Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Milk Ejection: Expulsion of milk from the mammary alveolar lumen, which is surrounded by a layer of milk-secreting EPITHELIAL CELLS and a network of myoepithelial cells. Contraction of the myoepithelial cells is regulated by neuroendocrine signals.Blastocyst: A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.Gastrulation: A process of complicated morphogenetic cell movements that reorganizes a bilayer embryo into one with three GERM LAYERS and specific orientation (dorsal/ventral; anterior/posterior). Gastrulation describes the germ layer development of a non-mammalian BLASTULA or that of a mammalian BLASTOCYST.Germ Layers: The three primary germinal layers (ECTODERM; ENDODERM; and MESODERM) developed during GASTRULATION that provide tissues and body plan of a mature organism. They derive from two early layers, hypoblast and epiblast.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Zygote: The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.Pregnancy, Ectopic: A potentially life-threatening condition in which EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs outside the cavity of the UTERUS. Most ectopic pregnancies (>96%) occur in the FALLOPIAN TUBES, known as TUBAL PREGNANCY. They can be in other locations, such as UTERINE CERVIX; OVARY; and abdominal cavity (PREGNANCY, ABDOMINAL).Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Fallopian Tubes: A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Trophoblasts: Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).Genes, Developmental: Genes that determine the fate of a cell or CELLS in a region of the embryo during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.TexasSmall Ubiquitin-Related Modifier Proteins: A class of structurally related proteins of 12-20 kDa in size. They covalently modify specific proteins in a manner analogous to UBIQUITIN.SUMO-1 Protein: A 1.5-kDa small ubiquitin-related modifier protein that can covalently bind via an isopeptide link to a number of cellular proteins. It may play a role in intracellular protein transport and a number of other cellular processes.Steatorrhea: A condition that is characterized by chronic fatty DIARRHEA, a result of abnormal DIGESTION and/or INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of FATS.Prince Edward Island: An island in the Gulf of St. Lawrence constituting a province of Canada in the eastern part of the country. It is very irregular in shape with many deep inlets. Its capital is Charlottetown. Discovered by the French in 1534 and originally named Ile Saint-Jean, it was renamed in 1799 in honor of Prince Edward, fourth son of George III and future father of Queen Victoria. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p981 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p433)PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.EncyclopediasHeart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Primitive Streak: A linear band of rapidly proliferating cells that begins near the posterior end of an embryo and grows cranially. Primitive streak is formed during GASTRULATION by the convergent migration of primary ectodermal cells (EPIBLAST). The knot at the tip of the streak is called HENSEN NODE.Gastrula: The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.Ectoderm: The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.Neural Tube: A tube of ectodermal tissue in an embryo that will give rise to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, including the SPINAL CORD and the BRAIN. Lumen within the neural tube is called neural canal which gives rise to the central canal of the spinal cord and the ventricles of the brain. For malformation of the neural tube, see NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Historiography: The writing of history; the principles, theory, and history of historical writing; the product of historical writing. (Webster, 3d ed)Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Manuscripts, MedicalCaliforniaBreast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Receptor Tyrosine Kinase-like Orphan Receptors: A family of cell surface receptors that were originally identified by their structural homology to neurotropic TYROSINE KINASES and referred to as orphan receptors because the associated ligand and signaling pathways were unknown. Evidence for the functionality of these proteins has been established by experiments showing that disruption of the orphan receptor genes results in developmental defects.Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Stem Cell Transplantation: The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.Stem Cell Niche: A particular zone of tissue composed of a specialized microenvironment where stem cells are retained in a undifferentiated, self-renewable state.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Germany
Embryonic development of animals[edit]. After cleavage, the dividing cells, or morula, becomes a hollow ball, or blastula, ... 1 Embryonic development of animals *1.1 Bilateria *1.1.1 Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) ... The competing explanation of embryonic development was epigenesis, originally proposed 2,000 years earlier by Aristotle. Much ... Carlson, Bruce M.; Kantaputra, Piranit N. (2014). "4 Molecular Basis for Embryonic Development". Human embryology and ...
During embryonic development[edit]. Main article: DNA methylation reprogramming. DNA methylation patterns are largely erased ... During embryonic development, few genes change their methylation status, at the important exception of many genes specifically ... Dynamic of DNA methylation during mouse embryonic development. E3.5-E6, etc., refer to days after fertilization. PGC: ... Non-CpG methylation can however be observed in embryonic stem cells,[10][11][12] and has also been indicated in neural ...
Embryonic, organ and tissue development[edit]. In the 1980s, more subtle but no less important roles of gap junction ... Cellular membranes in development. New York: Academic Press. OCLC 261587041.. [page needed] ... By tracing nerve development in leeches with gap junction expression suppressed it was shown that the bidirectional gap ... appears to rely on gap junctions so does the more fundamental differentiation of cells at later stages of embryonic development ...
Embryonic development. A zygote initially develops into a hollow sphere, called a blastula,[30] which undergoes rearrangement ... and their embryonic development includes a blastula stage. The body plan of the animal derives from this blastula, ... Philips, Joy B. (1975). Development of vertebrate anatomy. Mosby. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-8016-3927-2.. ... Hamilton, William James; Boyd, James Dixon; Mossman, Harland Winfield (1945). Human embryology: (prenatal development of form ...
Parallels with embryonic development[edit]. Main article: embryogenesis. Much of the research central to embryonic stem cell ... In addition, advancements of EB culture resulted in the development of embryonic organoids (Gastruloids) which show remarkable ... Bielinska, M.; Narita, N.; Wilson, D. B. (1999). "Distinct roles for visceral endoderm during embryonic mouse development". The ... Lessons from Embryonic Development". Cell. 132 (4): 661-680. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.02.008. PMID 18295582.. ...
... variants are a part of the normal embryonic and fetal development. They may also be pathologic mutant forms of ... The development of α and β genes created the potential for hemoglobin to be composed of multiple subunits, a physical ... Production of Hb continues in the cell throughout its early development from the proerythroblast to the reticulocyte in the ... and β-like globin genes that are regulated so that certain forms occur at different stages of development.[52] ...
stages of development:. Embryonic. *HbE Gower 1 (ζ2ε2). *HbE Gower 2 (α2ε2) ... The classes of CYPs most often investigated in non-human animals are those either involved in development (e.g., retinoic acid ...
stages of development:. Embryonic. *HbE Gower 1 (ζ2ε2). *HbE Gower 2 (α2ε2) ...
stages of development:. Embryonic. *HbE Gower 1 (ζ2ε2). *HbE Gower 2 (α2ε2) ...
embryonic development. *regulation of cancer cell proliferation. (I). Name based on order of discovery ...
Andrews, R.M. (2004). "Embryonic development". In Deeming, D.C. Reptilian Incubation: Environment, Evolution, and Behaviour. ... The embryonic individual of Dinocephalosaurus preserved inside LPV 30280 from Luoping can be identified as such for several ...
During embryonic development of birds, the chorioallantoic membrane also plays an essential role in bone formation by ... Osdoby P, Oursler MJ, Salino-Hugg T, Krukowski M (1988). "Osteoclast development: the cell surface and the bone environment". ... Wilting J, Neeff H, Christ B (July 1999). "Embryonic lymphangiogenesis". Cell Tissue Res. 297 (1): 1-11. doi:10.1007/ ... membranes from developing chicken eggs are routinely used in biological and biomedical research to investigate development, ...
After the 4th week of development, the growing embryonic disc becomes a great deal larger than the yolk sac and its presence ... At the embryonic pole of the blastocyst, the amniotic cavity finds a home between the epiblast and the trophoblast. The ... "Bilaminar Embryonic Disc." Atlas of Human Embryology. Chronolab A.G. Switzerland, n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2012. . "10.1 Early ... The embryo is called a blastocyst at about the 6th day of development once it has reached nearly 100 cells. Once this has ...
PMC 4449096 . Hsu, K (2001). "Zebrafish myelopoiesis and blood cell development". Curr Opin Hematol. 8 (4): 245-51. PMID ... Dzierzak, E (1995). "Mouse embryonic hematopoiesis". Trends Genet. 11 (9): 359-66. PMID 7482788. Byrd, N (2002). "Hedgehog is ... required for murine yolk sac angiogenesis". Development. 129 (2): 361-72. PMID 11807029. Banaei-Bouchareb, L (2004). "Insulin ...
A. G. Gurwitsch analysed the embryonic development of the sea urchin as a vector-field, as if the proliferation of cells into ... Development. 112 (3): 669-678. PMID 1682124.. *^ Bolker, JA (2000). "Modularity in Development and Why It Matters to Evo-Devo" ... "Development. 104 (3): 341-59. PMID 3076860.. *^ a b c d e Gilbert SF, Opitz JM, Raff RA (1996). "Resynthesizing evolutionary ... "Development. 118 (3): 665-90. PMID 7915668.. *. Gilbert SF (2006). "The "Re-discovery" of Morphogenic Fields. in: DevBio: a ...
The mesoderm is one of the three germinal layers that appears in the third week of embryonic development. It is formed through ... ISBN 978-0-632-02182-6. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) Liu, Shu Q. (2007). "Early Embryonic Organ Development". ... ISBN 978-1-4051-1147-8. Pappaioannou, Virginia, E. (2004). "Early Embryonic Mesoderm Development". In Lanza, Robert Paul. ... Human embryonic stem cells for example have the potential to produce all of the cells in the body and they are able to self- ...
Their 5 core themes of research include: • Breast cancer • Embryonic development and cancer • Cancer stem cells and signalling ...
doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1988.tb01362.x. Walker, Muriel H.; Tait, Noel N. (December 2004). "Studies of embryonic development and ... during embryonic development, at the rear border of each segment and in the growth zone of the stub feet. Although ... and similar embryonic development. Segmentation, with two body appendages per segment, is also shared. However, antennae, ... Development. 35 (4): 231-45. doi:10.1016/j.asd.2006.06.003. PMID 18089073. Eriksson, J. (2003). Evolution and Development of ...
This early start is crucial for subsequent embryonic and prenatal development. The heart derives from splanchnopleuric ... "Main Frame Heart Development". Meddean.luc.edu. Archived from the original on 16 November 2001. Retrieved 17 October 2010.. ... DuBose, T. J.; Cunyus, J. A.; Johnson, L. (1990). "Embryonic Heart Rate and Age". J Diagn Med Sonography. 6 (3): 151-157. doi: ... Development of the human heart during the first eight weeks (top) and the formation of the heart chambers (bottom). In this ...
Embryonic development[change , change source]. The initial stages of human embryogenesis.. Embryogenesis is the step in the ... Wolpert, Lewis; Beddington R, Jessell T, Lawrence P, Meyerowitz E, Smith J (2002). Principles of development (2nd ed.). Oxford ... Regeneration is the reactivation of development so that a missing body part grows back. This phenomenon has been studied ... Stocum DL (December 2002). "Development. A tail of transdifferentiation". Science 298 (5600): 1901-3. doi:10.1126/science. ...
In the cave form, lens development begins within the first 24 hours of embryonic development, but quickly aborts, the lens ... Pennisi, Elizabeth (2000). "Embryonic Lens Prompts Eye Development". Science. 289 (5479): 522-3. doi:10.1126/science.289.5479. ... Researchers found that the lens seemed to control the development of the rest of the eye, as the surface-form tetras which ... However, studies have shown that blind cave fish embryos begin to grow eyes during development but then something actively ...
"File:Embryonic Development CNS.gif". Wikimedia Commons. Retrieved 1 April 2013. Ferreira MC, Hilfer SR (October 1993). "Calcium ... The neural fold is a structure that arises during neurulation in the embryonic development of both birds and mammals among ... When the cells fail to associate in a manner that is not part of the normal course of development, severe diseases can occur. ... Neuroscience portal Developmental biology Neurulation YouTube Video of Embryonic Chick Neurulation Anatomy of the Human Body's ...
Its embryonic development is very rapid, and its embryos are relatively large, robust, and transparent, and able to develop ... Upon release, embryonic development begins; absent sperm, growth stops after the first few cell divisions. Fertilized eggs ... D. rerio is a common and useful scientific model organism for studies of vertebrate development and gene function. Its use as a ... The species is also studied to better understand the development of the retina; in particular, how the cone cells of the retina ...
Embryonic. During mammalian development, the gonads are at first capable of becoming either ovaries or testes.[10] In humans, ... Development. There are two phases in which the testes grow substantially; namely in embryonic and pubertal age. ... Mild, transient scrotal heat stress causes DNA damage, reduced fertility and abnormal embryonic development in mice.[37] DNA ... which leads to development of the male phenotype, including directing development of the early bipotential gonad down the male ...
skeletal system development. • kidney development. • embryonic eye morphogenesis. • post-embryonic eye morphogenesis. • ... heart development. • camera-type eye development. • metanephros development. • regulation of cellular response to growth factor ... Fetal cardiovascular development[edit]. The FBN-1 gene is involved in a variety of embryonic developmental programs. The ... "Fibrillin-1 and fibrillin-2 in human embryonic and early fetal development". Matrix Biology. 21 (8): 637-46. doi:10.1016/s0945- ...
The development of type 2 diabetes is caused by a combination of lifestyle and genetic factors.[25][28] While some of these ... Lifestyle factors are important to the development of type 2 diabetes, including obesity and being overweight (defined by a ... Moscou, Susan (2013). "Getting the word out: advocacy, social marketing, and policy development and enforcement". In Truglio- ... The nutritional status of a mother during fetal development may also play a role, with one proposed mechanism being that of DNA ...
Self-fertilising mangrove killifish as a genetic model for studying embryonic development. ... embryonic development has fascinated zoologists and biologists since long time. Many different processes and ultimately genes ... is a developmental biologist interested in understanding the mechanisms underlying early embryonic development, from gene ... like to discuss our screening and characterisation of the Kmar mutants which has abnormalities in early embryonic development ...

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