Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.
VASCULAR DISEASES that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS.
Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.
(Note: I believe there might be some confusion in your question as "Pennsylvania" is a place, specifically a state in the United States, and not a medical term. However, if you're asking for a medical condition or concept that shares a name with the state of Pennsylvania, I couldn't find any specific medical conditions or concepts associated with the name "Pennsylvania." If you have more context or clarification regarding your question, please provide it so I can give a more accurate response.)
KIDNEY injuries associated with diabetes mellitus and affecting KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; ARTERIOLES; KIDNEY TUBULES; and the interstitium. Clinical signs include persistent PROTEINURIA, from microalbuminuria progressing to ALBUMINURIA of greater than 300 mg/24 h, leading to reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE.
Disease of the RETINA as a complication of DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the progressive microvascular complications, such as ANEURYSM, interretinal EDEMA, and intraocular PATHOLOGIC NEOVASCULARIZATION.
Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)
Substances which lower blood glucose levels.
Glucose in blood.
Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.
Products derived from the nonenzymatic reaction of GLUCOSE and PROTEINS in vivo that exhibit a yellow-brown pigmentation and an ability to participate in protein-protein cross-linking. These substances are involved in biological processes relating to protein turnover and it is believed that their excessive accumulation contributes to the chronic complications of DIABETES MELLITUS.
Abnormally high BLOOD GLUCOSE level.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Self evaluation of whole blood glucose levels outside the clinical laboratory. A digital or battery-operated reflectance meter may be used. It has wide application in controlling unstable insulin-dependent diabetes.
Review of claims by insurance companies to determine liability and amount of payment for various services. The review may also include determination of eligibility of the claimant or beneficiary or of the provider of the benefit; determination that the benefit is covered or not payable under another policy; or determination that the service was necessary and of reasonable cost and quality.
The presence of albumin in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
Diabetes mellitus induced by PREGNANCY but resolved at the end of pregnancy. It does not include previously diagnosed diabetics who become pregnant (PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS). Gestational diabetes usually develops in late pregnancy when insulin antagonistic hormones peaks leading to INSULIN RESISTANCE; GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; and HYPERGLYCEMIA.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.
A disease that is characterized by frequent urination, excretion of large amounts of dilute URINE, and excessive THIRST. Etiologies of diabetes insipidus include deficiency of antidiuretic hormone (also known as ADH or VASOPRESSIN) secreted by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS, impaired KIDNEY response to ADH, and impaired hypothalamic regulation of thirst.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).
Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
The time period before the development of symptomatic diabetes. For example, certain risk factors can be observed in subjects who subsequently develop INSULIN RESISTANCE as in type 2 diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 2).
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
An antibiotic that is produced by Stretomyces achromogenes. It is used as an antineoplastic agent and to induce diabetes in experimental animals.
A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.
The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.
A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.
A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A biguanide hypoglycemic agent used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus not responding to dietary modification. Metformin improves glycemic control by improving insulin sensitivity and decreasing intestinal absorption of glucose. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p289)
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends.
A life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus, primarily of TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS with severe INSULIN deficiency and extreme HYPERGLYCEMIA. It is characterized by KETOSIS; DEHYDRATION; and depressed consciousness leading to COMA.
The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
The middle segment of proinsulin that is between the N-terminal B-chain and the C-terminal A-chain. It is a pancreatic peptide of about 31 residues, depending on the species. Upon proteolytic cleavage of proinsulin, equimolar INSULIN and C-peptide are released. C-peptide immunoassay has been used to assess pancreatic beta cell function in diabetic patients with circulating insulin antibodies or exogenous insulin. Half-life of C-peptide is 30 min, almost 8 times that of insulin.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Abstaining from all food.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Infection occurring at the site of a surgical incision.
Medical problems associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR, such as BREECH PRESENTATION; PREMATURE OBSTETRIC LABOR; HEMORRHAGE; or others. These complications can affect the well-being of the mother, the FETUS, or both.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus which is a model for spontaneous insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, INSULIN-DEPENDENT).
A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.
A diet prescribed in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, usually limited in the amount of sugar or readily available carbohydrate. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Failure of equipment to perform to standard. The failure may be due to defects or improper use.
Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
A broad approach to appropriate coordination of the entire disease treatment process that often involves shifting away from more expensive inpatient and acute care to areas such as preventive medicine, patient counseling and education, and outpatient care. This concept includes implications of appropriate versus inappropriate therapy on the overall cost and clinical outcome of a particular disease. (From Hosp Pharm 1995 Jul;30(7):596)
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC 4.1.1.15.
The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
Removal of an implanted therapeutic or prosthetic device.
Common foot problems in persons with DIABETES MELLITUS, caused by any combination of factors such as DIABETIC NEUROPATHIES; PERIPHERAL VASCULAR DISEASES; and INFECTION. With the loss of sensation and poor circulation, injuries and infections often lead to severe foot ulceration, GANGRENE and AMPUTATION.
Sulfonylurea compounds are a class of medications used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2 that promote insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells by closing ATP-sensitive potassium channels in their membranes.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Pathologic process consisting of a partial or complete disruption of the layers of a surgical wound.
Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Migration of a foreign body from its original location to some other location in the body.
A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)
Catheters designed to be left within an organ or passage for an extended period of time.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
A genetic or acquired polyuric disorder caused by a deficiency of VASOPRESSINS secreted by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. Clinical signs include the excretion of large volumes of dilute URINE; HYPERNATREMIA; THIRST; and polydipsia. Etiologies include HEAD TRAUMA; surgeries and diseases involving the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This disorder may also be caused by mutations of genes such as ARVP encoding vasopressin and its corresponding neurophysin (NEUROPHYSINS).
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Hemorrhage following any surgical procedure. It may be immediate or delayed and is not restricted to the surgical wound.
Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.
Pathological processes involving any of the BLOOD VESSELS in the cardiac or peripheral circulation. They include diseases of ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
A genetic or acquired polyuric disorder characterized by persistent hypotonic urine and HYPOKALEMIA. This condition is due to renal tubular insensitivity to VASOPRESSIN and failure to reduce urine volume. It may be the result of mutations of genes encoding VASOPRESSIN RECEPTORS or AQUAPORIN-2; KIDNEY DISEASES; adverse drug effects; or complications from PREGNANCY.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.
Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
A collection of blood outside the BLOOD VESSELS. Hematoma can be localized in an organ, space, or tissue.
The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Any adverse condition in a patient occurring as the result of treatment by a physician, surgeon, or other health professional, especially infections acquired by a patient during the course of treatment.
Diseases in any part of the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.
Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.
Portable or implantable devices for infusion of insulin. Includes open-loop systems which may be patient-operated or controlled by a pre-set program and are designed for constant delivery of small quantities of insulin, increased during food ingestion, and closed-loop systems which deliver quantities of insulin automatically based on an electronic glucose sensor.
Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
## I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Japan" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located in Asia, known as Nihon-koku or Nippon-koku in Japanese, and is renowned for its unique culture, advanced technology, and rich history. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to help answer them!
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
THIAZOLES with two keto oxygens. Members are insulin-sensitizing agents which overcome INSULIN RESISTANCE by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma).
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).
Procedures that avoid use of open, invasive surgery in favor of closed or local surgery. These generally involve use of laparoscopic devices and remote-control manipulation of instruments with indirect observation of the surgical field through an endoscope or similar device.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
The condition of weighing two, three, or more times the ideal weight, so called because it is associated with many serious and life-threatening disorders. In the BODY MASS INDEX, morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a cardiovascular disease. The disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.
The transference of pancreatic islets within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
Triglycerides are the most common type of fat in the body, stored in fat cells and used as energy; they are measured in blood tests to assess heart disease risk, with high levels often resulting from dietary habits, obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, and alcohol consumption.
Agents that prevent clotting.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
Abnormal communication most commonly seen between two internal organs, or between an internal organ and the surface of the body.
Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the metabolism, physiology, and disorders of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM.

Emergence of vancomycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Glycopeptide-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus Working Group. (1/4015)

BACKGROUND: Since the emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, the glycopeptide vancomycin has been the only uniformly effective treatment for staphylococcal infections. In 1997, two infections due to S. aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin were identified in the United States. METHODS: We investigated the two patients with infections due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides, as defined by a minimal inhibitory concentration of vancomycin of 8 to 16 microg per milliliter. To assess the carriage and transmission of these strains of S. aureus, we cultured samples from the patients and their contacts and evaluated the isolates. RESULTS: The first patient was a 59-year-old man in Michigan with diabetes mellitus and chronic renal failure. Peritonitis due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides developed after 18 weeks of vancomycin treatment for recurrent methicillin-resistant S. aureus peritonitis associated with dialysis. The removal of the peritoneal catheter plus treatment with rifampin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole eradicated the infection. The second patient was a 66-year-old man with diabetes in New Jersey. A bloodstream infection due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides developed after 18 weeks of vancomycin treatment for recurrent methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacteremia. This infection was eradicated with vancomycin, gentamicin, and rifampin. Both patients died. The glycopeptide-intermediate S. aureus isolates differed by two bands on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. On electron microscopy, the isolates from the infected patients had thicker extracellular matrixes than control methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates. No carriage was documented among 177 contacts of the two patients. CONCLUSIONS: The emergence of S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides emphasizes the importance of the prudent use of antibiotics, the laboratory capacity to identify resistant strains, and the use of infection-control precautions to prevent transmission.  (+info)

Obstructive uropathy and hydronephrosis in male KK-Ay mice: a report of cases. (2/4015)

Uropathy associated with hydronephrosis was observed frequently in our male KK-Ay mouse colony during a long-term study of diabetes. The lesion occurred in 24 of the 31 KK-Ay male mice and accounted for the greatest number of spontaneous deaths among them. It was observed after 4 months of age and involved about hard plugs of altered seminal material resembling the seminal vesicle secretion. The plugs became impacted in the urethral bulb and the bladder. The penile anatomy, with its flexure, pressure on the urethra from the bulbocavernosus muscle, and the characteristic ability of the seminal fluid to easily coagulate to form the vaginal plug may have contributed to the lesion. Correlation between development of the uropathy and diabetes has not been established.  (+info)

An audit of the care of diabetics in a group practice. (3/4015)

The diabetics in a general practice of 20,175 patients were identified during one year and 119 were found-a prevalence of 5.9 per thousand.The age and sex distribution, method of treatment, criteria of diabetic control, complications, and present method of care were analysed from the medical records to examine the process of medical care of a chronic disease in general practice.  (+info)

Relationship between glycosylated hemoglobin and the prevalence of proteinuria in Japanese men. (4/4015)

A total of 5,174 Japanese men were included in a cross-sectional study to examine the relationship between the glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) level and the prevalence of proteinuria as determined using a reagent strip. The prevalence of proteinuria rose significantly at HbA1C levels above 5.9%, whereas no relationship was observed at HbA1C levels below 5.9%. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that blood pressure and a family history of diabetes were independent factors associated with proteinuria in subjects with a HbA1C below 5.9% who were not under medication for diabetes. In contrast, HbA1C, obesity and smoking were associated with proteinuria in subjects who were under medication for diabetes and/or have a HbA1C above 5.9%. These findings suggest that maintaining a HbA1C level below 5.9%, non-smoking and a standard body weight may reduce the prevalence of proteinuria in Japanese men. Healthy life-style and standard body weight are especially important for subjects with a family history of diabetes.  (+info)

Effects of calcium-channel blockade in older patients with diabetes and systolic hypertension. Systolic Hypertension in Europe Trial Investigators. (5/4015)

BACKGROUND: Recent reports suggest that calcium-channel blockers may be harmful in patients with diabetes and hypertension. We previously reported that antihypertensive treatment with the calcium-channel blocker nitrendipine reduced the risk of cardiovascular events. In this post hoc analysis, we compared the outcome of treatment with nitrendipine in diabetic and nondiabetic patients. METHODS: After stratification according to center, sex, and presence or absence of previous cardiovascular complications, 4695 patients (age, > or =60 years) with systolic blood pressure of 160 to 219 mm Hg and diastolic pressure below 95 mm Hg were randomly assigned to receive active treatment or placebo. Active treatment consisted of nitrendipine (10 to 40 mg per day) with the possible addition or substitution of enalapril (5 to 20 mg per day) or hydrochlorothiazide (12.5 to 25 mg per day) or both, titrated to reduce the systolic blood pressure by at least 20 mm Hg and to less than 150 mm Hg. In the control group, matching placebo tablets were administered similarly. RESULTS: At randomization, 492 patients (10.5 percent) had diabetes. After a median follow-up of two years, the systolic and diastolic blood pressures in the placebo and active-treatment groups differed by 8.6 and 3.9 mm Hg, respectively, among the diabetic patients. Among the 4203 patients without diabetes, systolic and diastolic pressures differed by 10.3 and 4.5 mm Hg, respectively, in the two groups. After adjustment for possible confounders, active treatment was found to have reduced overall mortality by 55 percent (from 45.1 deaths per 1000 patients to 26.4 deaths per 1000 patients), mortality from cardiovascular disease by 76 percent, all cardiovascular events combined by 69 percent, fatal and nonfatal strokes by 73 percent, and all cardiac events combined by 63 percent in the group of patients with diabetes. Among the nondiabetic patients, active treatment decreased all cardiovascular events combined by 26 percent and fatal and nonfatal strokes by 38 percent. In the group of patients receiving active treatment, reductions in overall mortality, mortality from cardiovascular disease, and all cardiovascular events were significantly larger among the diabetic patients than among the nondiabetic patients (P=0.04, P=0.02, and P=0.01, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Nitrendipine-based antihypertensive therapy is particularly beneficial in older patients with diabetes and isolated systolic hypertension. Thus, our findings do not support the hypothesis that the use of long-acting calcium-channel blockers may be harmful in diabetic patients.  (+info)

Long-term functional status and quality of life after lower extremity revascularization. (6/4015)

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the longer term (up to 7 years) functional status and quality of life outcomes from lower extremity revascularization. METHODS: This study was designed as a cross-sectional telephone survey and chart review at the University of Minnesota Hospital. The subjects were patients who underwent their first lower extremity revascularization procedure or a primary amputation for vascular disease between January 1, 1989, and January 31, 1995, who had granted consent or had died. The main outcome measures were ability to walk, SF-36 physical function, SF-12, subsequent amputation, and death. RESULTS: The medical records for all 329 subjects were reviewed after the qualifying procedures for details of the primary procedure (62.6% arterial bypass graft, 36.8% angioplasty, 0.6% atherectomy), comorbidities (64% diabetics), severity of disease, and other vascular risk factors. All 166 patients who were living were surveyed by telephone between June and August 1996. At 7 years after the qualifying procedure, 73% of the patients who were alive still had the qualifying limb, although 63% of the patients had died. Overall, at the time of the follow-up examination (1 to 7.5 years after the qualifying procedure), 65% of the patients who were living were able to walk independently and 43% had little or no limitation in walking several blocks. In a multiple regression model, patients with diabetes and patients who were older were less likely to be able to walk at follow-up examination and had a worse functional status on the SF-36 and a lower physical health on the SF-12. Number of years since the procedure was not a predictor in any of the analyses. CONCLUSION: Although the long-term mortality rate is high in the population that undergoes lower limb revascularization, the survivors are likely to retain their limb over time and have good functional status.  (+info)

A comparison of the use, effectiveness and safety of bezafibrate, gemfibrozil and simvastatin in normal clinical practice using the New Zealand Intensive Medicines Monitoring Programme (IMMP). (7/4015)

AIMS: Because of the importance of treating dyslipidaemia in the prevention of ischaemic heart disease and because patient selection criteria and outcomes in clinical trials do not necessarily reflect what happens in normal clinical practice, we compared outcomes from bezafibrate, gemfibrozil and simvastatin therapy under conditions of normal use. METHODS: A random sample of 200 patients was selected from the New Zealand Intensive Medicines Monitoring Programme's (IMMP) patient cohorts for each drug. Questionnaires sent to prescribers requested information on indications, risk factors for ischaemic heart disease, lipid profiles with changes during treatment and reasons for stopping therapy. RESULTS: 80% of prescribers replied and 83% of these contained useful information. The three groups were similar for age, sex and geographical region, but significantly more patients on bezafibrate had diabetes and/or hypertension than those on gemfibrozil or simvastatin. After treatment and taking the initial measure into account, the changes in serum lipid values were consistent with those generally observed, but with gemfibrozil being significantly less effective than expected. More patients (15.8%S) stopped gemfibrozil because of an inadequate response compared with bezafibrate (5.4%) and simvastatin (1.6%). Gemfibrozil treatment was also withdrawn significantly more frequently due to a possible adverse reaction compared with the other two drugs. CONCLUSIONS: In normal clinical practice in New Zealand gemfibrozil appears less effective and more frequently causes adverse effects leading to withdrawal of treatment than either bezafibrate or simvastatin.  (+info)

The role of apolipoprotein E and glucose intolerance in gallstone disease in middle aged subjects. (8/4015)

BACKGROUND: The polymorphism of apolipoprotein E has been suggested to be associated with the cholesterol content of gallstones, the crystallisation rate of gall bladder bile, and the prevalence of gallstone disease (GSD). AIMS: To investigate whether apolipoprotein E polymorphism modulates the susceptibility to GSD at the population level and to study the possible associations between impaired glucose tolerance, diabetes, and GSD. METHODS: Apolipoprotein E phenotypes were determined in a middle aged cohort of 261 randomly selected hypertensive men, 259 control men, 257 hypertensive women, and 267 control women. All subjects without a documented history of diabetes were submitted to a two hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). GSD was verified by ultrasonography. RESULTS: In women with apolipoprotein E2 (phenotypes E2/2, 2/3, and 2/4) compared with women without E2 (E3/3, 4/3, and 4/4), the odds ratio for GSD was 0. 28 (95% confidence interval 0.08-0.92). There was no protective effect in men. The relative risk for GSD was 1.2 (0.8-1.7) for hypertensive women and 1.8 (1.0-2.7) for hypertensive men. In a stepwise multiple logistic regression model, E2 protected against GSD in women, whereas two hour blood glucose in the OGTT, serum insulin, and plasma triglycerides were risk factors. Elevated blood glucose during the OGTT was also a significant risk factor for GSD in men. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that apolipoprotein E2 is a genetic factor providing protection against GSD in women. In contrast, impaired glucose tolerance and frank diabetes are associated with the risk of GSD.  (+info)

Diabetes complications refer to a range of health issues that can develop as a result of poorly managed diabetes over time. These complications can affect various parts of the body and can be classified into two main categories: macrovascular and microvascular.

Macrovascular complications include:

* Cardiovascular disease (CVD): People with diabetes are at an increased risk of developing CVD, including coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, and stroke.
* Peripheral arterial disease (PAD): This condition affects the blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the limbs, particularly the legs. PAD can cause pain, numbness, or weakness in the legs and may increase the risk of amputation.

Microvascular complications include:

* Diabetic neuropathy: This is a type of nerve damage that can occur due to prolonged high blood sugar levels. It commonly affects the feet and legs, causing symptoms such as numbness, tingling, or pain.
* Diabetic retinopathy: This condition affects the blood vessels in the eye and can cause vision loss or blindness if left untreated.
* Diabetic nephropathy: This is a type of kidney damage that can occur due to diabetes. It can lead to kidney failure if not managed properly.

Other complications of diabetes include:

* Increased risk of infections, particularly skin and urinary tract infections.
* Slow healing of wounds, which can increase the risk of infection and amputation.
* Gum disease and other oral health problems.
* Hearing impairment.
* Sexual dysfunction.

Preventing or managing diabetes complications involves maintaining good blood sugar control, regular monitoring of blood glucose levels, following a healthy lifestyle, and receiving routine medical care.

Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by the destruction of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas, leading to an absolute deficiency of insulin. This results in an inability to regulate blood glucose levels, causing hyperglycemia (high blood sugar). Type 1 diabetes typically presents in childhood or early adulthood, although it can develop at any age. It is usually managed with regular insulin injections or the use of an insulin pump, along with monitoring of blood glucose levels and adjustments to diet and physical activity. Uncontrolled type 1 diabetes can lead to serious complications such as kidney damage, nerve damage, blindness, and cardiovascular disease.

Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 is a metabolic disorder characterized by high blood glucose (or sugar) levels resulting from the body's inability to produce sufficient amounts of insulin or effectively use the insulin it produces. This form of diabetes usually develops gradually over several years and is often associated with older age, obesity, physical inactivity, family history of diabetes, and certain ethnicities.

In Type 2 diabetes, the body's cells become resistant to insulin, meaning they don't respond properly to the hormone. As a result, the pancreas produces more insulin to help glucose enter the cells. Over time, the pancreas can't keep up with the increased demand, leading to high blood glucose levels and diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes is managed through lifestyle modifications such as weight loss, regular exercise, and a healthy diet. Medications, including insulin therapy, may also be necessary to control blood glucose levels and prevent long-term complications associated with the disease, such as heart disease, nerve damage, kidney damage, and vision loss.

Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by elevated levels of glucose in the blood (hyperglycemia) due to absolute or relative deficiency in insulin secretion and/or insulin action. There are two main types: Type 1 diabetes, which results from the autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells leading to insulin deficiency, and Type 2 diabetes, which is associated with insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency.

Type 1 diabetes typically presents in childhood or young adulthood, while Type 2 diabetes tends to occur later in life, often in association with obesity and physical inactivity. Both types of diabetes can lead to long-term complications such as damage to the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and cardiovascular system if left untreated or not well controlled.

The diagnosis of diabetes is usually made based on fasting plasma glucose levels, oral glucose tolerance tests, or hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels. Treatment typically involves lifestyle modifications such as diet and exercise, along with medications to lower blood glucose levels and manage associated conditions.

Diabetic angiopathies refer to a group of vascular complications that occur due to diabetes mellitus. Prolonged exposure to high blood sugar levels can damage the blood vessels, leading to various types of angiopathies such as:

1. Diabetic retinopathy: This is a condition where the small blood vessels in the retina get damaged due to diabetes, leading to vision loss or blindness if left untreated.
2. Diabetic nephropathy: In this condition, the kidneys' glomeruli (the filtering units) become damaged due to diabetes, leading to protein leakage and eventually kidney failure if not managed properly.
3. Diabetic neuropathy: This is a type of nerve damage caused by diabetes that can affect various parts of the body, including the legs, feet, and hands, causing numbness, tingling, or pain.
4. Diabetic cardiomyopathy: This is a condition where the heart muscle becomes damaged due to diabetes, leading to heart failure.
5. Diabetic peripheral arterial disease (PAD): In this condition, the blood vessels that supply the legs and feet become narrowed or blocked due to diabetes, leading to pain, cramping, or even gangrene in severe cases.

Overall, diabetic angiopathies are serious complications of diabetes that can significantly impact a person's quality of life and overall health. Therefore, it is crucial for individuals with diabetes to manage their blood sugar levels effectively and undergo regular check-ups to detect any early signs of these complications.

Glycosylated Hemoglobin A, also known as Hemoglobin A1c or HbA1c, is a form of hemoglobin that is bound to glucose. It is formed in a non-enzymatic glycation reaction with glucose in the blood. The amount of this hemoglobin present in the blood is proportional to the average plasma glucose concentration over the previous 8-12 weeks, making it a useful indicator for monitoring long-term blood glucose control in people with diabetes mellitus.

In other words, HbA1c reflects the integrated effects of glucose regulation over time and is an important clinical marker for assessing glycemic control and risk of diabetic complications. The normal range for HbA1c in individuals without diabetes is typically less than 5.7%, while a value greater than 6.5% is indicative of diabetes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Pennsylvania" is not a medical term or concept. It is a state located in the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to help answer those!

Diabetic nephropathy is a kidney disease that occurs as a complication of diabetes. It is also known as diabetic kidney disease (DKD). This condition affects the ability of the kidneys to filter waste and excess fluids from the blood, leading to their accumulation in the body.

Diabetic nephropathy is caused by damage to the small blood vessels in the kidneys, which can occur over time due to high levels of glucose in the blood. This damage can lead to scarring and thickening of the kidney's filtering membranes, reducing their ability to function properly.

Symptoms of diabetic nephropathy may include proteinuria (the presence of protein in the urine), edema (swelling in the legs, ankles, or feet due to fluid retention), and hypertension (high blood pressure). Over time, if left untreated, diabetic nephropathy can progress to end-stage kidney disease, which requires dialysis or a kidney transplant.

Preventing or delaying the onset of diabetic nephropathy involves maintaining good control of blood sugar levels, keeping blood pressure under control, and making lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, eating a healthy diet, and getting regular exercise. Regular monitoring of kidney function through urine tests and blood tests is also important for early detection and treatment of this condition.

Diabetic retinopathy is a diabetes complication that affects the eyes. It's caused by damage to the blood vessels of the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye (retina).

At first, diabetic retinopathy may cause no symptoms or only mild vision problems. Eventually, it can cause blindness. The condition usually affects both eyes.

There are two main stages of diabetic retinopathy:

1. Early diabetic retinopathy. This is when the blood vessels in the eye start to leak fluid or bleed. You might not notice any changes in your vision at this stage, but it's still important to get treatment because it can prevent the condition from getting worse.
2. Advanced diabetic retinopathy. This is when new, abnormal blood vessels grow on the surface of the retina. These vessels can leak fluid and cause severe vision problems, including blindness.

Diabetic retinopathy can be treated with laser surgery, injections of medication into the eye, or a vitrectomy (a surgical procedure to remove the gel-like substance that fills the center of the eye). It's important to get regular eye exams to detect diabetic retinopathy early and get treatment before it causes serious vision problems.

Diabetic neuropathies refer to a group of nerve disorders that are caused by diabetes. High blood sugar levels can injure nerves throughout the body, but diabetic neuropathies most commonly affect the nerves in the legs and feet.

There are four main types of diabetic neuropathies:

1. Peripheral neuropathy: This is the most common type of diabetic neuropathy. It affects the nerves in the legs and feet, causing symptoms such as numbness, tingling, burning, or shooting pain.
2. Autonomic neuropathy: This type of neuropathy affects the autonomic nerves, which control involuntary functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, and bladder function. Symptoms may include dizziness, fainting, digestive problems, sexual dysfunction, and difficulty regulating body temperature.
3. Proximal neuropathy: Also known as diabetic amyotrophy, this type of neuropathy affects the nerves in the hips, thighs, or buttocks, causing weakness, pain, and difficulty walking.
4. Focal neuropathy: This type of neuropathy affects a single nerve or group of nerves, causing symptoms such as weakness, numbness, or pain in the affected area. Focal neuropathies can occur anywhere in the body, but they are most common in the head, torso, and legs.

The risk of developing diabetic neuropathies increases with the duration of diabetes and poor blood sugar control. Other factors that may contribute to the development of diabetic neuropathies include genetics, age, smoking, and alcohol consumption.

Hypoglycemic agents are a class of medications that are used to lower blood glucose levels in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. These medications work by increasing insulin sensitivity, stimulating insulin release from the pancreas, or inhibiting glucose production in the liver. Examples of hypoglycemic agents include sulfonylureas, meglitinides, biguanides, thiazolidinediones, DPP-4 inhibitors, SGLT2 inhibitors, and GLP-1 receptor agonists. It's important to note that the term "hypoglycemic" refers to a condition of abnormally low blood glucose levels, but in this context, the term is used to describe agents that are used to treat high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) associated with diabetes.

Blood glucose, also known as blood sugar, is the concentration of glucose in the blood. Glucose is a simple sugar that serves as the main source of energy for the body's cells. It is carried to each cell through the bloodstream and is absorbed into the cells with the help of insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas.

The normal range for blood glucose levels in humans is typically between 70 and 130 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) when fasting, and less than 180 mg/dL after meals. Levels that are consistently higher than this may indicate diabetes or other metabolic disorders.

Blood glucose levels can be measured through a variety of methods, including fingerstick blood tests, continuous glucose monitoring systems, and laboratory tests. Regular monitoring of blood glucose levels is important for people with diabetes to help manage their condition and prevent complications.

I couldn't find a medical definition specifically for "Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental." However, I can provide you with information about experimental diabetes research and its relevance to understanding the disease.

Experimental diabetes models are used in biomedical research to study the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus and to test potential therapies or treatments. These models can be broadly categorized into two types: chemically-induced and genetically modified.

1. Chemically-induced diabetes models: These involve administering chemicals, such as alloxan or streptozotocin, to animals (commonly mice or rats) to destroy their pancreatic β-cells, which produce insulin. This results in hyperglycemia and symptoms similar to those seen in type 1 diabetes in humans.
2. Genetically modified diabetes models: These involve altering the genes of animals (commonly mice) to create a diabetes phenotype. Examples include non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, which develop an autoimmune form of diabetes similar to human type 1 diabetes, and various strains of obese mice with insulin resistance, such as ob/ob or db/db mice, which model aspects of type 2 diabetes.

These experimental models help researchers better understand the mechanisms behind diabetes development and progression, identify new therapeutic targets, and test potential treatments before moving on to human clinical trials. However, it's essential to recognize that these models may not fully replicate all aspects of human diabetes, so findings from animal studies should be interpreted with caution.

Advanced Glycosylation End Products (AGEs) are formed through the non-enzymatic glycation and oxidative modification of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. This process occurs when a sugar molecule, such as glucose, binds to a protein or lipid without the regulation of an enzyme, leading to the formation of a Schiff base. This then rearranges to form a more stable ketoamine, known as an Amadori product. Over time, these Amadori products can undergo further reactions, including oxidation, fragmentation, and cross-linking, resulting in the formation of AGEs.

AGEs can alter the structure and function of proteins and lipids, leading to damage in tissues and organs. They have been implicated in the development and progression of several age-related diseases, including diabetes, atherosclerosis, kidney disease, and Alzheimer's disease. AGEs can also contribute to inflammation and oxidative stress, which can further exacerbate tissue damage.

In summary, Advanced Glycosylation End Products (AGEs) are the result of non-enzymatic glycation and oxidation of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, leading to structural and functional changes in tissues and organs, and contributing to the development and progression of several age-related diseases.

Hyperglycemia is a medical term that refers to an abnormally high level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. Fasting hyperglycemia is defined as a fasting blood glucose level greater than or equal to 126 mg/dL (milligrams per deciliter) on two separate occasions. Alternatively, a random blood glucose level greater than or equal to 200 mg/dL in combination with symptoms of hyperglycemia (such as increased thirst, frequent urination, blurred vision, and fatigue) can also indicate hyperglycemia.

Hyperglycemia is often associated with diabetes mellitus, a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by high blood glucose levels due to insulin resistance or insufficient insulin production. However, hyperglycemia can also occur in other conditions such as stress, surgery, infection, certain medications, and hormonal imbalances.

Prolonged or untreated hyperglycemia can lead to serious complications such as diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS), and long-term damage to various organs such as the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels. Therefore, it is essential to monitor blood glucose levels regularly and maintain them within normal ranges through proper diet, exercise, medication, and lifestyle modifications.

Postoperative complications refer to any unfavorable condition or event that occurs during the recovery period after a surgical procedure. These complications can vary in severity and may include, but are not limited to:

1. Infection: This can occur at the site of the incision or inside the body, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.
2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) can lead to a drop in blood pressure and may require further surgical intervention.
3. Blood clots: These can form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and can potentially travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
4. Wound dehiscence: This is when the surgical wound opens up, which can lead to infection and further complications.
5. Pulmonary issues: These include atelectasis (collapsed lung), pneumonia, or respiratory failure.
6. Cardiovascular problems: These include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, or stroke.
7. Renal failure: This can occur due to various reasons such as dehydration, blood loss, or the use of certain medications.
8. Pain management issues: Inadequate pain control can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and decreased mobility.
9. Nausea and vomiting: These can be caused by anesthesia, opioid pain medication, or other factors.
10. Delirium: This is a state of confusion and disorientation that can occur in the elderly or those with certain medical conditions.

Prompt identification and management of these complications are crucial to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Blood glucose self-monitoring is the regular measurement of blood glucose levels performed by individuals with diabetes to manage their condition. This process involves using a portable device, such as a glucometer or continuous glucose monitor (CGM), to measure the amount of glucose present in a small sample of blood, usually obtained through a fingerstick.

The primary purpose of self-monitoring is to help individuals with diabetes understand how various factors, such as food intake, physical activity, medication, and stress, affect their blood glucose levels. By tracking these patterns, they can make informed decisions about adjusting their diet, exercise, or medication regimens to maintain optimal glycemic control and reduce the risk of long-term complications associated with diabetes.

Self-monitoring is an essential component of diabetes self-management and education, enabling individuals to take an active role in their healthcare. Regular monitoring also allows healthcare professionals to assess a patient's adherence to their treatment plan and make necessary adjustments based on the data collected.

An insurance claim review is the process conducted by an insurance company to evaluate a claim made by a policyholder for coverage of a loss or expense. This evaluation typically involves examining the details of the claim, assessing the damages or injuries incurred, verifying the coverage provided by the policy, and determining the appropriate amount of benefits to be paid. The insurance claim review may also include investigating the circumstances surrounding the claim to ensure its validity and confirming that it complies with the terms and conditions of the insurance policy.

Albuminuria is a medical condition that refers to the presence of albumin in the urine. Albumin is a type of protein normally found in the blood, but not in the urine. When the kidneys are functioning properly, they prevent large proteins like albumin from passing through into the urine. However, when the kidneys are damaged or not working correctly, such as in nephrotic syndrome or other kidney diseases, small amounts of albumin can leak into the urine.

The amount of albumin in the urine is often measured in milligrams per liter (mg/L) or in a spot urine sample, as the albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR). A small amount of albumin in the urine is called microalbuminuria, while a larger amount is called macroalbuminuria or proteinuria. The presence of albuminuria can indicate kidney damage and may be a sign of underlying medical conditions such as diabetes or high blood pressure. It is important to monitor and manage albuminuria to prevent further kidney damage and potential complications.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreatic islets, primarily in response to elevated levels of glucose in the circulating blood. It plays a crucial role in regulating blood glucose levels and facilitating the uptake and utilization of glucose by peripheral tissues, such as muscle and adipose tissue, for energy production and storage. Insulin also inhibits glucose production in the liver and promotes the storage of excess glucose as glycogen or triglycerides.

Deficiency in insulin secretion or action leads to impaired glucose regulation and can result in conditions such as diabetes mellitus, characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and associated complications. Exogenous insulin is used as a replacement therapy in individuals with diabetes to help manage their blood glucose levels and prevent long-term complications.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

The "age of onset" is a medical term that refers to the age at which an individual first develops or displays symptoms of a particular disease, disorder, or condition. It can be used to describe various medical conditions, including both physical and mental health disorders. The age of onset can have implications for prognosis, treatment approaches, and potential causes of the condition. In some cases, early onset may indicate a more severe or progressive course of the disease, while late-onset symptoms might be associated with different underlying factors or etiologies. It is essential to provide accurate and precise information regarding the age of onset when discussing a patient's medical history and treatment plan.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a class of diseases that affect the heart and blood vessels. They are the leading cause of death globally, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). The term "cardiovascular disease" refers to a group of conditions that include:

1. Coronary artery disease (CAD): This is the most common type of heart disease and occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the heart become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of cholesterol, fat, and other substances in the walls of the arteries. This can lead to chest pain, shortness of breath, or a heart attack.
2. Heart failure: This occurs when the heart is unable to pump blood efficiently to meet the body's needs. It can be caused by various conditions, including coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, and cardiomyopathy.
3. Stroke: A stroke occurs when the blood supply to a part of the brain is interrupted or reduced, often due to a clot or a ruptured blood vessel. This can cause brain damage or death.
4. Peripheral artery disease (PAD): This occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the limbs become narrowed or blocked, leading to pain, numbness, or weakness in the legs or arms.
5. Rheumatic heart disease: This is a complication of untreated strep throat and can cause damage to the heart valves, leading to heart failure or other complications.
6. Congenital heart defects: These are structural problems with the heart that are present at birth. They can range from mild to severe and may require medical intervention.
7. Cardiomyopathy: This is a disease of the heart muscle that makes it harder for the heart to pump blood efficiently. It can be caused by various factors, including genetics, infections, and certain medications.
8. Heart arrhythmias: These are abnormal heart rhythms that can cause the heart to beat too fast, too slow, or irregularly. They can lead to symptoms such as palpitations, dizziness, or fainting.
9. Valvular heart disease: This occurs when one or more of the heart valves become damaged or diseased, leading to problems with blood flow through the heart.
10. Aortic aneurysm and dissection: These are conditions that affect the aorta, the largest artery in the body. An aneurysm is a bulge in the aorta, while a dissection is a tear in the inner layer of the aorta. Both can be life-threatening if not treated promptly.

It's important to note that many of these conditions can be managed or treated with medical interventions such as medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes. If you have any concerns about your heart health, it's important to speak with a healthcare provider.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that occurs during pregnancy. It is characterized by an increase in blood sugar levels that begins or is first recognized during pregnancy. The condition usually develops around the 24th week of gestation and is caused by the body's inability to produce enough insulin to meet the increased demands of pregnancy.

Gestational diabetes typically resolves after delivery, but women who have had gestational diabetes are at an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life. It is important for women with gestational diabetes to manage their blood sugar levels during pregnancy to reduce the risk of complications for both the mother and the baby.

Management of gestational diabetes may include lifestyle modifications such as dietary changes and exercise, as well as monitoring blood sugar levels and potentially using insulin or other medications to control blood sugar levels. Regular prenatal care is essential for women with gestational diabetes to ensure that their blood sugar levels are properly managed and to monitor the growth and development of the fetus.

Glucose is a simple monosaccharide (or single sugar) that serves as the primary source of energy for living organisms. It's a fundamental molecule in biology, often referred to as "dextrose" or "grape sugar." Glucose has the molecular formula C6H12O6 and is vital to the functioning of cells, especially those in the brain and nervous system.

In the body, glucose is derived from the digestion of carbohydrates in food, and it's transported around the body via the bloodstream to cells where it can be used for energy. Cells convert glucose into a usable form through a process called cellular respiration, which involves a series of metabolic reactions that generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP)—the main currency of energy in cells.

Glucose is also stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen, a polysaccharide (multiple sugar) that can be broken down back into glucose when needed for energy between meals or during physical activity. Maintaining appropriate blood glucose levels is crucial for overall health, and imbalances can lead to conditions such as diabetes mellitus.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Oxidative stress is defined as an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (free radicals) and the body's ability to detoxify them or repair the damage they cause. This imbalance can lead to cellular damage, oxidation of proteins, lipids, and DNA, disruption of cellular functions, and activation of inflammatory responses. Prolonged or excessive oxidative stress has been linked to various health conditions, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, and aging-related diseases.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Intraoperative complications refer to any unforeseen problems or events that occur during the course of a surgical procedure, once it has begun and before it is completed. These complications can range from minor issues, such as bleeding or an adverse reaction to anesthesia, to major complications that can significantly impact the patient's health and prognosis.

Examples of intraoperative complications include:

1. Bleeding (hemorrhage) - This can occur due to various reasons such as injury to blood vessels or organs during surgery.
2. Infection - Surgical site infections can develop if the surgical area becomes contaminated during the procedure.
3. Anesthesia-related complications - These include adverse reactions to anesthesia, difficulty maintaining the patient's airway, or cardiovascular instability.
4. Organ injury - Accidental damage to surrounding organs can occur during surgery, leading to potential long-term consequences.
5. Equipment failure - Malfunctioning surgical equipment can lead to complications and compromise the safety of the procedure.
6. Allergic reactions - Patients may have allergies to certain medications or materials used during surgery, causing an adverse reaction.
7. Prolonged operative time - Complications may arise if a surgical procedure takes longer than expected, leading to increased risk of infection and other issues.

Intraoperative complications require prompt identification and management by the surgical team to minimize their impact on the patient's health and recovery.

Diabetes Insipidus is a medical condition characterized by the excretion of large amounts of dilute urine (polyuria) and increased thirst (polydipsia). It is caused by a deficiency in the hormone vasopressin (also known as antidiuretic hormone or ADH), which regulates the body's water balance.

In normal physiology, vasopressin is released from the posterior pituitary gland in response to an increase in osmolality of the blood or a decrease in blood volume. This causes the kidneys to retain water and concentrate the urine. In Diabetes Insipidus, there is either a lack of vasopressin production (central diabetes insipidus) or a decreased response to vasopressin by the kidneys (nephrogenic diabetes insipidus).

Central Diabetes Insipidus can be caused by damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary gland, such as from tumors, trauma, or surgery. Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus can be caused by genetic factors, kidney disease, or certain medications that interfere with the action of vasopressin on the kidneys.

Treatment for Diabetes Insipidus depends on the underlying cause. In central diabetes insipidus, desmopressin, a synthetic analogue of vasopressin, can be administered to replace the missing hormone. In nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, treatment may involve addressing the underlying kidney disease or adjusting medications that interfere with vasopressin action. It is important for individuals with Diabetes Insipidus to maintain adequate hydration and monitor their fluid intake and urine output.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

In epidemiology, the incidence of a disease is defined as the number of new cases of that disease within a specific population over a certain period of time. It is typically expressed as a rate, with the number of new cases in the numerator and the size of the population at risk in the denominator. Incidence provides information about the risk of developing a disease during a given time period and can be used to compare disease rates between different populations or to monitor trends in disease occurrence over time.

Pregnancy complications refer to any health problems that arise during pregnancy which can put both the mother and the baby at risk. These complications may occur at any point during the pregnancy, from conception until childbirth. Some common pregnancy complications include:

1. Gestational diabetes: a type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy in women who did not have diabetes before becoming pregnant.
2. Preeclampsia: a pregnancy complication characterized by high blood pressure and damage to organs such as the liver or kidneys.
3. Placenta previa: a condition where the placenta covers the cervix, which can cause bleeding and may require delivery via cesarean section.
4. Preterm labor: when labor begins before 37 weeks of gestation, which can lead to premature birth and other complications.
5. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR): a condition where the fetus does not grow at a normal rate inside the womb.
6. Multiple pregnancies: carrying more than one baby, such as twins or triplets, which can increase the risk of premature labor and other complications.
7. Rh incompatibility: a condition where the mother's blood type is different from the baby's, which can cause anemia and jaundice in the newborn.
8. Pregnancy loss: including miscarriage, stillbirth, or ectopic pregnancy, which can be emotionally devastating for the parents.

It is important to monitor pregnancy closely and seek medical attention promptly if any concerning symptoms arise. With proper care and management, many pregnancy complications can be treated effectively, reducing the risk of harm to both the mother and the baby.

Obesity is a complex disease characterized by an excess accumulation of body fat to the extent that it negatively impacts health. It's typically defined using Body Mass Index (BMI), a measure calculated from a person's weight and height. A BMI of 30 or higher is indicative of obesity. However, it's important to note that while BMI can be a useful tool for identifying obesity in populations, it does not directly measure body fat and may not accurately reflect health status in individuals. Other factors such as waist circumference, blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and blood sugar levels should also be considered when assessing health risks associated with weight.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

A Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT) is a medical test used to diagnose prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. It measures how well your body is able to process glucose, which is a type of sugar.

During the test, you will be asked to fast (not eat or drink anything except water) for at least eight hours before the test. Then, a healthcare professional will take a blood sample to measure your fasting blood sugar level. After that, you will be given a sugary drink containing a specific amount of glucose. Your blood sugar levels will be measured again after two hours and sometimes also after one hour.

The results of the test will indicate how well your body is able to process the glucose and whether you have normal, impaired, or diabetic glucose tolerance. If your blood sugar levels are higher than normal but not high enough to be diagnosed with diabetes, you may have prediabetes, which means that you are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the future.

It is important to note that a Glucose Tolerance Test should be performed under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as high blood sugar levels can be dangerous if not properly managed.

The Islets of Langerhans are clusters of specialized cells within the pancreas, an organ located behind the stomach. These islets are named after Paul Langerhans, who first identified them in 1869. They constitute around 1-2% of the total mass of the pancreas and are distributed throughout its substance.

The Islets of Langerhans contain several types of cells, including:

1. Alpha (α) cells: These produce and release glucagon, a hormone that helps to regulate blood sugar levels by promoting the conversion of glycogen to glucose in the liver when blood sugar levels are low.
2. Beta (β) cells: These produce and release insulin, a hormone that promotes the uptake and utilization of glucose by cells throughout the body, thereby lowering blood sugar levels.
3. Delta (δ) cells: These produce and release somatostatin, a hormone that inhibits the release of both insulin and glucagon and helps regulate their secretion in response to changing blood sugar levels.
4. PP cells (gamma or γ cells): These produce and release pancreatic polypeptide, which plays a role in regulating digestive enzyme secretion and gastrointestinal motility.

Dysfunction of the Islets of Langerhans can lead to various endocrine disorders, such as diabetes mellitus, where insulin-producing beta cells are damaged or destroyed, leading to impaired blood sugar regulation.

Risk assessment in the medical context refers to the process of identifying, evaluating, and prioritizing risks to patients, healthcare workers, or the community related to healthcare delivery. It involves determining the likelihood and potential impact of adverse events or hazards, such as infectious diseases, medication errors, or medical devices failures, and implementing measures to mitigate or manage those risks. The goal of risk assessment is to promote safe and high-quality care by identifying areas for improvement and taking action to minimize harm.

A prediabetic state, also known as impaired glucose tolerance or prediabetes, is a metabolic condition where blood sugar levels are higher than normal but not high enough to meet the diagnostic criteria for diabetes. It is often characterized by insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction, which can lead to an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and other complications if left untreated.

In the prediabetic state, fasting plasma glucose levels are between 100 and 125 mg/dL (5.6-6.9 mmol/L), or hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels are between 5.7% and 6.4%. Lifestyle modifications, such as regular exercise, healthy eating habits, and weight loss, can help prevent or delay the progression of prediabetes to diabetes.

Insulin resistance is a condition in which the body's cells become less responsive to insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates blood sugar levels. In response to this decreased sensitivity, the pancreas produces more insulin to help glucose enter the cells. However, over time, the pancreas may not be able to keep up with the increased demand for insulin, leading to high levels of glucose in the blood and potentially resulting in type 2 diabetes, prediabetes, or other health issues such as metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Insulin resistance is often associated with obesity, physical inactivity, and genetic factors.

Streptozocin is an antibiotic and antineoplastic agent, which is primarily used in the treatment of metastatic pancreatic islet cell carcinoma (a type of pancreatic cancer). It is a naturally occurring compound produced by the bacterium Streptomyces achromogenes.

Medically, streptozocin is classified as an alkylating agent due to its ability to interact with DNA and RNA, disrupting the growth and multiplication of malignant cells. However, it can also have adverse effects on non-cancerous cells, particularly in the kidneys and pancreas, leading to potential side effects such as nephrotoxicity (kidney damage) and hyperglycemia (high blood sugar).

It is essential that streptozocin be administered under the supervision of a healthcare professional, who can monitor its effectiveness and potential side effects. The drug is typically given through intravenous infusion, with the dosage and duration tailored to individual patient needs and treatment responses.

Insulin-secreting cells, also known as beta cells, are a type of cell found in the pancreas. They are responsible for producing and releasing insulin, a hormone that regulates blood glucose levels by allowing cells in the body to take in glucose from the bloodstream. Insulin-secreting cells are clustered together in the pancreatic islets, along with other types of cells that produce other hormones such as glucagon and somatostatin. In people with diabetes, these cells may not function properly, leading to an impaired ability to regulate blood sugar levels.

'Pregnancy in Diabetics' refers to the condition where an individual with pre-existing diabetes mellitus becomes pregnant. This can be further categorized into two types:

1. Pre-gestational diabetes: This is when a woman is diagnosed with diabetes before she becomes pregnant. It includes both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. Proper control of blood sugar levels prior to conception and during pregnancy is crucial to reduce the risk of complications for both the mother and the baby.

2. Gestational diabetes: This is when a woman develops high blood sugar levels during pregnancy, typically in the second or third trimester. While it usually resolves after delivery, women with gestational diabetes have a higher risk of developing Type 2 diabetes later in life. Proper management of gestational diabetes is essential to ensure a healthy pregnancy and reduce the risk of complications for both the mother and the baby.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Body Mass Index (BMI) is a measure used to assess whether a person has a healthy weight for their height. It's calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by the square of their height in meters. Here is the medical definition:

Body Mass Index (BMI) = weight(kg) / [height(m)]^2

According to the World Health Organization, BMI categories are defined as follows:

* Less than 18.5: Underweight
* 18.5-24.9: Normal or healthy weight
* 25.0-29.9: Overweight
* 30.0 and above: Obese

It is important to note that while BMI can be a useful tool for identifying weight issues in populations, it does have limitations when applied to individuals. For example, it may not accurately reflect body fat distribution or muscle mass, which can affect health risks associated with excess weight. Therefore, BMI should be used as one of several factors when evaluating an individual's health status and risk for chronic diseases.

Inbred NOD (Nonobese Diabetic) mice are a strain of laboratory mice that are genetically predisposed to develop autoimmune diabetes. This strain was originally developed in Japan and has been widely used as an animal model for studying type 1 diabetes and its complications.

NOD mice typically develop diabetes spontaneously at around 12-14 weeks of age, although the onset and severity of the disease can vary between individual mice. The disease is caused by a breakdown in immune tolerance, leading to an autoimmune attack on the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas.

Inbred NOD mice are highly valuable for research purposes because they exhibit many of the same genetic and immunological features as human patients with type 1 diabetes. By studying these mice, researchers can gain insights into the underlying mechanisms of the disease and develop new treatments and therapies.

A reoperation is a surgical procedure that is performed again on a patient who has already undergone a previous operation for the same or related condition. Reoperations may be required due to various reasons, such as inadequate initial treatment, disease recurrence, infection, or complications from the first surgery. The nature and complexity of a reoperation can vary widely depending on the specific circumstances, but it often carries higher risks and potential complications compared to the original operation.

Hypoglycemia is a medical condition characterized by an abnormally low level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. Generally, hypoglycemia is defined as a blood glucose level below 70 mg/dL (3.9 mmol/L), although symptoms may not occur until the blood sugar level falls below 55 mg/dL (3.0 mmol/L).

Hypoglycemia can occur in people with diabetes who are taking insulin or medications that increase insulin production, as well as those with certain medical conditions such as hormone deficiencies, severe liver illnesses, or disorders of the adrenal glands. Symptoms of hypoglycemia include sweating, shaking, confusion, rapid heartbeat, and in severe cases, loss of consciousness or seizures.

Hypoglycemia is typically treated by consuming fast-acting carbohydrates such as fruit juice, candy, or glucose tablets to rapidly raise blood sugar levels. If left untreated, hypoglycemia can lead to serious complications, including brain damage and even death.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

Metformin is a type of biguanide antihyperglycemic agent used primarily in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It works by decreasing glucose production in the liver, reducing glucose absorption in the gut, and increasing insulin sensitivity in muscle and fat tissue. By lowering both basal and postprandial plasma glucose levels, metformin helps to control blood sugar levels and improve glycemic control. It is also used off-label for various other indications such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and gestational diabetes. Common side effects include diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal discomfort. Lactic acidosis is a rare but serious side effect that requires immediate medical attention.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

Glucose intolerance is a condition in which the body has difficulty processing and using glucose, or blood sugar, effectively. This results in higher than normal levels of glucose in the blood after eating, particularly after meals that are high in carbohydrates. Glucose intolerance can be an early sign of developing diabetes, specifically type 2 diabetes, and it may also indicate other metabolic disorders such as prediabetes or insulin resistance.

In a healthy individual, the pancreas produces insulin to help regulate blood sugar levels by facilitating glucose uptake in muscles, fat tissue, and the liver. When someone has glucose intolerance, their body may not produce enough insulin, or their cells may have become less responsive to insulin (insulin resistance), leading to impaired glucose metabolism.

Glucose intolerance can be diagnosed through various tests, including the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test. Treatment for glucose intolerance often involves lifestyle modifications such as weight loss, increased physical activity, and a balanced diet with reduced sugar and refined carbohydrate intake. In some cases, medication may be prescribed to help manage blood sugar levels more effectively.

Hypertension is a medical term used to describe abnormally high blood pressure in the arteries, often defined as consistently having systolic blood pressure (the top number in a blood pressure reading) over 130 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (the bottom number) over 80 mmHg. It is also commonly referred to as high blood pressure.

Hypertension can be classified into two types: primary or essential hypertension, which has no identifiable cause and accounts for about 95% of cases, and secondary hypertension, which is caused by underlying medical conditions such as kidney disease, hormonal disorders, or use of certain medications.

If left untreated, hypertension can lead to serious health complications such as heart attack, stroke, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease. Therefore, it is important for individuals with hypertension to manage their condition through lifestyle modifications (such as healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management) and medication if necessary, under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Self care is a health practice that involves individuals taking responsibility for their own health and well-being by actively seeking out and participating in activities and behaviors that promote healthy living, prevent illness and disease, and manage existing medical conditions. Self care includes a wide range of activities such as:

* Following a healthy diet and exercise routine
* Getting adequate sleep and rest
* Managing stress through relaxation techniques or mindfulness practices
* Practicing good hygiene and grooming habits
* Seeking preventive care through regular check-ups and screenings
* Taking prescribed medications as directed by a healthcare provider
* Monitoring symptoms and seeking medical attention when necessary

Self care is an important part of overall health and wellness, and can help individuals maintain their physical, emotional, and mental health. It is also an essential component of chronic disease management, helping people with ongoing medical conditions to manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious metabolic complication characterized by the triad of hyperglycemia, metabolic acidosis, and increased ketone bodies. It primarily occurs in individuals with diabetes mellitus type 1, but it can also be seen in some people with diabetes mellitus type 2, particularly during severe illness or surgery.

The condition arises when there is a significant lack of insulin in the body, which impairs the ability of cells to take up glucose for energy production. As a result, the body starts breaking down fatty acids to produce energy, leading to an increase in ketone bodies (acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone) in the bloodstream. This process is called ketosis.

In DKA, the excessive production of ketone bodies results in metabolic acidosis, which is characterized by a lower than normal pH level in the blood (< 7.35) and an elevated serum bicarbonate level (< 18 mEq/L). The hyperglycemia in DKA is due to both increased glucose production and decreased glucose utilization by cells, which can lead to severe dehydration and electrolyte imbalances.

Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include excessive thirst, frequent urination, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, fatigue, fruity breath odor, and altered mental status. If left untreated, DKA can progress to coma and even lead to death. Treatment typically involves administering insulin, fluid replacement, and electrolyte management in a hospital setting.

"Length of Stay" (LOS) is a term commonly used in healthcare to refer to the amount of time a patient spends receiving care in a hospital, clinic, or other healthcare facility. It is typically measured in hours, days, or weeks and can be used as a metric for various purposes such as resource planning, quality assessment, and reimbursement. The length of stay can vary depending on the type of illness or injury, the severity of the condition, the patient's response to treatment, and other factors. It is an important consideration in healthcare management and can have significant implications for both patients and providers.

Logistic models, specifically logistic regression models, are a type of statistical analysis used in medical and epidemiological research to identify the relationship between the risk of a certain health outcome or disease (dependent variable) and one or more independent variables, such as demographic factors, exposure variables, or other clinical measurements.

In contrast to linear regression models, logistic regression models are used when the dependent variable is binary or dichotomous in nature, meaning it can only take on two values, such as "disease present" or "disease absent." The model uses a logistic function to estimate the probability of the outcome based on the independent variables.

Logistic regression models are useful for identifying risk factors and estimating the strength of associations between exposures and health outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders, and predicting the probability of an outcome given certain values of the independent variables. They can also be used to develop clinical prediction rules or scores that can aid in decision-making and patient care.

A biological marker, often referred to as a biomarker, is a measurable indicator that reflects the presence or severity of a disease state, or a response to a therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers can be found in various materials such as blood, tissues, or bodily fluids, and they can take many forms, including molecular, histologic, radiographic, or physiological measurements.

In the context of medical research and clinical practice, biomarkers are used for a variety of purposes, such as:

1. Diagnosis: Biomarkers can help diagnose a disease by indicating the presence or absence of a particular condition. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a biomarker used to detect prostate cancer.
2. Monitoring: Biomarkers can be used to monitor the progression or regression of a disease over time. For instance, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels are monitored in diabetes patients to assess long-term blood glucose control.
3. Predicting: Biomarkers can help predict the likelihood of developing a particular disease or the risk of a negative outcome. For example, the presence of certain genetic mutations can indicate an increased risk for breast cancer.
4. Response to treatment: Biomarkers can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a specific treatment by measuring changes in the biomarker levels before and after the intervention. This is particularly useful in personalized medicine, where treatments are tailored to individual patients based on their unique biomarker profiles.

It's important to note that for a biomarker to be considered clinically valid and useful, it must undergo rigorous validation through well-designed studies, including demonstrating sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and clinical relevance.

Comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional health conditions or diseases alongside a primary illness or condition. These co-occurring health issues can have an impact on the treatment plan, prognosis, and overall healthcare management of an individual. Comorbidities often interact with each other and the primary condition, leading to more complex clinical situations and increased healthcare needs. It is essential for healthcare professionals to consider and address comorbidities to provide comprehensive care and improve patient outcomes.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

C-peptide is a byproduct that is produced when the hormone insulin is generated in the body. Insulin is a hormone that helps regulate blood sugar levels, and it is produced in the pancreas by specialized cells called beta cells. When these cells produce insulin, they also generate C-peptide as a part of the same process.

C-peptide is often used as a marker to measure the body's insulin production. By measuring C-peptide levels in the blood, healthcare providers can get an idea of how much insulin the body is producing on its own. This can be helpful in diagnosing and monitoring conditions such as diabetes, which is characterized by impaired insulin production or function.

It's worth noting that C-peptide is not typically used as a treatment for any medical conditions. Instead, it is primarily used as a diagnostic tool to help healthcare providers better understand their patients' health status and make informed treatment decisions.

Multivariate analysis is a statistical method used to examine the relationship between multiple independent variables and a dependent variable. It allows for the simultaneous examination of the effects of two or more independent variables on an outcome, while controlling for the effects of other variables in the model. This technique can be used to identify patterns, associations, and interactions among multiple variables, and is commonly used in medical research to understand complex health outcomes and disease processes. Examples of multivariate analysis methods include multiple regression, factor analysis, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis.

Fasting is defined in medical terms as the abstinence from food or drink for a period of time. This practice is often recommended before certain medical tests or procedures, as it helps to ensure that the results are not affected by recent eating or drinking.

In some cases, fasting may also be used as a therapeutic intervention, such as in the management of seizures or other neurological conditions. Fasting can help to lower blood sugar and insulin levels, which can have a variety of health benefits. However, it is important to note that prolonged fasting can also have negative effects on the body, including malnutrition, dehydration, and electrolyte imbalances.

Fasting is also a spiritual practice in many religions, including Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, and Hinduism. In these contexts, fasting is often seen as a way to purify the mind and body, to focus on spiritual practices, or to express devotion or mourning.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

A surgical wound infection, also known as a surgical site infection (SSI), is defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as an infection that occurs within 30 days after surgery (or within one year if an implant is left in place) and involves either:

1. Purulent drainage from the incision;
2. Organisms isolated from an aseptically obtained culture of fluid or tissue from the incision;
3. At least one of the following signs or symptoms of infection: pain or tenderness, localized swelling, redness, or heat; and
4. Diagnosis of surgical site infection by the surgeon or attending physician.

SSIs can be classified as superficial incisional, deep incisional, or organ/space infections, depending on the depth and extent of tissue involvement. They are a common healthcare-associated infection and can lead to increased morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs.

Obstetric labor complications refer to any physical or physiological difficulties that arise during the process of childbirth (labor) and can pose risks to the health of the mother, baby, or both. These complications may result from various factors such as pre-existing medical conditions, fetal distress, prolonged labor, abnormal positioning of the fetus, or issues related to the size or weight of the baby.

Some examples of obstetric labor complications include:

1. Fetal distress: This occurs when the fetus is not receiving adequate oxygen supply or is in danger during labor. It can be caused by various factors such as umbilical cord compression, placental abruption, or maternal anemia.
2. Prolonged labor: When labor lasts for more than 20 hours in first-time mothers or more than 14 hours in subsequent pregnancies, it is considered prolonged labor. This can lead to fatigue, infection, and other complications for both the mother and baby.
3. Abnormal positioning of the fetus: Normally, the fetus should be positioned head-down (vertex) before delivery. However, if the fetus is in a breech or transverse position, it can lead to difficult labor and increased risk of complications during delivery.
4. Shoulder dystocia: This occurs when the baby's shoulders get stuck behind the mother's pubic bone during delivery, making it challenging to deliver the baby. It can cause injuries to both the mother and the baby.
5. Placental abruption: This is a serious complication where the placenta separates from the uterus before delivery, leading to bleeding and potential oxygen deprivation for the fetus.
6. Uterine rupture: A rare but life-threatening complication where the uterus tears during labor, causing severe bleeding and potentially endangering both the mother and baby's lives.
7. Preeclampsia/eclampsia: This is a pregnancy-related hypertensive disorder that can lead to complications such as seizures, organ failure, or even maternal death if left untreated.
8. Postpartum hemorrhage: Excessive bleeding after delivery can be life-threatening and requires immediate medical attention.
9. Infections: Maternal infections during pregnancy or childbirth can lead to complications for both the mother and baby, including preterm labor, low birth weight, and even fetal death.
10. Anesthesia complications: Adverse reactions to anesthesia during delivery can cause respiratory depression, allergic reactions, or other complications that may endanger the mother's life.

The Chi-square distribution is a continuous probability distribution that is often used in statistical hypothesis testing. It is the distribution of a sum of squares of k independent standard normal random variables. The resulting quantity follows a chi-square distribution with k degrees of freedom, denoted as χ²(k).

The probability density function (pdf) of the Chi-square distribution with k degrees of freedom is given by:

f(x; k) = (1/ (2^(k/2) * Γ(k/2))) \* x^((k/2)-1) \* e^(-x/2), for x > 0 and 0, otherwise.

Where Γ(k/2) is the gamma function evaluated at k/2. The mean and variance of a Chi-square distribution with k degrees of freedom are k and 2k, respectively.

The Chi-square distribution has various applications in statistical inference, including testing goodness-of-fit, homogeneity of variances, and independence in contingency tables.

The odds ratio (OR) is a statistical measure used in epidemiology and research to estimate the association between an exposure and an outcome. It represents the odds that an event will occur in one group versus the odds that it will occur in another group, assuming that all other factors are held constant.

In medical research, the odds ratio is often used to quantify the strength of the relationship between a risk factor (exposure) and a disease outcome. An OR of 1 indicates no association between the exposure and the outcome, while an OR greater than 1 suggests that there is a positive association between the two. Conversely, an OR less than 1 implies a negative association.

It's important to note that the odds ratio is not the same as the relative risk (RR), which compares the incidence rates of an outcome in two groups. While the OR can approximate the RR when the outcome is rare, they are not interchangeable and can lead to different conclusions about the association between an exposure and an outcome.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Rats, Inbred BB" is not a widely recognized medical term or abbreviation in human or veterinary medicine. The term "inbred" is used in genetics to describe an organism that has resulted from many generations of mating between closely related individuals, which can lead to a higher incidence of homozygosity (the same allele inherited from both parents) and expression of recessive traits.

The "BB" strain could refer to a specific inbred rat strain, but without more context, it's difficult to provide a precise definition. The BB Wistar rat strain is sometimes used in research, and it has been used as a model for studying various medical conditions such as diabetes and hypertension.

If you are looking for information about a specific scientific study or medical condition related to an "Inbred BB" rat strain, I would be happy to help you if you could provide more context or details.

Laparoscopy is a surgical procedure that involves the insertion of a laparoscope, which is a thin tube with a light and camera attached to it, through small incisions in the abdomen. This allows the surgeon to view the internal organs without making large incisions. It's commonly used to diagnose and treat various conditions such as endometriosis, ovarian cysts, infertility, and appendicitis. The advantages of laparoscopy over traditional open surgery include smaller incisions, less pain, shorter hospital stays, and quicker recovery times.

A diabetic diet is a meal plan that is designed to help manage blood sugar levels in individuals with diabetes. The main focus of this diet is to consume a balanced and varied diet with appropriate portion sizes, while controlling the intake of carbohydrates, which have the greatest impact on blood sugar levels. Here are some key components of a diabetic diet:

1. Carbohydrate counting: Monitoring the amount of carbohydrates consumed at each meal and snack is essential for maintaining stable blood sugar levels. Carbohydrates should be sourced from whole foods, such as fruits, vegetables, legumes, and whole grains, rather than refined or processed products.
2. Fiber-rich foods: Foods high in fiber, like fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, and whole grains, can help slow down the absorption of carbohydrates and minimize blood sugar spikes. Aim for at least 25 to 30 grams of fiber per day.
3. Lean protein sources: Choose lean protein sources such as chicken, turkey, fish, eggs, tofu, and low-fat dairy products. Limit red meat and processed meats, which can contribute to heart disease risk.
4. Healthy fats: Opt for monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats found in foods like avocados, olive oil, nuts, seeds, and fatty fish. These healthy fats can help reduce inflammation and improve insulin sensitivity.
5. Portion control: Pay attention to serving sizes and avoid overeating, especially when consuming high-calorie or high-fat foods.
6. Regular meals: Eating regularly spaced meals throughout the day can help maintain stable blood sugar levels and prevent extreme highs and lows.
7. Limit added sugars: Reduce or eliminate added sugars in your diet, such as those found in sweets, desserts, sugary drinks, and processed foods.
8. Monitoring: Regularly monitor blood sugar levels before and after meals to understand how different foods affect your body and adjust your meal plan accordingly.
9. Personalization: A diabetic diet should be tailored to an individual's specific needs, preferences, and lifestyle. Consult with a registered dietitian or certified diabetes educator for personalized guidance.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

Genetic predisposition to disease refers to an increased susceptibility or vulnerability to develop a particular illness or condition due to inheriting specific genetic variations or mutations from one's parents. These genetic factors can make it more likely for an individual to develop a certain disease, but it does not guarantee that the person will definitely get the disease. Environmental factors, lifestyle choices, and interactions between genes also play crucial roles in determining if a genetically predisposed person will actually develop the disease. It is essential to understand that having a genetic predisposition only implies a higher risk, not an inevitable outcome.

Equipment failure is a term used in the medical field to describe the malfunction or breakdown of medical equipment, devices, or systems that are essential for patient care. This can include simple devices like syringes and thermometers, as well as complex machines such as ventilators, infusion pumps, and imaging equipment.

Equipment failure can have serious consequences for patients, including delayed or inappropriate treatment, injury, or even death. It is therefore essential that medical equipment is properly maintained, tested, and repaired to ensure its safe and effective operation.

There are many potential causes of equipment failure, including:

* Wear and tear from frequent use
* Inadequate cleaning or disinfection
* Improper handling or storage
* Power supply issues
* Software glitches or bugs
* Mechanical failures or defects
* Human error or misuse

To prevent equipment failure, healthcare facilities should have established policies and procedures for the acquisition, maintenance, and disposal of medical equipment. Staff should be trained in the proper use and handling of equipment, and regular inspections and testing should be performed to identify and address any potential issues before they lead to failure.

Hemorrhage is defined in the medical context as an excessive loss of blood from the circulatory system, which can occur due to various reasons such as injury, surgery, or underlying health conditions that affect blood clotting or the integrity of blood vessels. The bleeding may be internal, external, visible, or concealed, and it can vary in severity from minor to life-threatening, depending on the location and extent of the bleeding. Hemorrhage is a serious medical emergency that requires immediate attention and treatment to prevent further blood loss, organ damage, and potential death.

Blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the blood vessels. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and is given as two figures:

1. Systolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart pushes blood out into the arteries.
2. Diastolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart rests between beats, allowing it to fill with blood.

Normal blood pressure for adults is typically around 120/80 mmHg, although this can vary slightly depending on age, sex, and other factors. High blood pressure (hypertension) is generally considered to be a reading of 130/80 mmHg or higher, while low blood pressure (hypotension) is usually defined as a reading below 90/60 mmHg. It's important to note that blood pressure can fluctuate throughout the day and may be affected by factors such as stress, physical activity, and medication use.

The Predictive Value of Tests, specifically the Positive Predictive Value (PPV) and Negative Predictive Value (NPV), are measures used in diagnostic tests to determine the probability that a positive or negative test result is correct.

Positive Predictive Value (PPV) is the proportion of patients with a positive test result who actually have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true positives divided by the total number of positive results (true positives + false positives). A higher PPV indicates that a positive test result is more likely to be a true positive, and therefore the disease is more likely to be present.

Negative Predictive Value (NPV) is the proportion of patients with a negative test result who do not have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true negatives divided by the total number of negative results (true negatives + false negatives). A higher NPV indicates that a negative test result is more likely to be a true negative, and therefore the disease is less likely to be present.

The predictive value of tests depends on the prevalence of the disease in the population being tested, as well as the sensitivity and specificity of the test. A test with high sensitivity and specificity will generally have higher predictive values than a test with low sensitivity and specificity. However, even a highly sensitive and specific test can have low predictive values if the prevalence of the disease is low in the population being tested.

Reference values, also known as reference ranges or reference intervals, are the set of values that are considered normal or typical for a particular population or group of people. These values are often used in laboratory tests to help interpret test results and determine whether a patient's value falls within the expected range.

The process of establishing reference values typically involves measuring a particular biomarker or parameter in a large, healthy population and then calculating the mean and standard deviation of the measurements. Based on these statistics, a range is established that includes a certain percentage of the population (often 95%) and excludes extreme outliers.

It's important to note that reference values can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, race, and other demographic characteristics. Therefore, it's essential to use reference values that are specific to the relevant population when interpreting laboratory test results. Additionally, reference values may change over time due to advances in measurement technology or changes in the population being studied.

Disease management is a proactive, planned approach to identify and manage patients with chronic medical conditions. It involves a systematic and coordinated method of delivering care to patients with the goal of improving clinical outcomes, enhancing quality of life, and reducing healthcare costs. This approach typically includes elements such as evidence-based care guidelines, patient education, self-management support, regular monitoring and follow-up, and collaboration between healthcare providers and specialists.

The objective of disease management is to improve the overall health and well-being of patients with chronic conditions by providing them with the necessary tools, resources, and support to effectively manage their condition and prevent complications. By implementing a comprehensive and coordinated approach to care, disease management can help reduce hospitalizations, emergency department visits, and other costly healthcare services while improving patient satisfaction and overall health outcomes.

Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the synthesis of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain. GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that helps to balance the excitatory effects of glutamate, another neurotransmitter.

Glutamate decarboxylase catalyzes the conversion of glutamate to GABA by removing a carboxyl group from the glutamate molecule. This reaction occurs in two steps, with the enzyme first converting glutamate to glutamic acid semialdehyde and then converting that intermediate product to GABA.

There are two major isoforms of glutamate decarboxylase, GAD65 and GAD67, which differ in their molecular weight, subcellular localization, and function. GAD65 is primarily responsible for the synthesis of GABA in neuronal synapses, while GAD67 is responsible for the synthesis of GABA in the cell body and dendrites of neurons.

Glutamate decarboxylase is an important target for research in neurology and psychiatry because dysregulation of GABAergic neurotransmission has been implicated in a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders, including epilepsy, anxiety, depression, and schizophrenia.

Drainage, in medical terms, refers to the removal of excess fluid or accumulated collections of fluids from various body parts or spaces. This is typically accomplished through the use of medical devices such as catheters, tubes, or drains. The purpose of drainage can be to prevent the buildup of fluids that may cause discomfort, infection, or other complications, or to treat existing collections of fluid such as abscesses, hematomas, or pleural effusions. Drainage may also be used as a diagnostic tool to analyze the type and composition of the fluid being removed.

Chronic kidney failure, also known as chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 5 or end-stage renal disease (ESRD), is a permanent loss of kidney function that occurs gradually over a period of months to years. It is defined as a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of less than 15 ml/min, which means the kidneys are filtering waste and excess fluids at less than 15% of their normal capacity.

CKD can be caused by various underlying conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, glomerulonephritis, polycystic kidney disease, and recurrent kidney infections. Over time, the damage to the kidneys can lead to a buildup of waste products and fluids in the body, which can cause a range of symptoms including fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, and confusion.

Treatment for chronic kidney failure typically involves managing the underlying condition, making lifestyle changes such as following a healthy diet, and receiving supportive care such as dialysis or a kidney transplant to replace lost kidney function.

"Device Removal" in a medical context generally refers to the surgical or nonsurgical removal of a medical device that has been previously implanted in a patient's body. The purpose of removing the device may vary, depending on the individual case. Some common reasons for device removal include infection, malfunction, rejection, or when the device is no longer needed.

Examples of medical devices that may require removal include pacemakers, implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs), artificial joints, orthopedic hardware, breast implants, cochlear implants, and intrauterine devices (IUDs). The procedure for device removal will depend on the type of device, its location in the body, and the reason for its removal.

It is important to note that device removal carries certain risks, such as bleeding, infection, damage to surrounding tissues, or complications related to anesthesia. Therefore, the decision to remove a medical device should be made carefully, considering both the potential benefits and risks of the procedure.

The term "diabetic foot" refers to a condition that affects the feet of people with diabetes, particularly when the disease is not well-controlled. It is characterized by a combination of nerve damage (neuropathy) and poor circulation (peripheral artery disease) in the feet and lower legs.

Neuropathy can cause numbness, tingling, or pain in the feet, making it difficult for people with diabetes to feel injuries, cuts, blisters, or other foot problems. Poor circulation makes it harder for wounds to heal and increases the risk of infection.

Diabetic foot ulcers are a common complication of diabetic neuropathy and can lead to serious infections, hospitalization, and even amputation if not treated promptly and effectively. Preventive care, including regular foot exams, proper footwear, and good blood glucose control, is essential for people with diabetes to prevent or manage diabetic foot problems.

Sulfonylurea compounds are a group of medications used in the management of type 2 diabetes. They work by stimulating the release of insulin from the pancreas, thereby lowering blood glucose levels. These compounds bind to specific receptors on the beta cells of the pancreas, which triggers the release of insulin.

Examples of sulfonylurea compounds include glipizide, glyburide, and glimepiride. It's important to note that these medications can cause hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) if not properly monitored and dosed. They are often used in combination with other medications, such as metformin, to achieve optimal blood glucose control.

As with any medication, sulfonylurea compounds should be taken under the supervision of a healthcare provider, who can monitor their effectiveness and potential side effects.

"Sex factors" is a term used in medicine and epidemiology to refer to the differences in disease incidence, prevalence, or response to treatment that are observed between males and females. These differences can be attributed to biological differences such as genetics, hormones, and anatomy, as well as social and cultural factors related to gender.

For example, some conditions such as autoimmune diseases, depression, and osteoporosis are more common in women, while others such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are more prevalent in men. Additionally, sex differences have been observed in the effectiveness and side effects of various medications and treatments.

It is important to consider sex factors in medical research and clinical practice to ensure that patients receive appropriate and effective care.

Prognosis is a medical term that refers to the prediction of the likely outcome or course of a disease, including the chances of recovery or recurrence, based on the patient's symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. It is an important aspect of clinical decision-making and patient communication, as it helps doctors and patients make informed decisions about treatment options, set realistic expectations, and plan for future care.

Prognosis can be expressed in various ways, such as percentages, categories (e.g., good, fair, poor), or survival rates, depending on the nature of the disease and the available evidence. However, it is important to note that prognosis is not an exact science and may vary depending on individual factors, such as age, overall health status, and response to treatment. Therefore, it should be used as a guide rather than a definitive forecast.

Surgical wound dehiscence is a medical condition that refers to the partial or complete separation of layers of a surgical incision after a surgical procedure, leading to the disruption of the wound closure. This can occur due to various factors such as infection, poor nutrition, increased tension on the sutures, hematoma or seroma formation, and patient's underlying health conditions like diabetes or immunodeficiency. Dehiscence may result in the exposure of internal tissues and organs, potentially causing severe complications such as infection, bleeding, or organ dysfunction. Immediate medical attention is required to manage this condition and prevent further complications.

A stent is a small mesh tube that's used to treat narrow or weak arteries. Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood away from your heart to other parts of your body. A stent is placed in an artery as part of a procedure called angioplasty. Angioplasty restores blood flow through narrowed or blocked arteries by inflating a tiny balloon inside the blocked artery to widen it.

The stent is then inserted into the widened artery to keep it open. The stent is usually made of metal, but some are coated with medication that is slowly and continuously released to help prevent the formation of scar tissue in the artery. This can reduce the chance of the artery narrowing again.

Stents are also used in other parts of the body, such as the neck (carotid artery) and kidneys (renal artery), to help maintain blood flow and prevent blockages. They can also be used in the urinary system to treat conditions like ureteropelvic junction obstruction or narrowing of the urethra.

Body weight is the measure of the force exerted on a scale or balance by an object's mass, most commonly expressed in units such as pounds (lb) or kilograms (kg). In the context of medical definitions, body weight typically refers to an individual's total weight, which includes their skeletal muscle, fat, organs, and bodily fluids.

Healthcare professionals often use body weight as a basic indicator of overall health status, as it can provide insights into various aspects of a person's health, such as nutritional status, metabolic function, and risk factors for certain diseases. For example, being significantly underweight or overweight can increase the risk of developing conditions like malnutrition, diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.

It is important to note that body weight alone may not provide a complete picture of an individual's health, as it does not account for factors such as muscle mass, bone density, or body composition. Therefore, healthcare professionals often use additional measures, such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and blood tests, to assess overall health status more comprehensively.

Foreign-body migration is a medical condition that occurs when a foreign object, such as a surgical implant, tissue graft, or trauma-induced fragment, moves from its original position within the body to a different location. This displacement can cause various complications and symptoms depending on the type of foreign body, the location it migrated to, and the individual's specific physiological response.

Foreign-body migration may result from insufficient fixation or anchoring of the object during implantation, inadequate wound healing, infection, or an inflammatory reaction. Symptoms can include pain, swelling, redness, or infection at the new location, as well as potential damage to surrounding tissues and organs. Diagnosis typically involves imaging techniques like X-rays, CT scans, or MRIs to locate the foreign body, followed by a surgical procedure to remove it and address any resulting complications.

The pancreas is a glandular organ located in the abdomen, posterior to the stomach. It has both exocrine and endocrine functions. The exocrine portion of the pancreas consists of acinar cells that produce and secrete digestive enzymes into the duodenum via the pancreatic duct. These enzymes help in the breakdown of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats in food.

The endocrine portion of the pancreas consists of clusters of cells called islets of Langerhans, which include alpha, beta, delta, and F cells. These cells produce and secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream, including insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide. Insulin and glucagon are critical regulators of blood sugar levels, with insulin promoting glucose uptake and storage in tissues and glucagon stimulating glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis to raise blood glucose when it is low.

Disease progression is the worsening or advancement of a medical condition over time. It refers to the natural course of a disease, including its development, the severity of symptoms and complications, and the impact on the patient's overall health and quality of life. Understanding disease progression is important for developing appropriate treatment plans, monitoring response to therapy, and predicting outcomes.

The rate of disease progression can vary widely depending on the type of medical condition, individual patient factors, and the effectiveness of treatment. Some diseases may progress rapidly over a short period of time, while others may progress more slowly over many years. In some cases, disease progression may be slowed or even halted with appropriate medical interventions, while in other cases, the progression may be inevitable and irreversible.

In clinical practice, healthcare providers closely monitor disease progression through regular assessments, imaging studies, and laboratory tests. This information is used to guide treatment decisions and adjust care plans as needed to optimize patient outcomes and improve quality of life.

Patient education, as defined by the US National Library of Medicine's Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), is "the teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs. It includes the patient's understanding of his or her condition and the necessary procedures for self, assisted, or professional care." This encompasses a wide range of activities and interventions aimed at helping patients and their families understand their medical conditions, treatment options, self-care skills, and overall health management. Effective patient education can lead to improved health outcomes, increased patient satisfaction, and better use of healthcare resources.

Recurrence, in a medical context, refers to the return of symptoms or signs of a disease after a period of improvement or remission. It indicates that the condition has not been fully eradicated and may require further treatment. Recurrence is often used to describe situations where a disease such as cancer comes back after initial treatment, but it can also apply to other medical conditions. The likelihood of recurrence varies depending on the type of disease and individual patient factors.

Metabolic syndrome, also known as Syndrome X, is a cluster of conditions that increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. It is not a single disease but a group of risk factors that often co-occur. According to the American Heart Association and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, a person has metabolic syndrome if they have any three of the following five conditions:

1. Abdominal obesity (waist circumference of 40 inches or more in men, and 35 inches or more in women)
2. Triglyceride level of 150 milligrams per deciliter of blood (mg/dL) or greater
3. HDL cholesterol level of less than 40 mg/dL in men or less than 50 mg/dL in women
4. Systolic blood pressure of 130 millimeters of mercury (mmHg) or greater, or diastolic blood pressure of 85 mmHg or greater
5. Fasting glucose level of 100 mg/dL or greater

Metabolic syndrome is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors, such as physical inactivity and a diet high in refined carbohydrates and unhealthy fats. Treatment typically involves making lifestyle changes, such as eating a healthy diet, getting regular exercise, and losing weight if necessary. In some cases, medication may also be needed to manage individual components of the syndrome, such as high blood pressure or high cholesterol.

Indwelling catheters, also known as Foley catheters, are medical devices that are inserted into the bladder to drain urine. They have a small balloon at the tip that is inflated with water once the catheter is in the correct position in the bladder, allowing it to remain in place and continuously drain urine. Indwelling catheters are typically used for patients who are unable to empty their bladders on their own, such as those who are bedridden or have nerve damage that affects bladder function. They are also used during and after certain surgical procedures. Prolonged use of indwelling catheters can increase the risk of urinary tract infections and other complications.

Regression analysis is a statistical technique used in medicine, as well as in other fields, to examine the relationship between one or more independent variables (predictors) and a dependent variable (outcome). It allows for the estimation of the average change in the outcome variable associated with a one-unit change in an independent variable, while controlling for the effects of other independent variables. This technique is often used to identify risk factors for diseases or to evaluate the effectiveness of medical interventions. In medical research, regression analysis can be used to adjust for potential confounding variables and to quantify the relationship between exposures and health outcomes. It can also be used in predictive modeling to estimate the probability of a particular outcome based on multiple predictors.

Neurogenic diabetes insipidus is a condition characterized by the production of large amounts of dilute urine (polyuria) and increased thirst (polydipsia) due to deficiency of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), also known as vasopressin, which is produced by the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary gland.

Neurogenic diabetes insipidus can occur when there is damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary gland, leading to a decrease in ADH production or release. Causes of neurogenic diabetes insipidus include brain tumors, head trauma, surgery, meningitis, encephalitis, and autoimmune disorders.

In this condition, the kidneys are unable to reabsorb water from the urine due to the lack of ADH, resulting in the production of large volumes of dilute urine. This can lead to dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and other complications if not properly managed. Treatment typically involves replacing the missing ADH with a synthetic hormone called desmopressin, which can be administered as a nasal spray, oral tablet, or injection.

Proportional hazards models are a type of statistical analysis used in medical research to investigate the relationship between covariates (predictor variables) and survival times. The most common application of proportional hazards models is in the Cox regression model, which is named after its developer, Sir David Cox.

In a proportional hazards model, the hazard rate or risk of an event occurring at a given time is assumed to be proportional to the hazard rate of a reference group, after adjusting for the covariates. This means that the ratio of the hazard rates between any two individuals remains constant over time, regardless of their survival times.

Mathematically, the hazard function h(t) at time t for an individual with a set of covariates X can be expressed as:

h(t|X) = h0(t) \* exp(β1X1 + β2X2 + ... + βpXp)

where h0(t) is the baseline hazard function, X1, X2, ..., Xp are the covariates, and β1, β2, ..., βp are the regression coefficients that represent the effect of each covariate on the hazard rate.

The assumption of proportionality is crucial in the interpretation of the results from a Cox regression model. If the assumption is violated, then the estimated regression coefficients may be biased and misleading. Therefore, it is important to test for the proportional hazards assumption before interpreting the results of a Cox regression analysis.

In the context of medicine, risk is the probability or likelihood of an adverse health effect or the occurrence of a negative event related to treatment or exposure to certain hazards. It is usually expressed as a ratio or percentage and can be influenced by various factors such as age, gender, lifestyle, genetics, and environmental conditions. Risk assessment involves identifying, quantifying, and prioritizing risks to make informed decisions about prevention, mitigation, or treatment strategies.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

Postoperative hemorrhage is a medical term that refers to bleeding that occurs after a surgical procedure. This condition can range from minor oozing to severe, life-threatening bleeding. Postoperative hemorrhage can occur soon after surgery or even several days later, as the surgical site begins to heal.

The causes of postoperative hemorrhage can vary, but some common factors include:

1. Inadequate hemostasis during surgery: This means that all bleeding was not properly controlled during the procedure, leading to bleeding after surgery.
2. Blood vessel injury: During surgery, blood vessels may be accidentally cut or damaged, causing bleeding after the procedure.
3. Coagulopathy: This is a condition in which the body has difficulty forming blood clots, increasing the risk of postoperative hemorrhage.
4. Use of anticoagulant medications: Medications that prevent blood clots can increase the risk of bleeding after surgery.
5. Infection: An infection at the surgical site can cause inflammation and bleeding.

Symptoms of postoperative hemorrhage may include swelling, pain, warmth, or discoloration around the surgical site, as well as signs of shock such as rapid heartbeat, low blood pressure, and confusion. Treatment for postoperative hemorrhage depends on the severity of the bleeding and may include medications to control bleeding, transfusions of blood products, or additional surgery to stop the bleeding.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "life style" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It generally refers to the way an individual or group lives, including their habits, behaviors, and preferences in areas such as diet, exercise, recreation, and stress management. Some lifestyle factors can have a significant impact on health outcomes and risk for certain diseases. However, it is not a medical term with a specific clinical meaning.

"Native Americans" is the preferred term for the indigenous peoples of the continental United States, including those from Alaska and Hawaii. The term "Indians" is often used to refer to this group, but it can be seen as misleading or inaccurate since it implies a connection to India rather than recognition of their unique cultures and histories. However, some Native Americans prefer to use the term "Indian" to describe themselves.

It's important to note that there is no single medical definition for this group, as they are not a homogeneous population. Instead, they consist of hundreds of distinct tribes with diverse cultures, languages, and traditions. Each tribe may have its own unique genetic makeup, which can influence health outcomes and responses to medical treatments.

Therefore, when discussing medical issues related to Native Americans, it's essential to consider the specific tribal affiliations and cultural factors that may impact their health status and healthcare needs.

Vascular diseases are medical conditions that affect the circulatory system, specifically the blood vessels (arteries, veins, and capillaries). These diseases can include conditions such as:

1. Atherosclerosis: The buildup of fats, cholesterol, and other substances in and on the walls of the arteries, which can restrict blood flow.
2. Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD): A condition caused by atherosclerosis where there is narrowing or blockage of the peripheral arteries, most commonly in the legs. This can lead to pain, numbness, and cramping.
3. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD): Atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle. This can lead to chest pain, shortness of breath, or a heart attack.
4. Carotid Artery Disease: Atherosclerosis of the carotid arteries in the neck that supply blood to the brain. This can increase the risk of stroke.
5. Cerebrovascular Disease: Conditions that affect blood flow to the brain, including stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA or "mini-stroke").
6. Aneurysm: A weakened area in the wall of a blood vessel that causes it to bulge outward and potentially rupture.
7. Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT): A blood clot that forms in the deep veins, usually in the legs, which can cause pain, swelling, and increased risk of pulmonary embolism if the clot travels to the lungs.
8. Varicose Veins: Swollen, twisted, and often painful veins that have filled with an abnormal collection of blood, usually appearing in the legs.
9. Vasculitis: Inflammation of the blood vessels, which can cause damage and narrowing, leading to reduced blood flow.
10. Raynaud's Phenomenon: A condition where the small arteries that supply blood to the skin become narrowed, causing decreased blood flow, typically in response to cold temperatures or stress.

These are just a few examples of vascular conditions that fall under the umbrella term "cerebrovascular disease." Early diagnosis and treatment can significantly improve outcomes for many of these conditions.

A chronic disease is a long-term medical condition that often progresses slowly over a period of years and requires ongoing management and care. These diseases are typically not fully curable, but symptoms can be managed to improve quality of life. Common chronic diseases include heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). They are often associated with advanced age, although they can also affect children and younger adults. Chronic diseases can have significant impacts on individuals' physical, emotional, and social well-being, as well as on healthcare systems and society at large.

Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is a type of diabetes insipidus that occurs due to the inability of the kidneys to respond to the antidiuretic hormone (ADH), also known as vasopressin. This results in excessive thirst and the production of large amounts of dilute urine.

In nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, the problem lies in the kidney tubules, which fail to absorb water from the urine due to a defect in the receptors or channels that respond to ADH. This can be caused by genetic factors, certain medications, kidney diseases, and electrolyte imbalances.

Treatment for nephrogenic diabetes insipidus typically involves addressing the underlying cause, if possible, as well as managing symptoms through a low-salt diet, increased fluid intake, and medications that increase water reabsorption in the kidneys.

Genotype, in genetics, refers to the complete heritable genetic makeup of an individual organism, including all of its genes. It is the set of instructions contained in an organism's DNA for the development and function of that organism. The genotype is the basis for an individual's inherited traits, and it can be contrasted with an individual's phenotype, which refers to the observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism that result from the expression of its genes in combination with environmental influences.

It is important to note that an individual's genotype is not necessarily identical to their genetic sequence. Some genes have multiple forms called alleles, and an individual may inherit different alleles for a given gene from each parent. The combination of alleles that an individual inherits for a particular gene is known as their genotype for that gene.

Understanding an individual's genotype can provide important information about their susceptibility to certain diseases, their response to drugs and other treatments, and their risk of passing on inherited genetic disorders to their offspring.

Surgical anastomosis is a medical procedure that involves the connection of two tubular structures, such as blood vessels or intestines, to create a continuous passage. This technique is commonly used in various types of surgeries, including vascular, gastrointestinal, and orthopedic procedures.

During a surgical anastomosis, the ends of the two tubular structures are carefully prepared by removing any damaged or diseased tissue. The ends are then aligned and joined together using sutures, staples, or other devices. The connection must be secure and leak-free to ensure proper function and healing.

The success of a surgical anastomosis depends on several factors, including the patient's overall health, the location and condition of the structures being joined, and the skill and experience of the surgeon. Complications such as infection, bleeding, or leakage can occur, which may require additional medical intervention or surgery.

Proper postoperative care is also essential to ensure the success of a surgical anastomosis. This may include monitoring for signs of complications, administering medications to prevent infection and promote healing, and providing adequate nutrition and hydration.

Catheterization is a medical procedure in which a catheter (a flexible tube) is inserted into the body to treat various medical conditions or for diagnostic purposes. The specific definition can vary depending on the area of medicine and the particular procedure being discussed. Here are some common types of catheterization:

1. Urinary catheterization: This involves inserting a catheter through the urethra into the bladder to drain urine. It is often performed to manage urinary retention, monitor urine output in critically ill patients, or assist with surgical procedures.
2. Cardiac catheterization: A procedure where a catheter is inserted into a blood vessel, usually in the groin or arm, and guided to the heart. This allows for various diagnostic tests and treatments, such as measuring pressures within the heart chambers, assessing blood flow, or performing angioplasty and stenting of narrowed coronary arteries.
3. Central venous catheterization: A catheter is inserted into a large vein, typically in the neck, chest, or groin, to administer medications, fluids, or nutrition, or to monitor central venous pressure.
4. Peritoneal dialysis catheterization: A catheter is placed into the abdominal cavity for individuals undergoing peritoneal dialysis, a type of kidney replacement therapy.
5. Neurological catheterization: In some cases, a catheter may be inserted into the cerebrospinal fluid space (lumbar puncture) or the brain's ventricular system (ventriculostomy) to diagnose or treat various neurological conditions.

These are just a few examples of catheterization procedures in medicine. The specific definition and purpose will depend on the medical context and the particular organ or body system involved.

An acute disease is a medical condition that has a rapid onset, develops quickly, and tends to be short in duration. Acute diseases can range from minor illnesses such as a common cold or flu, to more severe conditions such as pneumonia, meningitis, or a heart attack. These types of diseases often have clear symptoms that are easy to identify, and they may require immediate medical attention or treatment.

Acute diseases are typically caused by an external agent or factor, such as a bacterial or viral infection, a toxin, or an injury. They can also be the result of a sudden worsening of an existing chronic condition. In general, acute diseases are distinct from chronic diseases, which are long-term medical conditions that develop slowly over time and may require ongoing management and treatment.

Examples of acute diseases include:

* Acute bronchitis: a sudden inflammation of the airways in the lungs, often caused by a viral infection.
* Appendicitis: an inflammation of the appendix that can cause severe pain and requires surgical removal.
* Gastroenteritis: an inflammation of the stomach and intestines, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.
* Migraine headaches: intense headaches that can last for hours or days, and are often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.
* Myocardial infarction (heart attack): a sudden blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle, often caused by a buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries.
* Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
* Sinusitis: an inflammation of the sinuses, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.

It's important to note that while some acute diseases may resolve on their own with rest and supportive care, others may require medical intervention or treatment to prevent complications and promote recovery. If you are experiencing symptoms of an acute disease, it is always best to seek medical attention to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.

A hematoma is defined as a localized accumulation of blood in a tissue, organ, or body space caused by a break in the wall of a blood vessel. This can result from various causes such as trauma, surgery, or certain medical conditions that affect coagulation. The severity and size of a hematoma may vary depending on the location and extent of the bleeding. Symptoms can include swelling, pain, bruising, and decreased mobility in the affected area. Treatment options depend on the size and location of the hematoma but may include observation, compression, ice, elevation, or in some cases, surgical intervention.

Postoperative care refers to the comprehensive medical treatment and nursing attention provided to a patient following a surgical procedure. The goal of postoperative care is to facilitate the patient's recovery, prevent complications, manage pain, ensure proper healing of the incision site, and maintain overall health and well-being until the patient can resume their normal activities.

This type of care includes monitoring vital signs, managing pain through medication or other techniques, ensuring adequate hydration and nutrition, helping the patient with breathing exercises to prevent lung complications, encouraging mobility to prevent blood clots, monitoring for signs of infection or other complications, administering prescribed medications, providing wound care, and educating the patient about postoperative care instructions.

The duration of postoperative care can vary depending on the type and complexity of the surgical procedure, as well as the individual patient's needs and overall health status. It may be provided in a hospital setting, an outpatient surgery center, or in the patient's home, depending on the level of care required.

Medical survival rate is a statistical measure used to determine the percentage of patients who are still alive for a specific period of time after their diagnosis or treatment for a certain condition or disease. It is often expressed as a five-year survival rate, which refers to the proportion of people who are alive five years after their diagnosis. Survival rates can be affected by many factors, including the stage of the disease at diagnosis, the patient's age and overall health, the effectiveness of treatment, and other health conditions that the patient may have. It is important to note that survival rates are statistical estimates and do not necessarily predict an individual patient's prognosis.

Iatrogenic disease refers to any condition or illness that is caused, directly or indirectly, by medical treatment or intervention. This can include adverse reactions to medications, infections acquired during hospitalization, complications from surgical procedures, or injuries caused by medical equipment. It's important to note that iatrogenic diseases are unintended and often preventable with proper care and precautions.

Biliary tract diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the biliary system, which includes the gallbladder, bile ducts, and liver. Bile is a digestive juice produced by the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and released into the small intestine through the bile ducts to help digest fats.

Biliary tract diseases can cause various symptoms such as abdominal pain, jaundice, fever, nausea, vomiting, and changes in stool color. Some of the common biliary tract diseases include:

1. Gallstones: Small, hard deposits that form in the gallbladder or bile ducts made up of cholesterol or bilirubin.
2. Cholecystitis: Inflammation of the gallbladder, often caused by gallstones.
3. Cholangitis: Infection or inflammation of the bile ducts.
4. Biliary dyskinesia: A motility disorder that affects the contraction and relaxation of the muscles in the biliary system.
5. Primary sclerosing cholangitis: A chronic autoimmune disease that causes scarring and narrowing of the bile ducts.
6. Biliary tract cancer: Rare cancers that affect the gallbladder, bile ducts, or liver.

Treatment for biliary tract diseases varies depending on the specific condition and severity but may include medications, surgery, or a combination of both.

Thrombosis is the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system. When a clot forms in an artery, it can cut off the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the tissues served by that artery, leading to damage or tissue death. If a thrombus forms in the heart, it can cause a heart attack. If a thrombus breaks off and travels through the bloodstream, it can lodge in a smaller vessel, causing blockage and potentially leading to damage in the organ that the vessel supplies. This is known as an embolism.

Thrombosis can occur due to various factors such as injury to the blood vessel wall, abnormalities in blood flow, or changes in the composition of the blood. Certain medical conditions, medications, and lifestyle factors can increase the risk of thrombosis. Treatment typically involves anticoagulant or thrombolytic therapy to dissolve or prevent further growth of the clot, as well as addressing any underlying causes.

An Insulin Infusion System, also known as an insulin pump, is a medical device designed to deliver insulin in a continuous and controlled manner. It consists of a small computerized device that is worn outside the body, connected to a thin tube called a cannula which is inserted under the skin using a needle. The cannula is typically changed every 2-3 days.

The system allows for the programming of basal rates (background insulin), as well as bolus doses (additional insulin given at mealtimes or to correct high blood glucose levels). The user has the ability to customize these settings based on their individual needs, which can be particularly useful for people with type 1 diabetes who require multiple daily injections of insulin.

Insulin infusion systems are designed to mimic the normal physiological release of insulin from the pancreas more closely than traditional injection methods, and they have been shown to improve glycemic control and quality of life for some people with diabetes. However, they also require a significant amount of user education and training to ensure safe and effective use.

Endoscopy is a medical procedure that involves the use of an endoscope, which is a flexible tube with a light and camera at the end, to examine the interior of a body cavity or organ. The endoscope is inserted through a natural opening in the body, such as the mouth or anus, or through a small incision. The images captured by the camera are transmitted to a monitor, allowing the physician to visualize the internal structures and detect any abnormalities, such as inflammation, ulcers, or tumors. Endoscopy can also be used for diagnostic purposes, such as taking tissue samples for biopsy, or for therapeutic purposes, such as removing polyps or performing minimally invasive surgeries.

A feasibility study is a preliminary investigation or analysis conducted to determine the viability of a proposed project, program, or product. In the medical field, feasibility studies are often conducted before implementing new treatments, procedures, equipment, or facilities. These studies help to assess the practicality and effectiveness of the proposed intervention, as well as its potential benefits and risks.

Feasibility studies in healthcare typically involve several steps:

1. Problem identification: Clearly define the problem that the proposed project, program, or product aims to address.
2. Objectives setting: Establish specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART) objectives for the study.
3. Literature review: Conduct a thorough review of existing research and best practices related to the proposed intervention.
4. Methodology development: Design a methodology for data collection and analysis that will help answer the research questions and achieve the study's objectives.
5. Resource assessment: Evaluate the availability and adequacy of resources, including personnel, time, and finances, required to carry out the proposed intervention.
6. Risk assessment: Identify potential risks and challenges associated with the implementation of the proposed intervention and develop strategies to mitigate them.
7. Cost-benefit analysis: Estimate the costs and benefits of the proposed intervention, including direct and indirect costs, as well as short-term and long-term benefits.
8. Stakeholder engagement: Engage relevant stakeholders, such as patients, healthcare providers, administrators, and policymakers, to gather their input and support for the proposed intervention.
9. Decision-making: Based on the findings of the feasibility study, make an informed decision about whether or not to proceed with the proposed project, program, or product.

Feasibility studies are essential in healthcare as they help ensure that resources are allocated efficiently and effectively, and that interventions are evidence-based, safe, and beneficial for patients.

Lipids are a broad group of organic compounds that are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar organic solvents. They include fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, and phospholipids. Lipids serve many important functions in the body, including energy storage, acting as structural components of cell membranes, and serving as signaling molecules. High levels of certain lipids, particularly cholesterol and triglycerides, in the blood are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

A fatal outcome is a term used in medical context to describe a situation where a disease, injury, or illness results in the death of an individual. It is the most severe and unfortunate possible outcome of any medical condition, and is often used as a measure of the severity and prognosis of various diseases and injuries. In clinical trials and research, fatal outcome may be used as an endpoint to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of different treatments or interventions.

Liver transplantation is a surgical procedure in which a diseased or failing liver is replaced with a healthy one from a deceased donor or, less commonly, a portion of a liver from a living donor. The goal of the procedure is to restore normal liver function and improve the patient's overall health and quality of life.

Liver transplantation may be recommended for individuals with end-stage liver disease, acute liver failure, certain genetic liver disorders, or liver cancers that cannot be treated effectively with other therapies. The procedure involves complex surgery to remove the diseased liver and implant the new one, followed by a period of recovery and close medical monitoring to ensure proper function and minimize the risk of complications.

The success of liver transplantation has improved significantly in recent years due to advances in surgical techniques, immunosuppressive medications, and post-transplant care. However, it remains a major operation with significant risks and challenges, including the need for lifelong immunosuppression to prevent rejection of the new liver, as well as potential complications such as infection, bleeding, and organ failure.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Japan" is not a medical term. Japan is the name of a country, officially known as Nippon-koku or Nihon-koku in Japanese, and is located in East Asia. It is an island nation in the Pacific Ocean with a population of about 126 million people.

If you have any medical questions or terms that you would like me to define, please let me know!

A registry in the context of medicine is a collection or database of standardized information about individuals who share a certain condition or attribute, such as a disease, treatment, exposure, or demographic group. These registries are used for various purposes, including:

* Monitoring and tracking the natural history of diseases and conditions
* Evaluating the safety and effectiveness of medical treatments and interventions
* Conducting research and generating hypotheses for further study
* Providing information to patients, clinicians, and researchers
* Informing public health policy and decision-making

Registries can be established for a wide range of purposes, including disease-specific registries (such as cancer or diabetes registries), procedure-specific registries (such as joint replacement or cardiac surgery registries), and population-based registries (such as birth defects or cancer registries). Data collected in registries may include demographic information, clinical data, laboratory results, treatment details, and outcomes.

Registries can be maintained by a variety of organizations, including hospitals, clinics, academic medical centers, professional societies, government agencies, and industry. Participation in registries is often voluntary, although some registries may require informed consent from participants. Data collected in registries are typically de-identified to protect the privacy of individuals.

Autoantibodies are defined as antibodies that are produced by the immune system and target the body's own cells, tissues, or organs. These antibodies mistakenly identify certain proteins or molecules in the body as foreign invaders and attack them, leading to an autoimmune response. Autoantibodies can be found in various autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and thyroiditis. The presence of autoantibodies can also be used as a diagnostic marker for certain conditions.

Thiazolidinediones are a class of medications used to treat type 2 diabetes. They work by increasing the body's sensitivity to insulin, which helps to control blood sugar levels. These drugs bind to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), specifically PPAR-gamma, and modulate gene expression related to glucose metabolism and lipid metabolism.

Examples of thiazolidinediones include pioglitazone and rosiglitazone. Common side effects of these medications include weight gain, fluid retention, and an increased risk of bone fractures. They have also been associated with an increased risk of heart failure and bladder cancer, which has led to restrictions or withdrawal of some thiazolidinediones in various countries.

It is important to note that thiazolidinediones should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider and in conjunction with lifestyle modifications such as diet and exercise.

Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) is a type of genetic variation that occurs when a single nucleotide (A, T, C, or G) in the DNA sequence is altered. This alteration must occur in at least 1% of the population to be considered a SNP. These variations can help explain why some people are more susceptible to certain diseases than others and can also influence how an individual responds to certain medications. SNPs can serve as biological markers, helping scientists locate genes that are associated with disease. They can also provide information about an individual's ancestry and ethnic background.

Suture techniques refer to the various methods used by surgeons to sew or stitch together tissues in the body after an injury, trauma, or surgical incision. The main goal of suturing is to approximate and hold the edges of the wound together, allowing for proper healing and minimizing scar formation.

There are several types of suture techniques, including:

1. Simple Interrupted Suture: This is one of the most basic suture techniques where the needle is passed through the tissue at a right angle, creating a loop that is then tightened to approximate the wound edges. Multiple stitches are placed along the length of the incision or wound.
2. Continuous Locking Suture: In this technique, the needle is passed continuously through the tissue in a zigzag pattern, with each stitch locking into the previous one. This creates a continuous line of sutures that provides strong tension and support to the wound edges.
3. Running Suture: Similar to the continuous locking suture, this technique involves passing the needle continuously through the tissue in a straight line. However, instead of locking each stitch, the needle is simply passed through the previous loop before being tightened. This creates a smooth and uninterrupted line of sutures that can be easily removed after healing.
4. Horizontal Mattress Suture: In this technique, two parallel stitches are placed horizontally across the wound edges, creating a "mattress" effect that provides additional support and tension to the wound. This is particularly useful in deep or irregularly shaped wounds.
5. Vertical Mattress Suture: Similar to the horizontal mattress suture, this technique involves placing two parallel stitches vertically across the wound edges. This creates a more pronounced "mattress" effect that can help reduce tension and minimize scarring.
6. Subcuticular Suture: In this technique, the needle is passed just below the surface of the skin, creating a smooth and barely visible line of sutures. This is particularly useful in cosmetic surgery or areas where minimizing scarring is important.

The choice of suture technique depends on various factors such as the location and size of the wound, the type of tissue involved, and the patient's individual needs and preferences. Proper suture placement and tension are crucial for optimal healing and aesthetic outcomes.

Minimally invasive surgical procedures are a type of surgery that is performed with the assistance of specialized equipment and techniques to minimize trauma to the patient's body. This approach aims to reduce blood loss, pain, and recovery time as compared to traditional open surgeries. The most common minimally invasive surgical procedure is laparoscopy, which involves making small incisions (usually 0.5-1 cm) in the abdomen or chest and inserting a thin tube with a camera (laparoscope) to visualize the internal organs.

The surgeon then uses long, slender instruments inserted through separate incisions to perform the necessary surgical procedures, such as cutting, coagulation, or suturing. Other types of minimally invasive surgical procedures include arthroscopy (for joint surgery), thoracoscopy (for chest surgery), and hysteroscopy (for uterine surgery). The benefits of minimally invasive surgical procedures include reduced postoperative pain, shorter hospital stays, quicker return to normal activities, and improved cosmetic results. However, not all surgeries can be performed using minimally invasive techniques, and the suitability of a particular procedure depends on various factors, including the patient's overall health, the nature and extent of the surgical problem, and the surgeon's expertise.

Equipment design, in the medical context, refers to the process of creating and developing medical equipment and devices, such as surgical instruments, diagnostic machines, or assistive technologies. This process involves several stages, including:

1. Identifying user needs and requirements
2. Concept development and brainstorming
3. Prototyping and testing
4. Design for manufacturing and assembly
5. Safety and regulatory compliance
6. Verification and validation
7. Training and support

The goal of equipment design is to create safe, effective, and efficient medical devices that meet the needs of healthcare providers and patients while complying with relevant regulations and standards. The design process typically involves a multidisciplinary team of engineers, clinicians, designers, and researchers who work together to develop innovative solutions that improve patient care and outcomes.

Morbid obesity is a severe form of obesity, defined by a body mass index (BMI) of 40 or higher or a BMI of 35 or higher in the presence of at least one serious obesity-related health condition, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, or sleep apnea. It is called "morbid" because it significantly increases the risk of various life-threatening health problems and reduces life expectancy.

Morbid obesity is typically associated with significant excess body weight, often characterized by a large amount of abdominal fat, that can strain the body's organs and lead to serious medical complications, such as:

* Type 2 diabetes
* High blood pressure (hypertension)
* Heart disease
* Stroke
* Sleep apnea and other respiratory problems
* Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)
* Osteoarthritis
* Certain types of cancer, such as breast, colon, and endometrial cancer

Morbid obesity can also have significant negative impacts on a person's quality of life, including mobility issues, difficulty with daily activities, and increased risk of mental health problems, such as depression and anxiety. Treatment for morbid obesity typically involves a combination of lifestyle changes, medication, and in some cases, surgery.

Cardiovascular complications in pregnancy refer to conditions that affect the heart and blood vessels, which can arise during pregnancy, childbirth, or after delivery. These complications can be pre-existing or new-onset and can range from mild to severe, potentially threatening the life of both the mother and the fetus. Some examples of cardiovascular complications in pregnancy include:

1. Hypertension disorders: This includes chronic hypertension (high blood pressure before pregnancy), gestational hypertension (high blood pressure that develops after 20 weeks of pregnancy), and preeclampsia/eclampsia (a pregnancy-specific disorder characterized by high blood pressure, proteinuria, and potential organ damage).

2. Cardiomyopathy: A condition in which the heart muscle becomes weakened, leading to an enlarged heart and reduced pumping efficiency. Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a specific type that occurs during pregnancy or in the months following delivery.

3. Arrhythmias: Irregularities in the heart's rhythm, such as tachycardia (rapid heartbeat) or bradycardia (slow heartbeat), can occur during pregnancy and may require medical intervention.

4. Valvular heart disease: Pre-existing valve disorders, like mitral stenosis or aortic insufficiency, can worsen during pregnancy due to increased blood volume and cardiac output. Additionally, new valve issues might develop during pregnancy.

5. Venous thromboembolism (VTE): Pregnancy increases the risk of developing blood clots in the veins, particularly deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE).

6. Ischemic heart disease: Although rare, coronary artery disease and acute coronary syndrome can occur during pregnancy, especially in women with risk factors such as obesity, diabetes, or smoking history.

7. Heart failure: Severe cardiac dysfunction leading to fluid accumulation, shortness of breath, and reduced exercise tolerance may develop due to any of the above conditions or other underlying heart diseases.

Early recognition, monitoring, and appropriate management of these cardiovascular complications in pregnancy are crucial for maternal and fetal well-being.

Longitudinal studies are a type of research design where data is collected from the same subjects repeatedly over a period of time, often years or even decades. These studies are used to establish patterns of changes and events over time, and can help researchers identify causal relationships between variables. They are particularly useful in fields such as epidemiology, psychology, and sociology, where the focus is on understanding developmental trends and the long-term effects of various factors on health and behavior.

In medical research, longitudinal studies can be used to track the progression of diseases over time, identify risk factors for certain conditions, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. For example, a longitudinal study might follow a group of individuals over several decades to assess their exposure to certain environmental factors and their subsequent development of chronic diseases such as cancer or heart disease. By comparing data collected at multiple time points, researchers can identify trends and correlations that may not be apparent in shorter-term studies.

Longitudinal studies have several advantages over other research designs, including their ability to establish temporal relationships between variables, track changes over time, and reduce the impact of confounding factors. However, they also have some limitations, such as the potential for attrition (loss of participants over time), which can introduce bias and affect the validity of the results. Additionally, longitudinal studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, requiring significant resources and a long-term commitment from both researchers and study participants.

Heart disease is a broad term for a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels. It's often used to refer to conditions that include:

1. Coronary artery disease (CAD): This is the most common type of heart disease. It occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the heart become hardened and narrowed due to the buildup of cholesterol and other substances, which can lead to chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, or a heart attack.

2. Heart failure: This condition occurs when the heart is unable to pump blood efficiently to meet the body's needs. It can be caused by various conditions, including coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, and cardiomyopathy.

3. Arrhythmias: These are abnormal heart rhythms, which can be too fast, too slow, or irregular. They can lead to symptoms such as palpitations, dizziness, and fainting.

4. Valvular heart disease: This involves damage to one or more of the heart's four valves, which control blood flow through the heart. Damage can be caused by various conditions, including infection, rheumatic fever, and aging.

5. Cardiomyopathy: This is a disease of the heart muscle that makes it harder for the heart to pump blood efficiently. It can be caused by various factors, including genetics, viral infections, and drug abuse.

6. Pericardial disease: This involves inflammation or other problems with the sac surrounding the heart (pericardium). It can cause chest pain and other symptoms.

7. Congenital heart defects: These are heart conditions that are present at birth, such as a hole in the heart or abnormal blood vessels. They can range from mild to severe and may require medical intervention.

8. Heart infections: The heart can become infected by bacteria, viruses, or parasites, leading to various symptoms and complications.

It's important to note that many factors can contribute to the development of heart disease, including genetics, lifestyle choices, and certain medical conditions. Regular check-ups and a healthy lifestyle can help reduce the risk of developing heart disease.

The term "Asian Continental Ancestry Group" is a medical/ethnic classification used to describe a person's genetic background and ancestry. According to this categorization, individuals with origins in the Asian continent are grouped together. This includes populations from regions such as East Asia (e.g., China, Japan, Korea), South Asia (e.g., India, Pakistan, Bangladesh), Southeast Asia (e.g., Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand), and Central Asia (e.g., Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan). It is important to note that this broad categorization may not fully capture the genetic diversity within these regions or accurately reflect an individual's specific ancestral origins.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

Patient selection, in the context of medical treatment or clinical research, refers to the process of identifying and choosing appropriate individuals who are most likely to benefit from a particular medical intervention or who meet specific criteria to participate in a study. This decision is based on various factors such as the patient's diagnosis, stage of disease, overall health status, potential risks, and expected benefits. The goal of patient selection is to ensure that the selected individuals will receive the most effective and safe care possible while also contributing to meaningful research outcomes.

Islets of Langerhans transplantation is a surgical procedure that involves the transplantation of isolated islets from a deceased donor's pancreas into another person with type 1 diabetes. The islets of Langerhans are clusters of cells within the pancreas that produce hormones, including insulin, which regulates blood sugar levels.

In type 1 diabetes, the body's immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys these insulin-producing cells, leading to high blood sugar levels. Islet transplantation aims to replace the damaged islets with healthy ones from a donor, allowing the recipient's body to produce and regulate its own insulin again.

The procedure involves extracting the islets from the donor pancreas and infusing them into the recipient's liver through a small incision in the abdomen. Once inside the liver, the islets can sense glucose levels in the bloodstream and release insulin as needed to maintain normal blood sugar levels.

Islet transplantation has shown promising results in improving blood sugar control and reducing the risk of severe hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) in people with type 1 diabetes. However, it requires long-term immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection of the transplanted islets, which can have side effects and increase the risk of infections.

Triglycerides are the most common type of fat in the body, and they're found in the food we eat. They're carried in the bloodstream to provide energy to the cells in our body. High levels of triglycerides in the blood can increase the risk of heart disease, especially in combination with other risk factors such as high LDL (bad) cholesterol, low HDL (good) cholesterol, and high blood pressure.

It's important to note that while triglycerides are a type of fat, they should not be confused with cholesterol, which is a waxy substance found in the cells of our body. Both triglycerides and cholesterol are important for maintaining good health, but high levels of either can increase the risk of heart disease.

Triglyceride levels are measured through a blood test called a lipid panel or lipid profile. A normal triglyceride level is less than 150 mg/dL. Borderline-high levels range from 150 to 199 mg/dL, high levels range from 200 to 499 mg/dL, and very high levels are 500 mg/dL or higher.

Elevated triglycerides can be caused by various factors such as obesity, physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, and certain medical conditions like diabetes, hypothyroidism, and kidney disease. Medications such as beta-blockers, steroids, and diuretics can also raise triglyceride levels.

Lifestyle changes such as losing weight, exercising regularly, eating a healthy diet low in saturated and trans fats, avoiding excessive alcohol consumption, and quitting smoking can help lower triglyceride levels. In some cases, medication may be necessary to reduce triglycerides to recommended levels.

Anticoagulants are a class of medications that work to prevent the formation of blood clots in the body. They do this by inhibiting the coagulation cascade, which is a series of chemical reactions that lead to the formation of a clot. Anticoagulants can be given orally, intravenously, or subcutaneously, depending on the specific drug and the individual patient's needs.

There are several different types of anticoagulants, including:

1. Heparin: This is a naturally occurring anticoagulant that is often used in hospitalized patients who require immediate anticoagulation. It works by activating an enzyme called antithrombin III, which inhibits the formation of clots.
2. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH): LMWH is a form of heparin that has been broken down into smaller molecules. It has a longer half-life than standard heparin and can be given once or twice daily by subcutaneous injection.
3. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs): These are newer oral anticoagulants that work by directly inhibiting specific clotting factors in the coagulation cascade. Examples include apixaban, rivaroxaban, and dabigatran.
4. Vitamin K antagonists: These are older oral anticoagulants that work by inhibiting the action of vitamin K, which is necessary for the formation of clotting factors. Warfarin is an example of a vitamin K antagonist.

Anticoagulants are used to prevent and treat a variety of conditions, including deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), atrial fibrillation, and prosthetic heart valve thrombosis. It is important to note that anticoagulants can increase the risk of bleeding, so they must be used with caution and regular monitoring of blood clotting times may be required.

Myocardial infarction (MI), also known as a heart attack, is a medical condition characterized by the death of a segment of heart muscle (myocardium) due to the interruption of its blood supply. This interruption is most commonly caused by the blockage of a coronary artery by a blood clot formed on the top of an atherosclerotic plaque, which is a buildup of cholesterol and other substances in the inner lining of the artery.

The lack of oxygen and nutrients supply to the heart muscle tissue results in damage or death of the cardiac cells, causing the affected area to become necrotic. The extent and severity of the MI depend on the size of the affected area, the duration of the occlusion, and the presence of collateral circulation.

Symptoms of a myocardial infarction may include chest pain or discomfort, shortness of breath, nausea, lightheadedness, and sweating. Immediate medical attention is necessary to restore blood flow to the affected area and prevent further damage to the heart muscle. Treatment options for MI include medications, such as thrombolytics, antiplatelet agents, and pain relievers, as well as procedures such as percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "pilot projects" is not a medical term per se. Instead, it is a general term used in various fields, including healthcare and medicine, to describe a small-scale initiative that is implemented on a temporary basis to evaluate its feasibility, effectiveness, or impact before deciding whether to expand or continue it.

In the context of healthcare, pilot projects might involve testing new treatment protocols, implementing innovative care models, or introducing technology solutions in a limited setting to assess their potential benefits and drawbacks. The results of these projects can help inform decisions about broader implementation and provide valuable insights for improving the quality and efficiency of healthcare services.

A fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between two organs, vessels, or body parts that usually do not connect. It can form as a result of injury, infection, surgery, or disease. A fistula can occur anywhere in the body but commonly forms in the digestive system, genital area, or urinary system. The symptoms and treatment options for a fistula depend on its location and underlying cause.

Reconstructive surgical procedures are a type of surgery aimed at restoring the form and function of body parts that are defective or damaged due to various reasons such as congenital abnormalities, trauma, infection, tumors, or disease. These procedures can involve the transfer of tissue from one part of the body to another, manipulation of bones, muscles, and tendons, or use of prosthetic materials to reconstruct the affected area. The goal is to improve both the physical appearance and functionality of the body part, thereby enhancing the patient's quality of life. Examples include breast reconstruction after mastectomy, cleft lip and palate repair, and treatment of severe burns.

Endocrinology is a branch of medicine that deals with the endocrine system, which consists of glands and organs that produce, store, and secrete hormones. Hormones are chemical messengers that regulate various functions in the body, such as metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sexual function, reproduction, sleep, and mood.

Endocrinologists are medical doctors who specialize in diagnosing and treating conditions related to the endocrine system, including diabetes, thyroid disorders, pituitary gland tumors, adrenal gland disorders, osteoporosis, and sexual dysfunction. They use various diagnostic tests, such as blood tests, imaging studies, and biopsies, to evaluate hormone levels and function. Treatment options may include medication, lifestyle changes, and surgery.

In summary, endocrinology is the medical specialty focused on the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disorders related to the endocrine system and its hormones.

The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT)/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) Study ... The complications of diabetes can dramatically impair quality of life and cause long-lasting disability. Overall, complications ... doi:10.2337/diabetes.50.3.630. PMID 11246884. Ban CR, Twigg SM (2008). "Fibrosis in diabetes complications: pathogenic ... February 2010). "Depression and advanced complications of diabetes: a prospective cohort study". Diabetes Care. 33 (2): 264-269 ...
June 12 Dodo Doris, 71, Congolese musician (Orchestra Super Mazembe); chest complications. Claude Ndam, 65, Cameroonian singer- ... June 14 Nguea Laroute, 59-60, Cameroonian Makossa singer; diabetes. Pierre Lumbi, 70, Congolese politician, Senator (since 2016 ... August 24 - Pascal Lissouba, 88, Congolese politician, President (1992-1997) and Prime Minister (1963-1966), complications from ...
Adults with diabetes are significantly more likely to die from heart disease than are those without diabetes. Diabetes is ... Diabetes mellitus may present a series of complications in an advanced or more severe stage, such as: Cardiovascular disease. ... "Gestational diabetes - Symptoms and causes". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 2019-08-30. "What are some common complications of ... Diabetes mellitus, also known simply as diabetes, is a disorder of the regulation of blood glucose (a common type of sugar) ...
Complications of diabetes harmful effects that may happen when a person has diabetes. Some acute effects, such as hypoglycemia ... "insulin-dependent diabetes," "juvenile diabetes," "juvenile-onset diabetes" and "ketosis-prone diabetes." Diabetes mellitus ... This type of diabetes used to be known as "noninsulin-dependent diabetes," "adult-onset diabetes," "maturity-onset diabetes," " ... Diabetes insipidus a type of diabetes (excess urination) unrelated to diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus A disease that ...
The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group (April 1995). "The effect of intensive diabetes therapy on the ... Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes mellitus accounting for 95% of diabetes. Many people with type 2 diabetes ... Diabetes mellitus is also occasionally known as "sugar diabetes" to differentiate it from diabetes insipidus. Diabetes can ... type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, hybrid forms of diabetes (including include slowly evolving, immune-mediated diabetes of ...
MLR-1023 Clinical Proof-of-concept in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus". J. Diabetes Complications. 34 (5): 107555. doi:10.1016/j. ... As of 2012 Melior was repurposing it for diabetes. In June 2016, the company reported positive results from their Phase 2a ... scientists at the company Melior Discovery identified it as a potential drug candidate for diabetes through a phenotypic screen ... potentiator that elicits a rapid-onset and durable improvement in glucose homeostasis in animal models of type 2 diabetes". J ...
Cool "Disco" Dan, 47, American graffiti artist, complications from diabetes. Patti Deutsch, 73, American comedian, game show ... complications from diabetes. Bryan Avery, 73, British architect. John Blackwell, 43, American funk and jazz drummer (Prince), ... Evan Helmuth, 40, American actor (The Devil Inside, Fever Pitch, Jobs), complications from a stroke. George Hill, 79, British- ... Joan Boocock Lee, 95, British-born American actress (Spider-Man, Fantastic Four, X-Men: Apocalypse) and model, complications ...
Diabetes is a serious health problem where the body does not use insulin correctly. This diagnosis can cause many complications ... "Complications". American Diabetes Association. Retrieved 2018-11-17. Specht, Ina Olmer; Rohde, Jeanett Friis; Olsen, Nanna ... Therefore, it is important to prevent diabetes when possible, because it goes hand-in-hand with obesity. When an infant is ... It offers protection against obesity and diabetes later in life, too. Breast milk is proven to be chemically different for each ...
"Gastroparesis". American Diabetes Association. Retrieved 2018-09-08. "Gastroparesis Complications - Mayo Clinic". Mayo Clinic. ... This makes diabetes worse, but does not cause diabetes. Lack of control of blood sugar levels will make the gastroparesis ... This may occur in people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, about 30-50% among long-standing diabetics. In fact, diabetes mellitus ... Diabetes Care, 38(5), e75. doi:10.2337/dc14-2959 Camilleri M, Kuo B, Nguyen L, Vaughn VM, Petrey J, Greer K, et al. (August ...
J Diabetes Complications. 10 (3): 168-72. doi:10.1016/1056-8727(96)00113-4. PMID 8807467. Hotta, N; Sugimura, K; Kakuta, H; ... which is one of the most common long-term complications in patients with diabetes mellitus. It reduces the accumulation of ... These effects were significantly better in those with poorer control of diabetes. A systematic review and metaanalysis showed ... Diabetes Care. 29 (7): 1538-44. doi:10.2337/dc05-2370. PMID 16801576. Retrieved 16 July 2016. Terashima, H; Hama, K; Yamamoto, ...
... complications from diabetes. Doug Bennett, 75, American politician, member of the Michigan House of Representatives (2005-2010 ... complications from heart surgery. Alex Gibbs, 80, American football coach (Denver Broncos, Atlanta Falcons), complications from ... Charlie Robinson, 75, American actor (Night Court, Sugar Hill, The Black Gestapo), complications from cancer. Reynold Ruffins, ... John Cornell, 80, Australian film producer, writer (Crocodile Dundee) and actor (The Paul Hogan Show), complications from ...
12 December - Fikre Selassie Wogderess, 75, politician, Prime Minister (1987-1989); complications from diabetes. 17 December - ...
... complications from diabetes. 19 December - Kirunda Kivejinja, 85, Ugandan Minister of East African Community Affairs (since ... "Renowned SA scientist Gita Ramjee dies of complications due to Covid-19". www.iol.co.za. Ex-Somali PM dies of Coronavirus in ...
MLR-1023 Clinical Proof-of-concept in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus". J. Diabetes Complications. 34 (5): 107555. doi:10.1016/j. ... "Melior Pharmaceuticals Initiates Phase 2 Study with MLR-1023 for Type 2 Diabetes". Business Wire. 3 March 2015. Retrieved March ... "Melior Pharmaceuticals Announces Positive Phase 2A Results in Type 2 Diabetes Study". www.businesswire.com. 13 June 2016. ... allosteric activator of lyn kinase with an EC50 of 63 nM that is currently under Phase 2a investigation for Type II diabetes. ...
17 March - Ed Armbrister, 72, baseball player (Cincinnati Reds); complications from diabetes. List of years in the Bahamas 2021 ...
Its relationship to microvascular complications". Diabetes Care. 14 (8): 707-711. doi:10.2337/diacare.14.8.707. PMID 1954805. ... Obesity and diabetes are associated with lifestyle and genetic factors. Among those factors, disruption of the circadian ... A reversal[clarification needed] in the sleep-wake cycle may be a sign or complication of uremia, azotemia or acute kidney ... In humans, shift work that favours irregular eating times is associated with altered insulin sensitivity, diabetes and higher ...
... from complications of diabetes. Manzoor Ali Khan, 58, Pakistani singer of Sindhi music in the Gwalior gharana style Everett ...
Kyselova Z, Stefek M, Bauer V (2004). "Pharmacological prevention of diabetic cataract". Journal of Diabetes Complications. 18 ... Srivastava SK, Ramana KV, Bhatnagar A (2005). "Role of aldose reductase and oxidative damage in diabetes and the consequent ... an enzyme that has been implicated in the formation of cataracts in advanced stages of diabetes mellitus. The salfredin ...
Complications may include dehydration or seizures. There are four types of DI, each with a different set of causes. Central DI ... "Diabetes Insipidus vs. Diabetes Mellitus". Bichet DG (April 2006). "Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus". Advances in Chronic Kidney ... to avoid confusion with diabetes mellitus. "Diabetes Insipidus". National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney ... Diabetes, Doctors and Dogs: An exhibition on Diabetes and Endocrinology by the College Library for the 43rd St. Andrew's Day ...
Khalil, H. (November 2017). "Diabetes microvascular complications-A clinical update". Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome. 11 Suppl 1 ... However, microvascular changes in diabetes are not confined to those, and are generalizable to a wide variety of organs ... diabetes and related metabolic abnormalities and lipid management). Other measures (e.g. photocoagulation in patients with ... Journal of Diabetes Investigation. 10 (5): 1318-1331. doi:10.1111/jdi.13020. ISSN 2040-1116. PMC 6717820. PMID 30719863. Camici ...
Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications. 29 (7): 918-922. doi:10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2015.04.013. PMC 4540630. PMID 26071380. ... "latent autoimmune diabetes in adults" (LADA) (30), "type 1.5 diabetes" (31,32,33), and "slowly progressing type 1 diabetes" (34 ... is an intermediate form of diabetes that has some characteristics of type 1 and some of type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes ... The prognosis of KPD combines aspects of both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. While the presentation mimics type 1 diabetes with ...
... studies including Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT), Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications ( ... "Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT)". Archived from the original on 2007-10-18. Retrieved 2010-06-10. "WHOCC - WHO ... The study will compare drug effects on glucose levels, adverse effects, diabetes complications and quality of life over an ... 1994: The center is chosen for the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study. It remains an active ...
Abate N, Chandalia M (2001). "Ethnicity and type 2 diabetes: focus on Asian Indians". Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications ... of cases of diabetes, with the other 10% due primarily to type 1 diabetes and gestational diabetes. In type 1 diabetes there is ... Type 2 diabetes, formerly known as adult-onset diabetes, is a form of diabetes mellitus that is characterized by high blood ... American Diabetes Association (January 2012). "Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus". Diabetes Care. 35 (Suppl 1 ...
... and glucose-lowering efficacy of Plantago Psyllium in type II diabetes". Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications. 12 (5): 273 ... Diabetes UK have warned against purchase of products that are specially made for people with diabetes, on grounds that: They ... The American Diabetes Association notes that the use of vegetarian or vegan diets for diabetes have had inconclusive results in ... A study at UCLA in 2005 showed that it brought dramatic improvement to a group of people with diabetes or pre-diabetes in three ...
... provides funding for United Kingdom-based research into the causes and treatment of diabetes and its complications ... "Diabetes research , Our approach and projects , Diabetes UK". "Our research projects , Diabetes UK". "Joint British Diabetes ... Diabetes Juvenile Diabetes Research Fund American Diabetes Association Clive Petry (2014-02-07). Gestational Diabetes: Origins ... Diabetes UK are at the forefront of the fight against diabetes. With the help of their supporters, they've run campaigns like ...
Diabetes: Chronic Complications (3rd ed.). NJ, USA: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 208. ISBN 978-0470656181. Arthur, R. (2007). "Calcium ... "Type II diabetes in Australia's children and young people". Diabetes Series. Cranstron, I. (2012). "Diabetes and the brain". In ... 2015). "Type 2 diabetes; What happens with type 2 diabetes?". Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2014). " ... Diabetes among children, is on the rise within Australia, as revealed by a study in Western Australia in 2002. The study stated ...
Diabetes Complications 16, 133 (2002); eidem, ibid. 18, 336 (2004). Review of clinical development: N. Giannoukakis, Curr. Opin ... Aldose reductase inhibitor for treatment of diabetic complications. Prepn (stereo unspec): M. Kurono, et al., EP 193415; eidem ... 43, 2479 (2000). Clinical efficacy in diabetic peripheral neuropathy: N. Hotta et al., Diabetes Care 24, 1776 (2001). Clinical ...
Chu Shijian, 91, Chinese tobacco executive (Hongtashan) and convicted embezzler, complications from diabetes. André Damien, 88 ... complications from diabetes. Rosto, 50, Dutch artist and filmmaker, lung cancer. Ron Russell, 92, New Zealand-born Canadian ... complications from diabetes. Eric Caldow, 84, Scottish footballer (Rangers, national team). Les Carlyon, 76, Australian writer ... Luke Perry, 52, American actor (Beverly Hills, 90210, Riverdale, Buffy the Vampire Slayer), complications from a stroke. Albert ...
She was diagnosed with tuberculosis and diabetes. The diabetes left her blind. She had cardiac complications and alcoholism. ...
Pre-existing diabetes can also lead to complications in the neonate after birth, including neonatal jaundice, hypoglycemia, and ... Diabetes mellitus Gestational diabetes Pregnancy "Pregnancy if You Have Diabetes , NIDDK". National Institute of Diabetes and ... There are 2 classes of gestational diabetes (diabetes which began during pregnancy): Class A1: gestational diabetes; diet ... It distinguishes between gestational diabetes (type A) and diabetes that existed before pregnancy (pregestational diabetes). ...
Learn how you can prevent or delay diabetes health problems by managing your blood sugar levels, eating healthy, being active, ... you can prevent or delay these complications in many ways. Common diabetes health complications include heart disease, chronic ... Learn how to prevent or delay these diabetes complications and how to improve overall health. ... Your Diabetes Care Scheduleplus icon*5 Questions to Ask Your Health Care Team ...
Complications include skin problems, digestive problems, sexual dysfunction, and problems with your teeth and gums. ... Diabetes and High Blood Pressure (American Diabetes Association) * Diabetes and Skin Complications (American Diabetes ... Diabetes Care: 10 Ways to Avoid Diabetes Complications (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) Also in Spanish ... The primary NIH organization for research on Diabetes Complications is the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and ...
... suggest no need to delay elective surgery in order to optimize glycemic control in children with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. ... A1c Not Linked to Postop Complications in Kids With Diabetes - Medscape - August 10, 2023. ... or ketosis complications in children with type 1 or type 2 diabetes undergoing elective noncardiac surgery or diagnostic ... The study was led by Grace Kim, MD, of the Division of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Texas Childrens Hospital, Houston, Texas. ...
The Prevention and Treatment of Complications of Diabetes Mellitus A Guide for Primary Care Practitioners ... Diabetes and the kidney: an update. In: Olefsky JM, Sherwin RS, eds. Diabetes Mellitus: Management and Complications. New York ... Diabetes Care. 1987;10:95-99. The DCCT Research Group. Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT): results of feasibility ... the American Diabetes Association, the American Dietetic Association, the Juvenile Diabetes Foundation, the National Diabetes ...
Type 1 diabetes is a chronic illness characterized by the bodys inability to produce insulin due to the autoimmune destruction ... Genuth S. Insights from the diabetes control and complications trial/epidemiology of diabetes interventions and complications ... Results from the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial / Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications Study ( ... An Analysis of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications Cohort. ...
The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT)/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) Study ... The complications of diabetes can dramatically impair quality of life and cause long-lasting disability. Overall, complications ... doi:10.2337/diabetes.50.3.630. PMID 11246884. Ban CR, Twigg SM (2008). "Fibrosis in diabetes complications: pathogenic ... February 2010). "Depression and advanced complications of diabetes: a prospective cohort study". Diabetes Care. 33 (2): 264-269 ...
She knew this would help her manage her diabetes, and so help her prevent serious diabetes complications, like sight loss, ... taking her diabetes seriously and began with learning more about 15 different health checks and services everyone with diabetes ... She knew this would help her manage her diabetes, and so help her prevent serious diabetes complications, like sight loss, ... Understanding my risk of complications. Im always hyper aware of the complications that can happen because of diabetes, so if ...
... World J Diabetes 2015; 6(3): 489-499 [PMID: 25897358 DOI: ... Diabetic retinopathy - ocular complications of diabetes mellitus. World J Diabetes 2015; 6(3): 489-499 ... World J Diabetes. Apr 15, 2015; 6(3): 489-499. Published online Apr 15, 2015. doi: 10.4239/wjd.v6.i3.489 ...
Examining the poorly understood link between OSA and type 2 diabetes complications, researchers identified specific measures of ... Hypoxemia from Obstructive Sleep Apnea Linked with Renal Complications in Type 2 Diabetes. Apr 26, 2016 , Diabetes, Obstructive ... Examining the poorly understood link between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and type 2 diabetes complications, researchers ... "Association of Diabetic Microvascular Complications and Parameters of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes ...
The current systematic review aimed to elucidate the effects of lipid variability on microvascular complication risk in ... Microvascular Complications and Foot Care: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes-2020. Diabetes Care. 2020;43(Suppl 1):S135-s51 ... Prevalence of diabetes complications in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus and its association with baseline characteristics ... Risk Factors for Microvascular Complications of Diabetes in a High-Risk Middle East Population. J Diabetes Res. 2018;2018: ...
Complications of Diabetes Mellitus - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the MSD Manuals - Medical ... Types of Diabetes Complications Blood vessel complications in diabetes Atherosclerosis leads to heart attacks Acute Coronary ... Causes of Diabetes Complications Most complications of diabetes are the result of problems with blood vessels. Glucose levels ... Monitoring and Preventing Diabetes Complications At the time of diagnosis and then at least yearly, people with type 2 diabetes ...
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Cite this: Complications of Diabetes Insipidus: The Significance of Headache - Medscape - Jan 01, 2007. ... Travis had developed diabetes insipidus following the removal of his craniopharyngioma, resulting in extremely high and ...
Type 1 diabetes is a chronic illness characterized by the bodys inability to produce insulin due to the autoimmune destruction ... Genuth S. Insights from the diabetes control and complications trial/epidemiology of diabetes interventions and complications ... Results from the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial / Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications Study ( ... An Analysis of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications Cohort. ...
Such complications occurred in 60% of patients and were associated with high-grade parasitemia, renal failure, and history of ... We also found that the prevalences of confusion/delirium and of impaired consciousness were greater in patients with diabetes ... Animal studies likewise have found an association between renal complications and cerebral complications of babesiosis (31,36- ... Neurologic Complications of Babesiosis, United States, 2011-2021 On This Page CME Introduction Methods Results Discussion CME ...
... understand diabetes, access tools, health tips and food ideas. ... Learn how to prevent, delay, or treat these complications ... About Diabetes The Path to Understanding Diabetes Starts Here No matter where you are in your journey, heres where you need to ... Get to know diabetes by the numbers, including stats on prevalence, complications, gender, race, and more. ... About Diabetes Understanding Diabetes From symptoms and treatment, to management and medication-arm yourself with the knowledge ...
Complications/management/prevention. Reportedly, the most common in-office complication that occurs during treatment of the ... termed relative or type 2 diabetes), or both conditions. Other types of diabetes include gestational diabetes and diabetes ... Diabetes. Disease nature. Diabetes affects blood glucose metabolism and vessel pathology. The condition may be the result of ... The prevalence of diabetes is estimated to be increasing worldwide; over 16 million people in the US may have diabetes mellitus ...
J Diabetes Complications Assunto da revista: Endocrinologia Ano de publicação: 2023 Tipo de documento: Artigo País de afiliação ... J Diabetes Complications Assunto da revista: Endocrinologia Ano de publicação: 2023 Tipo de documento: Artigo País de afiliação ... Age, BMI, basal metabolic rate, body fat rate, gender, and the incidence of central obesity, hypertension, diabetes and ...
Children and adolescents with diabetes at Tygerberg Hospital - at risk of cardiovascular complications? ... Full text: Available Index: AIM (Africa) Main subject: Risk Factors / Diabetes Mellitus / Dyslipidemias / Hypertension Type of ... Full text: Available Index: AIM (Africa) Main subject: Risk Factors / Diabetes Mellitus / Dyslipidemias / Hypertension Type of ... Humans; Male; Female; Child, Preschool; Child; Adolescent; Risk Factors; Diabetes Mellitus; Dyslipidemias; Hypertension; ...
Type 2 diabetes mellitus with neurological complications. E11.8. Type 2 diabetes mellitus with unspecified complications. ... E11 for diabetes; E78.0 for high cholesterol). When reported reason did not indicate a single episode or recurrent, an ICD-10- ...
Skin complications. About a third of those with diabetes have a related skin complication at some time in their lives. ... When diabetes is not carefully managed, the resulting complications can be serious, as shown by the following list. ... Diabetes involves an increased risk for heart attack, stroke, and complications of the circulatory system.. · Foot problems. ... This is one of the most common complications of diabetes. It involves damage to the nerves that run throughout the body, ...
... checked and reviewed by both healthcare professionals and people with diabetes ... A selection of online resources to make type 1 diabetes a little easier to live with - ...
... is a condition in which blood sugar levels are higher than normal but not yet high enough for a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. ... What are the complications of prediabetes?. Even if it does not progress to type 2 diabetes, prediabetes can lead. to long-term ... www.diabetes.org.uk/guide-to-diabetes/enjoy-food/carbohydrates-and-diabetes/glycaemic-index-and-diabetes. ... patient-management/diabetes/game-plan-preventing-type-2-diabetes/prediabetes-screening-how-why/risk-factors-diabetes?dkrd= ...
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a chronic medical condition which develops when the body does not produce enough insulin or becomes ... Short-term complications. Short-term health complications of type 2 diabetes can develop in case the blood sugar level is too ... Long-term complications. Long-term complications of type 2 diabetes can become life threatening if left untreated. The longer ... Diabetes. Does Semaglutide Need To Be Refrigerated? When it comes to managing conditions like type 2 diabetes and obesity with ...
Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disease characterized by high levels of glucose in the blood, can lead to a range of both... ... Common complications of diabetes: an essential guide By Edel Smithee On Feb 29, 2024. ... Although diabetes complications can be serious, the good news is that their prevention is possible through careful management ... Diabetesdiabetologyslider An Overview. Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disease characterized by high levels of glucose in the ...
... pharmacological complications, and specialty (offloading) footwear devices. Additionally, there is some concern that DM ... There is a significant and troubling link between diabetes (DM) and falls in the elderly. Individuals with DM are prone to fall ... "Falls as a complication of diabetes mellitus in older people," Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. ... 7. Association of Fall Severity and Diabetes. In an editorial concerning complications of diabetes in elderly people, Gregg et ...
Adolescent, Adult, Aged, Child, Child, Preschool, Dental Calculus, Dental Plaque Index, Diabetes Complications/epidemiology, ... BACKGROUND: This meta-analysis was conducted to assess the association between diabetes mellitus and periodontal diseases by ... Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology, Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/epidemiology/prevention & control, Smoking/epidemiology ... only low birth weight and intrauterine fetal growth retardation or sudden infant death syndrome but also causes complications ...
Diabetes mellitus (DM) and osteoporosis (OP) are common disorders with a significant health burden, and an increase in fracture ... Diabetes mellitus (DM) and osteoporosis (OP) are common disorders with a significant health burden, and an increase in fracture ... Incretin Hormones and Diabetic Vascular Complications. In the light of above-mentioned properties, new drugs based on incretin ... Beta-cell deficit and increased beta-cell apoptosis in humans with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 52, 102-110. doi:10.2337/diabetes. ...
Preventing diabetes complications (First of two parts) Over lunch last week, we had an interesting chat with Dr. Angel Araneta ... adequate control of the blood sugar in diabetes can help prevent many of the complications, including ... Conclusion) Having diabetes is certainly bad news, but just like blood-pressure control in hypertension, ... a diabetes expert based in Bacolod City. Angel and wife Mariz came to ...
  • Like other chronic illnesses, diabetes mellitus poses a wide range of problems for patients and their family members. (cdc.gov)
  • Young people with insulin- dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) may have a higher prevalence of eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia, and adults with longstanding diabetes and major medical complications have a higher prevalence of symptoms of depression and anxiety. (cdc.gov)
  • Elderly persons who have non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and other symptomatic medical conditions may also have a higher risk of developing psychological problems. (cdc.gov)
  • The most common symptoms of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) are polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia, along with lassitude, nausea, and blurred vision, all of which result from the hyperglycemia itself. (medscape.com)
  • People with diabetes mellitus have many serious long-term complications that affect many areas of the body, particularly the blood vessels, nerves, eyes, and kidneys. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Diabetes Mellitus (DM) Diabetes mellitus is a disorder in which the body does not produce enough or respond normally to insulin, causing blood sugar (glucose) levels to be abnormally high. (msdmanuals.com)
  • People with diabetes mellitus may experience many serious, long-term complications. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and its influence on microvascular complications in the Indian population with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aim of the study was to find out the prevalence of MS in the Indian population with type 2 diabetes mellitus in relation to gender, duration of diabetes, and to evaluate the influence of MS and its individual components on microvascular complications such as diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy and diabetic neuropathy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A population-based cross sectional survey was conducted with 1414 patients having type 2 diabetes mellitus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, Terauchi et al [ 13 ] found that neither the presence of MS (as defined by the IDF guideline) nor an increased waist circumference increased the risk of micro- or macrovascular complications in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The present population-based study aims to find out the prevalence of MS in the Indian population with type 2 diabetes mellitus in relation to gender, duration of diabetes, and to evaluate the influence of MS and its individual components on microvascular complications such as diabetic retinopathy (DR), diabetic nephropathy and diabetic neuropathy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Who Uses Exenatide For Glucose Control in Diabetes Mellitus? (ahrq.gov)
  • Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a widespread disorder that effects patients from different age groups and sexes, and is a complex disease that involves both genetic and environmental factors. (who.int)
  • and oxidative stress has been reported to be a root cause for the progression and development of diabetes mellitus and its associated complications. (scirp.org)
  • Journal of Diabetes Mellitus , 7 , 71-85. (scirp.org)
  • Oxidative stress, mediated mainly by hyperglycemia-induced generation of free radicals, contributes to the development and progression of diabetes mellitus and its related complications. (scirp.org)
  • To determine the prevalence of dyslipidaemia and HT in paediatric diabetic patients seen at Tygerberg Hospital (TBH) and establish whether either is associated with body mass index (BMI), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) or duration of diabetes. (bvsalud.org)
  • Prevalence of dyslipidaemia and HT was not associated with duration of diabetes. (bvsalud.org)
  • More recent data indicates that the number of prevalence among youth continues to increase, and in 2014, about 20,000 children had type 2 diabetes (Narasimhan and Weinstock, 2014). (bartleby.com)
  • With over 30 million people having diabetes, the prevalence is continuing to rise. (bartleby.com)
  • In comparison, the prevalence for type 2 diabetes in youth has increased at a rate of 4.8% annually². (bartleby.com)
  • In South Africa, the prevalence of dyslipidaemia and hypertension (HT) in paediatric diabetes patients is unknown. (who.int)
  • We used data from 3 state telephone surveys to describe smoking prevalence, stage-of-change readiness, health care use, and receipt of smoking cessation advice from health care professionals and dentists among adults with diabetes in Maryland and Florida. (cdc.gov)
  • Even though diabetes is growing in Canada at a rate of almost 40%/decade now, and even though Canada is in the worst third of developed countries in terms of the prevalence of diabetes and the cost of treating it, we have had no coordinated plan, no national strategy, no action plan in place since at least 2013. (diabetes.ca)
  • Gestational diabetes. (nationwidechildrens.org)
  • This is called gestational diabetes. (nationwidechildrens.org)
  • This can make diabetes worse or lead to gestational diabetes. (nationwidechildrens.org)
  • It's also more common in people who have had gestational diabetes before. (nationwidechildrens.org)
  • Nearly all pregnant people who don't have diabetes are screened for gestational diabetes between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy. (nationwidechildrens.org)
  • If results of the second test are not normal, gestational diabetes is diagnosed. (nationwidechildrens.org)
  • If you have gestational diabetes, you might need insulin therapy if healthy habits and other diabetes treatments don't help enough. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that develops during the second trimester of pregnancy. (gagazine.com)
  • A part of achieving a healthy pregnancy is learning about pregnancy-related conditions that can develop, one of which is gestational diabetes. (nolan-law.com)
  • What is gestational diabetes? (nolan-law.com)
  • Gestational diabetes is like diabetes in general, as both involve elevated glucose levels. (nolan-law.com)
  • However, gestational diabetes is typically a short-term condition that can happen during pregnancy. (nolan-law.com)
  • Some people are at higher risk for gestational diabetes than others, including those who are obese or gain excessive weight during their pregnancies. (nolan-law.com)
  • You should find out whether you have gestational diabetes by completing a screening. (nolan-law.com)
  • High blood sugar levels indicate gestational diabetes. (nolan-law.com)
  • Failing to diagnose gestational diabetes is a common reason for certain medical malpractice lawsuits. (nolan-law.com)
  • Fortunately, gestational diabetes is easy to treat. (nolan-law.com)
  • A1c Not Linked to Postop Complications in Kids With Diabetes - Medscape - August 10, 2023. (medscape.com)
  • J Diabetes Complications;37(9): 108546, 2023 09. (bvsalud.org)
  • 2023). Cost and Utilization of Healthcare Services for Persons with Diabetes. (news-medical.net)
  • It helps prevent serious complications. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Check with your doctor promptly if you are in a group at high risk for serious complications and you get flu symptoms. (cdc.gov)
  • Different variables were associated with DQoL scores including insulin administration, low income status, marital status, and presence of diabetic complications. (who.int)
  • while cardiovascular disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease are included in the macrovascular complications. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chronic complications of diabetes are related to the length of time the patient has had the disease. (medscape.com)
  • These complications can be divided into two types: acute and chronic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chronic complications develop over time and are generally classified in two categories: microvascular and macrovascular. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other health problems compound the chronic complications of diabetes such as smoking, obesity, high blood pressure, elevated cholesterol levels, and lack of regular exercise. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among individuals who have died because of COVID-19, diabetes was a common chronic disease. (cdc.gov)
  • End stage renal disease and chronic kidney disease are also risk factors for severe COVID-19 illness and common among individuals with diabetes. (cdc.gov)
  • Diabetes is currently the most expensive chronic disease in the nation, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (news-medical.net)
  • In addition, diabetes and burns are common causes of chronic wounds that are difficult to treat. (iasp-pain.org)
  • The rapid and thorough treatment of chronic wounds, including diabetes wounds and burns, represents a significant unmet medical need. (iasp-pain.org)
  • Diabetes-induced macro- and microvascular complications are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. (lu.se)
  • We would like to challenge this idea and propose that NFAT activation is a key event for development of microvascular complications, representing an additional link between hyperglycemia and microvascular damage. (lu.se)
  • Macro- and microvascular complications of dibetes impose an immense burden on the quality of life of patients and account for more than 10% of health costs in Europe. (lu.se)
  • Different studies have observed that MS causes microvascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This review focuses on a number of medical problems that dentists might encounter in daily practice that necessitate extra knowledge and care to prevent potential complications causing otherwise unnecessary morbidity and mortality. (medscape.com)
  • DKA results from significantly low insulin levels due to various factors including undiagnosed diabetes (people who did not know they have diabetes), missed or delayed doses, insufficient insulin administration, or undergoing physiological stress (e.g. infection, surgery, Stroke, or trauma). (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to insulin absence, it simply triggers the release of counter-regulatory hormones resulting in serious health complications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Discover the benefits and drawbacks of continuous glucose monitors, blood glucose meters, insulin pumps, and more to find out what's available to help with your diabetes management needs. (diabetes.org)
  • Diabetes is a condition in which the body can't make enough insulin, or can't use insulin normally. (nationwidechildrens.org)
  • Insulin therapy often is an important part of diabetes treatment. (mayoclinic.org)
  • If your body can make enough insulin, you don't have diabetes. (mayoclinic.org)
  • With type 1 diabetes, the pancreas stops making insulin. (mayoclinic.org)
  • With type 2 diabetes, the pancreas doesn't make enough insulin. (mayoclinic.org)
  • And in some people with diabetes, insulin does not work well. (mayoclinic.org)
  • If you have type 1 diabetes, you need insulin therapy to stay healthy. (mayoclinic.org)
  • If you have type 2 diabetes, insulin therapy might be part of your treatment. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Insulin therapy also is sometimes needed to treat a type of diabetes that happens during pregnancy. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Any types of insulin help treat diabetes. (mayoclinic.org)
  • According to the United States Library of Medicine, diabetes is a disease that occurs when the body does not make or use insulin correctly, therefore causing fluctuating amounts of glucose in the blood. (bartleby.com)
  • Furthermore, this innovative formula regulates glucose levels, reduces insulin resistance, and promotes weight loss , challenging the belief that diabetes is incurable. (ipsnews.net)
  • Antihyperglycemic medications in particular, such as insulin, have steadily increased in price for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. (news-medical.net)
  • The study offers 12 points of evidence showing that low-carbohydrate diets should be the first line of attack for treatment of Type 2 diabetes, and should be used in conjunction with insulin in those with Type 1 diabetes. (lesliebeck.com)
  • People with diabetes who are already on drugs for Type 2 diabetes or are on standard amounts of insulin should undertake conversion to a low-carbohydrate diet only with the help of a physician and dietitian. (lesliebeck.com)
  • Actively managing diabetes is crucial to preventing long-term health complications, but rising costs are creating barriers to treatment. (news-medical.net)
  • No associations were found between preoperative A1c levels and postoperative infection, wound , or ketosis complications in children with type 1 or type 2 diabetes undergoing elective noncardiac surgery or diagnostic procedures. (medscape.com)
  • A retrospective analysis was done of data from surgery and endocrinology medical records of 438 children aged 1-18 years with type 1 (72%) or type 2 diabetes (28%) undergoing elective noncardiac surgery at Texas Children's Hospital, January 2011 to June 2021. (medscape.com)
  • No other preoperative factors, including diabetes type, body mass index, or procedure type, were association with these complications. (medscape.com)
  • It is important to inquire about the type and duration of the patient's diabetes and about the care the patient is receiving for diabetes. (medscape.com)
  • Determination of the type of diabetes is based on history, therapy, and clinical judgment. (medscape.com)
  • Some non-modifiable risk factors such as age at diabetes onset, type of diabetes, gender, and genetics may influence risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is considered a medical emergency and can affect both patients with T1D (type 1 diabetes) and T2D (type 2 diabetes), but it is more common in T1D. (wikipedia.org)
  • People with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes are likely to have complications as a result of the elevated glucose level. (msdmanuals.com)
  • However, because type 2 diabetes may be present for some time before it is diagnosed, complications in type 2 diabetes may be more serious or more advanced when they are discovered. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Whether you're newly diagnosed, have had type 1 or type 2 diabetes for a while, or you're helping a loved one, you've come to the right place. (diabetes.org)
  • Borderline diabetes, known as prediabetes, is where a person's blood sugar levels are higher than normal but not yet high enough for a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Prediabetes is a condition that can progress to type 2 diabetes . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This article looks at how to recognize risk factors for prediabetes, manage the condition, and prevent type 2 diabetes from developing. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • If a person's blood sugar level remains high, they may begin to develop some symptoms of type 2 diabetes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • People with a family history of type 2 diabetes may also have an increased risk, suggesting that genetics play a role. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Other people may get a type of diabetes that only happens in pregnancy. (nationwidechildrens.org)
  • Type 1 diabetes often occurs in children or young adults, but it can start at any age. (nationwidechildrens.org)
  • Overweight people are more likely to have type 2 diabetes. (nationwidechildrens.org)
  • And it's more common in people who have a family member with type 2 diabetes. (nationwidechildrens.org)
  • Our study sought to describe the type and frequency of neurologic complications of babesiosis in a group of hospitalized patients and assess risk factors that might predispose patients to neurologic complications. (cdc.gov)
  • The type of diabetes you have. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Pediatric Type 2 Diabetes : Emergence And Preventive. (bartleby.com)
  • An estimated 200,000 American youth are effected by type 1 diabetes and 40,000 new cases are diagnosed each year¹. (bartleby.com)
  • The rate for type 1 diabetes in youth has increased by 1.8% each year. (bartleby.com)
  • No matter whether diabetes is type 1 or type 2 in children, family involvement is essential for optimal outcomes³. (bartleby.com)
  • This would affect hundreds of thousands of patients with Type 2 diabetes. (gacovinolake.com)
  • Reports have indicated that several Type 2 diabetes therapy drugs increase the likelihood of pancreatic cancer 25 fold. (gacovinolake.com)
  • To develop and validate a revised Arabic version of the DQoL questionnaire for patients in Jordan with type 2 diabetes. (who.int)
  • We recruited patients with type 2 diabetes from 3 public health clinics in Jordan. (who.int)
  • We validated an Arabic tool that can be used to evaluate QoL among Arabic-speaking patients with type 2 diabetes. (who.int)
  • Some questions that remain are, does risk for severe illness differ for type I or type II diabetes? (cdc.gov)
  • Living with type II diabetes can be challenging due to various obstacles. (ipsnews.net)
  • Gluco Savior is a nutritional supplement specifically crafted to support individuals with Type II Diabetes. (ipsnews.net)
  • Studies have reported that there has been an increase of 2 - 5% suicide or homicide were associated with non-HDL cholesterol in the annual incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) worldwide. (who.int)
  • The worldwide incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in children and for cardiovascular disease in adults. (who.int)
  • Diabetes (type 1 and 2) can make the immune system less able to fight flu. (cdc.gov)
  • I have been with the organization for just about two years and I've been living with type 1 diabetes for 25 years so I'm really very committed and very honoured to work everyday in support of people living with all forms of diabetes. (diabetes.ca)
  • According to a Michigan Medicine study published in Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, people with diabetes , particularly those with type 1 diabetes, endure substantial out-of-pocket expenses compared to people without diabetes. (news-medical.net)
  • Using a national health care insurance claims database, researchers matched subjects with similar demographics, ensuring comparable populations with type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes and without diabetes. (news-medical.net)
  • The team found that type 1 diabetes had the greatest total and out-of-pocket costs - $25,652 and $2,037, respectively - in 2018. (news-medical.net)
  • Type 2 diabetes followed closely in both total and out-of-pocket costs, but there was a significant decrease in those without diabetes, who paid an average of $14,220 in total and $1,122 in out-of-pocket expenses. (news-medical.net)
  • From 2009 to 2018, total costs increased for all three groups, but only those with type 1 diabetes experienced a growth in out-of-pocket expenses. (news-medical.net)
  • If the trends we observed continue, people with type 1 diabetes will be facing increasingly unaffordable out-of-pocket costs. (news-medical.net)
  • In addition to expensive medications, people with type 1 diabetes are also facing an increase in the cost of diabetes management supplies, such as syringes, pumps and diabetic test strips. (news-medical.net)
  • People living with type 1 diabetes are particularly at risk of financial toxicity. (news-medical.net)
  • A new study conducted by researchers from the University of Alabama at Birmingham and other institutions suggests people with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes should eat a diet low in carbohydrates. (lesliebeck.com)
  • During the epidemics of obesity and Type 2 diabetes, caloric increases have been due almost entirely to increased carbohydrates. (lesliebeck.com)
  • Adherence to low-carbohydrate diets in people with Type 2 diabetes is at least as good as adherence to any other dietary interventions and frequently is significantly better. (lesliebeck.com)
  • The best predictor of vascular complications in patients with Type 2 diabetes is glycemic control. (lesliebeck.com)
  • Patients with Type 2 diabetes on carbohydrate-restricted diets reduce and frequently eliminate medication. (lesliebeck.com)
  • The emphasis is on early application of currently available measures that, if systematically applied, may reduce the incidence or severity of these complications. (cdc.gov)
  • Based on current trends, the rising incidence of diabetes (expected to reach 380 million people worldwide by 2025), will undoubtedly equate to increased cardiovascular mortality. (lu.se)
  • Age, BMI, basal metabolic rate , body fat rate, gender , and the incidence of central obesity , hypertension , diabetes and dyslipidemia are statistical different between MS group and non-MS group (P (bvsalud.org)
  • In general, do common comorbidities associated with diabetes such as heart disease, hypertension for example -- do these comorbidities increase risk for severe illness among individuals with diabetes? (cdc.gov)
  • In the Paediatric Diabetes Unit at Tygerberg Hospital (TBH) correlated, while HDL particle size was negatively correlated, the practice has been to monitor fasting lipid profiles annual y in to HbA1c levels. (who.int)
  • Despite the vast clinical experience linking diabetes, obesity and the metabolic syndrome to vascular disease, little is understood regarding the mechansims connecting hyperglycemia to atherosclerosis. (lu.se)
  • The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria were used to identify the metabolic syndrome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • By comparison, the authors refer to the continued success of low-carbohydrate diets in the treatment of diabetes and metabolic syndrome without significant side effects. (lesliebeck.com)
  • Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is one of the life-threatening severe complications of diabetes that demands immediate attention and intervention. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dental history should also include questions related to current oral conditions such as periodontal disease or oral ulceration and past dental treatment and potential complications from prior intervention including treatment failure and the delivery of anesthesia or post-treatment medication. (medscape.com)
  • We also provide suggestions for enhancing smoking intervention and management for patients with diabetes based on these findings and the literature. (cdc.gov)
  • These metabolic conditions can lead to prediabetes and diabetes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In this position, she's responsible for providing leadership and guidance to CDC's four noninfectious disease centers and helping to advance the agency's cross- cutting noninfectious disease priorities such as preventing prediabetes and diabetes, ending the opioid epidemic, reducing birth defects and developmental disabilities and protecting the public's health from environmental hazards. (cdc.gov)
  • The authors point to the specific failure of the prevailing low-fat diets to improve obesity, cardiovascular risk or general health, and to the persistent reports of serious side effects of commonly prescribed diabetes medications. (lesliebeck.com)
  • The primary outcome was defined as a new-onset postoperative systemic infection, wound complication, or ketosis. (medscape.com)
  • A1c levels were not associated with any postoperative systemic infections, wound complications, or ketosis. (medscape.com)
  • The postoperative complication rate was low. (medscape.com)
  • Travis had developed diabetes insipidus following the removal of his craniopharyngioma, resulting in extremely high and fluctuating postoperative sodium levels. (medscape.com)
  • Atherosclerosis is between 2 and 4 times more common and tends to occur at a younger age in people with diabetes than in people who do not have diabetes. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Acute complications are complications that develop rapidly and can be exemplified as diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS), lactic acidosis (LA), and hypoglycemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complications of diabetes are a strong risk factor for severe COVID-19 illness. (wikipedia.org)
  • So not surprisingly, individuals with diabetes are at an increased risk for severe COVID-19 illness, which includes hospitalizations, ICU admittance, ventilator use and death. (cdc.gov)
  • Diabetes itself does not cause changes in personality or psychiatric illness, but particular subgroups of the diabetic population appear to be at risk for developing psychosocial problems. (cdc.gov)
  • She will also discuss therapies in relation to treating physical symptoms as well as psychosocial complications related to diabetes. (tudiabetes.org)
  • Is the patient's diabetes generally well controlled, with near-normal blood glucose levels? (medscape.com)
  • Complications of diabetes are secondary diseases that are a result of elevated blood glucose levels that occur in diabetic patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diabetes is also associated with complications of the microcirculation giving rise to the clinical features of retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy. (lu.se)
  • DM may cause several complications if not controlled properly, including cardiac disease, stroke, retinopathy that may progress to blindness, kidney failure, and limb amputations resulting from progression of diabetic foot problems. (who.int)
  • Depression can also increase progression of diabetes due to low medication compliance (9). (who.int)
  • We anticipate continued widespread use of this guide in assisting practitioners in the care of their patients with diabetes. (cdc.gov)
  • This publication is designed to help the primary care practitioner in the day-to-day management of patients with diabetes. (cdc.gov)
  • A companion publication entitled Take Charge of Your Diabetes: A Guide for Patients is available. (cdc.gov)
  • Direct psychological consequences can arise from any one of these factors, making it harder for patients to treat their diabetes and live productive, enjoyable lives. (cdc.gov)
  • The dental management of these medically compromised patients can be problematic in terms of oral complications, dental therapy, and emergency care. (medscape.com)
  • Dyslipidaemia was diagnosed in 62.6% (n=82/131) of adolescents with poorly controlled diabetes (p=0.04) and in 71.7% (95% CI 59.0 - 81.7) of patients ≥16 years of age (p=0.005). (bvsalud.org)
  • Diabetes has a huge effect on the lives of patients, because of constant constraints including dieting, exercising and regular monitoring of blood sugar levels, in addition to complications that affect HRQoL. (who.int)
  • Dentists are in a unique position to identify and demonstrate the oral effects of smoking in patients with diabetes. (cdc.gov)
  • Because all of these symptoms are clearly visible through inspection of the oral cavity and 59% of adults with diabetes who smoke see a dentist, dentists are in a unique position to urge smoking cessation, especially to patients with diabetes (10). (cdc.gov)
  • The 1982 publication of The Prevention and Treatment of Five Complications of Diabetes: A Guide for Primary Care Practitioners was an initial attempt to provide straightforward and practical information that primary care practitioners could immediately apply in their practice in the diagnosis and prevention of complications of diabetes. (cdc.gov)
  • Severe nocturnal enuresis secondary to polyuria can be an indication of onset of diabetes in young children. (medscape.com)
  • Some of these complications begin within months of the onset of diabetes, although most tend to develop after a few years. (msdmanuals.com)
  • al (2014) reported that from 2001 to 2009, cases of diabetes among youth increased 35% in different regions of the United States, including California, Colorado, Ohio, South Carolina, Washington, Arizona and New Mexico. (bartleby.com)
  • Since 2013, Canada has been without a strategy for diabetes or targets to help address the epidemic. (diabetes.ca)
  • Something must be done urgently or the diabetes epidemic will cost millions of lives and bankrupt our health-care system. (diabetes.ca)
  • Well, it's a nationwide strategy to address the diabetes epidemic. (diabetes.ca)
  • The study, conducted by a consortium of 26 physicians and nutrition researchers, suggests the need for a reappraisal of dietary guidelines due to the inability of current recommendations to control the epidemic of diabetes. (lesliebeck.com)
  • The recommendations relate to the prevention, detection, and treatment of the major complications of diabetes. (cdc.gov)
  • Considered one of the fastest growing health problems in the United States, diabetes now affects 29.1 million people, where only 21.0 million are diagnosed and 8.9 million are undiagnosed (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014). (bartleby.com)
  • Overall, in 2010 the US Census recorded that 24.0% of the population are youth under the age of 18 from which about 0.25% of those children have been diagnosed with diabetes in 2008 and 2009 (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014). (bartleby.com)
  • The Center of Disease Control and Prevention most recent statistical report indicated there were 29.1 million adults and children affected by diabetes. (bartleby.com)
  • An estimate of 9.3% of the population have diabetes, of those with diabetes 27.8% have yet to be diagnosed (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2014). (bartleby.com)
  • I'd like to welcome you to today's COCA call, COVID-19 and Diabetes: The Importance of Prevention, Management and Support. (cdc.gov)
  • Dr. Albright is well-known for her work in diabetes and widely published in the areas of exercise, nutrition, body composition, diabetes complications, diabetes surveillance and public health approaches to diabetes prevention and management. (cdc.gov)
  • Her work focuses public health research on surveillance of diabetes among youth and young adults along with prevention of diabetes and its complications. (cdc.gov)
  • It's a serious condition which requires careful management every day to avoid developing complications including sight loss, kidney disease, stroke and cardiovascular disease. (diabetes.org.uk)
  • Dr. Albright assumed the position of director of CDC's Division of Diabetes Translation in January 2007. (cdc.gov)
  • Commander Saydah is an epidemiologist and senior scientist in the Division of Diabetes Translation. (cdc.gov)
  • Stay on top of the vaccines recommended for people with diabetes to help you stay healthy. (diabetes.org)
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) have begun investigations based on Dr. Butler's latest study, which could lead to new warnings on the diabetes drugs, or perhaps their removal from the market altogether. (gacovinolake.com)
  • Even though diabetes can lead to other health problems, you can prevent or delay these complications in many ways. (cdc.gov)
  • Learn how to prevent or delay these diabetes complications and how to improve overall health. (cdc.gov)
  • Learn how to prevent, delay, or treat these complications through healthy lifestyle changes. (diabetes.org)
  • Therefore, efforts to prevent and/or limit progression of these devastating complications are well motivated. (lu.se)
  • They also can prevent serious flu complications, like pneumonia when treatment is started early. (cdc.gov)
  • These alerts can be a game-changer, as they provide timely reminders to take action and prevent potential diabetes complications. (robots.net)
  • To help you get the most out of your visits, here's a list of commonly used terms that are used when talking about diabetes. (diabetes.org)
  • Is the risk for severe illness associated with high glucose levels or specific diabetes medications? (cdc.gov)
  • A CGM is a small device that tracks your glucose levels throughout the day and provides real-time data, helping you make informed decisions about your diabetes management. (robots.net)
  • The Diabetes Quality of Life (DQoL) questionnaire has been used frequently among people with diabetes. (who.int)
  • Current smoking among people with diabetes was associated with age, education, income, and race/ethnicity. (cdc.gov)
  • According to the International Diabetes Federation, 12.8% of adults aged 20-79 years have diabetes, with 55 million people in the Middle East North Africa (MENA) region. (who.int)
  • Overall, complications are far less common and less severe in people with well-controlled blood sugar levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Poor glycaemic control, dyslipidaemia and HT are common in diabetic children , putting them at risk of cardiovascular complications in adulthood.S Afr J Child Health 2022;16(4)205-208. (bvsalud.org)
  • Poor glycaemic control, dyslipidaemia and HT are common in diabetic children, putting them at risk of cardiovascular complications in adulthood. (who.int)
  • The total cost of diabetes in 2022 was over $400 billion, accounting for one of every four health care dollars spent in the U.S. (news-medical.net)
  • hyperosmolar non-ketotic state (HONK) or Hyperglycemia hyperosmolar state (HHS) is an acute complication sharing many symptoms with DKA, but an entirely different origin and different treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • proper treatment usually results in full recovery, though death can result from inadequate or delayed treatment, or from complications (e.g., brain edema). (wikipedia.org)
  • Vascular complications of diabetes: Studies on NFAT (Nuclear Factor of Activated T-cells) as a novel target for the treatment of atherosclersis and vascular dysfunction in diabetes. (lu.se)
  • The dental clinician needs to understand the potential complications that can occur as a consequence of dental treatment of a medically compromised patient and when pretreatment or post-treatment medication or emergency care is indicated. (medscape.com)
  • If you don't get treatment for diabetes, high blood sugar can lead to health problems over time. (mayoclinic.org)
  • For people at high risk of serious flu complications, early treatment with an antiviral drug can mean the difference between having a milder illness instead of a more serious illness that could result in a hospital stay. (cdc.gov)
  • Funds raised through Swim 22 will enable us to continue to support people living with diabetes and also continue to fund research towards better understanding and treatment of diabetes. (diabetes.org.uk)
  • With your support, the American Diabetes Association® can continue our lifesaving work to make breakthroughs in research and provide people with the resources they need to fight diabetes. (diabetes.org)
  • According to the American Diabetes Association (2014), someone is diagnosed with diabetes every 19 seconds. (bartleby.com)
  • Unfortunately, the American Diabetes Association (2014) estimates by year of 2050, one out of three adults will have diabetes. (bartleby.com)
  • The American Diabetes Association (2014) reported there were about 216, 00 children in the United States with diabetes. (bartleby.com)
  • Dr. Butler is a former editor of Diabetes, the flagship journal of the American Diabetes Association. (gacovinolake.com)
  • Dr. Albright has served in key leadership roles including president of healthcare and education for the American Diabetes Association. (cdc.gov)
  • 00:01] I'm really excited to be sharing with you about our Diabetes 360 strategy and how you might help us advocate for it and how it might benefit you or those you care about who are living with or at risk for diabetes. (diabetes.ca)