Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Colitis: Inflammation of the COLON section of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE), usually with symptoms such as DIARRHEA (often with blood and mucus), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and FEVER.Colitis, Ulcerative: Inflammation of the COLON that is predominantly confined to the MUCOSA. Its major symptoms include DIARRHEA, rectal BLEEDING, the passage of MUCUS, and ABDOMINAL PAIN.Colitis, Ischemic: Inflammation of the COLON due to colonic ISCHEMIA resulting from alterations in systemic circulation or local vasculature.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Colitis, Microscopic: A condition characterized by chronic watery DIARRHEA of unknown origin, a normal COLONOSCOPY but abnormal histopathology on BIOPSY. This syndrome was first described in 1980 by Read and associates. Subtypes include COLLAGENOUS COLITIS and LYMPHOCYTIC COLITIS. Both have similar clinical symptoms and are distinguishable only by histology.Dextran Sulfate: Long-chain polymer of glucose containing 17-20% sulfur. It has been used as an anticoagulant and also has been shown to inhibit the binding of HIV-1 to CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. It is commonly used as both an experimental and clinical laboratory reagent and has been investigated for use as an antiviral agent, in the treatment of hypolipidemia, and for the prevention of free radical damage, among other applications.Colitis, Collagenous: A subtype of MICROSCOPIC COLITIS, characterized by chronic watery DIARRHEA of unknown origin, a normal COLONOSCOPY but abnormal histopathology on BIOPSY. Microscopic examination of biopsy samples taken from the COLON show larger-than-normal band of subepithelial COLLAGEN.Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid: A reagent that is used to neutralize peptide terminal amino groups.Colitis, Lymphocytic: A subtype of MICROSCOPIC COLITIS, characterized by chronic watery DIARRHEA of unknown origin, a normal COLONOSCOPY but abnormal histopathology on BIOPSY. Microscopic examination of biopsy samples taken from the COLON show infiltration of LYMPHOCYTES in the superficial EPITHELIUM and the underlying connective tissue (lamina propria).Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Crohn Disease: A chronic transmural inflammation that may involve any part of the DIGESTIVE TRACT from MOUTH to ANUS, mostly found in the ILEUM, the CECUM, and the COLON. In Crohn disease, the inflammation, extending through the intestinal wall from the MUCOSA to the serosa, is characteristically asymmetric and segmental. Epithelioid GRANULOMAS may be seen in some patients.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Receptors, Glucocorticoid: Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind glucocorticoids and mediate their cellular effects. The glucocorticoid receptor-glucocorticoid complex acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of DNA. Glucocorticoids were named for their actions on blood glucose concentration, but they have equally important effects on protein and fat metabolism. Cortisol is the most important example.Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Chronic, non-specific inflammation of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Etiology may be genetic or environmental. This term includes CROHN DISEASE and ULCERATIVE COLITIS.Antiemetics: Drugs used to prevent NAUSEA or VOMITING.Mesalamine: An anti-inflammatory agent, structurally related to the SALICYLATES, which is active in INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE. It is considered to be the active moiety of SULPHASALAZINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed)Mifepristone: A progestational and glucocorticoid hormone antagonist. Its inhibition of progesterone induces bleeding during the luteal phase and in early pregnancy by releasing endogenous prostaglandins from the endometrium or decidua. As a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, the drug has been used to treat hypercortisolism in patients with nonpituitary CUSHING SYNDROME.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Thalidomide: A piperidinyl isoindole originally introduced as a non-barbiturate hypnotic, but withdrawn from the market due to teratogenic effects. It has been reintroduced and used for a number of immunological and inflammatory disorders. Thalidomide displays immunosuppressive and anti-angiogenic activity. It inhibits release of TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA from monocytes, and modulates other cytokine action.Vomiting: The forcible expulsion of the contents of the STOMACH through the MOUTH.Rectum: The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Peroxidase: A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 1.11.1.7.Sulfasalazine: A drug that is used in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases. Its activity is generally considered to lie in its metabolic breakdown product, 5-aminosalicylic acid (see MESALAMINE) released in the colon. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p907)Ondansetron: A competitive serotonin type 3 receptor antagonist. It is effective in the treatment of nausea and vomiting caused by cytotoxic chemotherapy drugs, including cisplatin, and has reported anxiolytic and neuroleptic properties.Multiple Myeloma: A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Gastrointestinal Agents: Drugs used for their effects on the gastrointestinal system, as to control gastric acidity, regulate gastrointestinal motility and water flow, and improve digestion.Colectomy: Excision of a portion of the colon or of the whole colon. (Dorland, 28th ed)Proctocolectomy, Restorative: A surgical procedure involving the excision of the COLON and RECTUM and the formation of an ILEOANAL RESERVOIR (pouch). In patients with intestinal diseases, such as ulcerative colitis, this procedure avoids the need for an OSTOMY by allowing for transanal defecation.Mice, Inbred C57BLColonoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon.Adrenalectomy: Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Dysentery, Amebic: DYSENTERY caused by intestinal amebic infection, chiefly with ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA. This condition may be associated with amebic infection of the LIVER and other distant sites.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Ileostomy: Surgical creation of an external opening into the ILEUM for fecal diversion or drainage. This replacement for the RECTUM is usually created in patients with severe INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES. Loop (continent) or tube (incontinent) procedures are most often employed.Nausea: An unpleasant sensation in the stomach usually accompanied by the urge to vomit. Common causes are early pregnancy, sea and motion sickness, emotional stress, intense pain, food poisoning, and various enteroviruses.Granisetron: A serotonin receptor (5HT-3 selective) antagonist that has been used as an antiemetic for cancer chemotherapy patients.Administration, Rectal: The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous: An acute inflammation of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA that is characterized by the presence of pseudomembranes or plaques in the SMALL INTESTINE (pseudomembranous enteritis) and the LARGE INTESTINE (pseudomembranous colitis). It is commonly associated with antibiotic therapy and CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE colonization.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Pouchitis: Acute INFLAMMATION in the INTESTINAL MUCOSA of the continent ileal reservoir (or pouch) in patients who have undergone ILEOSTOMY and restorative proctocolectomy (PROCTOCOLECTOMY, RESTORATIVE).Prednisolone: A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).PyrazinesMice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Boronic Acids: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain the basic structure RB(OH)2.Enterocolitis: Inflammation of the MUCOSA of both the SMALL INTESTINE and the LARGE INTESTINE. Etiology includes ISCHEMIA, infections, allergic, and immune responses.Metoclopramide: A dopamine D2 antagonist that is used as an antiemetic.Mice, Inbred BALB CInflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Annexin A1: Protein of the annexin family exhibiting lipid interaction and steroid-inducibility.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Acetic Acid: Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Adrenal Cortex HormonesDiarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Cycloheximide: Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting: Emesis and queasiness occurring after anesthesia.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Cushing Syndrome: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Colonic Pouches: Sacs or reservoirs created to function in place of the COLON and/or RECTUM in patients who have undergone restorative proctocolectomy (PROCTOCOLECTOMY, RESTORATIVE).Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Probiotics: Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)Hormone Antagonists: Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.Cecum: The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Receptors, Steroid: Proteins found usually in the cytoplasm or nucleus that specifically bind steroid hormones and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. The steroid receptor-steroid hormone complex regulates the transcription of specific genes.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Ileum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Citrobacter rodentium: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus CITROBACTER, family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE. As an important pathogen of laboratory mice, it serves as a model for investigating epithelial hyperproliferation and tumor promotion. It was previously considered a strain of CITROBACTER FREUNDII.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Ileitis: Inflammation of any segment of the ILEUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Tyrosine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-TYROSINE and 2-oxoglutarate to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate and L-GLUTAMATE. It is a pyridoxal-phosphate protein. L-PHENYLALANINE is hydroxylated to L-tyrosine. The mitochondrial enzyme may be identical with ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASES (EC 2.6.1.1.). Deficiency of this enzyme may cause type II Tyrosinemia (see TYROSINEMIAS). EC 2.6.1.5.Croup: Inflammation involving the GLOTTIS or VOCAL CORDS and the subglottic larynx. Croup is characterized by a barking cough, HOARSENESS, and persistent inspiratory STRIDOR (a high-pitched breathing sound). It occurs chiefly in infants and children.Helicobacter hepaticus: A species of HELICOBACTER that colonizes the CECUM and COLON of several strains of MICE, and is associated with HEPATITIS and carcinogenesis.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Megacolon, Toxic: An acute form of MEGACOLON, severe pathological dilatation of the COLON. It is associated with clinical conditions such as ULCERATIVE COLITIS; CROHN DISEASE; AMEBIC DYSENTERY; or CLOSTRIDIUM ENTEROCOLITIS.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Oxazolone: Immunologic adjuvant and sensitizing agent.Clostridium difficile: A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Betamethasone: A glucocorticoid given orally, parenterally, by local injection, by inhalation, or applied topically in the management of various disorders in which corticosteroids are indicated. Its lack of mineralocorticoid properties makes betamethasone particularly suitable for treating cerebral edema and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p724)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Colon, Sigmoid: A segment of the COLON between the RECTUM and the descending colon.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Sigmoidoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the sigmoid flexure.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Cole MA, Kim PJ, Kalman BA, Spencer RL (February 2000). "Dexamethasone suppression of corticosteroid secretion: evaluation of ... but inhibition of cortisol on high-dose dexamethasone. If the cortisol levels are unchanged by low- and high-dose dexamethasone ... The dexamethasone suppression test (DST) is used to assess adrenal gland function by measuring how cortisol levels change in ... The test is given at low (usually 1-2 mg) and high (8 mg) doses of dexamethasone, and the levels of cortisol are measured to ...
Patients treated with methylprednisolone have shown better outcomes than those treated with dexamethasone. Oral tapers of less ... This disease has been occasionally associated with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, malaria, septicemia associated with ... such as methylprednisolone or dexamethasone, followed by 3-6 weeks of gradually lower oral doses of prednisolone. ...
Female rats exposed first to dexamethasone, a treatment for premature labor, for three days in utero and then to low levels of ... Costa, Lucio G.; Giordano, Gennaro; Cole, Toby B.; Marsillach, Judit; Furlong, Clement E. (2013-05-10). "Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) ... In both male and female rats, combined exposures to dexamethasone and chlorpyrifos decreased serotonin turnover in the synapse ... Rats that were co-exposed to dexamethasone and chlorpyrifos also exhibited complex behavioral differences from exposure to ...
These dexamethasone-treated mice were resistant to an inflammatory stimulus. Hence, these mice were responsive to the anti- ... asthma and colitis. In vivo evidence on whether particular SEGRAMs can elicit similar effects than classic glucocorticoid in ... However, when these mice were treated with the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone, there was no elevation of glucose. ... inflammatory effects of dexamethasone but were resistant to at least some of the side effects. Just like glucocorticoids, ...
Gastro-intestinal: While cases of colitis have been reported, corticosteroids are often prescribed when the colitis, although ... Dexamethasone and its derivatives are almost pure glucocorticoids, while prednisone and its derivatives have some ... Julian, Percy L., Cole, John Wayne, Meyer, Edwin W., and Karpel, William J. (1956) "Preparation of Cortisone". U. S. Patent ... Such as prednisone, prednisolone, or dexamethasone. Available in injectables for intravenous and parenteral routes. Tadeusz ...
J Bone Joint Surg Am 13(4):725-739 Alford JW, Cole BJ (2005) Cartilage restoration, part 2: techniques, outcomes, and future ... platelet lysate and dexamethasone http://www.amjcaserep.com/index.php?/archives/article/855038 "Chondral Injury & Microfracture ...
... or 0.75 mg of betamethasone or dexamethasone. The review noted that the drug has a high therapeutic index, being used at ... syndrome Pemphigus Polyarteritis nodosa Pyoderma gangrenosum Sarcoidosis Systemic lupus erythematosus Ulcerative colitis In the ...
... and ulcerative colitis). Treat some other non-autoimmune inflammatory diseases (e.g., long term allergic asthma control), ... dexamethasone, and hydrocortisone are used to suppress various allergic, inflammatory, and autoimmune disorders. They are also ...
Th17 cells and IL-17 have also been linked to Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), the two main forms of ... In murine models, treatment with dexamethasone inhibits the release of Th2-related cytokines but does not affect IL-17A ... Cole G, Walter JA, Jenkins MK, Klein B (April 2015). "Calnexin induces expansion of antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells that confer ...
Non-suppression of dexamethasone is a common finding in depression, but is not consistent enough to be used as a diagnostic ... Cole, James; Costafreda, Sergi G.; McGuffin, Peter; Fu, Cynthia H. Y. (1 November 2011). "Hippocampal atrophy in first episode ... Arana, G. W.; Baldessarini, R. J.; Ornsteen, M. (1 December 1985). "The dexamethasone suppression test for diagnosis and ... Increased basal cortisol levels and abnormal response to dexamethasone challenges have been observed in patients with ...
Pacific Grove, CA, USA: Brooks/Cole Pub. Co. p. 602. ISBN 0-314-20412-1. Doidge N, Simon B, Lancee WJ, First M, Brunshaw J, ... Arana, G. W.; Baldessarini, R. J.; Ornsteen, M. (1 December 1985). "The dexamethasone suppression test for diagnosis and ... Cepoiu M, McCusker J, Cole MG, Sewitch M, Belzile E, Ciampi A (2008). "Recognition of depression by non-psychiatric physicians- ... Arana, George W. (1 December 1985). "The Dexamethasone Suppression Test for Diagnosis and Prognosis in Psychiatry". Archives of ...
... dysphasia familial Devic syndrome Devriendt-Legius-Fryns syndrome Devriendt-Vandenberghe-Fryns syndrome Dexamethasone sensitive ... Dysgerminoma Dysgraphia Dysharmonic skeletal maturation muscular fiber disproportion Dyskeratosis congenita of Zinsser-Cole- ...
Wilk JN, Bilsborough J, Viney JL (2005). "The mdr1a-/- mouse model of spontaneous colitis: a relevant and appropriate animal ... Xenobiotics Peptides Bilirubin Cardiac glycosides like digoxin Immunosuppressive agents Glucocorticoids like dexamethasone HIV- ... which appears to resemble human ulcerative colitis. P-gp was first characterized in 1976. It was shown to be responsible for ...
The activity of the CYP3A enzymes can be induced or inhibited by certain drugs (e.g. dexamethasone) which can cause it to ... More serious side effects may include Clostridium difficile colitis, liver problems, prolonged QT, and allergic reactions. It ...
... including ischemic colitis, and is only available through a restrictive program to patients who meet certain requirements. ... usually dexamethasone. They are usually given intravenously, shortly before administration of the chemotherapeutic agent, ...
... is also effective in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, especially ulcerative colitis. Medical cannabis ... 1988). "A randomized trial of oral nabilone and prochlorperazine compared to intravenous metoclopramide and dexamethasone in ...
Cepoiu M, McCusker J, Cole MG, Sewitch M, Belzile E, Ciampi A (2008). "Recognition of depression by non-psychiatric physicians- ... Arana, G. W.; Baldessarini, R. J.; Ornsteen, M. (1 December 1985). "The dexamethasone suppression test for diagnosis and ... Pacific Grove, CA, USA: Brooks/Cole Pub. Co. s. 602. ISBN 0-314-20412-1.. ... "The Dexamethasone Suppression Test for Diagnosis and Prognosis in Psychiatry". Archives of General Psychiatry. 42 (12), s. ...
Cepoiu M, McCusker J, Cole MG, Sewitch M, Belzile E, Ciampi A (January 2008). "Recognition of depression by non-psychiatric ... Arana GW, Baldessarini RJ, Ornsteen M (December 1985). "The dexamethasone suppression test for diagnosis and prognosis in ... Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Pub. Co. p. 602. ISBN 978-0-314-20412-7. .. ... Arana GW, Baldessarini RJ, Ornsteen M (December 1985). "The dexamethasone suppression test for diagnosis and prognosis in ...
Coles LS, Young RD (2012). "Supercentenarians and transthyretin amyloidosis: the next frontier of human life extension". ... Chemotherapy and steroids, with melphalan plus dexamethasone, is mainstay treatment in AL people not eligible for transplant. ...
"High-dose ursodeoxycholic acid is associated with the development of colorectal neoplasia in patients with ulcerative colitis ... a randomized controlled trial comparing dexamethasone and ursodeoxycholic acid". Hepatology. 42 (6): 1399-405. doi:10.1002/hep. ...
Cole C, Seto C, Gazewood J (December 2005). "Plantar fasciitis: Evidence-based review of diagnosis and therapy". American ... Another treatment technique known as plantar iontophoresis involves applying anti-inflammatory substances such as dexamethasone ...
Severe amebic colitis: Fulminant amebic colitis is associated with high case fatality and can occur in patients infected with ... Beclometasone, betamethasone, dexamethasone, fluocortolone, halometasone, and mometasone. Group D - EstersEdit. Group D1 - ... Gastro-intestinal: While cases of colitis have been reported, corticosteroids are often prescribed when the colitis, although ... Julian, Percy L., Cole, John Wayne, Meyer, Edwin W., and Karpel, William J. (1956) "Preparation of Cortisone". U. S. Patent ...
Cisplatin, dexamethasone, doxorubicin, etoposide, and vinblastine are all potentially co-administered with docetaxel and did ... Shelley, M; Harrison, C; Coles, B; Staffurth, J; Wilt, TJ; Mason, MD (Oct 18, 2006). "Chemotherapy for hormone-refractory ...
In February 2009, Cheryl Cole told British Vogue that she hesitated to breastfeed because of the effect it might have on her ... Dexamethasone. No deoxycorticosterone response Breast sizeEdit. A woman's breasts grow during pregnancy, usually 1 to 2 cup ...
Dexamethasone can be of benefit in reducing VEGF secretion.[3]. High altitude cerebral edema. High altitude cerebral edema ( ... Medications such as dexamethasone can be prescribed for treatment in the field, but proper training in their use is required. ... "Mechanism of dexamethasone suppression of brain tumor-associated vascular permeability in rats. Involvement of the ...
The official start to its development started in December 1986 when Merck's president, Edward Scolnick, announced that they would start a comprehensive AIDS research program. They started a laboratory dedicated to AIDS research in West Point, Pennsylvania and placed Emilio Emini in charge of the laboratory.[11] A couple months later on January, 1987, a team of researchers consisting of Emilio Emini, Joel Huff, and Irving Sigal, kickstarted their studies by basing their project off of earlier research on the protease enzyme, renin.[5] They were the ones who started the process of research and development into protease inhibitors and its relation to the virus. Over a year later, in July 1988, Nancy Kohl, Emilio Emini, et al., published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of the Science about the idea of inhibiting the protease.[11] On February, 1989, Manuela Navia, Paula Fitzgerald, et al., published a paper that showed the three-dimensional structure of HIV's protease enzyme.[5] Other ...
COLITIS † 1 0/124 (0.00%) 1/119 (0.84%) GASTRODUODENAL ULCER † 1 1/124 (0.81%) 0/119 (0.00%) ... Dexamethasone Total Arm/Group Description Injections consisted of 0.5 mg/0.05... Intravitreal implant as per commerc... Total ... Intravitreal implant as per commercial label (700 μg Dexamethasone; long acting release (LAR) over 6 months Total of all ... Intravitreal implant as per commercial label (700 μg Dexamethasone; long acting release (LAR) over 6 months ...
Colitis † 1 1/38 (2.63%) 1. Constipation † 1 3/38 (7.89%) 9. ... Lenalidomide With On-Demand Dexamethasone Arm/Group Description ... Dexamethasone: 10-40 mg once weekly... Arm/Group Description Dexamethasone: 10-40 mg once weekly (days 1, 8, 15, & 22) orally ... Lenalidomide With or Without Dexamethasone in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma. The safety and ... Dexamethasone: 10-40 mg once weekly (days 1, 8, 15, & 22) orally with food until progression. ...
Dexamethasone Elixir official prescribing information for healthcare professionals. Includes: indications, dosage, adverse ... Ulcerative colitis. Regional enteritis. *Miscellaneous:. Tuberculous meningitis with subarachnoid block or impending block when ... Adrenal Insufficiency dexamethasone, Decadron, cortisone, Dexasone, More.... Adrenogenital Syndrome prednisone, dexamethasone, ... How is Dexamethasone Elixir Supplied. Dexamethasone Elixir, USP 0.5 mg/5 mL is supplied as a clear, red, raspberry-flavored ...
Steroids should be used with caution in nonspecific ulcerative colitis, if there is a probability of impending perforation, ... DEXAMETHASONE SODIUM PHOSPHATE (UNII: AI9376Y64P) (DEXAMETHASONE - UNII:7S5I7G3JQL) DEXAMETHASONE PHOSPHATE. 4 mg in 1 mL. ... Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate. DESCRIPTION. Dexamethasone sodium phosphate, a synthetic adrenocortical steroid, is a white or ... Dexamethasone sodium phosphate injection, USP is a sterile solution of dexamethasone sodium phosphate, and is supplied in 4 mg/ ...
Steroids should be used with caution in nonspecific ulcerative colitis, if there is a probability of impending perforation, ... Dexamethasone phosphate 4 MG/ML Injectable Solution. SCD. 3. 1116927. dexamethasone phosphate 4 MG/ML (as dexamethasone sodium ... DEXAMETHASONE SODIUM PHOSPHATE (UNII: AI9376Y64P) (DEXAMETHASONE - UNII:7S5I7G3JQL). DEXAMETHASONE PHOSPHATE. 4 mg in 1 mL. ... DEXAMETHASONE SODIUM PHOSPHATE- dexamethasone sodium phosphate injection, solution To receive this label RSS feed. Copy the URL ...
... and efficacy when used to treat or reduce the symptoms of ulcerative colitis ... Looking for medication to treat ulcerative colitis? Find a list of current medications, their possible side effects, dosage, ... dexamethasone phosphate Solution, Reconstituted (Recon Soln). On Label. RX. 2 Reviews. dexamethasone sodium PHOSPHATE Vial. On ... DEXAMETHASONE-0.9% NACL Solution, Intravenous Piggyback. On Label. RX. 1 Reviews. Asmalpred Plus Solution. On Label. RX. 1 ...
Comprehensive disease interaction information for dexamethasone/lidocaine. Includes Antiarrhythmics - Cardiovascular ... Tsuruoka S, Sugimoto K, Fujimura A "Drug-induced Cushing syndrome in a patient with ulcerative colitis after betamethasone ... Decadron (dexamethasone)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA. *Allan SG, Leonard RC "Dexamethasone antiemesis and side-effects." ... dexamethasone / lidocaine alcohol/food Interactions. There are 2 alcohol/food interactions with dexamethasone / lidocaine ...
Dexamethasone: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... colitis); severe allergies; and asthma. Dexamethasone is also used to treat certain types of cancer. ... Before taking dexamethasone,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to dexamethasone, aspirin, tartrazine (a ... Dexamethasone may cause an upset stomach. Take dexamethasone with food or milk. ...
Stomach or intestinal problems (eg, diverticulitis, ulcerative colitis) or * Tuberculosis, inactive-Use with caution. May make ... Information about this dexamethasone-oral-route. Pregnancy Category. Explanation. All Trimesters. C. Animal studies have shown ... Dexamethasone may lower your bodys resistance and the vaccine may not work as well or you might get the infection the vaccine ... Dexamethasone provides relief for inflamed areas of the body. It is used to treat a number of different conditions, such as ...
1) Acute ongoing colitis, dexamethasone and/or calcitriol were administered i.p. 2 h before the instillation of the TNBS enema ... Dexamethasone dose dependently (0.6-1.2 mg/kg) led to an improvement of colitis severity. Calcitriol on its own also ... Effect of calcitriol and/or dexamethasone on clinical parameters of established TNBS colitis. Calcitriol (0.2 μg/kg) and/or ... Effect of dexamethasone and/or calcitriol on the immune response of established TNBS colitis ...
Cole MA, Kim PJ, Kalman BA, Spencer RL (February 2000). "Dexamethasone suppression of corticosteroid secretion: evaluation of ... but inhibition of cortisol on high-dose dexamethasone. If the cortisol levels are unchanged by low- and high-dose dexamethasone ... The dexamethasone suppression test (DST) is used to assess adrenal gland function by measuring how cortisol levels change in ... The test is given at low (usually 1-2 mg) and high (8 mg) doses of dexamethasone, and the levels of cortisol are measured to ...
Dexamethasone) drug information & product resources from MPR including dosage information, educational materials, & patient ... Ulcerative colitis. Intestinal anastomoses. Diverticulitis. Peptic ulcer. CHF. Hypertension. Osteoporosis. Diabetes. Myasthenia ... Indications for Dexamethasone oral solution:. Corticosteroid-responsive disorders.. Adult:. See literature. Initally 0.75-9mg ... Concomitant indomethacin: may get false-negative on dexamethasone suppression test. May suppress reactions to skin tests. ...
Dexamethasone is a prescription drug that treats inflammation or swelling, severe allergies, asthma, ar ... Our Dexamethasone coupon and discount will save you up to 75%* off your prescription. ... Dexamethasone is a synthetic corticosteroid used to treat different inflammatory conditions like ulcerative colitis, lupus, ... Dexamethasone Overview. Drug Name: Dexamethasone. Generic Name(s): dexamethasone. Drug Class: Glucocorticosteroids. Treats: ...
stomach, ulcer or intestine disease including colitis and diverticulitis. * thyroid problem. * an unusual or allergic reaction ... Dexamethasone injection. What is this medicine?. DEXAMETHASONE (dex a METH a sone) is a corticosteroid. It is used to treat ...
Cole HP, Stallman J. Diamon DJ. High Dose Intravitreal Dexamethasone for Infections Endophthalmitis. Invest Ophthalmol Visc Sci ... Dexamethasone concentration in vitreous and serum after oral administration. Am J Ophthalmol. 1998 May;125(5):673-9. ... Intraocular dexamethasone penetration via subconjunctival or retrobulbar injections in rabbits. Ophthalmic Surg. 1993 Jul;24(7 ... Peribulbar corticosteroid injection: vitreal and serum concentrations after dexamethasone disodium phosphate injection. Am J ...
Dexamethasone Definition Dexamethasone is a synthetic glucocorticoid. Its naturally occuring counterparts are hydrocortisone ... Patients with ulcerative colitis may benefit from dexamethasone therapy, as might those with exacerbations of multiple ... Dexamethasone Gale Encyclopedia of Cancer COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group Inc.. Dexamethasone. Definition. Dexamethasone is a ... In non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL), dexamethasone is part of a drug regimen known as "DHAP." Here, dexamethasone is given with ...
Cole TJ. (2000) The glucocorticoid receptor is essential for induction of cytochrome P-4502B by steroids but not for drug or ... dexamethasone. GR. glucocorticoid receptor. MC. 3-methylcholanthrene. PAH. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. PCN. pregnenolone- ... 1990) Dexamethasone-mediated potentiation of P450IA1 induction in H4IIEC3/T hepatoma cells is dependent on a time-consuming ... 2009) Dexamethasone controls aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 expression and activity in primary ...
Dexamethasone) drug information & product resources from MPR including dosage information, educational materials, & patient ... Ulcerative colitis. Cirrhosis. Postmenopausal women (osteoporosis risk). Diabetes. Thyroid disorder. Myasthenia gravis. ... Indications for Dexamethasone Oral Solution:. Corticosteroid-responsive disorders.. Adult:. See full labeling. Initally 0.75- ... Concomitant indomethacin: may get false-negative on dexamethasone suppression test. May suppress reactions to skin tests. ...
Dexamethasone is used to treat many different conditions such as allergic disorders, skin conditions, ulcerative colitis, ... Dexamethasone is a steroid that prevents the release of substances in the body that cause inflammation. ... Tell any doctor who treats you that you are using dexamethasone.. Do not stop using dexamethasone suddenly, or you could have ... Dexamethasone is used to treat many different conditions such as allergic disorders, skin conditions, ulcerative colitis, ...
Ulcerative Colitis. Anyone switched from Prednisone to Dexamethasone? Interesting...thanks for the link! Yes, she was on a ...
Erythrocytes-mediated Delivery of Dexamethasone 21-phosphate in Steroid-dependent Ulcerative Colitis: A Randomized, Double- ... Oroxylin A Inhibits Colitis-associated Carcinogenesis Through Modulating the IL-6/STAT3 Signaling Pathway. Yang, Xi; Zhang, ... A Review of Mortality and Surgery in Ulcerative Colitis: Milestones of the Seriousness of the Disease. Bernstein, Charles N.; ... High Rates of Metachronous Colon Cancer or Dysplasia After Segmental Resection or Subtotal Colectomy in Crohns Colitis. Maser ...
Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate (Decadron, Dexasone, Diodex, Hexadrol, Maxidex) glucocorticosteroid, how its given, how it ... You should also limit caffeine intake (colas, tea, coffee and chocolate, especially). These beverages may irritate your stomach ... Other names: dexamethasone sodium phosphate, dexamethasone acetate. Drug type: Dexamethasone has many uses in the treatment of ... If you are dexamethasone as a lotion (topical) to treat skin disorders: Do not apply to open areas of skin, or if you have open ...
Methods: Ketamine (10, 50 mg/kg), and dexamethasone (1 mg/kg) were given intraperitoneally 30 min before induction of colitis ... Conclusion: Our data suggest that ketamine has valuable protective effects in acetic acid colitis and it may be a new therapy ... Results: Ketamine (50 mg/kg) and dexamethasone significantly (p α and elevated GSH levels. ... including Crohns disease and ulcerative colitis (UC), are chronic and recurrent disorders of the gastrointestinal tract with ...
Administration of dexamethasone during the 24-hour period preceding extubation resulted in a statistically significant increase ... The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether administration of multiple doses of dexamethasone to critically ill, ... The incidence of postextubation stridor was significantly lower in the dexamethasone group than in the placebo group (10% [4/40 ... The after-effect of dexamethasone may validate the reduced incidence of postextubation stridor after multiple doses of ...
... mice treated with a low-dose combined formulation of Vitamin D and Dexamethasone (VitD/Dexa), delivered repetitively and ... mice treated with a low-dose combined formulation of Vitamin D and Dexamethasone (VitD/Dexa), delivered repetitively and ... MacRitchie, N, Grassia, G, Noonan, J, Cole, JE, Hughes, CE, Schroeder, J, et al. The aorta can act as a site of naïve CD4+ T- ... Effects of dexamethasone on experimental atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). (1992) 38: ...
  • Short-lived platelet increases in response to dexamethasone were observed in almost all patients. (empr.com)
  • No other known p38 phosphatases were induced by dexamethasone, and other cell types which failed to express MKP-1 also failed to inhibit p38 in response to dexamethasone. (asm.org)
  • Conclusion: Our data suggest that ketamine has valuable protective effects in acetic acid colitis and it may be a new therapy target in ulcerative colitis patients, possibly by regulating antioxidants and inflammatory mediators. (scirp.org)
  • This Blog provides complete information about Digestive Diseases A to Z. A j-pouch, or ileal pouch reconstruction, is a surgery that is used for ulcerative colitis patients, and is usually completed in two steps. (blogspot.com)
  • Treatment of M1 myeloid leukemic cells with interleukin 6 (IL-6) or dexamethasone (DEX), both of which induce differentiation in these cells, down-regulated expression of the apoptosis-suppressing gene bcl-2 and the apoptosis-promoting gene bax but up-regulated expression of the apoptosis-suppressing gene bcl-XL. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 1 (IL-1) induced MKP-1 expression in a p38-dependent manner and acted synergistically with dexamethasone to induce MKP-1 expression. (asm.org)