A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.
Substances which lower blood glucose levels.
Glucose in blood.
Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)
Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.
KIDNEY injuries associated with diabetes mellitus and affecting KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; ARTERIOLES; KIDNEY TUBULES; and the interstitium. Clinical signs include persistent PROTEINURIA, from microalbuminuria progressing to ALBUMINURIA of greater than 300 mg/24 h, leading to reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.
Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.
Diabetes mellitus induced by PREGNANCY but resolved at the end of pregnancy. It does not include previously diagnosed diabetics who become pregnant (PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS). Gestational diabetes usually develops in late pregnancy when insulin antagonistic hormones peaks leading to INSULIN RESISTANCE; GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; and HYPERGLYCEMIA.
Abnormally high BLOOD GLUCOSE level.
A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).
VASCULAR DISEASES that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
Disease of the RETINA as a complication of DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the progressive microvascular complications, such as ANEURYSM, interretinal EDEMA, and intraocular PATHOLOGIC NEOVASCULARIZATION.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.
The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.
An antibiotic that is produced by Stretomyces achromogenes. It is used as an antineoplastic agent and to induce diabetes in experimental animals.
A life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus, primarily of TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS with severe INSULIN deficiency and extreme HYPERGLYCEMIA. It is characterized by KETOSIS; DEHYDRATION; and depressed consciousness leading to COMA.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
The time period before the development of symptomatic diabetes. For example, certain risk factors can be observed in subjects who subsequently develop INSULIN RESISTANCE as in type 2 diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 2).
A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.
A disease that is characterized by frequent urination, excretion of large amounts of dilute URINE, and excessive THIRST. Etiologies of diabetes insipidus include deficiency of antidiuretic hormone (also known as ADH or VASOPRESSIN) secreted by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS, impaired KIDNEY response to ADH, and impaired hypothalamic regulation of thirst.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A biguanide hypoglycemic agent used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus not responding to dietary modification. Metformin improves glycemic control by improving insulin sensitivity and decreasing intestinal absorption of glucose. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p289)
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Self evaluation of whole blood glucose levels outside the clinical laboratory. A digital or battery-operated reflectance meter may be used. It has wide application in controlling unstable insulin-dependent diabetes.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The middle segment of proinsulin that is between the N-terminal B-chain and the C-terminal A-chain. It is a pancreatic peptide of about 31 residues, depending on the species. Upon proteolytic cleavage of proinsulin, equimolar INSULIN and C-peptide are released. C-peptide immunoassay has been used to assess pancreatic beta cell function in diabetic patients with circulating insulin antibodies or exogenous insulin. Half-life of C-peptide is 30 min, almost 8 times that of insulin.
The presence of albumin in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.
Abstaining from all food.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC 4.1.1.15.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
A diet prescribed in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, usually limited in the amount of sugar or readily available carbohydrate. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus which is a model for spontaneous insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, INSULIN-DEPENDENT).
THIAZOLES with two keto oxygens. Members are insulin-sensitizing agents which overcome INSULIN RESISTANCE by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma).
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Portable or implantable devices for infusion of insulin. Includes open-loop systems which may be patient-operated or controlled by a pre-set program and are designed for constant delivery of small quantities of insulin, increased during food ingestion, and closed-loop systems which deliver quantities of insulin automatically based on an electronic glucose sensor.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
An amino sugar formed when glucose non-enzymatically reacts with the N-terminal amino group of proteins. The fructose moiety is derived from glucose by the "classical" Amadori rearrangement.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Compounds that suppress the degradation of INCRETINS by blocking the action of DIPEPTIDYL-PEPTIDASE IV. This helps to correct the defective INSULIN and GLUCAGON secretion characteristic of TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS by stimulating insulin secretion and suppressing glucagon release.
Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.
Common foot problems in persons with DIABETES MELLITUS, caused by any combination of factors such as DIABETIC NEUROPATHIES; PERIPHERAL VASCULAR DISEASES; and INFECTION. With the loss of sensation and poor circulation, injuries and infections often lead to severe foot ulceration, GANGRENE and AMPUTATION.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.
Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.
A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
The appearance of an abnormally large amount of GLUCOSE in the urine, such as more than 500 mg/day in adults. It can be due to HYPERGLYCEMIA or genetic defects in renal reabsorption (RENAL GLYCOSURIA).
Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A pancreatic beta-cell hormone that is co-secreted with INSULIN. It displays an anorectic effect on nutrient metabolism by inhibiting gastric acid secretion, gastric emptying and postprandial GLUCAGON secretion. Islet amyloid polypeptide can fold into AMYLOID FIBRILS that have been found as a major constituent of pancreatic AMYLOID DEPOSITS.
The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
The transference of pancreatic islets within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
A broad approach to appropriate coordination of the entire disease treatment process that often involves shifting away from more expensive inpatient and acute care to areas such as preventive medicine, patient counseling and education, and outpatient care. This concept includes implications of appropriate versus inappropriate therapy on the overall cost and clinical outcome of a particular disease. (From Hosp Pharm 1995 Jul;30(7):596)
A pancreatic polypeptide of about 110 amino acids, depending on the species, that is the precursor of insulin. Proinsulin, produced by the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, is comprised sequentially of the N-terminal B-chain, the proteolytically removable connecting C-peptide, and the C-terminal A-chain. It also contains three disulfide bonds, two between A-chain and B-chain. After cleavage at two locations, insulin and C-peptide are the secreted products. Intact proinsulin with low bioactivity also is secreted in small amounts.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)
A hereditary condition characterized by multiple symptoms including those of DIABETES INSIPIDUS; DIABETES MELLITUS; OPTIC ATROPHY; and DEAFNESS. This syndrome is also known as DIDMOAD (first letter of each word) and is usually associated with VASOPRESSIN deficiency. It is caused by mutations in gene WFS1 encoding wolframin, a 100-kDa transmembrane protein.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.
Peptides which stimulate INSULIN release from the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS following oral nutrient ingestion, or postprandially.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.
Poisonous animal secretions forming fluid mixtures of many different enzymes, toxins, and other substances. These substances are produced in specialized glands and secreted through specialized delivery systems (nematocysts, spines, fangs, etc.) for disabling prey or predator.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.
A type of diabetes mellitus that is characterized by severe INSULIN RESISTANCE and LIPODYSTROPHY. The latter may be generalized, partial, acquired, or congenital (LIPODYSTROPHY, CONGENITAL GENERALIZED).
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Products derived from the nonenzymatic reaction of GLUCOSE and PROTEINS in vivo that exhibit a yellow-brown pigmentation and an ability to participate in protein-protein cross-linking. These substances are involved in biological processes relating to protein turnover and it is believed that their excessive accumulation contributes to the chronic complications of DIABETES MELLITUS.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Diabetes complications in which VENTRICULAR REMODELING in the absence of CORONARY ATHEROSCLEROSIS and hypertension results in cardiac dysfunctions, typically LEFT VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION. The changes also result in myocardial hypertrophy, myocardial necrosis and fibrosis, and collagen deposition due to impaired glucose tolerance.
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the metabolism, physiology, and disorders of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
A tricyclo bridged hydrocarbon.
The transference of a pancreas from one human or animal to another.
Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.
Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
A numerical system of measuring the rate of BLOOD GLUCOSE generation from a particular food item as compared to a reference item, such as glucose = 100. Foods with higher glycemic index numbers create greater blood sugar swings.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
An inbred strain of Long-Evans rats that develops hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and mild obesity, mostly in males, that resembles non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in humans. It was developed from outbred Long-Evans stock in 1983.

Tissue-specific knockout of the insulin receptor in pancreatic beta cells creates an insulin secretory defect similar to that in type 2 diabetes. (1/16781)

Dysfunction of the pancreatic beta cell is an important defect in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, although its exact relationship to the insulin resistance is unclear. To determine whether insulin signaling has a functional role in the beta cell we have used the Cre-loxP system to specifically inactivate the insulin receptor gene in the beta cells. The resultant mice exhibit a selective loss of insulin secretion in response to glucose and a progressive impairment of glucose tolerance. These data indicate an important functional role for the insulin receptor in glucose sensing by the pancreatic beta cell and suggest that defects in insulin signaling at the level of the beta cell may contribute to the observed alterations in insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes.  (+info)

Glomerular size-selective dysfunction in NIDDM is not ameliorated by ACE inhibition or by calcium channel blockade. (2/16781)

BACKGROUND: In patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and overt nephropathy glomerular barrier size-selectivity progressively deteriorates with time and is effectively improved by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition. Whether similar glomerular functional changes develop in proteinuric patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), and whether antihypertensive agents can favorably affect glomerular filtration of macromolecules in these patients, has not been documented yet. METHODS: We investigated renal hemodynamics and fractional clearance of neutral dextrans of graded sizes, in nine proteinuric patients with NIDDM and renal biopsy findings of typical diabetic glomerulopathy. Six healthy volunteers served as controls. We also investigated the effects of an ACE inhibitor and of a calcium channel blocker, both given in doses targeted to achieve a comparable level of systemic blood pressure control, on glomerular hemodynamics and sieving function. Theoretical analysis of glomerular macromolecule transport was adopted to evaluate intrinsic glomerular membrane permeability properties. RESULTS: Fractional clearance of large macromolecules (42 to 66 A in radius) was significantly higher in diabetic patients than in controls, and the distribution of membrane pore radii was calculated to be shifted towards larger pore sizes in diabetics (mean radius increased from 55 to 60 A). Despite effective blood pressure control, neither antihypertensive affected glomerular hemodynamics to any significant extent. Fractional clearance of dextrans, as well as of albumin and IgG, and total urinary proteins were not modified by either treatments. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that patients with NIDDM and overt nephropathy develop abnormalities in size-selective function of the glomerular barrier and, at variance to IDDM, such changes were not ameliorated either by ACE inhibition or calcium channel blockade.  (+info)

Plasma total homocysteine and cysteine in relation to glomerular filtration rate in diabetes mellitus. (3/16781)

BACKGROUND: The plasma concentrations of total homocysteine (tHcy) and total cysteine (tCys) are determined by intracellular metabolism and by renal plasma clearance, and we hypothesized that glomerular filtration is a major determinant of plasma tHcy and tCys. We studied the relationships between the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and plasma tHcy and tCys in populations of diabetic patients with particularly wide ranges of GFR. METHODS: We measured GFR, urine albumin excretion rate (UAER), plasma tHcy, tCys, methionine, vitamin B12, folate, C-peptide, and routine parameters in 50 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and 30 non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients. All patients underwent intensive insulin treatment and had a serum creatinine concentration below 115 micromol/liter. RESULTS: Mean plasma tHcy in diabetic patients (0.1 micromol/liter) was lower than in normal persons (11.1 micromol/liter, P = 0.0014). Mean plasma tCys in diabetic patients (266.1 micromol/liter) was also lower than in normal persons (281.9 micromol/liter, P = 0.0005). Seventy-three percent of the diabetic patients had relative hyperfiltration. Plasma tHcy and tCys were closely and independently associated with GFR, serum folate, and serum B12. However, plasma tHcy was not independently associated with any of the 22 other variables tested, including age, serum creatinine concentration, UAER, total daily insulin dose, and glycemic control. CONCLUSIONS: Glomerular filtration rate is an independent determinant of plasma tHcy and tCys concentrations, and GFR is rate limiting for renal clearance of both homocysteine and cysteine in diabetic patients without overt nephropathy. Declining GFR explains the age-related increase in plasma tHcy, and hyperfiltration explains the lower than normal mean plasma tHcy and tCys concentrations in populations of diabetic patients.  (+info)

Type 2 diabetes: evidence for linkage on chromosome 20 in 716 Finnish affected sib pairs. (4/16781)

We are conducting a genome scan at an average resolution of 10 centimorgans (cM) for type 2 diabetes susceptibility genes in 716 affected sib pairs from 477 Finnish families. To date, our best evidence for linkage is on chromosome 20 with potentially separable peaks located on both the long and short arms. The unweighted multipoint maximum logarithm of odds score (MLS) was 3.08 on 20p (location, chi = 19.5 cM) under an additive model, whereas the weighted MLS was 2.06 on 20q (chi = 57 cM, recurrence risk,lambda(s) = 1. 25, P = 0.009). Weighted logarithm of odds scores of 2.00 (chi = 69.5 cM, P = 0.010) and 1.92 (chi = 18.5 cM, P = 0.013) were also observed. Ordered subset analyses based on sibships with extreme mean values of diabetes-related quantitative traits yielded sets of families who contributed disproportionately to the peaks. Two-hour glucose levels in offspring of diabetic individuals gave a MLS of 2. 12 (P = 0.0018) at 9.5 cM. Evidence from this and other studies suggests at least two diabetes-susceptibility genes on chromosome 20. We have also screened the gene for maturity-onset diabetes of the young 1, hepatic nuclear factor 4-a (HNF-4alpha) in 64 affected sibships with evidence for high chromosomal sharing at its location on chromosome 20q. We found no evidence that sequence changes in this gene accounted for the linkage results we observed.  (+info)

Incidence of analgesic nephropathy in Berlin since 1983. (5/16781)

BACKGROUND: Phenacetin was removed from the German market in 1986 and was replaced mainly in analgesic compounds by acetaminophen. Our objective was to examine the effect of this measure on the incidence of analgesic nephropathy in light of the changes in other end-stage renal diseases. METHODS: We therefore compared the proportion of renal diseases in all patients starting dialysis treatment during three 18-month periods: 4/1982-9/1983 (n=57); 1/1991-6/1992 (n=81); and 10/1995-3/1997 (n=76). RESULTS: On the one hand, the proportion of end-stage analgesic nephropathy decreased significantly from 30% in 1981-1982 to 21% in 1991-1992 and 12% in 1995-1997 (P=0.01). On the other hand, type II diabetes increased significantly from 7% to 22% (P=0.01) and 29%, (P=0.001). Using the chi2 distribution test to analyze the frequencies of seven diseases at three different time intervals, however, showed that the changes in renal-disease proportions between 1982-1983, 1991-1992 and 1995-1997 were not significantly independent. There was a significant median age increase from 52 years (CI0.95 44-58) in 1982-1983 to 63 (CI0.95 55-67) in 1991-1992 and 63 (CI0.95 60-66) in 1995-1997 (P=0.003) for all patients starting dialysis but not for those with analgesic nephropathy [59 (55-71) vs 64 (53-67) and 61 (50-72); n.s.]. CONCLUSION: The decrease of end-stage analgesic nephropathy since 1983 may be partially due to the removal of phenacetin from the German market in 1986. However, considering the general increase in numbers of dialysis patients, their higher age and the increased incidence of type II diabetes, the decrease in analgesic nephropathy is not a statistically significant independent variable. Altered admittance policies for dialysis treatment have yielded a new pattern of renal-disease proportion which interferes with changes in the incidence of analgesic nephropathy.  (+info)

Abysmal prognosis of patients with type 2 diabetes entering dialysis. (6/16781)

INTRODUCTION: The importance of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type II diabetes) as a leading cause of end-stage renal disease is now widely recognized. The purpose of this study was to assess life-prognosis and its predictors in a cohort of patients newly entering dialysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty-four consecutive type II diabetes patients (40% of all patients) starting dialysis between 01/01/95 and 31/12/96 were studied retrospectively, focusing on clinical data at inception and life-prognosis after a mean follow-up of 211 days. Patients were divided into three groups, according to onset of renal failure: acute 11% (9/84), chronic 61% (51/84) and acutely aggravated chronic renal failure 28% (25/84). RESULTS: Patients (mean age 67 years) had long-standing diabetes (mean duration approximately 15 years), heavy proteinuria (approximately 3 g/24h) and diabetic retinopathy (67%). The average creatinine clearance (Cockcroft's formula) was 13 ml/min. Cardiovascular diseases were highly prevalent at the start of dialysis: history of myocardial infarction (26%), angina (36%) and acute left ventricular dysfunction (67%). More than 80% of the patients underwent the first session dialysis under emergency conditions, a situation in part related to late referral to the nephrology division (63% for chronic patients). A great majority of the patients were overhydrated when starting dialysis, as evidenced by the average weight loss of 6 kg, during the first month of dialysis, required to reach dry weight. Nearly 64% of the patients presented high blood pressure (> 140/90 mmHg) when starting dialysis despite antihypertensive therapy (mean: 2.3 drugs). The outcome of this type II diabetes population was dramatic: 32% (27/84) died after a mean follow-up of 211 days, mostly from cardiovascular diseases. The rate of recovery of renal function was low in both the acute and the acutely aggravated renal failure group (30% and 24%, respectively). Of note, iatrogenic nephrotoxic agents accounted for renal function impairment in nearly 30% of patients. CONCLUSION: Our observational study illustrates the high burden of cardiovascular diseases contrasting with sub-optimal cardiovascular therapeutic interventions in type II diabetes patients entering dialysis. Factors aggravating renal failure were mainly iatrogenic, and therefore largely avoidable. Late referral generally implied a poor clinical condition at the start of dialysis.  (+info)

Increased insulin sensitivity and obesity resistance in mice lacking the protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B gene. (7/16781)

Protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP-1B) has been implicated in the negative regulation of insulin signaling. Disruption of the mouse homolog of the gene encoding PTP-1B yielded healthy mice that, in the fed state, had blood glucose concentrations that were slightly lower and concentrations of circulating insulin that were one-half those of their PTP-1B+/+ littermates. The enhanced insulin sensitivity of the PTP-1B-/- mice was also evident in glucose and insulin tolerance tests. The PTP-1B-/- mice showed increased phosphorylation of the insulin receptor in liver and muscle tissue after insulin injection in comparison to PTP-1B+/+ mice. On a high-fat diet, the PTP-1B-/- and PTP-1B+/- mice were resistant to weight gain and remained insulin sensitive, whereas the PTP-1B+/+ mice rapidly gained weight and became insulin resistant. These results demonstrate that PTP-1B has a major role in modulating both insulin sensitivity and fuel metabolism, thereby establishing it as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity.  (+info)

Angiotensin II receptor type 1 gene expression in human glomerulonephritis and diabetes mellitus. (8/16781)

The renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in the progression of chronic renal disease. Although the expression of renin and angiotensin-converting enzyme in experimental and human renal disease has been well characterized, no information is available regarding human angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor expression. The net effect of renin depends on AT1 receptor expression, among other factors. Receptor expression was determined in renal biopsy samples (including all tissue components) and isolated glomeruli from patients with glomerulonephritis (GN) or diabetic nephropathy (non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus). Biopsy samples and isolated glomeruli from tumor-free tissue from tumor nephrectomies served as controls. Human AT1 receptor gene expression was determined by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, using an AT1 receptor deletion mutant as the internal standard. In whole biopsy samples from 37 patients with various types of GN, AT1 receptor mRNA levels were lower, compared with nine control biopsy samples (P < 0.001). AT1 receptor mRNA levels were also significantly lower (P < 0.001) in eight samples from patients with diabetic nephropathy. In microdissected glomeruli, AT1 receptor gene expression was significantly lower in samples from patients (n = 22) with various types of GN, compared with 12 microdissected tumor nephrectomy control samples (P < 0.0023). It is concluded that AT1 receptor mRNA expression is low in glomeruli of patients with chronic renal disease. This may reflect a regulatory response to (inappropriately) high intrarenal angiotensin II concentrations.  (+info)

Also known as: T2DM / Noninsulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus, Type II / Diabetes Type Two / Type Two Diabetes Mellitus / NIDDM / Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus / Diabetes Mellitus Non-insulin-dependent / Type 2 Diabetes / Diabetes, Type 2 / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) / Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) / Diabetes Mellitus,Type 2 / Diabetes Mellitus. Type 2 / Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 / Diabetes Mellitus Type-2 / Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus / Diabetes Mellitus 2 Type / Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 (T2DM) / Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 (T2DM) / T2DM (Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2D) / Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / Type-2 Diabetes / Diabetes Type 2 / Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM) / Type II Diabetes / Diabetes, Type II / Type-II Diabetes Mellitus / Type II Diabetes Mellitus / Diabetes Mellitus, Type II / Diabetes Type II / Type II; Diabetes / Diabetes Mellitus Type II / Diabetes mellitus -adult onset / Diabetes mellitus non insulin-dep / Maturity onset diabetes / Diabetes mellitus maturity ...
Also known as: T2DM / Noninsulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus, Type II / Diabetes Type Two / Type Two Diabetes Mellitus / NIDDM / Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus / Diabetes Mellitus Non-insulin-dependent / Type 2 Diabetes / Diabetes, Type 2 / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) / Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) / Diabetes Mellitus,Type 2 / Diabetes Mellitus. Type 2 / Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 / Diabetes Mellitus Type-2 / Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus / Diabetes Mellitus 2 Type / Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 (T2DM) / Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 (T2DM) / T2DM (Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2D) / Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / Type-2 Diabetes / Diabetes Type 2 / Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM) / Type II Diabetes / Diabetes, Type II / Type-II Diabetes Mellitus / Type II Diabetes Mellitus / Diabetes Mellitus, Type II / Diabetes Type II / Type II; Diabetes / Diabetes Mellitus Type II / Diabetes mellitus -adult onset / Diabetes mellitus non insulin-dep / Maturity onset diabetes / Diabetes mellitus maturity ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Public health significance of upper body adiposity for non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in Mexican Americans. AU - Haffner, S. M.. AU - Mitchell, B. D.. AU - Stern, M. P.. AU - Hazuda, H. P.. AU - Patterson, J. K.. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. N2 - An unfavourable body fat distribution has been associated with an increased prevalence and incidence of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The potential utility of assessing body fat distribution in diabetes screening, however, has not been assessed. We compared the impact of upper body fat distribution (assessed by the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)) and body mass index (BMI) on NIDDM using the population attributable risk approach of Levin in 1965 Mexican Americans from the San Antonio Heart Study, a population-based study of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The population attributable risk percentage (PAR %) was 52.0% for WHR compared to 43.4% for body mass index. After stratification by BMI, women with a high WHR had a ...
Type 2 Diabetes - Non-Insulin Dependent - Diabetes Mellitus & Pregnancy. Type 2 - non-insulin dependent - diabetes is characterized by insufficient insulin receptors to effect proper glucose control after insulin is released insulin resistance
1. In the management of the non-insulin dependent diabetic patient, metformin often facilitates weight loss whereas sulphonylurea may predispose to weight gain. To investigate whether this is due to alterations in energy expenditure we have studied energy expenditure in seven non-insulin dependent diabetic subjects while on metformin or sulphonylurea therapy.. 2. Three components of energy expenditure were measured by indirect calorimetry, namely resting metabolic rate and the thermic responses to infused noradrenaline and to a mixed constituent meal.. 3. There was no significant difference in the resting metabolic rate on metformin (5.29 ± 0.41 kJ/min; mean ± se) compared with sulphonylurea (5.34 ± 0.34 kJ/min). The resting metabolic rate was also similar to predicted values for non-diabetic subjects (r = 0.96).. 4. The thermic response to infused noradrenaline was similar on metformin (23.14 ± 1.87 kJ) and sulphonylurea (21.40 ± 2.98 kJ).. 5. There was no significant difference in the ...
PURPOSE: To report the progress (after 9-year follow-up) of a study designed to determine whether improved glucose control in patients with newly diagnosed non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is effective in reducing the incidence of clinical complications. DATA SOURCE: A multicenter, randomized, controlled trial of different therapies for NIDDM. After initial diet therapy, 4209 asymptomatic patients who remained hyperglycemic (fasting plasma glucose levels, 6.0 to 15.0 mmol/L) were assigned to either a conventional therapy policy, primarily with diet alone, or to an intensive therapy policy, aiming for fasting plasma glucose levels of less than 6.0 mmol/L, with assignment to primary therapy with sulfonylurea or insulin (which increased insulin supply) or metformin (which enhanced insulin sensitivity). RESULTS: All three modes of pharmacologic therapy in the intensively treated group-sulfonylurea, insulin, and metformin-had similar efficacy in reducing the fasting plasma glucose and glycated
Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) 4G/5G Allele Polymorphisms and NIDDM(Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus) Risk Factor for Early Onset Myocardial Infarction ..
High levels of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene were found to be associated with decreased risk of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, but the association disappeared after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors.
Lifestyle modification as part of initial management Measure HbA1c every 3 months depending on Have lifestyle modifications been successful? Consider oral hypoglycaemic agents Is there renal and/or cardiac dysfunction Consider either metformin or a sulphonylurea Optimise dose of oral hypoglycaemic agent If patient on sulphonylurea and has normal renal function and has no cardiac dysfunction Consider adding a thiazolidinedione or insulin • E11 Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus o E11.0 Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus with coma o E11.1 Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus with ketoacidosis o E11.2 Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus with renal o E11.3 Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus with ophthalmic o E11.4 Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus with neurological o E11.5 Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus with peripheral o E11.6 Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus with other specified o E11.7 Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus with multiple o E11.8 ...
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The UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) is a multi-centre, prospective, randomised, intervention trial of 5100 newly-diagnosed patients with Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus which aims to determine whether improved blood glucose control will prevent complications and reduce the associated morbidity and mortality. Newly presenting Type 2 diabetic patients aged 25-65 years inclusive, median age 53 years, median body mass index 28 kg/m2 and median fasting plasma glucose 11.3 mmol/l, were recruited and treated initially by diet. Ninety five percent remained hyperglycaemic (fasting plasma glucose greater than 6 mmol/l) and were randomly allocated to different therapies. In the main randomisation, those who were asymptomatic and had fasting plasma glucose under 15 mmol/l were allocated either to diet policy, or to active policy with either insulin or sulphonylurea aiming to reduce the fasting plasma glucose to under 6 mmol/l. Over 3 years, the median fasting plasma glucose in those allocated
Archives of Ophthalmology 2004;122:1631-1640. Published:Nov-2004. PMID:15534123. doi:10.1001/archopht.122.11.1631. A model to estimate the lifetime health outcomes of patients with type 2 diabetes: the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Outcomes Model (UKPDS 68) ...
Clinical and biochemical variables and prevalence of complications at diagnosis of diabetes were assessed in 5098 Type 2 diabetic patients in the UK Prospective Diabetes Study of whom 82% were white Caucasian, 10% Asian of Indian origin, and 8% Afro-Caribbean. The Asian patients were (p | 0.001) younger (mean age 52.3, 47.0, 51.0 years), less obese (BMI 29.3, 26.7, 27.9 kg m-2), had a greater waist-hip ratio, lower blood pressure (systolic 145, 139, 144, diastolic 87, 86, 89 mmHg) and prevalence of hypertension. They were more often sedentary (19, 39, 15%), more often abstained from alcohol (21, 55, 25%) and had a greater prevalence of first degree relatives with known diabetes (36, 44, 34%). The Afro-Caribbean patients had (p | 0.001) higher fasting plasma glucose (11.9, 11.3, 12.5 mmol l-1), more severely impaired beta-cell function (45, 35, 28% normal) and less impaired insulin sensitivity (23, 19, 27% normal) by homeostasis model assessment, lower triglyceride (1.8, 1.8, 1.3 mmol l-1), and higher
Clinical and biochemical variables and prevalence of complications at diagnosis of diabetes were assessed in 5098 Type 2 diabetic patients in the UK Prospective Diabetes Study of whom 82% were white Caucasian, 10% Asian of Indian origin, and 8% Afro-Caribbean. The Asian patients were (p | 0.001) younger (mean age 52.3, 47.0, 51.0 years), less obese (BMI 29.3, 26.7, 27.9 kg m-2), had a greater waist-hip ratio, lower blood pressure (systolic 145, 139, 144, diastolic 87, 86, 89 mmHg) and prevalence of hypertension. They were more often sedentary (19, 39, 15%), more often abstained from alcohol (21, 55, 25%) and had a greater prevalence of first degree relatives with known diabetes (36, 44, 34%). The Afro-Caribbean patients had (p | 0.001) higher fasting plasma glucose (11.9, 11.3, 12.5 mmol l-1), more severely impaired beta-cell function (45, 35, 28% normal) and less impaired insulin sensitivity (23, 19, 27% normal) by homeostasis model assessment, lower triglyceride (1.8, 1.8, 1.3 mmol l-1), and higher
Medical Decision Making 2002;4:340-349. Published:Aug-2002. PMID:12150599. doi:10.1177/0272989X0202200412. Risk of Stroke in Type 2 Diabetes Estimated by the UK Prospective Diabetes Study Risk Engine ...
Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), is characterized by progressively increasing blood glucose levels due to insulin resistance and eventual insulin deficiency caused by loss of Beta cell function. To start with only postprandial (PPG) levels are raised and later on fasting plasma glucose (FBG) is also increased. It is noted that hypertension, dyslipidemias, weight gain and CVD are more prevalent among diabetics. Anti-diabetic agents used for control of diabetes mellitus must be able to improve blood glucose, blood pressure, lipid levels and body weight. Insulin and OHGs, both are effective treatment regimens in controlling hyperglycemic events. Objective: (1) To determine mean triglyceride, HDL and LDL levels in controlled type II diabetes mellitus patients. To compare mean triglyceride, HDL and LDL levels in controlled type II diabetes mellitus patients using oral hypoglycemic drugs with patient using insulin. Settings: Department of Medicine, Allied/DHQ hospital, Faisalabad. ...
This study was undertaken to assess the effect of concentrated pomegranate juice consumption on lipid profiles of type II diabetic patients with hyperlipidemia (total cholesterol or triglycerides | or = 200 mg/dL). In this pilot study 22 diabetic patients were recruited from the Iranian Diabetes …
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Retinopathy and microalbuminuria in type II diabetic patients: 1471-2415-4-9.fm ral ss BioMed CentBMC Ophthalmology Open AcceResearch article Retinopathy and mi
You searched for: Journal Analytical biochemistry Remove constraint Journal: Analytical biochemistry Publication Year 2012 Remove constraint Publication Year: 2012 Subject noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus Remove constraint Subject: noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus ...
Previous studies-the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial1 in type 1 diabetes and the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study2 in type 2 diabetes-have clearly demonstrated the benefits of intensive glucose control for the prevention of the microvascular complications of diabetes (neuropathy, nephropathy and retinopathy). In addition, long-term follow-up of the younger subjects with type 1 diabetes who were enrolled in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial demonstrated that those in the intensive arm had a reduced risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD), long after the initial phase of the study.3 However, the effects … ...
Testing for Gestational Diabetes 28 weeks of pregnancy. Treating Cancer with Pancreatic Enzymes . Diabetes Ace Arb Georgia Coalition a dLife - Its YOUR Diabetes Life! answered.. This guideline presents recommendations for the management of patients with acute pancreatitis of 2 of the 3 following with type 2 diabetes This can be caused by diabetic ketoacidosis chronic alcoholism malnutrition or a low-carbohydrate high-fat dietall of which produce more keto acids than the metabolic process can handle. Another common cause of itchy skin is allergies. Follow-up point Values are accompanied by 95% CI (in parentheses) CHD = Coronary Heart Disease UKPDS = United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study. Diabetes Type 2 Icd 9 Code; Diabetes Travel Case; Foods That Help Diabetes; Diabetic Meal; Treatment For Diabetic Feet; Dealing With Diabetes; Diabetes Rash Pictures; Sugary Drinks Linked to Heart Attacks Stroke and Diabetes Review Finds. Meal Plan For Type 2 Diabetes A person who is season candidate is but ...
Penyakit diabetes mellitus adalah salah satu penyakit tidak menular, penyakit diabetes mellitus di Indonesia menduduki urutan ketujuh, sebagian besar penyandang diabetes di Indonesia adalah kelompok diabetes mellitus type II yaitu lebih dari 90% dari seluruh populasi diabetes. Dalam penanggulangan diabetes mellitus, klien diabetes mellitus harus memiliki pengetahuan tentang diabetes mellitus yang baik dan akhirnya dapat mencegah klien diabetes mellitus dari komplikasi lebih lanjut. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui gambaran pengetahuan klien tentang diabetes mellitus type II. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian deskriptif dengan rancangan penelitian cross sectional, menggunakan teknik total sampling yang berjumlah 54 responden. Alat ukur penelitian yang digunakan adalah kuesioner tentang diabetes mellitus dengan 20 butir soal. Analisis data menggunakan univariat berupa tabel frekuensi. Hasil penelitian didapatkan bahwa sebagian besar responden 31 orang (57,41%) memiliki ...
These results confirm that reduced fetal growth is associated with increased risk of non-insulin dependent diabetes and suggest a specific association with thinness at birth. Although the relation between size at birth and risk of diabetes is clearly non-linear, there is no evidence of the U shaped relation between diabetes and birth weight reported in Pima Americans, in whom non-insulin dependent diabetes is common even in women of childbearing age.13 McCance and colleagues suggested that the inverse association between fetal growth and diabetes could be accounted for by an inverse association between genetic susceptibility to diabetes and mortality among low birthweight infants.13 Our results are not consistent with this explanation: when the men in this cohort were born in 1920-4 the infant mortality in Uppsala County was around 60 per 1000 live births, similar to the national rate for Sweden.14 Even if all these deaths had occurred in the lowest fifth of the ponderal index among infants who ...
The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) was a medical study conducted by the United States National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). It significantly changed the management principles of diabetes mellitus from the 1990s onwards. The completed study was published in the New England Journal of Medicine in 1993. A study in the United Kingdom known as the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS), released in 1999, found similar results for people with type 2 diabetes. Between the two studies, the treatment of people with diabetes was significantly changed. Long-term microvascular and neurologic complications cause major morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes, and is the leading cause of blindness in the developed world. This study examined whether intensive treatment with the goal of maintaining blood glucose concentrations close to the normal range could decrease the frequency and severity of those complications. A total of 1,441 ...
ဆီးချိုအမျိုးအစား-၂ (my); 2 motako diabetes mellitus (eu); Сахарный диабет 2-го типа (ru); Diabetes Typ II (de); Diabetes mellitus type 2 (pam); دیابت نوع ۲ (fa); 2型糖尿病 (zh); Diabetes mellitus type 2 (da); Diabet zaharat de tipul 2 (ro); 2型糖尿病 (ja); Diabetes mellitus tip II (sq); typ 2-diabetes (sv); قسم-۲ ذیابیطس (ur); Цукровий діабет 2-го типу (uk); Diabete (lfn); Šećerna bolest tip 2 (hr); मधुमेह टाइप 2 (hi); మధుమేహము రకం 2 (te); Aikuistyypin diabetes (fi); diabetis mellitus tipus 2 (ca); duatipa sukera diabeto (eo); diabetes mellitus 2. typu (cs); நீரிழிவு நோய் (இரண்டாவது வகை) (ta); diabete mellito di tipo 2 (it); ডায়াবেটিস মেলিটাস টাইপ ২ (bn); diabète de type 2 (fr); diabetes mellitus type 2 (nn); II tüüpi diabeet (et); ހަކުރު ...
Foot ulcers are a severe complication of diabetic patients resulting from nerve and tendon pathologic alterations. In diabetic patients the tendons are thicker, shorter and have increased stiffness. We examined C57BL/KsJ (BKS.Cg-Dock7m +/+ Leprdb/J) (db/db) mice tendons to determine whether they are an animal model for human diabetic tendon changes. We hypothesized that the Achilles tendons of db/db diabetic mice would be thicker, stiffer, fail at lower loads and stresses, and have degenerative changes compared to control mice. Biomechanical and histologic analyses of the Achilles tendons of 16 week old db/db and control male mice were performed. There was a significant increase in tendon diameter and significant decreases in maximum load, tensile stress, stiffness and elastic modulus in tendons from diabetic mice compared to controls. Mild degenerative and neutrophil infiltration was observed near the tendon insertions on the calcaneous in 25% of db/db mice. In summary, hyper-glycemia and obesity lead
TY - JOUR. T1 - Treatment with an oral proteinase inhibitor slows gastric emptying and acutely reduces glucose and insulin levels after a liquid meal in type II diabetic patients. AU - Schwartz, Joyce G.. AU - Guan, Difu. AU - Green, Gary M.. AU - Phillips, William T.. PY - 1994/4. Y1 - 1994/4. N2 - OBJECTIVE - To determine whether an oral trypsin/chymotrypsin inhibitor, POT II will delay the rate of gastric emptying in recently diagnosed type II diabetic patients and improve their postprandial metabolic parameters. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Two gastric emptying studies were performed on each of six type II diabetic patients. During one study, the patient ingested a glucose/protein solution, and during the other study, the patient ingested the same glucose/protein solution with the addition of 1.5 g of POT II, a putative stimulant of cholecystokinin (CCK) release. Each patient served as their own control subject. Each of the two oral solutions were administered to the patients in a ...
BackgroundIran needs pragmatic screening methods for identifying those with undiagnosed type 2 diabetes or at high risk of developing it. The aim of this study was to assess performance of three non-invasive risk prediction models, i.e. the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC), the Australian Type 2 Diabetes Risk Assessment Tool (AUSDRISK), and the American Diabetes Association Risk Score (ADA), for identifying those with undiagnosed type 2 diabetes (prevalent type 2 diabetes at baseline without any treatment) or those who would develop type 2 diabetes within 5 years of follow-upMethods3467 participants aged ≥30 years without treated type 2 diabetes in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS) were included in this study. The discrimination power of models was assessed by area under the curve (AUC), their calibrations were assessed by calibration plots and Hosmer–Lemeshow test, and their net benefits were assessed by decision curves.Results430 participants had undiagnosed type 2 diabetes at
Yki-Järvinen and colleagues show the benefits of combination therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes that was poorly controlled with sulfonylureas. The study raises an interesting question: Should insulin be used as a second step in these patients? Other studies have found that adding metformin to sulfonylureas improves diabetes control (1); however, the duration of such an improvement seems limited (2). In the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study 33 (UKPDS 33), a gradual and progressive worsening of diabetes control was seen (2). In this 1-year study by Yki-Järvinen and colleagues, blood glucose control was excellent in the group treated with metformin and bedtime insulin, but it is possible that patients will not maintain the same degree of glycemic control beyond 1 year and might require the addition of other oral agents or the use of multiple daily insulin injections. Nevertheless, this study provides insight into a practical, safe, and effective method for adjusting insulin by ...
The goal of diabetes management is to keep levels of blood glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol as close to the normal range as safely possible. Medline Plus quotes strong evidence that keeping blood glucose levels close to normal reduces the risk of developing major complications of type 1 diabetes and keeps the risk reduced.. The United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study, completed in 1998, showed that intensive control of blood glucose and blood pressure reduced the risk of blindness, kidney disease, stroke, and heart attack in people with type 2 diabetes.. First Aid for hyper and hypoglycaemia: We have seen far too little mention in most information about diabetes concerning first aid. The authorised UK First Aid Manual advises that sugar should be given if a diabetic person is in crisis but still conscious and the cause is unclear. This will rapidly correct hypoglycaemia and will do little harm in hyperglycaemia. The next step is to dial 999 without delay. If the person in crisis knows ...
Guide To Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 is a serious condition. Learn about Guide To Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 or are you at risk for Guide To Diabetes Mellitus Type 2. But if you treat it carefully you can provent Guide To Diabetes Mellitus Type 2. But bon
Es importante recordar que el propósito de las pruebas de glucosa en sangre es para informarle qué tan cerca está Ud. de su valor de referencia. Trate de no catalogar sus resultados como malos o buenos; sino que considérelos como indicadores que describen (a) qué aspectos de su tratamiento están funcionando para usted y (b) qué aspectos necesitan cambiarse.. Dos estudios importantes que apoyan la importancia del control de la glucosa en sangre son The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (El Ensayo para el control de la diabetes y sus complicaciones) para la diabetes tipo 1 y el United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (Estudio prospectivo sobre diabetes del Reino Unido) para la diabetes tipo 2.. ...
Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in the world. Most of the attention in treating ischemic heart disease (IHD) is understandably directed toward treating coronary artery disease. However there are other treatable culprits in these patients.. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is widespread in IHD patients, even in the absence of hypertension. It is a strong predictor of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. In one study, the presence of LVH was a stronger predictor of mortality than either multivessel cor-onary disease or impaired LV function.. Metformin is an antihyperglycemic agent with a history of successful use in type 2 diabetes. In the UKPDS (United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study), metformin was associated with a 39% lower risk of myocardial infarction compared with conventional therapy. Metformin also offered dual benefits of improving vascular function and lessening ischemia in nondiabetic patients.. Hence, the main aim of this study was to assess ...
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The objective of the U.K. Prospective Diabetes Study is to determine whether improved blood glucose control in type II diabetes will prevent the complications of diabetes and whether any specific therapy is advantageous or disadvantageous. The study will report in 1998, when the median duration from randomization will be 11 years. This report is on the efficacy of therapy over 6 years of follow-up and the overall incidence of diabetic complications. Subjects comprised 4,209 newly diagnosed type II diabetic patients who after 3 months diet were asymptomatic and had fasting plasma glucose (FPG) 6.0-15.0 mmol/l. The study consists of a randomized controlled trial with two main comparisons: 1) 3,867 patients with 1,138 allocated to conventional therapy, primarily with diet, and 2,729 allocated to intensive therapy with additional sulfonylurea or insulin, which increase insulin supply, aiming for FPG ,6 mmol/l; and 2) 753 obese patients with 411 allocated to conventional therapy and 342 allocated to ...
The objective of the U.K. Prospective Diabetes Study is to determine whether improved blood glucose control in type II diabetes will prevent the complications of diabetes and whether any specific therapy is advantageous or disadvantageous. The study will report in 1998, when the median duration from randomization will be 11 years. This report is on the efficacy of therapy over 6 years of follow-up and the overall incidence of diabetic complications. Subjects comprised 4,209 newly diagnosed type II diabetic patients who after 3 months diet were asymptomatic and had fasting plasma glucose (FPG) 6.0-15.0 mmol/l. The study consists of a randomized controlled trial with two main comparisons: 1) 3,867 patients with 1,138 allocated to conventional therapy, primarily with diet, and 2,729 allocated to intensive therapy with additional sulfonylurea or insulin, which increase insulin supply, aiming for FPG ,6 mmol/l; and 2) 753 obese patients with 411 allocated to conventional therapy and 342 allocated to ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - A correlative study of status of serum cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with and without hypertension. AU - Narasimha Rai, K.. AU - Jeganathan, P. S.. PY - 2010/7/1. Y1 - 2010/7/1. N2 - Individuals with Diabetes mellitus may have several forms of dyslipidemia. In obese patients with type II diabetes, a distinct diabetic dyslipidemia is characteristic of the insulin resistance syndrome. The present study was undertaken to correlate the serum cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL-Cholesterol levels in healthy participants and type 2 Diabetes mellitus patients. The present work was carried out at KMC hospital, Attavar, Mangalore, after a written consent from all the participants. The study includes 160 subjects and was divided into Group 1 with 57 non Diabetic subjects, Group 2 with 58 Diabetic patients without hypertension and Group 3 containing 45 Diabetes with hypertension patients respectively. About 5 ml of blood sample was ...
The term diabetes mellitus refers to a group of disorders that relate to carbohydrate metabolism. The condition is characterised by hyperglycaemia due to decreased and therefore inadequate levels of insulin in the body, resistance to the effects of insulin, or a combination of both. The symptoms of marked hyperglycaemia include polyuria, polydipsia, weight loss, polyphagia and blurring of vision. The aetiological types of diabetes mellitus are type 1, type 2, gestational diabetes mellitus and other specific types. However, the two major categories of diabetes mellitus are type 1 and type 2. Type 1 (formerly known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) patients are usually at risk of developing ketoacidosis and require insulin therapy. Patients who suffer from type 2 diabetes mellitus, formerly known as noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, as opposed to those suffering from type 1 diabetes mellitus, still have functional pancreatic β cells which produce insulin. However, they suffer from a
After entering the muscle cell, glucose is immediately and irreversibly phosphorylated to glucose-6-phosphate by hexokinases (HK) I and II. Previous studies in rodents have shown that HKII may be the dominant HK in skeletal muscle. Reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and reduced glucose-6-phosphate concentrations in muscle have been found in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients when examined during a hyperglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. These findings [correction of finding] are consistent with a defect in glucose transport and/or phosphorylation. In the present study comprising 29 NIDDM patients and 25 matched controls, we tested the hypothesis that HKII activity and gene expression are impaired in vastus lateralis muscle of NIDDM patients when examined in the fasting state. HKII activity in a supernatant of muscle extract accounted for 28 +/- 5% in NIDDM patients and 40 +/- 5% in controls (P = 0.08) of total muscle HK activity when measured at a glucose media of 0.11 ...
Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a progressive disorder of β-cell dysfunction until majority of patients with a longer duration of diabetes remain poorly controlled with oral agents, and use of insulin, which could improve glycemic control .Guidelines from the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes recommend that insulin secretagogues such as sulfonylureas be discontinued at the time of insulin initiation to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia, and that treatment be intensified if HbA1c levels remain above-target 3 months after insulin initiation. Study design and methods: It was a prospective study and patients diagnosed with T2DM initiating insulin and no prior insulin use. The study duration was six months (December 2016 to May 2017) among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients at Karuna Medical College and Hospital, Diabetic centre, Quality clinic-Palakkad. Result and Discussion: Out of total 308 study populations, 226(73.37%) were taking ...
U It encourages larger stomp out diabetes michigan 2017 maculopathy bilateral portions of Diabetes Case Finding Swollen Foot Red non-starchy vegetables During Ramadan fasting is observed during the hours of sunlight . Christmas Puddings for Diabetics. ou need to log in to see this page! This is a free Modern Lifestyle Diseases: Awareness and Diabetes Case Finding Swollen Foot Red Prevention online course provided by ALISON.. Type II Diabetes Mellitus (sometimes called Non-insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus) is different because some insulin-producing cells remain. Our aim is to keep our patients fully informed of our services and provide info Videos about Unit Conversions; Unit type 2 diabetes sweet smelling urine itchy legs red Converters [1] Universal Unit Converter; Unit Lookup; Acceleration; Angle; Convert mcg into Insulin Units. Severe acute pancreatitis is associated with pancreatic necrosis and may of pancreatic juice enclosed by a wall of Acute Pancreatitis Imaging. Ketogenic Diet ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Suicide by combined insulin and glipizide overdose in a non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus physician. T2 - A case report. AU - Rao, Nageshkumar G.. AU - Menezes, Ritesh G.. AU - Nagesh, K. R.. AU - Kamath, Ganesh S.. PY - 2006/7/1. Y1 - 2006/7/1. N2 - A case of self-injected insulin intoxication with an oral hypoglycaemic agent glipizide overdose in a type-II/non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) individual, a physician by profession, is presented with a review of the literature. The case demonstrates the need for thorough scene investigation, perusal of clinical details and complete autopsy to certify the death caused by combined insulin and glipizide overdose, and the manner of death. A meticulous search in the English literature reveals that hardly any fatal cases of combined insulin and glipizide overdose have been reported, with almost no cases from India, thus making this case report relevant and unique.. AB - A case of self-injected insulin intoxication with ...
The deletion allele of the insertion/deletion polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene has been suggested to be an independent risk factor for myocardial infarction, particularly in subjects judged to be low-risk by the criteria of lipid status and body mass index. In a prospective, matched case-control study, we have investigated the role of this polymorphism as a risk factor for myocardial infarction in 173 newly-diagnosed British Caucasian non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects taken from the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study who subsequently developed myocardial infarction and 297 control subjects from the same study population matched for known cardiovascular risk factors including age at diagnosis of diabetes, gender, blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride and smoking habit. A trend towards increased risk conferred by homozygosity for the deletion allele was observed in cases (odds ratio 1.63, p = 0.09). When
The drugs that were studied had similar effects on fasting plasma glucose concentrations. Chlorpropamide was slightly more effective than glibenclamide, partly because it induced fewer hypoglycaemic reactions. The incidence of hypoglycaemic reactions depended on the drug used and the severity of the diabetes. Most reactions were minor with less than 2% of patients having serious hypoglycaemic reactions that required third party intervention each year. Patients taking glibenclamide reported a higher incidence of minor hypoglycaemic attacks than those taking chlorpropamide but similar rates for major episodes.. Ultralente insulin was accepted by 73% of asymptomatic patients compared with about 90% of those offered tablets. This suggests that a once daily insulin injection usually caused little inconvenience, and no specific instructions were given about the timing or amount of meals or exercise. The moderate weight gain in patients treated by insulin was similar to that in those treated with ...
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the influence of early nephrology referral on clinical outcome in type II diabetes mellitus patients on maintenance hemodialysis dialysis.. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study retrospectively analyzed the type II diabetic patients entering our PD program from February 1988 to June 2001. Patients who were presented to a nephrologist more than 6 months before starting dialysis were defined as early referral (ER). Patients were considered late referral (LR) if they were transferred to the nephrology department within 6 months before initial dialysis.. RESULTS: Hundred and fifteen type II diabetic patients receiving HD for at least 3 months were enrolled in this study. Sixteen of the 53 patients (46.1%) were in the ER group and 62 of the 115 (53.9%) were in the LR group. In univariate analysis by Cox proportional hazards mode, the early referral (Exp (Coef) = 0.423, p , 0.01), good glycemic control (Exp (Coef) = 0.16, p , 0.05), and age at dialysis (Exp (Coef) = 1.026, p , 0.05 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of insulin therapy on body fat distribution in NIDDM patients with secondary sulfonylurea failure. T2 - A preliminary report. AU - Takei, I.. AU - Takayama, S.. AU - Yamauchi, A.. AU - Nakamoto, S.. AU - Kitamura, Y.. AU - Katsukawa, Fuminori. AU - Yamazaki, H.. AU - Saruta, T.. AU - Inoue, S.. PY - 1998/2. Y1 - 1998/2. N2 - Objective: To clarify the influence of insulin therapy on body weight and fat distribution, we compared these parameters in five non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients, with secondary sulfonylurea failure, before and after insulin therapy. Body weight increased significantly after instituting insulin treatment. However, the visceral to subcutaneous fat (V/S) ratio decreased significantly due to a marked increase in S-fat without a change in V-fat. Insulin therapy necessitated by sulfonylurea failure does not appear to accelerate the atherogenic process in NIDDM patients as there is no increase in visceral fat.. AB - Objective: To ...
It is well known that there is a progressive deterioration in beta-cell function over time in type 2 diabetes (DM2), as indicated by the UKPDS (United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study), regardless of therapy allocation, albeit conventional (mainly diet), insulin, chlorpropamide, glibenclamide or metformin treatment. Moreover, the pancreatic islet function was found to be about 50% of normal at the time of diagnosis, independent of the degree of insulin resistance, with the reduction in function probably commencing 10-12 years prior to diagnosis and aggravated by increasing fasting plasma glucose levels.. Optimal metabolic control, especially early intensive glycemic control, plays a role in the prevention of progressive beta cell dysfunction and possibly destruction of the betacells with worsening of diabetes. Many reports have shown that induction of normoglycemia in DM2 results in both improved beta cell function and insulin resistance.The major therapeutic drawback using native GLP-1 is its ...
Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in children - What can I do to treat non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus? Many things. Work with your doctor to develop a good diabetes treatment regimen. Try to utilize diabetes drugs that do not cause weight gain if possible. Start a consistent exercise and diet program. Eat more soluble fibers (oats, lentils, apples, berries...). Keep track of bs and keep close contact with your doctor.
Cameron and colleagues conducted a systematic review to determine if SMBG in patients with T2DM and not on insulin was cost-effective.7 The review included seven randomized controlled trials (RCT) that investigated the effect of SMBG in noninsulin treated patients versus no SMBG. These trials included a total of 2270 patients with a mean age range of 50-66, male participants ranged 21-66%, and the patients had a previous history of diabetes for 3-11 years. The investigators used data from the systematic review and United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Outcomes Model to forecast long-term health complications for T2DM and perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of whether SMBG is cost-effective in noninsulin treated T2DM patients.2 The analysis was done in the perspective of the Canadian ministry of health and data on cost per test strip and utilization was obtained from the Ontario Public Drug Program and Long-term Care.2 Researchers used the testing frequencies from the seven RCT to ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular scanning for mutations in the β3-adrenergic receptor gene in nauruans with obesity and noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. AU - Silver, Kristi. AU - Walston, Jeremy D. AU - Wang, Yihong. AU - Dowse, Gary. AU - Zimmet, Paul. AU - Shuldiner, Alan R.. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - We recently identified a mutation in the human β3-adrenergic receptor (β3AR) gene (codon 64 TGG(Trp)→CGG(Arg); TRP64ARG) that associates with features of the insulin resistance syndrome and an earlier onset of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). We scanned the β3AR gene for mutations by single stranded conformational polymorphism analysis in 20 Nauruans with obesity and NIDDM. No mutations were identified. Sixty-five Nauruan subjects were genotyped for the TRP64ARG β3AR. All subjects were homozygous for the normal allele. We genotyped Samoans and Asians for the TRP64ARG β3AR. Seven of 52 Samoans were heterozygous for the mutant arginine allele (allele frequency, 0.07). Of ...
Diabetes mellitus type 1 (also known as type 1 diabetes) is a form of diabetes mellitus in which not enough insulin is produced. The lack of insulin …. Type 2 diabetes mellitus consists of an array of dysfunctions characterized by hyperglycemia and resulting from the combination of resistance to insulin …. Diabetes Mellitus Definition Diabetes mellitus is a condition in which the pancreas no longer produces enough insulin or cells stop responding to the …. Diabetes Mellitus Definition Diabetes mellitus is a condition in which the pancreas no longer produces enough insulin or cells stop responding to the …. Learn more about diabetes with symptoms, treatment & diagnosis info. Find articles on types of diabetes & get expert advice from our diabetes specialist.. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus - an easy to understand guide covering causes, diagnosis, … hyperosmolar syndrome is the first sign that a person has type 2 diabetes.. General information on diabetes mellitus symptoms, signs of diabetes, ...
Introduction Many guidelines on type 2 diabetes recommend a glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level below 7%. HbA1c levels in the blood express glucose or glycaemic control over a longer time period (two to three months). During the course of type 2 diabetes it will get more difficult to reach these levels with lifestyle modification (diet, exercise or both) and oral glucose-lowering agents alone. Finally, a substantial number of people will need insulin therapy for better glycaemic control. Insulin therapy can be initiated as insulin alone, called monotherapy (which means that oral glucose-lowering medication will be stopped) or in combination with oral glucose-lowering agents. In the former case, oral blood glucose-lowering agents can be added at a later stage, if insulin monotherapy fails to achieve a good HbA1c level. Hypoglycaemia and weight gain are the most common and well known side effects of insulin therapy. Adding oral agents to insulin could reduce the required insulin dose and ...
Self-Efficacy, Self-Care and Glycemic control in Individuals with Noninsulin Dependent Diabetes -- The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among diabetes self-efficacy, diabetes self-care and glycemic control in a sample of individuals, with a diagnosis of noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Banduras self-efficacy theory was used to guide the study. -- A convenience sample of 136 subjects participated in the study. All participants completed the three questionnaires: (a) the modified Insulin Management Diabetes Self-Efficacy Scale (modified IMDSES), (b) the modified Insulin Management Diabetes Self-Care Scale (modified IMDSCS) and (c) the Demographic Questionnaire. Glycemic control was assessed by the participants glycosylated hemoglobin (HbAlc) levels. -- The results of the study demonstrated statistically significant relationships among diabetes self-care, diabetes self-efficacy and glycemic control. Diabetes self--efficacy beliefs were highly correlated with ...
INTRODUCTION: Adherence to diabetes mellitus treatment regimens among Type 2 diabetes patients in Tanzania has not been well documented. This study sought to assess adherence to antidiabetic drugs and associated factors among patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients who were attending the Diabetic clinic of Muhimbili National hospital between May 2009 and February 2010. Assement ofadherence to antidiabetic medications was based on patients self-reported recall of skipped days without taking medications, over the past one week and three months. Data wereentered and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Inc. Chicago, Illinois version 16). The crude and adjusted odds ratio (COR/ AOR) and 95% Confidence Interval (CI) were performed to determine factors associated with anti-diabetic medications adherence and a p-value of 0.05 or less was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Adherence rates
ICD-9 codes in the 250xx series describe primary diabetes of all types. Codes in the 249xx. E11.42 Type 2 diabetes mellitus with polyneuropathy. ICD-10.. Type 2 diabetes mellitus with diabetic neuropathic arthropathy. E11.610 is a billable/specific ICD-10-CM code that can be used to indicate a diagnosis for.. @ Icd 9 Code For Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus ★★ About Diabetes Diseases In Urdu The 3 Step Trick that Reverses Diabetes Permanently in As Little as 11 Days.. ★★ Icd 9 Code Diabetic Neuropathy ★★ ::The 3 Step Trick that Reverses Diabetes Permanently in As Little as 11 Days.[ ICD 9 CODE DIABETIC NEUROPATHY.. Acute painful diabetic neuropathy; Amyotrophy due to type 2 diabetes mellitus; Amyotrophy, in diabetes type 2; Asymmetric diabetic proximal motor neuropathy.. Vitamin B For Treating Peripheral Neuropathy Review Peripheral neuropathy has a variety of systemic, metabolic, and toxic causes. The most common treatable causes include diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism. Vitamin B ...
Protein which, if defective, causes diabetes mellitus, a disorder of impaired carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism due to insufficient secretion of insulin or to target tissue insulin resistance. Diabetes mellitus can be divided into two main types, type I or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), and type II, or non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Type I diabetes mellitus normally starts in childhood or adolescence and is caused by the bodys own immune system which destroys the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. Classical features are polydipsia, polyphagia and polyuria, due to hyperglycemia-induced osmotic diuresis. Type II diabetes mellitus normally starts in adulthood and is caused by a lack of sensitivity to the bodys own insulin. It is usually characterized by a gradual onset with minimal or no symptoms of metabolic disturbance. Both forms of diabetes mellitus lead to secondary complications (notably cardiovascular, nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy). ...
Diabetes Forums ★ :: Treating Diabetes Type 1 - The 3 Step Trick that Reverses Diabetes Permanently in As Little as 11 Days.[ DIABETES FORUMS ] The …. Blood Glucose Testing ★ Diabetes Type 1 And 2 Information ★ :: Diabetes Type 1 Resources - The 3 Step Trick that Reverses Diabetes Permanently in As …. ★ Pre Diabetes Type 2 ★ :: Diabetic Eye Exam Dx - The 3 Step Trick that Reverses Diabetes Permanently in As Little as 11 Days.[ PRE DIABETES TYPE 2 …. ★ Treatments For Diabetes Type 1 And 2 ★ :: Diabetes Type 1 Eating Sugar - The 3 Step Trick that Reverses Diabetes Permanently in As Little as 11 Days.. ★ Treating Diabetic Nerve Pain ★ :: Herbal Remedies For Diabetes Type 1 - The 3 Step Trick that Reverses Diabetes Permanently in As Little as 11 Days.. ★ Treating Diabetic Nerve Pain ★ :: Herbal Remedies For Diabetes Type 1 - The 3 Step Trick that Reverses Diabetes Permanently in As Little as 11 Days.. ★ Pre Diabetes Type 2 ★ :: Diabetic Eye Exam Dx - The 3 Step Trick ...
Title:Challenges Related to Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients. VOLUME: 18 ISSUE: 2. Author(s):Masoumeh Kheirandish, Hamidreza Mahboobi, Maryam Yazdanparast and Mohammad Amjad Kamal. Affiliation:Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, Hormozgan Health Institute, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, Hormozgan Health Institute, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandarabbas, Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, Hormozgan Health Institute, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80216, Jeddah 21589. Keywords:Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), glycemic control, insulin, metformin, sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones.. Abstract:Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease with long-term complications. Glycemic control is an important part in management of DM. The first line in treatment of type 2 DM ...
Most cases of diabetes mellitus type 2 involved many genes contributing small amount to the overall condition. As of 2011 more than 36 genes have been found that contribute to the risk of type 2 diabetes. All of these genes together still only account for 10% of the total genetic component of the disease. There are a number of rare cases of diabetes that arise due to an abnormality in a single gene (known as monogenic forms of diabetes). These include maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY), Donohue syndrome, and Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome, among others. Maturity onset diabetes of the young constitute 1-5% of all cases of diabetes in young people. Genetic cause and mechanism of type 2 diabetes is largely unknown. However, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is one of many mechanisms that leads to increased risk for type 2 diabetes. To locate genes and loci that are responsible for the risk of type 2 diabetes, genome wide association studies (GWAS) was utilized to compare the genomes of ...
D.K. Nagi, S. Jain, S. Garvey, S. Walji, J.S. Yudkin; Defective Fibrinolysis in Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetics Relates to Plasma Insulin Concentrations. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 March 1991; 80 (s24): 25P. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs080025Pb. Download citation file:. ...
An Experimental study of Macroangiopathy, a common complication of Diabetes Mellitus, with Ayurveda perspective Prof. Ojha S. N. M.D.(Ayu.) Ph.D. Principal Dr. D.Y Patil college of ayurved and research centre Pimpri pune 18 . ► The prevalence of macroangiopathy is increased in Diabetes Mellitus. ► Endothelial cell injury is thought to be an early event leading to atherosclerosis…
Screening for diabetes mellitus among the rural population applying Indian diabetes risk score in field practice areas of Kamineni Academy of Medical Sciences and Research Centre
problems including confusion stroke symptoms seizures or coma (known as hypersomolar coma). Central diabetes insipidus may be controlled with prescription medication (desmopressin DDAVP) administered as a nasal spray or tablet.. The symptoms of type 1 type 2 and gestational diabetes are similar in many ways; however the causes of diabetes mellitus vary quite a bit from one form to the next. We are conducting a clinical research study of a new combination oral medication for the treatment of less-than-ideally controlled diabetes type 2 formerly known as adult-onset diabetes or type 2 diabetes mellitus. is a leading proponent of a vegan diet for diabetes.. Tips for a great Skype job interview. Holistic Nutritional Services. If the result is 200 mg/dl or higher you are considered diabetic. produces premier events to increase public awareness of diabetes and its complications to raise research money to help manage and cure Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes and diabetes mellitus type 2 250.02 white rice 2 ...
589. An individual may get diabetes when the pancreas can no longer secrete the needed hormones that produce insulin. The insulin maintains the glucose in the blood to be normal. Low insulin means that the level of glucose, which is sugar in the blood, may get high and may lead to diabetes.. The autoimmune reaction is a type 1 diabetes where the cells in the pancreas organ that produces the needed insulin are destroyed. This results to the total loss of insulin in the hormones. …. diabetes. An individual may get diabetes when the pancreas can no longer secrete the needed hormones that produce insulin. The insulin maintains the glucose in the blood to be normal. Low insulin means that the level of glucose, which is sugar in the blood, may get high and may lead to diabetes.. The autoimmune reaction is a type 1 diabetes where the cells in the pancreas organ that produces the needed insulin are destroyed. This results to the total loss of insulin in the hormones. This happens because the body has ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lack of change of lipoprotein(a) levels by the optimization of glycemic control with insulin therapy in NIDDM patients. AU - Caixas̀, Assumpta. AU - Pérez, Antonio. AU - Ordóñez-Llanos, Jordi. AU - Bonet, Rosa. AU - Rigla, Mercedes. AU - Castellví, Agustina. AU - Bayén, L.. AU - De Leiva, Alberto. PY - 1997/1/1. Y1 - 1997/1/1. N2 - OBJECTIVE - To evaluate the effect of glycemic control improvement with insulin therapy on lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels in patients with NIDDM. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - We performed a longitudinal study in a tertiary referral center to compare lipid and Lp(a) levels before and after 3 months of insulin therapy in 60 poorly controlled NIDDM patients (32 men, 28 women). Patients previously treated with oral hypoglycemic agents (n = 50) received one to two insulin doses, and those previously treated with insulin (n = 10) received multiple insulin doses. Lp(a) levels were measured by the Terumo method. Differences between the two periods were ...
As the UKs leading funder of diabetes research, … A showcase of all our research projects is also available to download. Downloads.. Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged …. Diabetes - the leading source for original research on the physiology and … in New Orleans, LA, on 12 … A New Paradigm for the Treatment of Type 2 …. ★ Hypoglycemia Treatment Diet ★ :: Diabetes Protocol Rating - The 3 Step Trick that Reverses Diabetes Permanently in As Little as 11 Days …. ★ Diabetes Treatment Research ★ :: Diabetes … seconds someone new is diagnosed. Diabetes causes more … manage each sort of diabetes mellitus out …. Definition Of Diabetes Mellitus New drugs turn you into a guinea pig to pad their financial pockets. … Medical Research Definition Of Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Long Term Care Insurance Diabetes Guidelines for Elderly Residents in Long-Term Care (LTC) ...
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The purpose of this study was to compare the relationship between blood glucose, blood pressure, weight, and participation in a 12 week low impact yoga/health education class by Yaquis (N = 11) with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. The Neuman Systems Model was the conceptual framework for this study. The data analysis addressed the difference in each of the measures before and after the yoga/health education class intervention. These measures included glycosylated hemoglobin, mean one week finger stick blood glucose levels, mean arterial pressure, and weight of the participants completing the prescribed course. Results revealed a statistically significant drop in mean one week finger stick blood glucose levels. No significant change was found in measures of glycosylated hemoglobin, mean arterial pressure, or weight. Prevalence of diabetes in the Yaqui population is high, requiring maximum use of Yaqui Health Department resources. This study provides a background for decisions on ...
Exercise and diet are the cornerstones of management of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Many older people have difficulty in exercising, missing benefits on glycaemic control, weight, cardiac disease and mood. We report the outcomes of a 6 month structured exercise and support programme based on a health promotion model, on physical activity, glycaemic control and parameters of cardiovascular risk in non-exercisers, compared with standard outpatient clinic education. A total of 26 non-exercising patients were randomised to an intervention or control group (ten men, 16 women; mean age (+/- S.D.) 60 +/- 8 years). Programme participation was not associated with any significant increase in activity. Glycated hemoglobin (HbAtc) levels tended to stabilise in the intervention group during the 6 month programme and to deteriorate in the control group (P = 0.03); by 12 months HbA1C levels deteriorated to a similar level in both. Programme participation did not cause significant change in
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Ama : Diabetes mellitusta ya am kalitesi hastal n gidi inin nemli bir g stergesi olarak kabul edilmektedir. Bu al mada tip II diabetes mellitus hastalar nda komplikasyonlar n ya am kalitesine etkisi ve ya am kalitesini etkileyen di er fakt rlerin ara t r lmas ama lanm t r. Metod: Ara t rmaya S leyman Demirel niversitesi T p Fak ltesi Endokrinoloji Poliklini inde ayaktan takip edilen, diabete ba l komplikasyonu olan 50, olmayan 54 toplam 104 tip II diabetes mellitus hastas al nd . B t n hastalar sosyodemografik veri formu, WHOQOL-BREF (TR) l e i, Hamilton Anksiyete Derecelendirme l e i, Hamilton Depresyon Derecelendirme l e i kullan larak de erlendirildi. Bulgular: Komplikasyonu olan diabetik hastalarda WHOQOL-BREF(TR) bedensel, ruhsal, sosyal, evre ve evre (TR) alanlar ve genel ya am kalitesi, genel sa l k, ya am kalitesi toplam puanlar n n komplikasyonu olmayan hastalardan anlaml derecede d k oldu u bulundu. Toplam hasta grubunda kad nlar n sosyal, evre (TR) alanlar ndaki puanlan, genel sa l k ...
BRUSSELS and DALLAS, Texas, August 26 /PRNewswire/ -- The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) BRIDGES translational research grant program will fund a diabetes self-management education study in Dallas. Self-management education is an important component in diabetes care and designed to help people with diabetes to gain and maintain control of their condition. The Baylor Healthcare System (BHCS) project will add a motivational interviewing component to the diabetes education program to determine if this will improve program completion rates and help people with diabetes better manage their diabetes in the long-term. The two-year project is a randomized controlled trial with adults who have uncontrolled type 2 diabetes. Certified Diabetes Educators will conduct the motivational interviewing training and education. Patients in the study will be followed to determine if the program has an impact on their diabetes control. This research will demonstrate the importance of facilitating ...
A Diabetes Outcome Progression Trial (ADOPT) was conceived in the hope that the seemingly inexorable decline in islet B-cell function described with metformin, sulfonylureas, and insulin in the UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) might be stopped or inhibited to a major degree by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonists, in particular rosiglitazone (1,2). It was already well recognized that the rapid early efficacy of sulfonylureas in lowering glucose was not retained to 12 months, and that metformin and thiazolidinediones had slow onset of action over months, so the design of the study necessarily had to enable decline of measures of blood glucose control to be assessed for a considerable period from 1 year onwards. However, the extent (degree and time) to which this early efficacy of the sulfonylureas in protecting against hyperglycemia would persist was not accurately known. The study also provided a good opportunity to compare durability of effect of the three classes of ...
Diabetes a growing health problems in high, middle & low economic status groups. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of fenugreek in lowering HbA1c levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Chennai. 100 patients of age 30 to 50 yrs of Type 2 diabetes patients whose HbA1c level above 6% & below 7 % were selected from three private clinic in villivakkam, pattabiram & chromepet. Height, weight, waist and hip circumference and Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were measured at the time of first consultation and after 3rd and 6th month of fenugreek treatment. The samples were analyzed using students t-test. The result showed the following- at the end of 3rd month , HbA1c decreased by 0.3% (95% confidence interval, P , 0.05 ), weight decreased by 3.5 kg (96% confidence interval, P , 0.03), and waist circumference decreased by 4.5 cm (96% confidence interval, P , 0.03) & at the end of 6th month HbA1c decreased by 0.4% (95% confidence interval, P , 0.05 ), weight decreased by 5.5 kg (98% ...
Role in diabetes mellitus type 2[edit]. In addition to cell signaling, the mTOR pathway also plays a role in beta cell growth ... "World Journal of Diabetes. 3 (3): 38-53. doi:10.4239/WJD.v3.i3.38. PMC 3310004. PMID 22442749.. ... Blood levels of the BCAAs are elevated in obese, insulin resistant humans and in mouse and rat models of diet-induced diabetes ... suggesting the possibility that BCAAs contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes.[10][11] BCAA-restricted diets ...
Diabetes mellitus type 2. 910. 2012[83]. 39%. Gilenya (fingolimod). Multiple sclerosis. 1,195. 2012[83]. 142%. ... BVD Type 1 and BVD Type 2), parainfluenza Type 3 (PI3), and bovine respiratory syncytial (BRSV) viruses ... Indication(s) or drug type/class. Sales US$1,000,000. Sales year. % Change. Notes ... 2 May 2012.. *^ a b c Harris, Gardiner; Thomas, Katie (2013-04-01). "Top Court in India Rejects Novartis Drug Patent". The New ...
With regard to the use of Momordica charantia for diabetes, several animal studies and small-scale human studies have ... "Momordica charantia for type 2 diabetes mellitus" (PDF). The Cochrane Library. 8 (8): CD007845. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007845. ... Momordica charantia has a number of purported uses including cancer prevention, treatment of diabetes, fever, HIV and AIDS, and ... Momordica charantia may be beneficial in diabetes; however, the effects seem to depend on how it is consumed.[14] More studies ...
Diabetes mellitus type 1 ‎ (fixed a typo) *22:03, 29 July 2013 (diff , hist) . . (0)‎ . . Herbivore ‎ (Fixed a typo→‎Plant ...
... is the precursor stage before diabetes mellitus in which not all of the symptoms required to diagnose diabetes are ... Type 2 DM, which is the condition for which prediabetes is a precursor, has 90-100% concordance in twins; there is no HLA ... "Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus". Diabetes Care. 28 Suppl 1: S37-42. 2005. doi:10.2337/diacare.28.suppl_1.s37 ... Mayo Clinic Diabetes: "Prediabetes". [1]. Accessed Jan. 27, 2009. *^ "Equalibras Diabetes Resources". www.equalibras.co.uk. ...
Diabetes Mellitus. Elsevier España. pp. 327-. ISBN 978-84-8086-683-5. Retrieved 18 May 2010. v t e. ... Serrano Ríos; M. Type 2. ...
They can be used to treat diabetes mellitus type 2. The first agent of the class - sitagliptin - was approved by the FDA in ... Banting and Best Diabetes Centre at UT sitagliptin Banting and Best Diabetes Centre at UT vildagliptin "FDA approves new ... Diabetes Obes Metab. 16 (1): 48-56. doi:10.1111/dom.12176. PMID 23837679. Tatjana Ábel. "A New Therapy of Type 2 Diabetes: DPP- ... "Glucagon-like peptide 1 improved glycemic control in type 1 diabetes". BMC Endocrine Disorders. 3 (1): 3. doi:10.1186/1472-6823 ...
... and macroalbuminuria in pregnant woman with type 1 diabetes". Diabetes Care. 29 (4): 924-925. doi:10.2337/diacare.29.04.06.dc06 ... "Effects of ramipril on cardiovascular and microvascular outcomes in people with diabetes mellitus: results of the HOPE study ... Microalbuminura in diabetes *^ a b Person-microalbumin level (measured) at Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. 01/03/ ... 2000). "Evolution of incipient nephropathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus". Kidney Int. 58 (3): 1228-37. doi:10.1046/j.1523- ...
They can be used to treat diabetes mellitus type 2.. The first agent of the class - sitagliptin - was approved by the FDA in ... Banting and Best Diabetes Centre at UT vildagliptin. *^ "FDA approves new treatment for Type 2 diabetes". Fda.gov. 2011-05-02. ... "Glucagon-like peptide 1 improved glycemic control in type 1 diabetes". BMC Endocrine Disorders. 3 (1): 3. doi:10.1186/1472-6823 ... doi:10.2337/diabetes.44.6.626. PMID 7789625.. *^ Wu S, Hopper I, Skiba M, Krum H (April 2014). "Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 ...
There are several different types of hearing loss: Conductive hearing loss, sensorineural hearing loss and mixed types. ... Hearing protection is the use of devices designed to prevent Noise-Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL), a type of post-lingual hearing ... Akinpelu, Olubunmi V.; Mujica-Mota, Mario; Daniel, Sam J. (2014). "Is type 2 diabetes mellitus associated with alterations in ... 2: 523. doi:10.1038/ncomms1533. PMC 3418221. PMID 22045002.. *^ Gelfand, Stanley A. (2009). Essentials of audiology (3rd ed.). ...
Highest Development Phases: Preclinical : Neurological disorders; Type 2 diabetes mellitus. ...
Type 1 diabetes mellitus, with onset before age 20. *Past or current cigarette use ... "Intensive diabetes therapy and glomerular filtration rate in type 1 diabetes". The New England Journal of Medicine. 365 (25): ... The process may be initially indolent, making regular screening for DN in patients with diabetes mellitus of great importance.[ ... Cardiovascular risk reduction: Patients with diabetes mellitus are at significantly increased risk of cardiovascular disease, ...
... diabetes mellitus: the thrifty phenotype hypothesis". Diabetologia. 35 (7): 595-601. doi:10.1007/BF00400248. PMID 1644236.. .mw ... such as obesity and type II diabetes, whereas those who have received a positive maternal forecast will be adapted to good ... Stöger R (February 2008). "The thrifty epigenotype: an acquired and heritable predisposition for obesity and diabetes?". ... Hales CN, Barker DJ (July 1992). "Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) ... 2]). It is sometimes called Barker's hypothesis, after ...
This is partly due to lack of insurance before pregnancy and higher rates of chronic conditions, such as obesity and diabetes. ... is the most common type. In 2015, 1.7% of all live births in the U.S. were the result of ART. While this method of conception ... and type 2 diabetes mellitus. There has also been some research conducted concerning the outcomes of the health of offspring ... The two types of IUDs that exist for current contraceptive use are Copper T 380A and levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine ...
There is also neuropathy; also associated with diabetes mellitus; type 1 and 2. Holt, Richard I. G.; Cockram, Clive; Flyvbjerg ... Diabetes mellitus is the most common cause of adult kidney failure worldwide. It also the most common cause of amputation in ... As insulin is required for glucose uptake, hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus does not result in a net increase in ... However, chronic dysregulated blood glucose in diabetes is toxic to cells of the vascular endothelium which passively ...
serine-type peptidase activity. • protease binding. • aminopeptidase activity. • protein binding. • serine-type endopeptidase ... Diabetes and Obesity. 14 (2): 98-107. doi:10.1097/MED.0b013e3280a02f65. PMID 17940427.. ... The protein encoded by the DPP4 gene is an antigenic enzyme expressed on the surface of most cell types and is associated with ... Barnett A (Nov 2006). "DPP-4 inhibitors and their potential role in the management of type 2 diabetes". International Journal ...
... was approved in 2005 for adult use in patients with both diabetes mellitus type 1 and diabetes mellitus type 2. Insulin and ... are commonly found in pancreatic islets of patients suffering diabetes mellitus type 2, or containing an insulinoma cancer. ... with pramlintide as an adjunct to insulin therapy improves long-term glycaemic and weight control in Type 1 diabetes mellitus: ... doi:10.2337/diabetes.54.7.2117. PMID 15983213.. *^ a b c Marzban L, Rhodes CJ, Steiner DF, Haataja L, Halban PA, Verchere CB ( ...
"Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - MeSH - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. "Bibliography". wayback.archive-it.org. "Qualifiers - 2009". ... The remaining two types of term are those that describe the type of material that the article represents (publication types), ... See the MeSH description for diabetes type 2 as an example. The explanatory text is written by the MeSH team based on their ... The second type of term, MeSH subheadings or qualifiers (see below), can be used with MeSH terms to more completely describe a ...
Can be starch protected by seed or shell (type RS1), granular starch (type RS2) or retrograded starch (type RS3)[3] ... Regulates blood sugar, which may reduce glucose and insulin levels in diabetic patients and may lower risk of diabetes[1][76] ... One type of insoluble dietary fiber, resistant starch, may increase insulin sensitivity in healthy people,[53][54] in type 2 ... Types and sources of dietary fiber[edit]. Nutrient. Food additive. Source/Comments ...
... and type II diabetes.[2][4] A study of 388,000 adults ages 50 to 71 for nine years found that the highest consumers of fiber ... Can be starch protected by seed or shell (type RS1), granular starch (type RS2) or retrograded starch (type RS3)[12] ... Types and sources[edit]. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding ... One type of insoluble dietary fiber, resistant starch, may increase insulin sensitivity in healthy people,[67][68] in type 2 ...
Some, but not all, plastics that are marked with the Resin Identification Code 7 may be made with BPA."[22] Type 7 is the catch ... Retrieved 2 July 2010.. *^ a b c Vogel SA (2009). "The Politics of Plastics: The Making and Unmaking of Bisphenol A "Safety". ... Type 3 (PVC) may contain bisphenol A as an antioxidant in "flexible PVC" softened by plasticizers,[6] but not rigid PVC such as ... and type 2 diabetes mellitus: genuine concern or unnecessary preoccupation?". Translational Research: The Journal of Laboratory ...
2001). Diet, lifestyle, and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women. The New England Journal of Medicine, 345(11), 790- ... Type 2 diabetes and obesity. Aerobic exercise - Aerobics Circuit training Cycling Hiking Running Skipping rope Swimming Walking ... Cancer Drug addiction Hypertension Major depressive disorder Neurodegenerative disorders Obesity Osteoporosis Type 2 Diabetes ...
For example, humans produce amylin, an amyloidogenic peptide associated with type II diabetes, but in rats and mice prolines ... Haataja L, Gurlo T, Huang CJ, Butler PC (May 2008). "Islet amyloid in type 2 diabetes, and the toxic oligomer hypothesis". ... Höppener JW, Ahrén B, Lips CJ (August 2000). "Islet amyloid and type 2 diabetes mellitus". The New England Journal of Medicine ... Although bona fide amyloid structures always are based on intermolecular β-sheets, different types of "higher order" tertiary ...
... from the Cochrane Collaboration published a meta-analysis of their own on the use of rosiglitazone in Type II diabetes, ... "Diabetes drug to be withdrawn over heart risk fears". New Zealand Herald. Feb 17, 2011. Medicines Control Council. "Withdrawal ... "Call to 'suspend' diabetes drug". BBC News. 2010-09-23. "Drugs banned in India". Central Drugs Standard Control Organization, ... "Diabetes drug withdrawn". Stuff.co.nz. NZPA. 17 February 2011. Archived from the original on 13 October 2013. Retrieved 5 ...
A low level of adiponectin is an independent risk factor for developing: Metabolic syndrome Diabetes mellitus Lower levels of ... The hormone plays a role in the suppression of the metabolic derangements that may result in type 2 diabetes, obesity, ... Diabetes. 55 (1): 141-7. doi:10.2337/diabetes.55.1.141. PMID 16380487. Hoffstedt J, Arvidsson E, Sjölin E, Wåhlén K, Arner P ( ... High-molecular-weight adiponectin was further found to be associated with a lower risk of diabetes with similar magnitude of ...
糖尿病(拉丁語:diabetes mellitus,縮寫為DMs,簡稱diabetes)是一種代謝性疾病,它的特徵是患者的血糖長期高於標準值[7]。高血糖會造成俗稱「三多一少」的症狀:多食(英語:polyphagia)、多飲(英語:polydipsia) ... Vijan, S. Type 2 diabetes. Annals of Internal Medicine. March 2010, 152 (5): ITC31-15. PMID 20194231. doi:10.1059/0003-4819-152 ... International Diabetes Federation: Diabetes Atlas. [4 April 2014].. *^ IDF DIABETES ATLAS (PDF) 6. International Diabetes ... Latest diabetes
Sheu, WH-H; Lee, I-T; Chen, W; Chan, Y-C (2008). "Effects of xylooligosaccharides in type 2 diabetes mellitus". J Nutr Sci ...
"Monogenic Forms of Diabetes: Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus and Maturity-onset Diabetes of the Young". National Diabetes ... of cases of diabetes, with the other 10% due primarily to type 1 diabetes and gestational diabetes.[1] In type 1 diabetes there ... Diabetes mellitus. ≥ 11.1. ≥ 200. ≥ 7.0. ≥ 126. ≥ 48. ≥ 6.5 The World Health Organization definition of diabetes (both type 1 ... American Diabetes Association (January 2010). "Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus". Diabetes Care. 33 Suppl 1 ( ...
... usually due to diabetes mellitus). Although ketoacidosis is characteristic of decompensated or untreated type 1 diabetes, ... The combustion of hydrocarbons is an uncontrolled oxidation process that gives ketones as well as many other types of compounds ... ketosis or even ketoacidosis can occur in type 2 diabetes in some circumstances as well. ... R2CH(OH) + O → R2C=O + H2O. Typical strong oxidants (source of "O" in the above reaction) include potassium permanganate or a ...
... discusses how simple polygenic inheritance cannot explain some diseases such as the onset of Type I diabetes mellitus, and that ... For other types of crosses (such as the intercross), where there are more than two possible genotypes, one uses a more general ... The method makes use of a genetic map of the typed markers, and, like analysis of variance, assumes the presence of a single ... Many disorders with genetic components are polygenic, including autism, cancer, diabetes and numerous others. Most phenotypic ...
diabetes mellitus[8]. *erectile dysfunction. DiagnosisEdit. Diagnosis is made first by diagnosing Cushing's syndrome, which can ... Given this conviction, and his knowledge of the three anterior pituitary cell types, Cushing hypothesized that if acidophil ... Diabetes insipidus (15%), fluid and electrolyte abnormalities (12.5%), and neurological deficits (5.6%) were the most common ... 59 (2): 195-200. doi:10.3171/jns.1983.59.2.0195. PMID 6306181.. *^ Howlet, T.A; Perry L.; Doniach I.; Rees LH.; Besser G.M ( ...
... type 1 diabetes mellitus, Sjogren's syndrome, anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis and Devic's disease,[23] Graves' ophthalmopathy,[ ... Rituximab, sold under the brand name Rituxan among others, is a medication used to treat certain autoimmune diseases and types ... 3 (2): 86-90. doi:10.1186/bcr276. PMC 138676. PMID 11250751.. *^ Maverakis E, Kim K, Shimoda M, Gershwin M, Patel F, Wilken R, ... 4 (2): 107. doi:10.1016/s1548-5315(11)70061-4. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2007-09-29.. CS1 maint: Multiple names: ...
... following autologous nonmyeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus". ... The HLA genes fall in two categories (Type I and Type II). In general, mismatches of the Type-I genes (i.e. HLA-A, HLA-B, or ... Graft types[edit]. Autologous[edit]. Autologous HSCT requires the extraction (apheresis) of haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) ... A mismatch of an HLA Type II gene (i.e. HLA-DR, or HLA-DQB1) increases the risk of graft-versus-host disease. In addition, a ...
... type 1 diabetes mellitus, Sjogren's syndrome, anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis and Devic's disease,[23] Graves' ophthalmopathy,[ ... Rituximab, sold under the brand name Rituxan among others, is a medication used to treat certain autoimmune diseases and types ... 3 (2): 86-90. doi:10.1186/bcr276. PMC 138676. PMID 11250751.. *^ Maverakis E, Kim K, Shimoda M, Gershwin M, Patel F, Wilken R, ... doi:10.1136/ard.62.suppl_2.ii55. PMC 1766758. PMID 14532151.. *^ Binder M, Otto F, Mertelsmann R, Veelken H, Trepel M. (2006 ...
Diagnostic Medical Equipment may also be used in the home for certain purposes, e.g. for the control of diabetes mellitus ... TypesEdit. There are several basic types: *Diagnostic equipment includes medical imaging machines, used to aid in diagnosis. ... For other types of equipment, see Equipment. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this ... Iran produces about 2,000 types of medical devices and medical supplies, such as appliances, dental supplies, disposable ...
In insulin dependent diabetes mellitus[edit]. In type 1 diabetes both DR3 and DQ2 appear to play a role. DR3-DQ2.5 can be ... DQ2 that are possessed by other haplotypes also confer susceptibility to type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes has a risk associated ... In addition the BAT1 and MICB variant is more common in type 1 diabetes when B8 is absent but DR3 is present[10] These studies ... While other diseases, like type 1 diabetes may have several, highly different, genes that attribute risk. Still other diseases ...
Ang wastong paggamot ng nasa ilalim na mga karamdaman (tulad ng HIV/AIDS, diabetes mellitus, at malnutrisyon) ay maaaring ... Ang pagbabakuna sa mga sanggol laban sa Haemophilus influenzae type B ay nagsimula noong 1988 at humantong sa kapansin-pansing ... 1993). "Decline of childhood Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) disease in the Hib vaccine era". JAMA. 269 (2): 221-6. doi: ... 2 (6): 185-9.. *↑ al.], edited by J.F. Tomashefski, Jr ... (2008). Dail and Hammar's pulmonary pathology (ika-3rd (na) edisyon ...
Elliott Proctor Joslin (2005). Joslin's Diabetes Mellitus: Edited by C. Ronald Kahn ... [et Al.]. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins ... The American Diabetes Association recommended a low carbohydrate diet to reduce weight for those with or at risk of Type 2 ... 1994). "Effects of varying carbohydrate content of diet in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus". JAMA. 271 ( ... basing this recommendation on Matthew Dobson's discovery of glycosuria in diabetes mellitus.[11] By means of Dobson's testing ...
Polyuria, abnormally large production of urine, associated with, in particular, diabetes mellitus (types 1 and 2), and diabetes ... There are three major types of bladder dysfunction due to neural lesions: (1) the type due to interruption of the afferent ... the type due to interruption of both afferent and efferent nerves; and (3) the type due to interruption of facilitatory and ... A male Patagonian mara, a type of rodent, will stand on his hind legs and urinate on a female's rump, to which the female may ...
Ditzel, Jørn (1967-01-12). "The in Vivo Reactions of the Small Blood Vessels to Diabetes Mellitus". Acta Medica Scandinavica ( ... "Microvascular abnormalities in the bulbar conjunctiva of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus". Endocrine Practice. 7 (5): ... Isenberg, S. J.; McRee, W. E.; Jedrzynski, M. S. (1986-10-01). "Conjunctival hypoxia in diabetes mellitus". Investigative ... "Quantitative morphometry of conjunctival microcirculation in diabetes mellitus". Microvascular Research. 18 (2): 153-166. doi: ...
... is a medical emergency that can happen in people with diabetes mellitus. DKA happens mostly in people with Type 1 diabetes, ... DKA can also be a sign that a person has diabetes that has not been discovered, or is not being controlled well. ... although it may happen in some people that have Type 2 diabetes. ... As DKA gets worse, it can cause these symptoms:[2] *Confusion, ...
Ooi, C. P.; Yassin, Z; Hamid, T. A. (2012). "Momordica charantia for type 2 diabetes mellitus". The Cochrane Library. 8 (8): ... With regard to the use of Momordica charantia for diabetes, several animal studies and small-scale human studies have ... Momordica charantia has a number of purported uses including cancer prevention, treatment of diabetes, fever, HIV and AIDS, and ... Momordica charantia may be beneficial in diabetes; however, the effects seem to depend on how it is consumed.[14] More studies ...
Diabetes Care. 2011-10-01, 34 (10): 2329-2330 [2015-05-24]. ISSN 0149-5992. PMC 3177745. PMID 21949224. doi:10.2337/dc11-1153. ... Impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome in polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta- ... Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome (Review). 2017. PMID 28416368. doi:10.1016/j.dsx.2017.03.030.. ... Legro RS, Kunselman AR, Dodson WC, Dunaif A. Prevalence and predictors of risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus and impaired ...
"Management of blood glucose in type 2 diabetes mellitus" (PDF). American Family Physician. 79 (1): 29-36. PMID 19145963. ... Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred tae as diabetes, is a group o metabolic diseases in which thare are heich bluid ... "Diabetes Blue Circle Symbol". International Diabetes Federation. 17 March 2006. Archived frae the oreeginal on 5 August 2007.. ... "Diabetes Fact sheet N°312". WHO. October 2013. Archived frae the oreeginal on 26 August 2013. Retrieved 25 March 2014.. ...
Data also proposed a decrease in weight gain as a result of increased consumption lessens the risk of developing diabetes type ... A 2007 study by Boeing et al., explored common chronic lifestyle diseases including diabetes type 2 mellitus, obesity, ... Fruit 1 medium apple, orange, banana or pear 2 small apricots, plums or kiwi fruit 1 cup of diced or canned fruit (no added ... "What is a Serve?". Go for 2 and 5. Retrieved 2015-04-09. "Serve Sizes". Australian Dietary Guidelines. Australian Government ...
However, in certain conditions, such as diabetes mellitus, the concentration of glucose in the blood (hyperglycemia) exceeds ... TypesEdit. High ceiling/loop diureticEdit. High ceiling diuretics may cause a substantial diuresis - up to 20%[3] of the ... Thiazide-type diuretics such as hydrochlorothiazide act on the distal convoluted tubule and inhibit the sodium-chloride ... glucose (especially in uncontrolled diabetes), mannitol Promotes osmotic diuresis 2. proximal tubule, descending limb ...
Diabetes mellitus type 1), கர்ப்பகால நீரிழிவு (gestational diabetes) கொண்டவர்களாகவும் உள்ளனர். இந்நோய் உருவாவதற்கு, மரபியல் ... "Monogenic Forms of Diabetes: Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus and Maturity-onset Diabetes of the Young". National Diabetes ... "J Diabetes Sci Technol 3 (4): 722-6. பப்மெட்:20144319. *↑ 24.0 24.1 "Screening: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Adults". U.S. ... Diabetes mellitus type 2), இன்சுலின் எதிர்ப்பு, ஒப்பீட்டளவில் இன்சுலின் குறைபாடு ஆகியவற்றின் காரணமாக நம் இரத்தத்தில் சர்க்கரை ...
... diabetes mellitus (DM) - diagnosis - diarrhea - diplopia - dissemination - division of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ( ... human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) - human T cell lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II) - humoral immunity - HVTN ... human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) - human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) - human leukocyte antigens (HLA) - ... wasting syndrome - Western blot - white blood cells - wild-type virus - window period - Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) - ...
AIAPP/Diabetes mellitus type 2. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Familial_amyloid_polyneuropathy& ... a form of gene therapy wherein the liver expressing wild type and mutant TTR is replaced by a liver only expressing wild type ... Because most patients are heterozygotes, they deposit both mutant and wild type TTR subnits. ... FAP is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner.[2] This means that the defective gene responsible for the disorder is located ...
... diabetes mellitus, muscle wasting, osteoporosis, lung cancer, anxiety disorder, sexual dysfunction, and depression.[2][39] In ... Traditionally, two types of COPD were known as chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Most cases of COPD are a mixture of both ... Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by long-term breathing ... COPD is a type of obstructive lung disease in which chronic, incompletely reversible poor airflow (airflow limitation) and ...
It is used to treat harlequin-type ichthyosis, a usually lethal skin disease, and lamellar ichthyosis. It is a retinoid, ... Diabetes mellitus. *Hyperuricaemia. Psychiatric *Depression. *Aggravated depression. *Aggressive tendencies. *Anxiety. *Mood ... the most common type of which is hyperostotic changes (excessive bone growth), especially in growing children and adolescents.[ ... 26 (2): 124-8. doi:10.1159/000267402. PMID 8196934.. *^ Griffin JN, Pinali D, Olds K, Lu N, Appleby L, Doan L, Lane MA ( ...
In all corneal ulcers it is important to rule out predisposing factors like diabetes mellitus and immunodeficiency. ... TypesEdit. Superficial and deep corneal ulcersEdit. Corneal ulcers are a common human eye disease. They are caused by trauma, ... This is most commonly seen in Pseudomonas infection, but it can be caused by other types of bacteria or fungi. These infectious ... This type of ulcer is especially dangerous and can rapidly result in corneal perforation, if not treated in time. ...
... and the person has diabetes mellitus, is pregnant, is male, or immunocompromised, it is considered complicated.[6][17] ... Lam, TB; Omar, MI; Fisher, E; Gillies, K; MacLennan, S (23 September 2014). "Types of indwelling urethral catheters for short- ... Some also support treatment of those with diabetes mellitus[78] and treatment before urinary tract procedures which will likely ... Female anatomy, sexual intercourse, diabetes, obesity, family history[2]. Diagnostic method. Based on symptoms, urine culture[3 ...
... e diabetes mellitus especialmente cos inhibidores da protease.[11] Outros síntomas comúns son diarrea,[127][128] e un ... Reeves, J. D. and Doms, R. W (2002). "Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2". J. Gen. Virol. 83 (Pt 6): 1253-65. PMID 12029140. ... Chitnis, Amit; Rawls, Diana; Moore, Jim (2000). "Origin of HIV Type 1 in Colonial French Equatorial Africa?". AIDS Research and ... Holmes CB, Losina E, Walensky RP, Yazdanpanah Y, Freedberg KA (2003). "Review of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-related ...
... type IV collagen excretion reflects renal morphological alterations and type IV collagen expression in patients with type 2 ... diabetes mellitus". Clinical nephrology. 55 (5): 357-64. PMID 11393380. INIST:985198.. ... Type III Procollagen, Type IV Collagen, Laminin, Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase, or Prolyl Hydroxylase?". Alcoholism: ... Collagen IV (ColIV or Col4) is a type of collagen found primarily in the basal lamina. The collagen IV C4 domain at the C- ...
... due primarily to diabetes mellitus type 1 and gestational diabetes.[1] In diabetes mellitus type 1 there is a lower total level ... "Monogenic Forms of Diabetes: Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus and Maturity-onset Diabetes of the Young". National Diabetes ... Diabetes mellitus. ≥11.1 (≥200). ≥7.0 (≥126). ≥48. ≥6.5. The World Health Organization definition of diabetes (both type 1 and ... "Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus". Diabetes Care. American Diabetes Association. 35 Suppl 1 (Suppl 1): S64-71 ...
Helping to understand Diabetes Mellitus and what the medical world do not tell you .... Diabetes sufferers are not told the ... and find a cure for diabetes! using the internet. ... how to change your life style and beat type 2 diabetes mellitus ... World Health Organization Over 300 million world wide have diabetesWhat is diabetes?Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs ... Sugar and Diabetes The Deliberate Use of Refined Sugar to Assist Degenerative Disease like diabetes.Read about diabetes and ...
Publication types, MeSH terms, Substances, Grant support. Publication types. *Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural ... Pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus.. Leahy JL1.. Author information. 1. University of Vermont College of Medicine, ... Whether the diabetes phenotype will occur depends on many environmental factors that share an ability to stress the glucose ... The pathological sequence for type 2 diabetes is complex and entails many different elements that act in concert to cause that ...
A daily multivitamin is recommended for most people with diabetes.. For some people, type 2 diabetes can be controlled just ... Obesity greatly increases the risk of diabetes. Symptoms. The symptoms of diabetes are related to high blood glucose levels. ... The medication metformin (Glucophage) offers some additional protection for people with pre-diabetes. Pre-diabetes is defined ... Type 2 diabetes runs in families. It most often affects people who are older than 40. But type 2 diabetes is now being seen in ...
The recently completed United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) has shown that type 2 diabetes mellitus is a ... Publication types, MeSH terms, Substances. Publication types. *Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ... Pharmacologic therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus.. DeFronzo RA1.. Author information. 1. University of Texas Health Science ... Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder that results from defects in both insulin secretion and insulin action ...
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and relative impairment in insulin secretion. ... Gestational diabetes mellitus: Glycemic control and maternal prognosis. *Gestational diabetes mellitus: Obstetrical issues and ... Patient education: Diabetes mellitus type 2: Overview (Beyond the Basics). *Patient education: Diabetes mellitus type 2: ... Diabetes Care 1995; 18:654.. *Feig DS, Zinman B, Wang X, Hux JE. Risk of development of diabetes mellitus after diagnosis of ...
Type 2 diabetes mellitus affects about 3% of the population or 100 million people worldwide. The prevalence is higher in Europe ... The effects of insulin treatment on insulin secretion and action in type II diabetes mellitus. Diabetes 34: 222-234, 1985. ... UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group. UK prospective diabetes study 16: Overview of 6 years ` therapy of type II diabetes: A ... The effects of weight loss on the mechanims of hyperglycemia in obese noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Diabetes 35: 990- ...
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Type II Diabetes Mellitus, Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus, NIDDM, Type II Diabetes. ... Type II Diabetes Mellitus, Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus, NIDDM, Type II Diabetes ... Family History of Type II Diabetes Mellitus. *Age over 40 years (risk increases with age). *Type II Diabetes Mellitus does ... Type II Diabetes Mellitus Prevalence is rapidly increasing in the United States. *Prevalence: 22 Million in 2014 (was 5.5 ...
... or below predicts the absence of type 2 diabetes, while an HbA1c of 7% or greater predicts its presence, and levels of 6.5-6.9 ... American Diabetes Association guidelines for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in diabetes mellitus type 2. ... Guideline] American Diabetes Association. 15. Diabetes Advocacy: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes-2018. Diabetes Care. ... Mutation in mitochondrial tRNA(Leu)(UUR) gene in a large pedigree with maternally transmitted type II diabetes mellitus and ...
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These data suggest that long-term coffee consumption is associated with a statistically significantly lower risk for type 2 ... Coffee consumption and risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus Ann Intern Med. 2004 Jan 6;140(1):1-8. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-140-1- ... Results: The authors documented 1333 new cases of type 2 diabetes in men and 4085 new cases in women. The authors found an ... The multivariate relative risks for diabetes according to regular coffee consumption categories (0, ,1, 1 to 3, 4 to 5, or , or ...
Women diagnosed with GDM who have unrecognized Type 2 DM are also at high risk, but perinatal mo … ... Perinatal mortality in Type 2 DM is significantly increased, mainly owing to an excess of late fetal death. Maternal factors ... 256 known and 178 diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), but confirmed to have Type 2 DM early post-partum), 160 ... now exceeds that in women with Type 1 DM, but there are few data published on perinatal mortality in Type 2 DM. This study ...
... due primarily to diabetes mellitus type 1 and gestational diabetes.[1] In diabetes mellitus type 1 there is a lower total level ... Redirected from Type II diabetes). Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder ... "Monogenic Forms of Diabetes: Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus and Maturity-onset Diabetes of the Young". National Diabetes ... Diabetes mellitus. ≥11.1 (≥200). ≥7.0 (≥126). ≥48. ≥6.5. The World Health Organization definition of diabetes (both type 1 and ...
... due primarily to diabetes mellitus type 1 and gestational diabetes.[1] In diabetes mellitus type 1 there is a lower total level ... "Monogenic Forms of Diabetes: Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus and Maturity-onset Diabetes of the Young". National Diabetes ... Diabetes mellitus. ≥11.1 (≥200). ≥7.0 (≥126). ≥48. ≥6.5 The World Health Organization definition of diabetes (both type 1 and ... Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood ...
Public Health Diabetes Mellitus Internal Medicine Human Physiology Metabolic Disease These keywords were added by machine and ... Neal JV (1962) Diabetes mellitus: a thrifty genotype rendered detrimental by "progress"? Am J Human Genet 14: 353-362Google ... Swenne I (1992) Pancreatic Beta-cell growth and diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia 35: 193-201PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Reaven GM, Bernstein R, Davis B, Olefsky JM (1976) Nonketotic diabetes mellitus: insulin deficiency or insulin resistance? Am J ...
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Specific associated variants increase the risk of type 2 diabetes 1. ... variants have been associated with type 2 diabetes in multiple ethnic groups. ... Worldwide distribution of type II diabetes-associated TCF7L2 SNPs: evidence for stratification in Europe. Biochem Genet. 2012 ... The Diabetes Gene and Wnt Pathway Effector TCF7L2 Regulates Adipocyte Development and Function. Diabetes. 2018 Apr. 67 (4):554- ...
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Intervention ICMJE *Drug: Ertugliflozin 5 mg Ertugliflozin 5 mg orally (1 ertugliflozin 5 mg tablet ... Type 2 Diabetes MellitusA Study of the Efficacy and Safety of Ertugliflozin Monotherapy in the Treatment of Participants With ... Type 2 Diabetes MellitusStudy Of Safety And Efficacy Of Ertugliflozin (PF-04971729, MK-8835) In Participants With Type 2 ... Gallo S, Calle RA, Terra SG, Pong A, Tarasenko L, Raji A. Effects of Ertugliflozin on Liver Enzymes in Patients with Type 2 ...
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Type 2 answers are found in the 5-Minute Clinical Consult powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and ... Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 is a topic covered in the 5-Minute Clinical Consult. To view the entire topic, please log in or ... Diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2 is due to a progressive insulin secretory defect in the setting of insulin resistance.. Geriatric ... Diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2 is due to a progressive insulin secretory defect in the setting of insulin resistance.. Geriatric ...
Insulin Glargine in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Official Title ICMJE 44-week, Parallel, Open, Randomized, Multinational, Multi- ... Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes mellitus for at least 1 year (no history of ketoacidosis) and treatment with oral antidiabetics ( ... Insulin Glargine in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. This study has been completed. ... Once-daily basal insulin glargine versus thrice-daily prandial insulin lispro in people with type 2 diabetes on oral ...
June 23, 2019 diabetes, glucose, government, heath, malta, medicine, mellitus, national, public, study, T2DM, World Health ... Cuschieri, S., Vassallo, J., Calleja, N., Pace, N., & Mamo, J. (2016). Diabetes, pre-diabetes and their risk factors in Malta: ... Public health priority: Type 2 diabetes mellitus. What is Malta doing to address this very prevalent problem? Dr Sarah ... and salt need to decrease to alleviate Maltas weight and diabetes problem. A diabetes screening programme also needs to be ...
Insulin resistance is a major contributor to progression of the disease and to complications of diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is a ... formerly called non-insulin-dependent diabetes) causes abnormal carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism associated with ... new oral agents within the past three years has expanded the range of possible combination regimens available for treating type ... analyses of clinical trials are needed to determine cost-effective treatment strategies for management of type 2 diabetes. ...
The American Diabetes Association recommends screening for type 2 diabetes beginning at 10 years of age or the onset of puberty ... The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents has increased worldwide over the past three decades. ... Etiological approach to characterization of diabetes type: the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(7): ... Pediatr Diabetes. 2014;15(suppl 20):257-269.. 24. Rapaport R, Silverstein JH, Garzarella L, Rosenbloom AL. Type 1 and type 2 ...
Duration of type 2 diabetes [Units: Years]. Mean (Standard Deviation) 4.3 (4.69) 3.9 (4.39) 4.1 (4.54) ... Welchol as Monotherapy for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of ... Study Type: Interventional. Study Design: Allocation: Randomized; Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment; Masking: Quadruple ( ... The glucose and lipid effects of colesevelam as monotherapy in drug-naïve type 2 diabetes. Horm Metab Res. 2014 May;46(5):348- ...
American Diabetes Association: consensus development conference on antipsychotic drugs and obesity and diabetes. Diabetes Care ... "Mechanisms of Diabetes." In the course of these 3 presentations,1-3 he provided evidence that "diabetes mellitus is a disease ... The mechanism of diabetes mellitus, II: the control of the blood sugar level (cont). Lancet. 1939; 2: 118-122. ... The mechanism of diabetes mellitus, II: the control of the blood sugar level. Lancet. 1939; 2: 65-68. ...
  • This is an efficacy and safety study of ertugliflozin in participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and inadequate glycemic control on metformin monotherapy. (pfizer.com)
  • In 1981, the World Health Organization performed the first national diabetes study in Malta and reported that the total prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is 7.7% (5.9% previously known diabetics and 1.8% newly diagnosed diabetics). (edu.mt)
  • Exenatide is a GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1) agonist that has been approved in the UK for use in the management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) since 2006. (mdpi.com)
  • Dapagliflozin, a novel inhibitor of renal sodium-glucose co-transporter 2, allows an insulin-independent approach to improve type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) hyperglycemia. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Understanding patients' and physicians' perceptions of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) management and treatment has important implications for diabetes care, allowing the identification of clinical practice issues that could be improved, leading to patients' better understanding of the illness and, consequently, healthier self-management behaviors. (dovepress.com)
  • Patients and physicians demonstrate different views concerning all questions related to T2DM health status and diabetes management and treatment (information, recommendations, satisfaction, and preferences). (dovepress.com)
  • mellitus (T2D or T2DM) has already been described in the medical books of the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Greece, India, Rome and China. (antibodies-online.com)
  • The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass operation effectively induces weight loss and long-term control of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). (sages.org)
  • The purpose of this study is to determine the safety and effectiveness of an investigational drug in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) (a specific type of diabetes). (bioportfolio.com)
  • At the same time, Diabetes Mellitus (DM), type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 (T2DM), is increasing worldwide. (avhandlingar.se)
  • Furthermore, data on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in relation to risk of aortic valv. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in youth has been increasing over the last few decades paralleling the increased prevalence of obesity. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • The determination of type 1 (autoantibody mediated) versus T2DM may be difficult. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • The difficulty in distinguishing obese T1DM from T2DM is illustrated in the TODAY study of adolescents with phenotypic type 2 diabetes mellitus.Klingensmith et al demonstrated that 9.8% of participants diagnosed as having T2DM based on clinical criteria had pancreatic autoantibodies, with 5.9% positive for a single antibody and 3.9% for more than one, suggesting they were obese children with antibodies consistent with T1DM. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • This study examined whether the GLP-1 analog exenatide inhibits postprandial vascular endothelial dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a global health problem and a significant issue in Sri Lanka. (ssrn.com)
  • Health education on diabetes self-care activities for patients with T2DM is an essential part of the clinical management of diabetes. (ssrn.com)
  • There is a paucity of data regarding the types of self-care recommendations given by healthcare professionals for patients with T2DM in Sri Lanka. (ssrn.com)
  • A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the types of self-care recommendations given by healthcare professionals among purposively selected adults with T2DM (n=300). (ssrn.com)
  • Clinical Practice Guideline: Management of Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) in Children and Adolescents. (aappublications.org)
  • The aim of this study was to determine if the problem-solving therapy (PST) helps control metabolic variables in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who show depressive and anxiety symptoms. (cambridge.org)
  • People suffering from Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were part of the study. (omicsonline.org)
  • Obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which is a significant health problem worldwide. (dovepress.com)
  • Disruption of the endocrine system leads to hormonal imbalance, which may influence the development and pathogenesis of metabolic disorders, particularly type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). (frontiersin.org)
  • In particular, the review focuses on the following sub-topics: (1) an overview of the sources of human exposure to NMs, (2) systems involved in the uptake of ENMs into human body, (3) endocrine disrupting engineered nanomaterials (EDENMs) and mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of T2DM, (4) evidence of the role of EDENMs in the pathogenesis of T2DM from in vitro, in vivo and epidemiological studies, and (5) conclusions and perspectives. (frontiersin.org)
  • Previous studies of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) have found that patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) exhibit gray matter alterations, but these findings are inconsistent and have not been quantitatively reviewed. (frontiersin.org)
  • Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are attributed to a combination of genetic susceptibility and lifestyle factors. (wur.nl)
  • The aim of this study was to analyze socioeconomic position (SEP) inequalities in the prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in people aged 50 years and over in Europe and to describe the contribution of body mass index (BMI) and other possible mediators. (isciii.es)
  • The prevalence and cumulative incidence of T2DM were calculated with self-reported T2DM or when the individual took drugs for diabetes. (isciii.es)
  • T between type T2DM patients and controls. (who.int)
  • Type 2 diabetes primarily occurs as a result of obesity and lack of exercise. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rates of type 2 diabetes have increased markedly since 1960 in parallel with obesity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whether the diabetes phenotype will occur depends on many environmental factors that share an ability to stress the glucose homeostasis system, with the current explosion of obesity and sedentary lifestyle being a major cause of the worldwide diabetes epidemic. (nih.gov)
  • This rise in blood glucose, now perhaps in concert with the excess fatty acids that are a typical feature of obesity and insulin resistance, cause additional deterioration in beta-cell function along with further insulin resistance, and the blood glucose levels rise to full-blown diabetes. (nih.gov)
  • Obesity greatly increases the risk of diabetes. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • Given the marked increase in childhood obesity, there is concern that the prevalence of diabetes will continue to increase substantially. (uptodate.com)
  • Obesity and nutritional factors in the pathogenesis of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. (springer.com)
  • In 2016 diabetes cost Malta an estimated €29 million, while obesity cost an estimated €24 million. (edu.mt)
  • 6 Patients with undiagnosed diabetes mellitus are at serious risk for coronary heart disease, stroke and peripheral vascular disease, and have a greater likelihood of dyslipidemia, hypertension and obesity. (aafp.org)
  • Obesity and sedentary life-style are largely to blame for the diabetes epidemic. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Obesity contributes approximately to 55% of type 2 diabetes cases. (antibodies-online.com)
  • The increased rate of childhood obesity in between the 1960s and 2000s in Diabetes Type 2 is thought to be due to increased average weight and is believed to be the key factor in explaining today?s increase in children and adolescents. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Patients with certain comorbidity profiles, such as those with obesity only, were less likely to have diabetes-related face-to-face visits and to meet A1C treatment goals, and more likely to have ED visits and 30-day readmissions. (ajmc.com)
  • Based on the current trends, (greater then)360 million individuals will have diabetes by the year 2030.1 The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is rising much more rapidly because of increase in obesity and decrease in activity level in developed and industrialized countries. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Type 2 diabetes, once considered a disease restricted to adults, has increased in prevalence in childhood, largely due to the obesity epidemic in youth. (springer.com)
  • Prevalence of overweight and obesity in youth with diabetes in USA: the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. (springer.com)
  • Diabetes incidence in Pima indians: contributions of obesity and parental diabetes. (springer.com)
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus is often preventable, but due to the rise in obesity it is on rise. (diabetespark.com)
  • The results were recently published in Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • The full report is titled "The Obesity Paradox in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Relationship of Body Mass Index to Prognosis. (annals.org)
  • Obesity is a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. (annals.org)
  • The reasons for the rapid increase in diabetes and obesity in the modern world remain largely unclear, and epidemiological studies indicate that the increased presence of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the environment may influence the incidence of metabolic diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism 14 (2012)2. (wur.nl)
  • Diabetes is one of the biggest problems that we are dealing with in the world today, alongside close relatives like obesity and cancer. (brightonma.net)
  • You have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes if you are older, have obesity, have a family history of diabetes , or do not exercise. (patientsville.com)
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and relative impairment in insulin secretion. (uptodate.com)
  • As depicted in Figure 1, overt hyperglycemia and the syndrome of type 2 diabetes is due to a variable combination of insulin resistance affecting the liver and peripheral insulin target tissues and of impaired insulin secretion. (springer.com)
  • Management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes: a patient-centered approach: position statement of the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). (medscape.com)
  • Diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases with characteristic hyperglycemia associated with defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. (aafp.org)
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by hyperglycemia with insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion. (aafp.org)
  • At approximately the same time that the importance of insulin resistance in the etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus was becoming widely acknowledged, it seemed important to point out that frank hyperglycemia only developed in a relatively small proportion of individuals with that defect in insulin action. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cell injury in human islets induced by non-immune mediated inflammation occur in vitro upon hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Diabetes mellitus is classified on the basis of the pathologic process that leads to hyperglycemia.1 The two broad categories are type 1 and type 2. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Diabetes-related cognitive dysfunction:Hyperglycemia in the early stage may be a key? (bioportfolio.com)
  • A life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus, primarily of TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS with severe INSULIN deficiency and extreme HYPERGLYCEMIA. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Diabetes mellitus is a multifaceted group of metabolic diseases characterized by the accumulation of sugar in the blood (hyperglycemia). (omicsonline.org)
  • The recently completed United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) has shown that type 2 diabetes mellitus is a progressive disorder that can be treated initially with oral agent monotherapy but will eventually require the addition of other oral agents, and that in many patients, insulin therapy will be needed to achieve targeted glycemic levels. (nih.gov)
  • A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). (mdibl.org)
  • U.K. Prospective Diabetes Study 27: plasma lipids and lipoproteins at diagnosis of NIDDM by age and sex. (wiley.com)
  • Chiasson JL, Josse RG, Gomis R, Hanefeld M, Karasik A, Laakso M. Acarbose for prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus: the STOP-NIDDM randomised trial. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Slowly Pro- gressive Type I Diabetes Seen in a Case with Polyglandular Autoimmune Syndrome Complicated by Sj?gren's Syndrome and Chronic Thyroiditis," Tokushima Red cross Hospital Medical Journal, Vol. 13, No. 2008, pp. 37-42, (in Japanese, abstract in English). (scirp.org)
  • 2017 Nov 15;138(4):183-193 Authors: Ambachew S, Biadgo B Abstract The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in epidemic proportions worldwide. (medworm.com)
  • [ 26 ] These data suggest that genetic susceptibility to type 2 diabetes as determined by TCF7L2 variants might prove an actionable indicator for early intervention and disease prevention. (medscape.com)
  • 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 The Canadian Diabetes Association (CDA) 15 and the American Diabetes Association (ADA) 16 both publish guidelines on a regular basis and recommend that people with type 2 diabetes receive tailored, stepwise and proactive therapy including lifestyle intervention and pharmacologic treatment from a multidisciplinary team. (cmaj.ca)
  • Diabetes, other risk factors, and 12-yr cardiovascular mortality for men screened in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. (wiley.com)
  • Can Colectomy Improve Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus? (sages.org)
  • Type 2 diabetes is also called type 2 diabetes mellitus and adult-onset diabetes. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • However, abnormal glucose metabolism can be documented years before the onset of overt diabetes. (uptodate.com)
  • Mako ME, Starr JI, Rubenstein AH (1977) Circulating proinsulin in patients with maturity onset diabetes. (springer.com)
  • [ 19 , 20 ] Indeed, dysregulation of glucose metabolism, decreased processing of proinsulin, and elevated levels of gastric inhibitory peptide and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) can be observed in normoglycemic individuals with TCF7L2 polymorphisms before the onset of type 2 diabetes. (medscape.com)
  • The American Diabetes Association recommends screening for type 2 diabetes beginning at 10 years of age or the onset of puberty in children who are overweight or obese and have two additional risk factors. (aafp.org)
  • High intake of coffee, decaffeinated coffee, or tea is associated with a material reduction in the risk of new onset type 2 diabetes mellitus. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a heterogeneous disorder that is defined as carbohydrate intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. (avhandlingar.se)
  • Are you sure your patient has new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus? (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Youth-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus: lessons learned from the TODAY study. (springer.com)
  • Long-term complications and mortality in young-onset diabetes: type 2 diabetes is more hazardous and lethal than type 1 diabetes. (springer.com)
  • Characteristics of adolescents and youth with recent-onset type 2 diabetes: the TODAY cohort at baseline. (springer.com)
  • Maturity onset diabetes of young is a rare type 2 diabetes, and an autosomal-dominant inheritance is clearly established. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • One of the two major types of diabetes mellitus, characterized by late age of onset (30 years or older), insulin resistance, high levels of blood sugar, and little or no need for supple-mental insulin. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It was formerly known as adult-onset or non-insulin-dependent diabetes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 4. What effect did the onset of diabetes have on this patient's hypertriglyc- eridemia? (scribd.com)
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition, which was once known as adult-onset or non-insulin-dependent diabetes. (diabetespark.com)
  • Acarbose delays onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • S.v. Acarbose delays onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes ) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar , insulin resistance , and relative lack of insulin . (wikipedia.org)
  • Since insulin resistance and abnormalities of insulin secretion may be associated with other pathologies, for example liver disease, renal disease, glucocorticoid, growth hormone or thyroid hormone excess, diabetes may be secondary to these conditions (see Chapter V.5). (springer.com)
  • Insulin resistance: the fundamental trigger of type 2 diabetes. (springer.com)
  • Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus-a genetically programmed failure of the beta cell to compensate for insulin resistance. (springer.com)
  • Diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2 is due to a progressive insulin secretory defect in the setting of insulin resistance. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus (formerly called non-insulin-dependent diabetes) causes abnormal carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism associated with insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion. (aafp.org)
  • Insulin resistance is a major contributor to progression of the disease and to complications of diabetes. (aafp.org)
  • Type 2 diabetes presents as a spectrum of metabolic abnormalities with prominent insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. (aafp.org)
  • Subsequent prospective studies were published demonstrating that insulin resistance and/or compensatory hyperinsulinemia as a surrogate estimate of insulin resistance predicted the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, 9,10 providing the final evidence of the prescience of Himsworth's mechanistic concept of the clinical syndrome of diabetes mellitus. (ahajournals.org)
  • Type 2 (non-insulin dependent) diabetes is characterized by insufficient insulin receptors to effect proper glucose control after insulin is released (insulin resistance). (health.am)
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by variable degree of insulin resistance, impaired insulin secretion and increased glucose production. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • For example, certain risk factors can be observed in subjects who subsequently develop INSULIN RESISTANCE as in type 2 diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 2). (bioportfolio.com)
  • A type of diabetes mellitus that is characterized by severe INSULIN RESISTANCE and LIPODYSTROPHY. (bioportfolio.com)
  • a type of diabetes mellitus characterized by insulin resistance in appropriate hepatic glucose production and impaired insulin secretion. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 35 mg/dl) are commonly seen in the insulin resistance syndrome, or Syndrome X. In fact, an increase in plasma triglyceride is the most common metabolic characteristic of Syndrome X. Although all insulin-resistant patients do not develop type 2 diabetes, many do. (scribd.com)
  • Underexpression of hepcidin results in body iron overload, which triggers the production of reactive oxygen species simultaneously thought to play a major role in diabetes pathogenesis mediated both by β-cell failure and insulin resistance. (medworm.com)
  • Guideline] Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. (medscape.com)
  • Report of the expert committee on the diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. (medscape.com)
  • SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth: a multicenter study of the prevalence, incidence and classification of diabetes mellitus in youth. (springer.com)
  • In the United States, five classes of oral agents, each of which works through a different mechanism of action, are currently available to improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. (nih.gov)
  • A Study To Evaluate The Efficacy And Safety Of Ertugliflozin In Participants With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus And Inadequate Glycemic Control On Metformin Monotherapy (MK-8835-007). (pfizer.com)
  • A Phase 3, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, 26-Week Multicenter Study With a 78-Week Extension To Evaluate The Efficacy And Safety Of Ertugliflozin In Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus And Inadequate Glycemic Control On Metformin Monotherapy. (pfizer.com)
  • Furthermore, the postsurgical weight and glycemic outcomes were not associated with the type of colorectal resections. (sages.org)
  • Individuals who had high levels of physical activity, a healthy diet (defined as one high in fiber, with a high polyunsaturated to saturated fat ratio, and a lower mean glycemic index), did not smoke, and consumed alcohol in moderation had an 82% lower rate of Diabetes Type 2 as studies have shown. (antibodies-online.com)
  • This study will examine the safety and efficacy of the addition of sitagliptin (MK0431) compared to placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with inadequate glycemic control who a. (bioportfolio.com)
  • To characterize the glycemic efficacy and safety of initiation of the DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin during metformin dose escalation in participants with type 2 diabetes (T2D) not at HbA1c goal on a sub. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A model of glycemic effect for a Type 2 diabetic patient for digestive response is established. (google.es)
  • Ligand Pharmaceuticals Incorporated is developing LGD-6972, a novel, orally-bioavailable addition to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A clinical trial to maintain glycemic control in youth with type 2 diabetes. (springer.com)
  • Few studies have looked at the relationship between perceived family support and glycemic control among people with type 2 DM. (eurekalert.org)
  • These results suggest that dutogliptin will provide clinically important glycemic control with potential improvements in tolerability in patients with Type 2 diabetes," said Laura K. Shawver, Ph.D., Chief Executive Officer of Phenomix Corporation. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • [1] In diabetes mellitus type 1 there is a lower total level of insulin to control blood glucose, due to an autoimmune induced loss of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas . (wikipedia.org)
  • [12] [13] Diagnosis of diabetes is by blood tests such as fasting plasma glucose , oral glucose tolerance test , or glycated hemoglobin (A1C). (wikipedia.org)
  • The symptoms of diabetes are related to high blood glucose levels. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • Although the risk of developing type 2 diabetes follows a continuum across all levels of abnormal glycemia, when classified categorically, the individuals demonstrably at highest risk include those with impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or a glycated hemoglobin (A1C) level of 5.7 to 6.4 percent (39 to 46 mmol/mol) ( table 1 ) [ 9,10 ]. (uptodate.com)
  • The criteria for defining diabetes and impaired glucose regulation are reviewed in greater detail separately. (uptodate.com)
  • Effect of protein ingestion on the glucose appearance rate in people with type 2 diabetes. (springer.com)
  • Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). (springer.com)
  • From pre-diabetes to type 2 diabetes in obese youth: pathophysiological characteristics along the spectrum of glucose dysregulation. (medscape.com)
  • Women diagnosed with GDM who have unrecognized Type 2 DM are also at high risk, but perinatal mortality is low in women with milder degrees of glucose intolerance in pregnancy. (nih.gov)
  • 1 Ninety percent of patients with diabetes have type 2 diabetes (formerly known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes) and often require oral agents or insulin for glucose control. (aafp.org)
  • In the course of these 3 presentations, 1-3 he provided evidence that "diabetes mellitus is a disease in which the essential lesion is a diminished ability of the tissue to utilize glucose. (ahajournals.org)
  • However, this situation begin changing rapidly with the introduction of methods to quantify insulin-mediated glucose disposal, 5,6 and it soon became clear 7,8 that the majority of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were, in Himsworth's terms, "insulin insensitive. (ahajournals.org)
  • 16 Although 4 of the criteria proposed by the ATP III to diagnose the metabolic syndrome-glucose intolerance, a high triglyceride and low HDL cholesterol, and elevated blood pressure-parallel the abnormalities that comprise syndrome X, 8,11 there are 2 important differences between the 2 concepts. (ahajournals.org)
  • Type 2 diabetics are not ketosis-prone due to the presence of insulin, but do develop a condition of hyperglycemic hyperosmolarity during pregnancy, generally after an episode of vomiting and diarrhea in which the patient replaced fluids with glucose solutions. (health.am)
  • With type 2 diabetes, the risk of frank diabetes in a first-degree relative is almost 15%, and about 30% more will have impaired glucose tolerance. (health.am)
  • Interestingly, the risk in monozygotic twins the concordance rate for any abnormality of glucose metabolism (either Type II diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance) at 70 years of age exceeded 90% in several studies. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Ertugliflozin, an inhibitor of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2, is approved in the United States and European Union for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in adults, both as monotherapy and as part of fi. (bioportfolio.com)
  • There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in attaining the targets for fasting plasma glucose levels, systolic blood pressure or total cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio. (cmaj.ca)
  • Reducing plasma glucose levels, 1 , 2 blood pressure 3 , 4 , 5 or lipoprotein levels 6 , 7 , 8 delays the development or progression of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (cmaj.ca)
  • No single agent appears capable of achieving target glucose levels in the majority of patients with type 2 diabetes. (nih.gov)
  • The diagnosis of diabetes mellitus is made by demonstrating a random blood glucose level at or above 200 mg/dL plus the classic symptoms of polyuria and polydipsia, a fasting blood glucose level of greater than or equal to 126 mg/dL, an elevation of greater than or equal to 200 mg/dL of glucose 2 hours after a standard oral glucose load (75 grams). (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes, it means that the insulin in your body is unable to ensure the glucose produced by your food is absorbed and converted into fuel for your body. (dokteronline.com)
  • Urakami T, Kubota S, Nitadori Y, Harada K, Owada M, Kitagawa T. Annual incidence and clinical characteristics of type 2 diabetes in children as detected by urine glucose screening in the Tokyo metropolitan area. (springer.com)
  • Diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in three American Indian populations aged 45-74 years. (springer.com)
  • Fasting plasma glucose, insulin levels, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference are measured at baseline and 12 months, as are patients' self-reported behavioral and emotional responses to diabetes risk information. (doaj.org)
  • Types of self-care recommendations were assessed by using pre-tested diabetes self- care activities questionnaire, which includes recommendations regarding diet, physical activities (PA) self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and testing urine for sugar. (ssrn.com)
  • Although the correct and incorrect patient predictions appear similar across all three models (left), the glucose and combined models have worse performance for the prediction of future diabetes (middle). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • BACKGROUND Patients who develop type 2 diabetes initially pass through a state of impaired glucose tolerance. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • They screened 14,742 individuals with a body mass index (BMI) between 25 and 40 kg/[m.sup.2] (mean 31.0 kg/[m.sup.2]) with a 2-hour glucose tolerance test. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Patients with abnormal fasting plasma glucose levels had a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test, and all patients had a yearly glucose tolerance test. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) after a 2-hour glucose tolerance test. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. (patientsville.com)
  • Many people can manage their diabetes through healthy eating, physical activity, and blood glucose testing. (patientsville.com)
  • Pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. (nih.gov)
  • The pathogenesis, including genetic susceptibility, and the diagnostic criteria for diabetes are discussed elsewhere. (uptodate.com)
  • See 'Pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus' and 'Clinical presentation and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in adults' . (uptodate.com)
  • The importance of the beta-cell in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. (springer.com)
  • However, inappropriate production of hepcidin has been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications, based on the regulation and expression in iron-abundant cells. (medworm.com)
  • [6] Type 2 diabetes makes up about 90% of cases of diabetes , with the other 10% due primarily to diabetes mellitus type 1 and gestational diabetes . (wikipedia.org)
  • Over a 12-year period (1985-1997) at the Diabetes Clinic at National Women's Hospital, Auckland, there were 434 pregnancies in women with Type 2 DM (256 known and 178 diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), but confirmed to have Type 2 DM early post-partum), 160 pregnancies in women with Type 1 DM and 932 in women with GDM. (nih.gov)
  • Diet, metformin , glyburide , and insulin are all options for treatment of gestational diabetes. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The aims of this work is to better determine the genetic background of gestational diabetes (GDM) and to examine how specific genes affect the development of diabetes post partum. (avhandlingar.se)
  • Inactivity and Gestational diabetes. (diabetespark.com)
  • To examine the long-term relationship between consumption of coffee and other caffeinated beverages and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. (nih.gov)
  • The incidence of type 2 diabetes in African American women is more than twice that of white women in the United States. (medscape.com)
  • Objective To investigate the independent effects of intake of fruit and vegetables on incidence of type 2 diabetes. (bmj.com)
  • Study selection Prospective cohort studies with an independent measure of intake of fruit, vegetables, or fruit and vegetables and data on incidence of type 2 diabetes. (bmj.com)
  • There has been a focus on the role of carbohydrates and fibre, 2 3 but the relation between fruit and vegetable intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes is not fully understood. (bmj.com)
  • Understanding the physiological changes underlying these altered exercise responses is important to the design of therapeutic interventions aimed at helping individuals with DM increase their physical activity levels and fitness and reduce their cardiovascular risk [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In recent years, reviews have been written about exercise and cardiovascular function in DM [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In this review, we introduce a simplified conceptual model of cardiovascular control during exercise before reviewing the effects of diabetes on time- and intensity-dependent features of cardiovascular control during exercise. (hindawi.com)
  • These participants did not have diabetes, cancer, or cardiovascular disease at baseline. (nih.gov)
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and is closely associated with a Western lifestyle. (knaw.nl)
  • Type 2 causes complex and multi-factorial metabolic changes which ultimately lead to damage and function impairment of many organs, most importantly the cardiovascular system, and hence increase the mortality and morbidity significantly. (antibodies-online.com)
  • 12 13 Diabetes is a strong independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, 14 and often the conditions exist together, sharing common modifiable risk factors. (bmj.com)
  • Methods A total of 72 newly diagnosed and untreated type 2 DM individuals without manifest cardiovascular disease and 72 healthy controls were studied. (bmj.com)
  • Type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus and incidence of seven cardiovascular diseases. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The association between type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and specific cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is uncertain. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Just like the other three NCDs (cardiovascular diseases (CVD), cancers, and chronic respiratory diseases), diabetes is of long duration and generally of gradual progression, World Health Organization [3]. (scirp.org)
  • To compare cardiovascular disease risks and survival rates for underweight, normal-weight, overweight, and obese patients with type 2 diabetes. (annals.org)
  • Patients who have type 2 diabetes and are overweight or obese have an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. (annals.org)
  • After 10 years, more than 20% of such persons will have had a major cardiovascular event (for example, myocardial infarction [MI], stroke, heart failure, or sudden death), fewer than 5% will have developed blindness, and fewer than 2% will have developed ESRD or had lower-extremity amputation. (uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org)
  • Objective Various cardiovascular prediction models have been developed for patients with type 2 diabetes. (bmj.com)
  • This study aims to quantify the predictive performance of all cardiovascular prediction models developed specifically for diabetes patients. (bmj.com)
  • Design and methods Follow-up data of 453, 1174 and 584 type 2 diabetes patients without pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the EPIC-NL, EPIC-Potsdam and Secondary Manifestations of ARTerial disease cohorts, respectively, were used to validate 10 prediction models to estimate risk of CVD or coronary heart disease (CHD). (bmj.com)
  • One of the major complications of type 2 diabetes is cardiovascular disease (CVD). (bmj.com)
  • 5 , 6 To identify those diabetes patients who will benefit most from treatment or to determine the intensity of treatment, accurate cardiovascular risk stratification is important. (bmj.com)
  • In a recent systematic review, we identified 45 cardiovascular prediction models applicable to diabetes patients, of which 12 were specifically designed for patients with type 2 diabetes. (bmj.com)
  • Fagot-Campagna A. Emergence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in children: epidemiological evidence. (springer.com)
  • Lu et al found evidence that a screening HbA1c of 5.5% or below predicts the absence of type 2 diabetes, while an HbA1c of 7% or greater predicts its presence, and levels of 6.5-6.9% indicate a high probability that diabetes is present. (medscape.com)
  • 1 There is evidence that retinopathy begins to develop at least seven years before the clinical diagnosis of type 2 diabetes is made. (aafp.org)
  • Although momordica charantia is commonly used in traditional medical practices, along with research suggesting its benefits for people with type 2 diabetes, the current evidence does not warrant using the plant in treating this disease. (cochrane.org)
  • There is insufficient evidence on the effects of momordica charantia for type 2 diabetes mellitus. (cochrane.org)
  • Type 2 diabetes is not linked to HLA or genetic markers, but evidence supports a genetic component. (health.am)
  • Each of the selected evidence-based resources has been rated and classified according to a set of specific criteria based, in part, on publication status, publication type, and number of studies. (healthypeople.gov)
  • 15 As yet no firm conclusions have been made as to whether increasing intake of fruit and vegetables can decrease the risk of type 2 diabetes itself, given the abundance of conflicting evidence within the literature. (bmj.com)
  • If the antibodies are negative and the presentation is consistent with type 2 diabetes in an obese adolescent with a strong family history, for example, this is supportive evidence for the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • To examine the evidence that screening and earlier treatment are effective in reducing morbidity and mortality associated with diabetes. (uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org)
  • 2 However, recent evidence showed a wide distribution of risk depending on, among others, glycated haemoglobin level and number of concomitant risk factors. (bmj.com)
  • Evidence suggests body iron overload is frequently linked and observed in patients with type 2 diabetes. (medworm.com)
  • Prevention of type 2 diabetes - where is the evidence? (who.int)
  • Overview of the most significant symptoms of diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The classic symptoms of diabetes are polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst), polyphagia (increased hunger), and weight loss . (wikipedia.org)
  • Traditional medicine "fights" Diabetes through drugs that treat the symptoms of the disease, but never deals with the root cause of the disease. (google.com)
  • The treatment of type 2 diabetes also can produce symptoms, when it leads to the complication of low blood sugar (called hypoglycemia). (womenshealthmag.com)
  • Unexplained weight loss is one of the first noticeable symptoms of many different types of cancer. (amazonaws.com)
  • The sudden development of diabetes with all its associated symptoms can also be an indicator of pancreatic cancer. (amazonaws.com)
  • The symptoms of primary Sj?gren's syndrome, such as thirst and polydipsia, were masked by the characteristic symptoms of type 2 diabetes mellitus. (scirp.org)
  • An association between sicca symptoms and diabetes mellitus (types 1 and 2) has been previously reported. (scirp.org)
  • Patients having signs and symptoms of type 2 Diabetes mellitus. (boloji.com)
  • At first Type 2 diabetes symptoms may seem harmless. (diabetespark.com)
  • The symptoms of type 2 diabetes appear slowly. (patientsville.com)
  • Type 2 diabetes is typically a chronic disease associated with a ten-year-shorter life expectancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diabetes disease is so common that most of us either have diabetes or we know someone that does have it. (google.com)
  • The pathological sequence for type 2 diabetes is complex and entails many different elements that act in concert to cause that disease. (nih.gov)
  • Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • UK prospective diabetes study 16: Overview of 6 years ` therapy of type II diabetes: A progressive disease. (springer.com)
  • The mortality rate in patients with diabetes may be up to 11 times higher than in persons without the disease. (aafp.org)
  • A rational approach for managing patients with varying stages of disease requires an understanding of features that lead to disease progression, and a thorough review of the new oral agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and the clinical and economic basis for appropriate drug selection. (aafp.org)
  • Secondary diabetes is carbohydrate intolerance secondary to pancreatic disease, excess production of certain hormones (eg, growth hormone), use of certain drugs (eg, corticosteroids), insulin receptor abnormalities, and certain genetic disorders. (health.am)
  • Medieval European doctors have tested for diabetes, by tasting the urine of diabetic patients, and named it ?sweet urine disease? (antibodies-online.com)
  • This stems for example from the fact that mortality from diabetes is related to heart disease. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Additionally, diabetes is the leading cause of new cases of blindness among adults aged 20--74 years and the leading cause of end-stage renal disease, accounting for approximately 40% of new cases. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. (mdibl.org)
  • Diabetes mellitus type 2 (referred to as diabetes throughout the rest of this article) has the potential to be a devastating disease because it slowly clogs up your network of blood vessels, destroying the transportation system that your blood relies entirely upon to nourish and cleanse your cells. (drbenkim.com)
  • Left unchecked, diabetes can result in complete blockages in your circulatory system, paving the way to every health challenge that we know of, the most common ones being heart disease, neurological disease, vision loss, and sexual dysfunction. (drbenkim.com)
  • Multiple chronic comorbidities (MCCs) are an issue of growing significance in diabetes because they are highly prevalent and can increase disease burden and costs. (ajmc.com)
  • To assess the effects and feasibility of intensive multitherapy in the vast population of patients who are commonly seen by family practitioners and endocrinologists, we chose subjects in whom the disease was poorly controlled and who, although at very high risk of micro- and macrovascular events, 2 , 4 , 6 were without significant complications. (cmaj.ca)
  • Tubulointerstitial nephritis complicated by primary Sj?gren's syndrome in a patient under treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus was diagnosed in the early stage of the disease by renal biopsy. (scirp.org)
  • Dyslipidemia is an important factor in causation of macrovascular disease in type 2 diabetics. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Hence, pharmacological therapy with statins should be resorted to in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who carry a high risk of coronary heart disease. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • AU - Udawat,H, AU - Goyal,R K, PY - 2001/6/29/pubmed PY - 2001/7/28/medline PY - 2001/6/29/entrez SP - 172 EP - 6 JF - Indian heart journal JO - Indian Heart J VL - 53 IS - 2 N2 - BACKGROUND: Dyslipidemia is an important factor in causation of macrovascular disease in type 2 diabetics. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • This disease represents a serious public health issue as it is associated with significant comorbidities and complications even when compared with adults with the same disease and children with type 1 diabetes. (springer.com)
  • Diabetes is a serious disease but it can be managed. (diabetespark.com)
  • It is known from ancient times and is designated as disease of affluence [ 2 ] and overfed, middle aged and elderly people but now the prevalence of diabetes for all age-groups is worldwide [ 3 , 4 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common disease worldwide public health problem and diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is among the complex and complications in patients with diabetes mellitus [1]. (scirp.org)
  • Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease and is among the top four non-communicable diseases [NCDs]. (scirp.org)
  • The biggest problem with something like diabetes is that in most cases, it is a lifestyle disease. (brightonma.net)
  • An analysis of data from the National Health Interview Survey found a doubling in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes from 1990 to 2008, with no significant change during 2008 to 2012 [ 3 ]. (uptodate.com)
  • Using data from a national survey for people aged 20 years or older, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in the United States (2010 to 2012) was 7.6 percent in non-Hispanic whites, 9.0 percent in Asian Americans, 12.8 percent in Hispanics, 13.2 percent in non-Hispanic blacks, and 15.9 percent in American Indians/Alaska Natives [ 5 ]. (uptodate.com)
  • From these, we found that the prevalence of type 2 diabetes was 10.39%, with males being more affected than females. (edu.mt)
  • The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents has increased worldwide over the past three decades. (aafp.org)
  • Does a High Sugar High Fat Dietary Pattern Explain the Unequal Burden in Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes in a Multi-Ethnic Population in The Netherlands? (cambridge.org)
  • Hepcidin in Iron Homeostasis: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Implications in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients. (medworm.com)
  • In contrast with type 1 diabetes, pancreatic beta cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes is not mediated by an autoimmune process. (aafp.org)
  • Numerous epidemiological studies have evaluated this association and, at this moment, at least fourteen out of eighteen cohort studies revealed a substantially lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus with frequent coffee intake. (herbs.org)
  • Epidemiological diabetes survey done by World Health Organization [3] indicated the figure had gone up to 422 million worldwide by 2014. (scirp.org)
  • Presentations can be acute, like in patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) who often present with diabetic ketoacidosis, symptomatic with polyuria and polydipsia. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Randomized controlled and controlled clinical trials which evaluated individual education for adults with type 2 diabetes. (cochrane.org)
  • Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (1985 World Health Organization criteria) and receiving any therapy regimen, between 30 and 70 years of age and with hemoglobin A 1c concentrations of 8% or greater were eligible to participate in the study. (cmaj.ca)
  • Pharmacologic therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus. (nih.gov)
  • 44-week, Parallel, Open, Randomized, Multinational, Multi-center Clinical Trial to Compare Efficacy and Safety of the Combination Therapy of an Oral Anti-diabetic Drug Treatment With Either HOE901 Insulin Once Daily or Lispro Insulin Analogue at Mealtime in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Poorly Controlled With Oral Anti-diabetic Drug Treatment. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Metformin in combination with diet and exercise is first-line therapy in children and adolescents 10 years and older who have type 2 diabetes. (aafp.org)
  • Insulin therapy must be initiated in children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes if they have signs of ketosis or ketoacidosis. (aafp.org)
  • Possible New Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Therapy - A PPAR? (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • An analog of GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDE 1 and agonist of the GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDE 1 RECEPTOR that is used as a HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENT and supplemental therapy in the treatment of DIABETES MELLITUS by patients who do not respond to METFORMIN. (bioportfolio.com)
  • There are now many choices for initial therapy of type 2 diabetes in addition to sulphonylureas. (nih.gov)
  • Sulphonylureas will continue to be used both primarily and as part of combined therapy for most patients with type 2 diabetes. (nih.gov)
  • Bilvapatra can be used as an Adjuvant therapy in type 2 DM. (boloji.com)
  • 2. What is the medical nutrition therapy for hypertriglyeridemia? (scribd.com)
  • Efficacy of cholesterol-lowering therapy in 18,686 people with diabetes in 14 randomised trials of statins: a meta-analysis. (wiley.com)
  • The treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus includes regular blood sugar monitoring, regular exercise, healthy eating and sometimes diabetes medications or insulin therapy. (diabetespark.com)
  • [13] A small number of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus can develop a hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (a condition of very high blood sugar associated with a decreased level of consciousness and low blood pressure ). (wikipedia.org)
  • People with type 2 diabetes take medications to reduce blood sugar. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • Bretzel RG, Nuber U, Landgraf W, Owens DR, Bradley C, Linn T. Once-daily basal insulin glargine versus thrice-daily prandial insulin lispro in people with type 2 diabetes on oral hypoglycaemic agents (APOLLO): an open randomised controlled trial. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • People with type 2 diabetes are at a twofold to fourfold increased risk of developing CVD. (bmj.com)
  • This website is about managing, curing diabetes and other chronic diseases by following Natural life style changes . (google.com)
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder that results from defects in both insulin secretion and insulin action. (nih.gov)
  • This study's findings showed that diabetes care remained suboptimal among many patients with multiple chronic conditions and that patient outcomes varied by multimorbidity profile. (ajmc.com)
  • Type 2 diabetes is a prevalent chronic condition globally that results in extensive morbidity, decreased quality of life, and increased health services utilization. (doaj.org)
  • Information on how long the patients had diabetes, whether they smoked cigarettes or had other chronic diseases, and physical measurements (such as weight and height) were collected at their first visit. (annals.org)
  • Besides, hepcidin concentrations have been linked to inflammatory cytokines, matriptase 2, and chronic hepatitis C infection, which hav. (medworm.com)
  • The prevalence of diabetes is currently estimated to be about 6.4% worldwide, 1 and in the past two decades alone there has been a dramatic increase in the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. (bmj.com)
  • A recent meta-analysis concluded that there is overwhelming support for the benefit of lifestyle interventions to prevent type 2 diabetes. (bmj.com)
  • The overall benefit of screening for IFG, IGT, and diabetes and implementing intensive lifestyle interventions is moderate. (uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org)
  • 70% of the current cases of diabetes occur in low- and middle income countries. (google.com)
  • The progression of diabetes is caused by numerous metabolic events that occur over a period of years. (aafp.org)
  • Approximately 60%--70% of persons with diabetes have neuropathy, and >50% of lower limb amputations in the United States occur among persons with diabetes. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Nnenna A. Osuji, Oluwaseun Solomon Ojo, Sunday O. Malomo, Peter T. Sogunle, Ademola O. Egunjobi and Olufisayo O. Odebunmi of the Family Medicine Department, Federal Medical Centre, Abeokuta, Nigeria describe how Nigeria and other sub-Saharan African countries are currently experiencing a rapid increase in the incidence of noncommunicable diseases, especially diabetes mellitus (DM), as a result of increasing urbanization and changing lifestyles. (eurekalert.org)
  • Transcription factor 7-like 2 ( TCF7L2 ) variants have been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus in multiple ethnic groups. (medscape.com)
  • Reported associations between vitamin D receptor [‎VDR]‎ polymorphism and type 1 diabetes mellitus vary across ethnic groups. (who.int)
  • Statin prescribing in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus: a multilevel analysis. (nivel.nl)
  • The prevalence of diabetes has reached epidemic proportions world wide. (google.com)
  • And while this information is definitely useful, it cannot help researchers and doctors investigate what elements contribute to the diabetes epidemic in Malta. (edu.mt)
  • Diabetes mellitus has become a global epidemic of 21st century with dispro- portionately high socioeconomic burden in the developing world. (scirp.org)
  • Double-blind, randomized clinical trial assessing the efficacy and safety of early initiation of sitagliptin during metformin up-titration in treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes: the CompoSIT-M Study. (bioportfolio.com)
  • An exact analysis on dietary self management, diabetes knowledge, psychosocial outcomes and smoking habits could not be performed because there were limited studies and varied measurement tools. (cochrane.org)
  • We examined MCC patterns among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and identified specific comorbidity clusters associated with poor patient outcomes. (ajmc.com)
  • secondary outcomes include changes in diet patterns, physical activity, waist circumference, and perceived risk of developing diabetes. (doaj.org)
  • The study described here will help to establish whether providing type 2 diabetes genetic risk information in a primary care setting can help improve patients' clinical outcomes, risk perceptions, and/or their engagement in healthy behavior change. (doaj.org)
  • An extract of grape seeds was recently compared to the best-selling diabetes drug Metformin and was found to be superior in correcting adverse physiological responses induced by a high-fat, high-fructose diet. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • A pharmaceutical preparation of sitagliptin phosphate and metformin hydrochloride that is used in the treatment of TYPE 2 DIABETES. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Modest weight loss (>3%) among metformin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus was associated with decreased costs, lower resource utilization, and lower rates of treatment discontinuation. (ajmc.com)
  • There are a range of medicines available to treat type 2 diabetes, often metformin is the first one you try, but you may end up needing a combination of medicines to ensure you get the right treatment to control your diabetes and help you lead a normal life. (dokteronline.com)
  • Presently, metformin and insulin are the only two medications approved for use in children and little is known about the prevention of type 2 diabetes in youth. (springer.com)
  • These top-line results are consistent with previously announced positive findings from a 12-week, Phase 2b study in which dutogliptin met all primary and secondary endpoints, including statistically significant reductions in HbA1c when administered once daily in combination with metformin, a glitazone, or metformin and a glitazone for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • A reduced metabolic inflammation caused by TZDs creates a potential to assist in the treatment of metabolic syndrome along with diabetes mellitus. (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • Hypertension or high blood pressure is common among those who are prediabetic or have type-2 diabetics. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Danish hospital researchers have proven that the typical recommendation among conventional doctors and nutritionists to type 2 diabetics to lay off the fruit is quite simply wrong. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • A groundbreaking new study finds synthetic (GMO) insulin is capable of rapidly producing type 1 diabetes in type 2 diabetics. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Q. Type 2 Diabetics solution My uncle is suffering from type 2 diabetics and i want to know that is there any permanent solution for type 2 diabities. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Mbisi, A. , Gitonga, L. and Kiruki, S. (2019) Foot Care Practices among Type 2 Diabetics Mellitus Patients Attending Diabetes Clinics in Embu County, Kenya. (scirp.org)
  • This is done by slowing the effects metabolic inflammation has on the pathology of diabetes mellitus. (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • A variety of blood biomarkers represent pathology of diabetes. (omicsonline.org)