment of vascular diseases.

Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a mild, contagious viral infection common in infants and children but can sometimes occur in adults. The disease is often caused by coxsackievirus A16 or enterovirus 71.

The name "hand, foot and mouth" comes from the fact that blister-like sores usually appear in the mouth (and occasionally on the buttocks and legs) along with a rash on the hands and feet. The disease is not related to foot-and-mouth disease (also called hoof-and-mouth disease), which affects cattle, sheep, and swine.

HFMD is spread through close personal contact, such as hugging and kissing, or through the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes. It can also be spread by touching objects and surfaces that have the virus on them and then touching the face. People with HFMD are most contagious during the first week of their illness but can still be contagious for weeks after symptoms go away.

There is no specific treatment for HFMD, and it usually resolves on its own within 7-10 days. However, over-the-counter pain relievers and fever reducers may help alleviate symptoms. It's important to encourage good hygiene practices, such as handwashing and covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, to prevent the spread of HFMD.

Foot dermatoses refer to various skin conditions that affect the feet. These can include inflammatory conditions like eczema and psoriasis, infectious diseases such as athlete's foot (tinea pedis), fungal infections, bacterial infections, viral infections (like plantar warts caused by HPV), and autoimmune blistering disorders. Additionally, contact dermatitis from irritants or allergens can also affect the feet. Proper diagnosis is essential to determine the best course of treatment for each specific condition.

Penicillanic acid is not a term that has a widely accepted or established medical definition in the context of human medicine or clinical practice. It is a chemical compound that is a derivative of penicillin, an antibiotic produced by certain types of mold. Penicillanic acid is a breakdown product of penicillin and is not itself used as a medication.

In chemistry, penicillanic acid is a organic compound with the formula (CH3)2C6H5COOH. It is a derivative of benzene and has a carboxylic acid group and a five-membered ring containing a sulfur atom and a double bond, which is a characteristic feature of penicillin and its derivatives.

It's important to note that while penicillanic acid may have relevance in the context of chemistry or microbiology research, it does not have a direct medical definition or application in clinical medicine.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Oxyquinoline" does not have a specific medical definition as it is not a widely recognized medical term or a medication used in human healthcare. Oxyquinoline is an organic compound that contains a quinoline ring substituted with an alcohol group (hydroxyl) at position 8. It has been used in the past as a disinfectant and antiseptic, but it's not common in modern medical practice.

If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, please provide more context so I can offer a more accurate and helpful response.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Glycosylated Hemoglobin A, also known as Hemoglobin A1c or HbA1c, is a form of hemoglobin that is bound to glucose. It is formed in a non-enzymatic glycation reaction with glucose in the blood. The amount of this hemoglobin present in the blood is proportional to the average plasma glucose concentration over the previous 8-12 weeks, making it a useful indicator for monitoring long-term blood glucose control in people with diabetes mellitus.

In other words, HbA1c reflects the integrated effects of glucose regulation over time and is an important clinical marker for assessing glycemic control and risk of diabetic complications. The normal range for HbA1c in individuals without diabetes is typically less than 5.7%, while a value greater than 6.5% is indicative of diabetes.

I believe there might be some confusion in your question. Algeria is a country located in North Africa, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition. If you had intended to ask about a different term, please provide clarification, and I would be happy to help you with that.

Piperacillin is a type of antibiotic known as a semisynthetic penicillin that is used to treat a variety of infections caused by bacteria. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die.

Piperacillin has a broad spectrum of activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including many strains that are resistant to other antibiotics. It is often used in combination with other antibiotics, such as tazobactam, to increase its effectiveness against certain types of bacteria.

Piperacillin is typically administered intravenously in a hospital setting and is used to treat serious infections such as pneumonia, sepsis, and abdominal or urinary tract infections. As with all antibiotics, it should be used only when necessary and under the guidance of a healthcare professional to reduce the risk of antibiotic resistance.

A Patient Care Team is a group of healthcare professionals from various disciplines who work together to provide comprehensive, coordinated care to a patient. The team may include doctors, nurses, pharmacists, social workers, physical therapists, dietitians, and other specialists as needed, depending on the patient's medical condition and healthcare needs.

The Patient Care Team works collaboratively to develop an individualized care plan for the patient, taking into account their medical history, current health status, treatment options, and personal preferences. The team members communicate regularly to share information, coordinate care, and make any necessary adjustments to the care plan.

The goal of a Patient Care Team is to ensure that the patient receives high-quality, safe, and effective care that is tailored to their unique needs and preferences. By working together, the team can provide more comprehensive and coordinated care, which can lead to better outcomes for the patient.

Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a specific type of heart disease that occurs in people with diabetes. It is characterized by structural and functional changes in the heart muscle (myocardium), which can lead to impaired heart function and, ultimately, heart failure.

The exact mechanisms underlying diabetic cardiomyopathy are not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to a combination of metabolic abnormalities, inflammation, oxidative stress, and microvascular dysfunction that occur in diabetes. These factors can lead to changes in the heart muscle cells, including increased stiffness, altered contractility, and cell death, as well as interstitial fibrosis and remodeling of the extracellular matrix.

Diabetic cardiomyopathy is often asymptomatic in its early stages but can lead to symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, fluid retention, and irregular heart rhythms as it progresses. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiography, and other imaging tests, as well as laboratory tests to assess cardiac function and metabolic status.

Treatment of diabetic cardiomyopathy typically involves managing underlying diabetes and associated risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity. Medications such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), beta-blockers, and diuretics may also be used to improve heart function and reduce symptoms. Lifestyle modifications such as regular exercise, smoking cessation, and a healthy diet are also important components of management.

Artemisia is a genus of plants in the Asteraceae family, also known as the daisy family. It includes several species that are commonly known as mugworts, wormwoods, and sagebrushes. Some Artemisia species have been used in traditional medicine for their medicinal properties. For example, Artemisia annua, or sweet wormwood, contains artemisinin, a compound that has been found to be effective against the malaria parasite. However, it's important to note that some Artemisia species can be toxic and should only be used under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional.

... conditions can be acute or chronic complications of diabetes. Presence of several characteristic diabetic foot ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to diabetic foot. MedlinePlus: Diabetic Foot (CS1 German-language sources (de), CS1: long ... diabetic foot ulcer and neuropathic osteoarthropathy is called diabetic foot syndrome. The resulting bone deformity is known as ... Foot infection is the most common cause of non-traumatic amputation in people with diabetes. Prevention of diabetic foot may ...
They most often form following a diabetic foot ulcer, though not all foot ulcers become infected. Diabetic foot ulcers can be ... Diabetic foot infection is any infection of the foot in a diabetic person. The most frequent cause of hospitalization for ... Some risk factors for developing diabetic foot infections include history of repeated foot ulcers, foot ulcers lasting for ... "The diabetic foot: Pathophysiology, evaluation, and treatment". Seminars in Vascular Surgery. Fighting Diabetic Foot Ulcers. 31 ...
... is a major complication of diabetes mellitus, and probably the major component of the diabetic foot. Wound ... Steps to prevent diabetic foot ulcers include frequent review by a foot specialist and multidisciplinary team, good foot ... Scott G (March-April 2013). "The diabetic foot examination: A positive step in the prevention of diabetic foot ulcers and ... Stem cell therapy may represent a treatment for promoting healing of diabetic foot ulcers. Diabetic foot ulcers develop their ...
... such as feet, toes, hands, fingers, ears or nose), seen in diabetic patients.: 681 : 467-8 Diabetic dermadromes Skin lesion ... "Dermatological care of the diabetic foot". Am J Clin Dermatol. 3 (7): 463-74. doi:10.2165/00128071-200203070-00003. PMID ... A diabetic bulla is a cutaneous condition characterized by a noninflammatory, spontaneous, painless blister, often in acral ...
... s - What is a Diabetic Sock & What Socks are Available "Why Is Foot Care So Important?". Well Heeled. 2021-06-27. ... Compression stockings, which provide the opposite features Diabetic foot Diabetic shoe Veves, Aristidis; Giurini, John M.; ... A diabetic sock is a non-restrictive, but close fitting sock which is designed to alleviate pressures on the foot or leg. ... Diabetes raises the blood sugar level, which can increase the risk of foot ulcers. Diabetic socks are made to be non- ...
As a complication, there is an increased risk of injury to the feet because of loss of sensation (see diabetic foot). Small ... Diabetic Neuropathy at WebMD Diabetic Polyneuropathy at Medscape Diabetic Nerve Problems. MedlinePlus' extensive reference list ... the diabetic type of which is also known as diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) (most common presentation) Diabetic neuropathy ... Arad Y, Fonseca V, Peters A, Vinik A (April 2011). "Beyond the monofilament for the insensate diabetic foot: a systematic ...
People with diabetic neuropathy in their feet may have a false sense of security as to how much at risk their feet actually are ... The diabetic shoes and custom-molded inserts work together as a preventive system to help diabetics avoid foot injuries and ... Diabetic sock Diabetic foot (CS1: long volume value, Articles with short description, Short description is different from ... Diabetic Foot Care at ePodiatry; published 2003; retrieved September 6, 2011. DeMello M (September 10, 2009). Feet and Footwear ...
"Diabetic Foot". Retrieved 2019-08-30. "Diabetic Foot Problems". WebMD. Retrieved 2019-08-30. "Diabetes - ... Injury of the foot with inadequate blood flow can progress to ulcers and become infected. Individuals with diabetic neuropathy ... "Diabetic neuropathy - Symptoms and causes". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 2019-08-30. Lim, Andy KH (2014-10-15). "Diabetic nephropathy ... Diabetic retinopathy. Chronic or prolonged type I and type II diabetes can lead to damage in the blood vessels of the retina ...
ISBN 978-0-7020-3085-7. Levin, Marvin E.; O'Neal, Lawrence W.; Bowker, John H. (1993). The Diabetic foot. Mosby Year Book. ISBN ... It is also effective in carbon monoxide poisoning and diabetic foot. A prescription renewal for home oxygen following ... Zamboni, W.A.; Wong, H.P.; Stephenson, L.L.; Pfeifer, M.A. (September 1997). "Evaluation of hyperbaric oxygen for diabetic ... namely removing the allosteric shift of the oxygen dissociation curve and shifting the foot of the curve to the left.[ ...
Health and Family Welfare Govt of India 2018 Excellence in Diabetic Foot Award from the National Diabetic Foot Conclave 2019 ... "Diabetic Foot Research India and Diabetic Amputation Prevention Initiative". "M.V. Hospital retains WHO tag". The ... Prevalence of pathogens in diabetic foot infection in South Indian type 2 diabetic patients. J Assoc Physicians India. 2002 Aug ... diabetic foot and prevention of amputation, diabetic nephropathy, socio-economics of diabetes care and Pulmonary TB and ...
Prabhu KG, Patil KM, Srinivasan S (May 2001). "Diabetic feet at risk: a new method of analysis of walking foot pressure images ... Shah SR, Patil KM (2005). "Processing of foot pressure images and display of an advanced clinical parameter PR in diabetic ... vvan Schie CH (September 2005). "A review of the biomechanics of the diabetic foot". The International Journal of Lower ... Klenerman L, Wood B (2006). The Human Foot: A Companion to Medical Studies. Berlin: Springer. Reiber GE (March 1992). "Diabetic ...
"Mortality rates and diabetic foot ulcers: is it time to communicate mortality risk to patients with diabetic foot ulceration ... and/or diabetic foot infections Gangrene Trench foot Necrosis Meningococcal meningitis Streptococcus Vibrio vulnificus ... Savage PE (1983). "The diabetic foot". Problems in Peripheral Vascular Disease. Springer Netherlands. pp. 69-73. doi:10.1007/ ... Diabetic vasculopathy Sepsis with peripheral necrosis Peripheral artery disease which can lead to gangrene A severe deep vein ...
"The Diabetic Foot". Archived from the original on 17 August 2011. Retrieved 28 May 2011 ... "King's Mill Hospital foot care team collect top award". Retrieved 12 July 2013. "Information Technology in ... Forest Hospitals Foundation Trust's Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology at King's Mill Hospital and a member of the foot- ...
Nather, Aziz (2013). The diabetic foot. World Scientific. ISBN 978-9814417006. Vayvada, H; Demirdover, C; Menderes, A; Karaca, ... Lipsky BA (December 1999). "Evidence-based antibiotic therapy of diabetic foot infections". FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 26 (3 ... Korzon-Burakowska, A; Dziemidok, P (December 2011). "Diabetic foot-the need for comprehensive multidisciplinary approach". ... "Systematic review of the effectiveness of hyperbaric oxygenation therapy in the management of chronic diabetic foot ulcers". ...
Diabetic Foot Study Group (DFSG); EASD Study Group on Primary Care Research in Diabetology (PCCD); Genetics of Diabetes Study ... Diabetic Pregnancy Study Group (DPSG); Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); Diabetes Neuropathy Study Group (NEURODIAB); ... EASD Eye Complication Study Group (EASDEC); European Diabetic Nephropathy Study Group (EDNSG); Incretin Study Group; EASD Islet ...
Developed the UT Diabetic Wound Classification and ranked 20th in the world for diabetic foot research. School of Dentistry: ... "Classification of diabetic foot wounds". The Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery. 35 (6): 528-531. doi:10.1016/S1067-2516(96) ... Shen, Jin‐Ming; Chen, Jie; Feng, Lei; Feng, Chun (2022-09-26). "A scientometrics analysis and visualisation of diabetic foot ...
"Diabetic foot problems: prevention and management". National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). 26 August 2015. ... "Development and validation of a clinical prediction rule for development of diabetic foot ulceration: an analysis of data from ... "Efficacy of at home monitoring of foot temperature for risk reduction of diabetes‐related foot ulcer: A meta‐analysis". ... Cox DJ, Kovatchev BP, Anderson SM, Clarke WL, Gonder-Frederick LA (November 2010). "Type 1 diabetic drivers with and without a ...
Lipsky BA (August 2004). "Medical treatment of diabetic foot infections". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 39 (Suppl 2): S104-S114 ...
"Diagnosis and treatment of diabetic foot infections". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 39 (7): 885-910. doi:10.1086/424846. PMID ... This is usually the result of acquired damage to the nerves, such as spinal cord injury, diabetes mellitus (diabetic neuropathy ... People with diabetes-related nerve damage, for instance, sustain poorly-healing foot ulcers as a result of decreased sensation ... Some manifestations of neuropathic pain include: traumatic neuropathy, tic douloureux, painful diabetic neuropathy, and ...
Levin and O'Neal's the diabetic foot. Elsevier Health Sciences. ISBN 978-0-323-04145-4. Tyrrell, Wendy; Carter, Gwenda (2008). ... Such shoes ensure the wearer does not have flat footing along the proximal-distal axis of the foot. The shoes are generically ... Proponents of modern heel-to-toe rocker sole shoes claim that because the foot of the wearer is slightly destabilised, certain ... "Is It Safe to Wear Rocker Bottom Shoes?". Foot Wire. 14 January 2015. Bird, Bill (1999). Self Help Guide for the Footsore. Wise ...
Recombinant human epidermal growth factor, sold under the brand name Heberprot-P, is used to treat diabetic foot ulcers. It can ... "Efficacy of Topical Recombinant Human Epidermal Growth Factor for Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcer: A Systematic Review and ... a novel product for treating advanced diabetic foot ulcer". MEDICC Review. 15 (1): 11-5. doi:10.1590/s1555-79602013000100004. ... "Growth factors for treating diabetic foot ulcers". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2015 (10): CD008548. doi: ...
Wang CJ, Cheng JH, Kuo YR, Schaden W, Mittermayr R (December 2015). "Extracorporeal shockwave therapy in diabetic foot ulcers ... is used for wound healing and has shown positive results in short-term and long-term outcomes in diabetic patients with foot ...
For diabetic foot infections, ertapenem as a single treatment or in combination with vancomycin has been found to be more ... Tchero H, Kangambega P, Noubou L, Becsangele B, Fluieraru S, Teot L (September 2018). "Antibiotic therapy of diabetic foot ... and diabetic foot infections, with bacteria that are susceptible to this drug, or expected to be so. It can also be used to ... and the diabetic foot. The most common side effects include diarrhoea, nausea (feeling sick), headache, and problems around the ...
Diabetic foot infections are the leading cause of diabetic limb amputation. Calluses in the hands are frequently associated ... 12% having callus formation Tantisiriwat N, Janchai S (July 2008). "Common foot problems in diabetic foot clinic". J Med Assoc ... Boulton, Andrew J.; Meneses, Patricio; Ennis, William J. (January-February 1999). "Diabetic foot ulcers: A framework for ... they are most often found on the foot (where the most pressure and friction are applied). On the feet, arguably the source of ...
... and health care providers about the complexities of diabetic foot complications and the importance of preventative foot care ... Described by some as "the father of diabetic foot care", he is recognized nationally and internationally for his scientific and ... Harkless pioneered the TEAM Approach to Diabetic Foot Care when he developed the nationally and internationally known seminar ... Armstrong DG, Lavery LA, Harkless LB (March 1998). "Diabetic Foot Ulcers: Prevention, Diagnosis and Classification". American ...
Dumville, Jo C; O'Meara, Susan; Deshpande, Sohan; Speak, Katharine (2013-07-12). "Hydrogel dressings for healing diabetic foot ... diabetic ulcers, and venous ulcers although the results are uncertain. Hydrogels have been shown to accelerate healing in ... "A multifunctional nanocomposite spray dressing of Kappa-carrageenan-polydopamine modified ZnO/L-glutamic acid for diabetic ...
Sykes MT, Godsey JB (January 1998). "Vascular evaluation of the problem diabetic foot". Clinics in Podiatric Medicine and ... If the wound is plantar (on walking surface of foot), patient is advised to give rest to foot to avoid enlargement of the ulcer ... Preventive foot care in people with diabetes". Diabetes Care. 23 Suppl 1: S55-6. PMID 12017679. Armstrong DG, Lavery LA, ... Proper glycemic control in diabetics is important. Smoking should be avoided to aid wound healing. These ulcers are difficult ...
... or for diabetic foot ulcers. There is tentative but unclear evidence for hydrocolloid dressings for superficial and partial ... "Hydrocolloid dressings for healing diabetic foot ulcers". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2013 (8): CD009099. doi: ...
Teelucksingh, S; V Naraynsingh (July 1997). "Injury to Diabetic Feet by Thumb Tacks". The Lancet. 350 (9070): 74. doi:10.1016/ ...
229-. ISBN 978-0-323-03735-8. John H. Bowker; Michael A. Pfeifer (2008). Levin and O'Neal's the Diabetic Foot. Elsevier Health ... Unlike casts, they are adjustable and reusable, and fully removable, permitting the patient to bathe the foot and ankle and ... Sigvard T. Hansen (2000). Functional Reconstruction of the Foot and Ankle. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 294-. ISBN 978-0- ... Christopher W. DiGiovanni; Justin Greisberg (2007). Foot and Ankle: Core Knowledge in Orthopaedics. Elsevier Health Sciences. ...
This can lead to foot problems. Know how to care for diabetic feet. ... Diabetic Foot and Risk (American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society) * Steps to Prevent or Delay Nerve Damage (American ... When should I see my health care provider about diabetic foot problems?. Serious foot problems can develop quickly. See your ... Make sure to check the bottoms of your feet too.. *Washing your feet every day. Use warm water and soap. Dont soak your feet ...
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These individuals are predisposed to foot infections because of a compromised vascular supply secondary to diabetes. ... Foot infections are the most common problems in persons with diabetes. ... encoded search term (Diabetic Foot Infections) and Diabetic Foot Infections What to Read Next on Medscape ... of 243 diabetic foot ulcer patients. The study also found that in patients with diabetic foot ulcer, the mean age of death from ...
... which may be severe enough to cause tissue damage in the legs and feet. ... which may be severe enough to cause tissue damage in the legs and feet. ...
These individuals are predisposed to foot infections because of a compromised vascular supply secondary to diabetes. ... Foot infections are the most common problems in persons with diabetes. ... encoded search term (Diabetic Foot Infections) and Diabetic Foot Infections What to Read Next on Medscape ... Consensus on surgical aspects of managing osteomyelitis in the diabetic foot. Diabet Foot Ankle. 2016. 7:30079. [QxMD MEDLINE ...
... diabetic foot, diabetic ulcer, diabetic wound. Analysis outcomes included complete wound closure, complications, ulcer ... Bioengineered skin in diabetic foot ulcers Diabetes Obes Metab. 2010 Apr;12(4):307-15. doi: 10.1111/j.1463-1326.2009.01164.x. ... Objective: Bioengineered skin (BS) has been shown to play an important role in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). ...
... was better than a standard absorbent dressing for healing diabetic foot ulcers in a phase 3 study that led to approval by the ... Most (78%) of the diabetic foot ulcers were Wagner grade 2. The wounds had a mean area of 4.8 cm2 and had been present for a ... Cite this: Novel Diabetic Foot Ulcer Cream Shows Promise in Phase 3 Trial - Medscape - Sep 10, 2021. ... The subgroup of patients at higher risk of poor wound healing (A1c , 9%, ulcer area , 5 cm2, and diabetic foot ulcer duration ...
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... neuro-ischemic diabetic foot syndrome, DFS). In this situation, imminent arterial revascularization is imperative in order to ... The healing of foot wounds in patients with diabetes mellitus is frequently complicated by critical limb threatening ischemia ( ... and depression in diabetic patients with foot ulcer or amputation:a preliminary study. Foot Ankle Int. 2005, 26, 128-134. [ ... Therapeutic Alternatives in Diabetic Foot Patients without an Option for Revascularization: A Narrative Review by Gerhard ...
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About the trust , News , Multidisciplinary Diabetic Foot Clinic launched. 11 March 2019. Multidisciplinary Diabetic Foot Clinic ... The multidisciplinary diabetic foot clinic provides those patients deemed at risk of losing a lower limb, with a dedicated team ... A new multidisciplinary diabetic foot clinic has been launched at Conquest Hospital which brings together in one clinic, ... Mr Bjorn Telgenkamp, Consultant Vascular Surgeon said: "Diabetic foot care remains a challenging but very important part of ...
Timing of Revascularization in Patients With Diabetic Foot Ulcer and Non-critical Peripheral Artery Disease ... No for Patients that have at least one and no more than two diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) of ≥ 0.5 cm2 and , 5 cm2 as assessed by ... Yes for Patients that have at least one and no more than two diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) of ≥ 0.5 cm2 and , 5 cm2 as assessed by ... Not sure for Patients that have at least one and no more than two diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) of ≥ 0.5 cm2 and , 5 cm2 as ...
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Learn about diabetic foot wound care for patients. Instant certificate of completion for nurses, OT and more. ... Diabetes care CEU course on diabetic foot ulcers. ... Diabetic foot problems (American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle ... Foot Care. Daily foot care practices for the patient with diabetes are a vital part in preventing diabetic foot ulcers from ... Diabetic foot care at all stages, both preventive and in treating a diabetic foot ulcer, is based on a multidisciplinary team ...
Unusual etiologies of foot injury may be of interest. Material and Method:Patient 1, a 51-year-old type 2 diabetic patient, was ... To prevent severe foot burn injuries, continuous education should be provided for diabetic patients with sensory loss of the ... Results:Conclusions:Severe clinical consequences of foot burn injuries of unusual etiology may occur in diabetic patients with ... Patient 2, a 66-year-old type 2 diabetic patient, tried to treat a small dermal lesion caused by improper footwear by using a ...
A small skin problem like a callus, blister, or cracked skin can turn into a larger sore, called a foot ulcer. Foot ulcers form ... That means you are less likely to notice when your feet are injured. ... most often on the pad (ball) of the foot or the bottom... ... can damage the nerve endings and blood vessels in your feet. ... Have your doctor check your feet during each visit. If you have a foot problem, see your doctor. Do not try to treat your foot ...
David Armstrong of Chicagos Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, a diabetic foot specialist.. Worse, foot ... WASHINGTON (AP) - Diabetics, watch out: A hot spot on your foot can signal an ulcer is brewing, a wound that could cost your ... Treating a simple diabetic foot ulcer can cost $8,000, double that for an infected one and even more for an amputation.. "Its ... Foot ulcers each year strike 600,000 U.S. diabetics, people slow to notice they even have a wound because diabetes has numbed ...
Policy - Assistance Program for Outpatient Treatment of Diabetic Foot Syndrome, 2016-2018. PDF versionExport as CSV ...
Tag: Foot Ulcer Prevention. Diabetic Foot Management. Diabetic foot infections are the leading cause of hospitalisation for ... Diabetic wounds are caused by a combination of neuropathy, ischemia and infection. Accurate assessment and diagnosis of ... diabetic patients worldwide and in developing countries like India it accounts for 20% of admissions in surgical wards. ...
  • A diabetic foot disease is any condition that results directly from peripheral artery disease (PAD) or sensory neuropathy affecting the feet of people living with diabetes. (
  • Due to advanced peripheral nerve dysfunction associated with diabetes (diabetic neuropathy), patients' feet have a dryness of the skin and a reduced ability to feel pain (nociception). (
  • Compromise of the blood supply from microvascular disease, often in association with lack of sensation because of neuropathy, predisposes persons with diabetes mellitus to foot infections. (
  • As previously mentioned, local trauma and/or pressure (often in association with lack of sensation because of neuropathy), in addition to microvascular disease, may lead to a diabetic foot infection. (
  • 1 Research has shown that patients with diabetes are more susceptible to foot problems, principally because of neuropathy and peripheral vascular disease (PVD). (
  • 2,3 Neuropathy causes loss of feeling in the feet, resulting in the inability to experience discomfort and pain, which means that the patient might not detect an injury or irritation. (
  • Foot screenings are done to detect diabetic neuropathy or nerve damage, and diabetic vasculopathy - damage to blood vessels. (
  • Diabetic foot ulcers occur as a result of various factors, such as mechanical changes in conformation of the bony architecture of the foot, peripheral neuropathy, and atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease, all of which occur with higher frequency and intensity in the diabetic population. (
  • People with diabetes who develop neuropathy don't feel pain when they are injured, so they may not notice soft tissue damage in the foot (or elsewhere) until the damage is quite extensive. (
  • Patients who have diabetes for many years can develop neuropathy, a reduced or complete lack of feeling in the feet due to nerve damage caused by elevated blood glucose levels over time. (
  • Your podiatric physician can test feet for neuropathy with a simple and painless tool called a monofilament. (
  • Describe the role of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and Charcot osteoarthropathy in the development of diabetic foot ulcers. (
  • Severe clinical consequences of foot burn injuries of unusual etiology may occur in diabetic patients with neuropathy. (
  • Diabetic wounds are caused by a combination of neuropathy, ischemia and infection. (
  • to assess "the number of steps taken over a period of time," may not have sufficiently captured the critical elements of weight-bearing activity that place those with diabetic peripheral neuropathy at increased risk of foot ulcers. (
  • Sauseng S, Kastenbauer T, Sokol G, Irsigler K: Estimation of risk for plantar foot ulceration in diabetic patients with neuropathy. (
  • Previous studies focused on diabetic peripheral vascular disease, neuropathy, and wound infections. (
  • Diabetic Driving Studies- Do People With Neuropathy Have Slower Braking Times? (
  • Poor circulation and increased infection rates are common among diabetics and this combined with neuropathy is a recipe for disaster in the lower extremities. (
  • Another complication of diabetes is Charcot Joint, which is found in diabetics with neuropathy. (
  • Fernando M, Crowther R, Pappas E, Lazzarini P, Cunningham M, Sangla K, Buttner P & Golledge J (2014) Plantar Pressure in Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy Patients with Active Foot Ulceration, Previous Ulceration and No History of Ulceration: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies. (
  • Aims: Elevated dynamic plantar pressures are a consistent finding in diabetes patients with peripheral neuropathy with implications for plantar foot ulceration. (
  • This meta-analysis aimed to compare the plantar pressures of diabetes patients that had peripheral neuropathy and those with neuropathy with active or previous foot ulcers. (
  • Observational studies reporting barefoot dynamic plantar pressure in adults with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, where at least one group had a history of plantar foot ulcers were included. (
  • Conclusions: Plantar pressures appear to be significantly higher in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy with a history of foot ulceration compared to those with diabetic neuropathy without a history of ulceration. (
  • As time goes by, it's likely that diabetes can cause nerve damage, also known as diabetic neuropathy. (
  • At the point when you need to deal with a deep rooted condition like diabetic nerve torment likewise called diabetic neuropathy, contemplating long haul solutions will be reasonable. (
  • In any case, diabetic neuropathy may not permit you to feel them until disease happens or they become disturbed. (
  • Nerve hurt achieved by diabetic periphery neuropathy makes even the gentlest human touch horrendous for the troubled as they experience shooting, injuring or throbbing torture. (
  • Despite in this setting wide investigation by analysts and specialists has uncovered that diabetic neuropathy can be thwarted when the troubled is familiar with this ailment. (
  • Burning feet are a sign of a serious health condition such as peripheral neuropathy. (
  • Peripheral neuropathy is the damage to nerves on your feet. (
  • Nano compression socks are a new innovation in the medical industry that has been specifically created to help diabetics to reduce leg swelling, relieve foot pain for those who suffer from neuropathy. (
  • Neuropathy, or nerve damage, can result from slower blood flow in the legs and feet. (
  • In diabetic patients, neuropathy is very important to monitor, as diabetics are at risk for developing ulcers. (
  • There are medications that may be prescribed to help with any neuropathy experienced by the diabetic patient. (
  • A possible complication of the disease is nervous system impairment (neuropathy), which may cause you to lose feeling in your feet or hands. (
  • Diabetic neuropathy affects about 60-70% of people with diabetes. (
  • Diabetes can cause serious foot problems involving the loss of nerve function (diabetic neuropathy) and loss of circulation (peripheral vascular disease). (
  • Patients with Charcot Arthropathy have peripheral neuropathy (loss of sensation) in the foot and ankle, and may experience fractures and dislocations of bones and joints with minimal or no known trauma. (
  • Diabetic foot pain is frequently the result of circulatory issues and peripheral neuropathy. (
  • Diabetics suffering autonomic neuropathy will often suffer cracked skin and thickened calluses which can lead to bacterial infection and, in extreme cases, amputation. (
  • Numbness, tingling, discomfort, or a loss of feeling in your feet can be brought on by the nerve damage, also known as diabetic neuropathy. (
  • Vitamin D deficiency has been recently found to be associated with diabetic foot infections and increased risk of amputations and deaths. (
  • However, the number of amputations from chronic diabetic foot ulcers that do not heal is increasing, pointing to a need for better treatment options. (
  • It is estimated that about 85% of amputations are preventable when patients receive ongoing education about daily foot care and early intervention. (
  • Provide an annual comprehensive foot examination to identify risk factors predictive of amputations and ulcers. (
  • To promote foot care and prevent amputations, the government in 2010 opened a Diabetes and Vascular Health Centre at a main hospital in the south of the Indian Ocean island. (
  • Improved foot care services as well as health worker training are reducing the number of amputations per year. (
  • They also may be risk factors for amputations associated with diabetic foot ulcers, according to a recent Johns Hopkins study. (
  • Investigators, including several from the Multidisciplinary Diabetic Foot and Wound Service, reviewed Maryland Health Services Cost Review Commission database records of 7,415 patients with diabetes undergoing minor amputations (below the ankle) between 2012 and 2019. (
  • Foot ulcers are the starting point of more than 80% of these amputations, and they could be prevented. (
  • Previous research examining the causal chain leading to diabetic amputations in 80 patients found that footwear was a factor in 42% of cases . (
  • Diabetes is the leading cause of non-traumatic lower extremity amputations in the United States, and approximately 14 to 24 percent of patients with diabetes who develop a foot ulcer have an amputation. (
  • In particular, disease of the foot remains a major threat to people with diabetes, and can result in amputations, the majority of which are said to be potentially preventable. (
  • Background: In approximately 80% of diabetes-related lower extremity amputations, patients suffer from a foot ulcer, often caused by lower extremity arterial disease. (
  • The aim of this study is to demonstrate that in patients with low grade arterial disease of the lower extremities and diabetic foot ulcers, immediate revascularization results in fewer cardiovascular problems and amputations, as well as improved ulcer healing, compared to the current standard of care. (
  • This combination can make individuals with diabetes prone to foot problems such as infections, ulcers, and even amputations if not managed properly. (
  • If you have gangrene or a foot ulcer that does not get better with treatment, you may need an amputation . (
  • Foot infection is the most common cause of non-traumatic amputation in people with diabetes. (
  • A simpler method proposed by researchers provides a more detailed risk score based on three pieces of information (insensitivity, foot pulse, previous history of ulcers or amputation). (
  • Lack of proper diabetic foot care can lead to infections, foot ulcers, and amputation. (
  • Use a multidisciplinary approach for patients with foot ulcers and high-risk feet, particularly those with a history of prior amputation or ulcers. (
  • Kaplan-Meier curve showing association of the area deprivation index (ADI) with lower extremity reamputation after minor foot amputation in patients with diabetes. (
  • Among patients with diabetes, 15% develop a foot ulcer, and 12%-24% of individuals with a foot ulcer require amputation. (
  • And if a person develops a foot ulcer they are at an increased risk of amputation because of infection and other related complications. (
  • Foot ulcers in patients with diabetes should be treated for several reasons such as, reducing the risk of infection and amputation, improving function and quality of life, and reducing health care costs. (
  • A key part in achieving this is to work together with all the involved specialties, and we are very pleased that this Multidisciplinary Diabetic Foot Clinic will provide us with the opportunity to deliver excellent care, whilst reducing amputation rates. (
  • Due to lower extremity arterial disease (LEAD), diabetic patients with foot ulcers often require lower limb amputation. (
  • Achieving arterial supply (revascularization) to the ulcer is the most important factor in healing the diabetic foot ulcer and reduces the risk of amputation. (
  • Discuss amputation as it relates to diabetic foot ulcers. (
  • Preliminary studies have indicated that systemic treatment of diabetic foot ulcer patients with hyperbaric oxygen therapy have beneficial effects on wound healing, risk of amputation, glycaemic control, atherosclerosis, inflammatory markers and other clinical and laboratory parameters. (
  • Dedicated to amputation prevention, wound healing, diabetic foot, biotechnology and the intersection between medical devices and consumer electronics. (
  • A simple comprehensive foot exam by a local podiatrist at least once or twice a year can identify problems early and dramatically decrease the amputation rate. (
  • If you are diabetic and notice any changes in your feet or ankles such as bleeding, a callus, or ulcer, it is imperative that you seek treatment from your local podiatrist immediately to avoid a serious infection and possible amputation. (
  • Diabetic wound care is essential if you have diabetes and want to avoid complications such as amputation. (
  • Gangrene is a serious problem for diabetics and can lead to sepsis and amputation in its worst cases. (
  • Together, impairments in both sensation and circulation are some of the key reasons why 34% of people with diabetes are expected to develop a foot ulcer in their lifetime, approximately half of which become infected, and 15% of which then require an amputation. (
  • Predictors of healing, ulcer recurrence and persistence, amputation and mortality in type 2 diabetic patients with diabetic foot : a 10-year retrospective cohort study / C. Gazzaruso, P. Gallotti, A. Pujia, T. Montalcini, A. Giustina, A. Coppola. (
  • According to a 2011 meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials, only foot temperature-guided avoidance therapy was found beneficial in preventing ulceration. (
  • Chronic diabetic ulceration with underlying osteomyelitis. (
  • In that study ( 2 ), which used 24-h physical activity diaries, every additional hour of daily weight-bearing activity was associated with a 23% reduction in the risk of subsequent foot ulceration. (
  • Secondly, while they excluded those with peripheral vascular disease, their use of nonparametric statistical tests made it impossible to adjust statistically for the effect of other characteristics that could potentially confound the association between activity and foot ulceration risk ( 5 ). (
  • that "modulating the 'peaks and valleys' of activity in this population through some form of feedback might prove to reduce the risk for ulceration in this very-high-risk population," another approach to reduce foot ulcer risk may be to promote a carefully "dosed" increase in weight-bearing activity that allows plantar tissues to adapt to increasing loads gradually ( 6 ). (
  • Most diabetic foot infections (DFIs) require treatment with systemic antibiotics. (
  • Diabetic foot ulcers are a significant challenge in healthcare, not only because of their prevalence but also because of the alarming rise of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections. (
  • These infections are particularly common in the thigh area, but they may be seen anywhere on the leg or foot. (
  • Lipsky BA, Giordano P, Choudhri S, Song J. Treating diabetic foot infections with sequential intravenous to oral moxifloxacin compared with piperacillin-tazobactam/amoxicillin-clavulanate. (
  • Lipsky BA, Stoutenburgh U. Daptomycin for treating infected diabetic foot ulcers: evidence from a randomized, controlled trial comparing daptomycin with vancomycin or semi-synthetic penicillins for complicated skin and skin-structure infections. (
  • Linezolid tissue penetration and serum activity against strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with reduced vancomycin susceptibility in diabetic patients with foot infections. (
  • Wang S, Cunha BA, Hamid NS, Amato BM, Feuerman M, Malone B. Metronidazole single versus multiple daily dosing in serious intraabdominal/pelvic and diabetic foot infections. (
  • Diabetic foot infections are the leading cause of hospitalisation for diabetic patients worldwide and in developing countries like India it accounts for 20% of admissions in surgical wards. (
  • Make sure that you gently and thoroughly dry your feet, particularly areas between your toes as infections are prone to develop in moist areas. (
  • But if you have diabetes or have diabetic foot, you're more susceptible to cuts, scrapes, and infections. (
  • The bottom line is that having diabetes means that you must take extra care of your feet and ingrown toenails to reduce your risk of significant complications like infections or worse. (
  • It aims to reduce variation in practice, including antibiotic prescribing for diabetic foot infections. (
  • The infection may not heal well because the damaged blood vessels can cause poor blood flow in your feet. (
  • Presence of several characteristic diabetic foot pathologies such as infection, diabetic foot ulcer and neuropathic osteoarthropathy is called diabetic foot syndrome. (
  • Patients would be taught routinely to inspect their feet for hyperkeratosis, fungal infection, skin lesions and foot deformities. (
  • Tan PL, Teh J. MRI of the diabetic foot: differentiation of infection from neuropathic change. (
  • Current standard clinical care for diabetic foot ulcer consists of debridement, off-loading, infection control, and maintaining a moist environment with dressings, Huang and colleagues explain. (
  • Diabetic Foot Infection: Cellulitis and gangrene. (
  • PAD reduces a person's ability to fight infection and puts them at a higher risk of developing foot ulcers . (
  • Of those who develop a foot ulcer, more than 5% will be hospitalized due to infection or other ulcer-related complications. (
  • Vascular disease can complicate a foot ulcer, reducing the body's ability to heal and increasing the risk for an infection. (
  • This loss of feeling could cause a foot injury to go unnoticed and get worse - it might even lead to an infection. (
  • If the infection is severe, then tissue in the foot can die. (
  • Ulcerations can lead to a raging infection and ultimately loss of a toe or toes, part of the foot or even the leg or legs. (
  • Other warning signs include redness, swelling, a callus with dried blood inside of it, or an infection that causes discoloration of the foot and an odor. (
  • Remember to wash your feet daily and scrub between the toes to cure any itching and fungal infection to prevent athlete's foot. (
  • It is also advisable to visit a podiatrist if one is experiencing any conditions involving the feet, such as ingrown toenails, which in more severe cases can cause infection. (
  • Specifically, diabetes impairs a person's ability to fight infection, supply enough oxygen and nutrients to their cells, efficiently heal wounds, and feel what is happening to and around their feet. (
  • This means that we can't take the right measures to look after the wound and protect our feet, leaving them vulnerable to further damage, infection, the wound turning into an ulcer, and more. (
  • On exam, they can determine how deeply it penetrates your foot, how much tissue has broken down, and whether or not an infection has set in. (
  • The pedicled flap combined with membrane induction technique for repairing foot and ankle wounds in diabetic patients has the advantage of simple operation, preserved ankle joint function, and less postoperative infection recurrence , which is worth popularizing in clinical practice. (
  • The study followed 277 patients with 621 diabetic foot wounds treated by the Johns Hopkins experts between 2012 and 2017. (
  • The Johns Hopkins service, started in 2012 under the direction of vascular surgeon Christopher Abularrage , features vascular surgeons, a surgical podiatrist, an endocrinologist, an infectious diseases specialist, a certified wound nurse and a physician assistant working together to manage both inpatients and outpatients presenting with foot wounds. (
  • Background: The healing of foot wounds in patients with diabetes mellitus is frequently complicated by critical limb threatening ischemia (neuro-ischemic diabetic foot syndrome, DFS). (
  • Diabetic foot ulcers are complex, chronic wounds that are often disabling and greatly impact the morbidity and mortality of patients. (
  • Accurate assessment and diagnosis of diabetic wounds is critical to effective management. (
  • Effects of pedicled flap combined with membrane induction technique in repairing foot and ankle wounds in diabetic patients]. (
  • To explore the effects of pedicled flap combined with membrane induction technique in repairing foot and ankle wounds in diabetic patients . (
  • From March 2019 to July 2021, 12 patients with diabetic foot and ankle wounds who met the inclusion criteria were admitted to Wuxi Ninth People's Hospital , including 7 males and 5 females , aged 20 to 92 years. (
  • In diabetes, peripheral nerve dysfunction can be combined with peripheral artery disease (PAD) causing poor blood circulation to the extremities (diabetic angiopathy). (
  • Always wearing well-fitting shoes and socks or slippers to protect your feet when walking. (
  • In cold weather, wear warm socks instead of warming your feet near a heater or fireplace. (
  • Proper footwear may not be the first thing that comes to mind when thinking about diabetes, but choosing the right pair of diabetic socks is essential if you're one of the millions of people who have been diagnosed with the disease. (
  • That's why compression socks for diabetics are designed with flat toe seams or no seams at all. (
  • Our diabetic compression socks are also made with moisture wicking fabric, which makes them more breathable in order to prevent moisture build up and bacterial growth. (
  • The VenActive Hydrotec® Unisex Crew Length Comfort Diabetic Socks are specially designed to promote healthy feet and legs for those battling sympto. (
  • One often overlooked yet crucial element in maintaining foot health for diabetics is choosing the right socks such as ones from the Diabetic Socks Club. (
  • You can always visit this website that gives reliable and trustworthy insight about diabetes if you want to learn how diabetic socks can ensure optimal protection for your feet when you have diabetes. (
  • In this article, we'll explore the essential features of socks for diabetics, why they matter, and how to make informed choices for ultimate foot comfort and well-being. (
  • Diabetic socks are designed to wick moisture away from the skin, keeping the feet dry and reducing the risk of fungal growth. (
  • Compression Socks: Some diabetics benefit from mild compression socks, which can help improve blood circulation. (
  • Color and Style: While functionality is key, diabetic socks come in a variety of colors and styles, allowing you to express your personality while prioritizing foot health. (
  • Wear Diabetic Socks: Put on clean, dry diabetic socks every day to maintain proper foot hygiene and minimize friction. (
  • Choose Appropriate Footwear: Combine diabetic socks with well-fitting shoes that provide ample support and space for your toes. (
  • Pack a Foot Care Kit: When traveling, bring along a small kit containing diabetic-friendly moisturizer, nail clippers, and an extra pair of diabetic socks. (
  • wearing thick arrangements of socks helps in padding and cushioning the feet which thwarts calluses and delicate regions from making. (
  • Another way to cure burning feet is to use shoes and socks that are adequately ventilated. (
  • They have been proven to be more comfortable than regular socks, making them perfect for diabetic feet which can cause numbness, tingling, and itching. (
  • It is recommended that diabetics wear well-fitting socks. (
  • Regular checking of feet of diabetic, wearing diabetic socks, exercise, comfortable socks and maintaining blood sugar level can prevent this lethal condition. (
  • It is important for diabetics to check their feet every day, never walk barefoot, wear comfortable shoes that are not too tight and check shoes for any foreign objects. (
  • Because people who suffer from diabetes can have problems with circulation, nerves, immunity, and deformity, proper footwear is very important for diabetics. (
  • In most cases, diabetic foot ulcers can be attributed to the accumulation of some kind of injury, nerve damage and deformity. (
  • Diabetes can lead to nerve damage and poor blood circulation, particularly in the extremities like the feet. (
  • Numbness or Tingling: Numbness or tingling sensations in the feet could indicate nerve damage, a common diabetic complication. (
  • Nerve damage is sure to kill the sensation on your feet! (
  • A new multidisciplinary diabetic foot clinic has been launched at Conquest Hospital which brings together in one clinic, Vascular and Diabetic doctors and specialist nurses along with Podiatrists, to provide the best possible care for patients with diabetic foot problems. (
  • The multidisciplinary diabetic foot clinic provides those patients deemed at risk of losing a lower limb, with a dedicated team of specialists from across the Trust. (
  • About 80% of foot ulcers involve some form of trauma and are therefore potentially preventable. (
  • Research, however, has shown that the development of a foot ulcer is preventable. (
  • Foot problems are common in people with diabetes. (
  • People with diabetes are at risk for blood vessel injury, which may be severe enough to cause tissue damage in the legs and feet. (
  • People with diabetes have a 25% chance of getting foot ulcers. (
  • Patients who develop a DFU are at higher risk of early death, heart attack, and fatal stroke than people with diabetes who do not develop diabetic foot ulcers. (
  • People with diabetes are at risk for developing foot problems that can be severe. (
  • This is where our podiatry team works extensively with people with diabetes to give them the confidence that their feet are safe and progressing well, as well as provide permanent treatment solutions for troublesome, recurring ingrown nails that can solve the problem for good. (
  • People with diabetes frequently experience foot issues. (
  • Heel pain can be a big problem for diabetics, but you don't have to suffer from it any longer with the best diabetic heel cushions and cups. (
  • All patients with diabetes should receive an annual comprehensive foot exam, according to the 2018 American Diabetes Association's (ADA) Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes-2018. (
  • Our systematic reviews show that more research is needed before we can be sure about which specialist footwear and footwear materials are the most effective for diabetic foot. (
  • Patient 2, a 66-year-old type 2 diabetic patient, tried to treat a small dermal lesion caused by improper footwear by using a hot paraffin footbath, but during this unusual self-treatment a painless and unperceived burn injury developed. (
  • As our feet are spent in closed footwear all day long, bacteria and fungi tend to thrive and survive. (
  • It is important to take the time to inspect your feet, practice good foot hygiene, and choose proper footwear. (
  • Once you have the proper diabetic footwear, make sure you engage the muscles and joints in order to minimize stiffness. (
  • Please visit for the best selection in diabetic footwear and all your brace/support needs. (
  • To prevent severe foot burn injuries, continuous education should be provided for diabetic patients with sensory loss of the lower extremities due to neuropathic complications. (
  • This protocol for a systematic review aims at identifying the beneficial and harmful effects of adding hyperbaric oxygen therapy to standard wound care for diabetic foot ulcers. (
  • In the US, it is reported that the annual direct costs of diabetic foot complications are greater than the five major cancers . (
  • The current guideline in the United Kingdom recommends collecting 8-10 pieces of information for predicting the development of foot ulcers. (
  • Being overweight and using alcohol and tobacco can also play a role in the development of foot ulcers. (
  • Diabetic foot lesions are responsible for more hospitalizations than any other complication of diabetes. (
  • A diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is the most frequently occurring complication associated with diabetes and one that healthcare providers will encounter across the continuum of care. (
  • Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are a serious complication of diabetes, with complex pathogenic factors. (
  • Diabetic foot conditions can be acute or chronic complications of diabetes. (
  • The findings of this study suggest that ON101, a macrophage regulator that behaves differently from moisture-retaining dressings, represents an active-healing alternative for home and primary care of patients with chronic [diabetic foot ulcers]," the researchers conclude. (
  • Refer patients who smoke and/or have structural abnormalities or have a history of prior lower-extremity complications to foot care specialists for continuing preventive care and lifelong surveillance, when warranted. (
  • Bioengineered skin (BS) has been shown to play an important role in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). (
  • Conn Hastings, Medgadget: Please give us an overview of diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) and their consequences for patients. (
  • DFUs develop from a combination of factors such as lack of feeling in the foot, poor circulation, irritation (such as friction or pressure), and duration of diabetes. (
  • In a striking convergence of veterinary biology and medical science, researchers from the University of Sheffield have unveiled findings that could potentially advance the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers, a condition affecting an estimated 18.6 million people worldwide. (
  • Foot care clinics recorded around 25 000 visits for diabetic foot ulcer treatment. (
  • Care for patients attending the diabetic foot clinics ranges from providing information on how to check for signs of foot ulcers, foot ulcer treatment, scheduling yearly screenings - or more regular checks depending on the risk category - and encouraging healthier lifestyles such as quitting smoking and cutting down on sugar, salt and fat. (
  • He sought treatment at the Diabetic Vascular Centre. (
  • Our role is not only limited to wound dressing and treatment, but it has a more holistic approach to ensure that patients adhere to their often long and tedious foot ulcer management," says Dr Ozeer. (
  • MiMedx , a medtech company based in Georgia, has developed EpiFix , an off-the-shelf allograft system for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. (
  • This includes coverage by the largest U.S. commercial payor as a proven and medically necessary option in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. (
  • The primary goal in the treatment of foot ulcers is to obtain healing as soon as possible. (
  • Tightly controlling blood glucose is of the utmost importance during the treatment of a diabetic foot ulcer. (
  • This study investigates whether, compared to standard treatment, immediate restoration of blood flow (revascularization) can reduce complications and improve diabetic foot ulcer healing. (
  • Describe the important components of off-loading in the prevention and treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. (
  • Always get early treatment for foot problems. (
  • We plan to include all relevant randomised clinical trials assessing the effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcer versus any control group with any intervention defined as standard wound care or similar, together with sham interventions. (
  • Could Nebivolol be an Alternative Drug for the Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcers? (
  • General foot conditions and treatment are something that needs to be known by all. (
  • Early treatment and daily inspection of diabetic feet are keys to staying healthy. (
  • If you are suffering from diabetic foot pain, it is important consult your physician so that you can create a custom treatment plan. (
  • My aunt had diabetes for years and she developed gangrene of foot. (
  • After you dry your feet, you can use talcum powder or cornstarch between your toes. (
  • Wiggle your toes and circle your feet throughout the day. (
  • In that case, one or more of the toes, part or all of the foot, and sometimes part of the leg may have to be removed (amputated). (
  • Moisturize: Keep your feet hydrated with a diabetic-friendly moisturizer, but avoid applying it between the toes to prevent excess moisture. (
  • Guarantee to really look at your feet and the areas between your toes day to day. (
  • Make sure to pat your feet and the districts between your toes dry immediately. (
  • Whenever you feel any strange signs or sensation in your feet toes or legs, educate your PCP concerning something similar regardless of how paltry it might appear. (
  • As nerve hurt stays eccentric, any change of sensation to the toes, feet or legs, no matter what its detail, should be immediately brought to the thought of a specialist. (
  • Some of the tips that you could follow are to maintain your feet, especially the area between your toes, dirt free and to keep them dry so as to avoid any sort of contamination. (
  • Check your feet and toes every day by carefully looking at the top, sides, soles, heels and toes. (
  • hair loss on your lower legs, foot, and toes. (
  • More than 60 000 diabetes patients were seen in 2019 in the various diabetic foot care clinics and primary health facilities across the country. (
  • Malabu UH, Al-Rubeaan KA, Al-Derewish M. Diabetic foot osteomyelitis: usefulness of erythrocyte sedimentation rate in its diagnosis. (
  • 2-4 Patients with diabetes, particularly those with poorly controlled diabetes, are more susceptible to foot-related complications ( Table 1 ). (
  • Due to elevated blood sugar levels, diabetics are often susceptible to developing blisters and ulcers. (
  • A diabetic patients' compromised circulation, nerve impairment and damaged immune system can leave them susceptible to foot ulcers. (
  • Patient 1, a 51-year-old type 2 diabetic patient, was observed with a burn injury of the digits I-V of the right foot due to an unperceived thermal injury while working at a house construction site and wearing shoes. (
  • Aim of the study was to find these predictors in type 2 diabetic patients with DFU. (
  • The resulting bone deformity is known as Charcot foot. (
  • Charcot causes a complete collapse of the joints in the foot most commonly in the mid-foot area leading to a permanent foot deformity known as rocker-bottom. (
  • The original Diabetic Foot Model represents a foot with three ulcers in various stages of development as well as other features commonly associated with diabetes. (
  • As one of the most accessible health care providers, pharmacists are in a pivotal position to educate patients with diabetes, especially those with a new diagnosis, about the serious nature of routine diabetic foot care to delay or prevent complications. (
  • He was diabetic and currently on dialysis, had a heart condition, circulation issues with legs and feet, etc. (
  • Ulcers form due to a combination of factors, such as lack of feeling in the foot, poor circulation, foot deformities, irritation (such as friction or pressure), and trauma, as well as duration of diabetes. (
  • For this reason, massaging the soles of your feet will help in increasing circulation. (
  • Red, Hot, and Swollen Foot in Diabetes: Charcot or No? (
  • They can happen over time when high blood sugar damages the nerves and blood vessels in the feet. (
  • Diabetes can damage the nerve endings and blood vessels in your feet. (
  • Blood vessels located all over the body are damaged due to diabetes-even the blood vessels of the feet. (
  • They may develop gradually as a result of injury to the nerves and blood vessels in the foot caused by excessive blood sugar. (
  • How does diabetes cause foot problems? (
  • When should I see my health care provider about diabetic foot problems? (
  • Serious foot problems can develop quickly. (
  • Remember, controlling your blood sugar and caring for your feet every day are the best steps you can take to prevent serious diabetic foot problems. (
  • Smoking affects blood flow and can make foot problems worse. (
  • Unfortunately, foot problems are often a common result of having diabetes. (
  • Learn about tips to cure common foot problems, burning feet cures and foot care for diabetes. (
  • Shoes that confine your feet prevent proper blood flow properly and can lead to foot problems such as calluses and improper balance. (
  • The diabetic population has increased significantly over the years, and diabetic skin care products are becoming more available to help diabetic individuals take proper care and prevent skin problems. (
  • Circulatory issues can compound these problems and further contribute to diabetic foot pain. (
  • What results in diabetic foot problems? (
  • This guideline covers preventing and managing foot problems in children, young people and adults with diabetes. (
  • As mentioned before, it's important to recognize if your feet have cuts, sores, blisters, plantar warts, ingrown toenails, or other troubling foot conditions to stay ahead of the issue and prevent yourself from further harm. (
  • There's a lot that comes to mind when we think of diabetes, and for most people, the risks to their feet and ingrown toenails are not one of them. (
  • Diabetic ulcers are dangerous complications of diabetes that work this way. (
  • The cost of treating diabetes-related foot issues puts a significant financial burden on healthcare services . (
  • While costs are increasing, healthcare professionals have yet to find an effective way to screen diabetic patients and treat complications caused by the disease. (
  • Influence of an anti-diabetic foot ulcer formula and its component herbs on tissue and systemic glucose homeostasis. (
  • The skin on the bottom of the feet and especially heels are prone to dryness and cracking. (
  • It may also be useful in certain cases to moisturize your feet a few times a week, especially if you're prone to dryness. (
  • Diabetic ulcers can arise from small cuts or tiny blisters that often go unnoticed. (