Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Developed Countries: Countries that have reached a level of economic achievement through an increase of production, per capita income and consumption, and utilization of natural and human resources.EuropeWorld Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)AfricaCross-Cultural Comparison: Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Latin America: The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.Europe, EasternMiddle East: The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)United Nations: An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.Africa South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.IndiaIncidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.ScandinaviaPopulation Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Asia, Southeastern: The geographical area of Asia comprising BORNEO; BRUNEI; CAMBODIA; INDONESIA; LAOS; MALAYSIA; the MEKONG VALLEY; MYANMAR (formerly Burma), the PHILIPPINES; SINGAPORE; THAILAND; and VIETNAM.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.PakistanPacific Islands: The islands of the Pacific Ocean divided into MICRONESIA; MELANESIA; and POLYNESIA (including NEW ZEALAND). The collective name Oceania includes the aforenamed islands, adding AUSTRALIA; NEW ZEALAND; and the Malay Archipelago (INDONESIA). (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p910, 880)United StatesAmericas: The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.South AmericaIncome: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Africa, Northern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)Economics: The science of utilization, distribution, and consumption of services and materials.BrazilHealth Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).International Agencies: International organizations which provide health-related or other cooperative services.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Great BritainGross Domestic Product: Value of all final goods and services produced in a country in one year.Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.MexicoSpain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Mediterranean Region: The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.Caribbean Region: The area that lies between continental North and South America and comprises the Caribbean Sea, the West Indies, and the adjacent mainland regions of southern Mexico, Central America, Colombia, and Venezuela.Poliomyelitis: An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)Central AmericaPolitics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Financing, Organized: All organized methods of funding.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Emigrants and Immigrants: People who leave their place of residence in one country and settle in a different country.Sri LankaSex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Ghana: A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.USSRNorth AmericaPeruJapanArgentinaRussiaHealth Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.New Zealand: A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)ItalyGermanyBenchmarking: Method of measuring performance against established standards of best practice.VietnamSex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.IsraelTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Financial Support: The provision of monetary resources including money or capital and credit; obtaining or furnishing money or capital for a purchase or enterprise and the funds so obtained. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed.)Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Child Mortality: Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.BangladeshDisease Eradication: Termination of all transmission of infection by global extermination of the infectious agent through surveillance and containment (From Porta, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 5th ed).Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Yugoslavia: Created as the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes in 1918. Yugoslavia became the official name in 1929. BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA; CROATIA; and SLOVENIA formed independent countries 7 April 1992. Macedonia became independent 8 February 1994 as the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (MACEDONIA REPUBLIC).Africa, Western: The geographical area of Africa comprising BENIN; BURKINA FASO; COTE D'IVOIRE; GAMBIA; GHANA; GUINEA; GUINEA-BISSAU; LIBERIA; MALI; MAURITANIA; NIGER; NIGERIA; SENEGAL; SIERRA LEONE; and TOGO.Maternal Mortality: Maternal deaths resulting from complications of pregnancy and childbirth in a given population.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Tropical Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.PhilippinesBiomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.IranSwedenChileGovernment Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.UruguayBoliviaUrban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Infant Mortality: Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.TurkeyPublic Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Asia, Central: The geographical area of Asia comprising KAZAKHSTAN; KYRGYZSTAN; TAJIKISTAN; TURKMENISTAN; and UZBEKISTAN. The desert region of Kara Kum (Qara Qum) is largely in Turkmenistan and the desert region of Kyzyl Kum (Kizil Kum or Qizil Qum), is in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p233, 590, 636)GuatemalaWestern World: A historical and cultural entity dispersed across the wide geographical area of Europe, as opposed to the East, Asia, and Africa. The term was used by scholars through the late medieval period. Thereafter, with the impact of colonialism and the transmission of cultures, Western World was sometimes expanded to include the Americas. (Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)NepalEndemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)Foreign Professional Personnel: Persons who have acquired academic or specialized training in countries other than that in which they are working. The concept excludes physicians for which FOREIGN MEDICAL GRADUATES is the likely heading.Indonesia: A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.Health Transition: Demographic and epidemiologic changes that have occurred in the last five decades in many developing countries and that are characterized by major growth in the number and proportion of middle-aged and elderly persons and in the frequency of the diseases that occur in these age groups. The health transition is the result of efforts to improve maternal and child health via primary care and outreach services and such efforts have been responsible for a decrease in the birth rate; reduced maternal mortality; improved preventive services; reduced infant mortality, and the increased life expectancy that defines the transition. (From Ann Intern Med 1992 Mar 15;116(6):499-504)Somalia: Somalia is located on the east coast of Africa on and north of the Equator and, with Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, and Kenya, is often referred to as the Horn of Africa. It comprises Italy's former Trust Territory of Somalia and the former British Protectorate of Somaliland. The capital is Mogadishu.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Asia, Western: The geographical designation for the countries of the MIDDLE EAST and the countries BANGLADESH; BHUTAN; INDIA; NEPAL; PAKISTAN; and SRI LANKA. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993 & Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)IcelandSwitzerlandSeasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Far East: A geographic area of east and southeast Asia encompassing CHINA; HONG KONG; JAPAN; KOREA; MACAO; MONGOLIA; and TAIWAN.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.HungaryHealth Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.PolandTreatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.ColombiaNetherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Transients and Migrants: People who frequently change their place of residence.LebanonMeasles: A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.Medical Tourism: Travel to another country for the purpose of medical treatment.Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.FinlandHealth Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Malaysia: A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)BelgiumProgram Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Egypt: A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Refugees: Persons fleeing to a place of safety, especially those who flee to a foreign country or power to escape danger or persecution in their own country or habitual residence because of race, religion, or political belief. (Webster, 3d ed)Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Epidemics: Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Urbanization: The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Sentinel Surveillance: Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)BulgariaMass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Australasia: Australia, New Zealand and neighboring islands in the South Pacific Ocean. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed.)EcuadorCambodiaHaiti: A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Port-au-Prince. With the Dominican Republic it forms the island of Hispaniola - Haiti occupying the western third and the Dominican Republic, the eastern two thirds. Haiti belonged to France from 1697 until its rule was challenged by slave insurrections from 1791. It became a republic in 1820. It was virtually an American protectorate from 1915 to 1934. It adopted its present constitution in 1964 and amended it in 1971. The name may represent either of two Caribbean words, haiti, mountain land, or jhaiti, nest. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p481 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p225)Niger: A republic in western Africa, north of NIGERIA and west of CHAD. Its capital is Niamey.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Morocco: A country located in north Africa, bordering the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, with a southern border with Western Sahara, eastern border with Algeria. The capital is Rabat.Angola: A republic in southern Africa, southwest of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and west of ZAMBIA. Its capital is Luanda.PortugalEstoniaMaternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.

Role of schools in the transmission of measles in rural Senegal: implications for measles control in developing countries. (1/5036)

Patterns of measles transmission at school and at home were studied in 1995 in a rural area of Senegal with a high level of vaccination coverage. Among 209 case children with a median age of 8 years, there were no deaths, although the case fatality ratio has previously been 6-7% in this area. Forty percent of the case children had been vaccinated against measles; the proportion of vaccinated children was higher among secondary cases (47%) than among index cases (33%) (prevalence ratio = 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.76). Vaccinated index cases may have been less infectious than unvaccinated index cases, since they produced fewer clinical cases among exposed children (relative risk = 0.55, 95% CI 0.29-1.04). The secondary attack rate was lower in the schools than in the homes (relative risk = 0.31, 95% CI 0.20-0.49). The school outbreaks were protracted, with 4-5 generations of cases being seen in the two larger schools. Vaccine efficacy was found to be 57% (95% CI -23 to 85) in the schools and 74% (95% CI 62-82) in the residential compounds. Measles infection resulted in a mean of 3.8 days of absenteeism per case, though this did not appear to have an impact on the children's grades. Among the index cases, 56% of children were probably infected by neighbors in the community, and 7% were probably infected at health centers, 13% outside the community, and 24% in one of the three schools which had outbreaks during the epidemic. However, most of the school-related cases occurred at the beginning and therefore contributed to the general propagation of the epidemic. To prevent school outbreaks, it may be necessary to require vaccination prior to school entry and to revaccinate children in individual schools upon detection of cases of measles. Multidose measles vaccination schedules will be necessary to control measles in developing countries.  (+info)

I(2/5036)

nvited commentary: vaccine failure or failure to vaccinate?  (+info)

The present state and future prospects of occupational health in Bangladesh. (3/5036)

Bangladesh is a relatively young and developing country. At the present time, like in most developing countries, a clear demarcation between occupational health care and general medical care is difficult to be recognized in Bangladesh. Occupational health is a fairly new field, as the country is undergoing industrialization and occupational health activities are operated by several ministries, such as Labour, Health, Industry and Transport. Legal foundations of the occupational health-care system based on British India and Pakistani era, were adopted and amended by the Government of Bangladesh after the liberation of the country in 1971. Most of the Labour laws have been rectified by the Government of Bangladesh according to the ILO Conventions. Reconsideration of the occupational health service system avoiding duplication for the 'occupational health' component in several ministries might be helpful to achieve the successful provision of an occupational health service in the developing Bangladesh.  (+info)

Epidemiology and prevention of group A streptococcal infections: acute respiratory tract infections, skin infections, and their sequelae at the close of the twentieth century. (4/5036)

Infections of the upper respiratory tract and skin due to group A Streptococcus are common, and the organism is highly transmissible. In industrialized countries and to some extent in developing countries, control efforts continue to emphasize that group A streptococcal pharyngitis should be properly diagnosed and appropriately treated. In developing countries and in indigenous populations where the burden of group A streptococcal diseases appears greatest, the epidemiology is less completely defined and may differ from that in industrialized countries. There is a need for accurately collected epidemiological data from developing countries, which may also further clarify the pathogenesis of group A streptococcal infections and their sequelae. While proper treatment of group A streptococcal pharyngitis continues to be essential in all populations, it may be appropriate in developing countries to consider additional strategies to reduce rates of pyoderma.  (+info)

Antibiotic strategies for developing countries: experience with acute respiratory tract infections in Pakistan. (5/5036)

The Pakistan program for control of acute respiratory tract infections (ARIs) adopted the standard ARI-case-management strategy of the World Health Organization and recommended co-trimoxazole for the management of nonsevere pneumonia. Reports in that country of high in vitro antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae to co-trimoxazole prompted the program to reevaluate its treatment policy. Two community-based studies during 1991-1993 showed in vivo efficacy of co-trimoxazole in 92% and 91% of children with nonsevere pneumonia. A third double-blind trial showed co-trimoxazole and oral amoxicillin to be equally effective in vivo in cases of nonsevere pneumonia, despite high in vitro resistance. Country-wide surveillance from 1991 to 1994 revealed 78.3%-79.9% in vitro resistance to co-trimoxazole among S. pneumoniae isolates and 59.5%-61.0% among H. influenzae isolates. Co-trimoxazole is still recommended by the Pakistan ARI control program. The fact that amoxicillin is three times more expensive and must be administered more frequently is a big impediment to recommending it as a first-line drug for nonsevere pneumonia.  (+info)

Burden of infection on growth failure. (6/5036)

The high prevalence of infections among children living in poor areas of developing countries impairs linear growth in these populations. Acute, invasive infections, which provoke a systemic response (e.g., dysentery and pneumonia), and chronic infections, which affect the host over a sustained period (e.g., gut helminth infections), have a substantial effect on linear growth. Such infections can diminish linear growth by affecting nutritional status. This occurs because infections may decrease food intake, impair nutrient absorption, cause direct nutrient losses, increase metabolic requirements or catabolic losses of nutrients and, possibly, impair transport of nutrients to target tissues. In addition, induction of the acute phase response and production of proinflammatory cytokines may directly affect the process of bone remodeling that is required for long bone growth. Infection of cells directly involved in bone remodeling (osteoclasts or osteoblasts) by specific viruses may also directly affect linear growth. Many interventions are possible to diminish the effect of infection on growth. Prevention of disease through sanitation, vector control, promotion of breast-feeding and vaccination is crucial. Appropriate treatment of infections (e.g., antibiotics for pneumonia) as well as supportive nutritional therapy (again including breast-feeding) during and after recovery, is also important. Targeted therapeutic interventions to decrease the prevalence of gut helminth infections may also be appropriate in areas in which such infections are widespread. Such interventions are of public health benefit not only because they reduce the incidence or severity of infections, but also because they decrease the long-term detrimental effect of malnutrition on populations.  (+info)

Role of intergenerational effects on linear growth. (7/5036)

Current knowledge on the role of intergenerational effects on linear growth is reviewed on the basis of a literature search and recent findings from an ongoing study in Guatemala. Fourteen studies were identified, most of which examined the intergenerational relationships in birth weight. Overall, for every 100 g increase in maternal birth weight, her child's birth weight increased by 10-20 g. The study samples were primarily from developed countries, and birth weight data were extracted from hospital records and/or birth registries. Among the few studies that examined associations between the adult heights of parents and their offspring, correlation coefficients of 0.42-0.5 were reported. None of the studies examined intergenerational relationships in birth length or linear growth patterns during early childhood, preadolescence and/or adolescence. Prospectively collected data from long-term studies being carried out in rural Guatemala provide the first evidence of intergenerational relationships in birth size in a developing country setting. Data were available for 215 mother-child pairs. Maternal birth size was a significant predictor (P < 0.05) of child's birth size after adjusting for gestational age and sex of the child and other potential confounders. Child's birth weight increased by 29 g/100 g increase in maternal birth weight which is nearly twice that reported in developed countries. Similarly, child's birth length increased by 0.2 cm for every 1 cm increase in mother's birth length. The effect of maternal birth weight remained significant even after adjusting for maternal adult size. More evidence from developing countries will help explain the underlying mechanisms and identify appropriate interventions to prevent growth retardation.  (+info)

Risk of Helicobacter pylori infection among long-term residents in developing countries. (8/5036)

The seroprevalence and incidence of Helicobacter pylori infection were determined among 312 North American missionaries who were serving in developing countries between 1967 and 1984. The majority (81%) resided in sub-Saharan Africa. When initially evaluated, the missionaries had a mean age of 40 years, 65% were female, and all were of white race/ethnicity. An ELISA showed that the initial prevalence of IgG antibody to H. pylori was 17%. After a mean of 7.4 years of service (1917 person-years of exposure), 37 (14%) of 259 initially seronegative subjects seroconverted to anti-H. pylori, giving an annual incidence of 1.9%. These data indicate a relatively higher risk of H. pylori infection among missionaries compared with an annual incidence of seroconversion of 0.3-1.0% in industrialized nations. Long-term residents in developing countries should be evaluated for H. pylori infection when gastrointestinal symptoms develop.  (+info)

  • Developing countries have fewer means to weather shocks to their economies than they had in 2007, before the global financial crisis accelerated, and need to prepare for long-running turbulence, the development lender said. (rawstory.com)
  • This means that public finance solutions that work well in developed countries are not necessarily suitable for developing economies. (unu.edu)
  • Even though the issues developing countries face today are severe, there are solutions to improve domestic finance policies in these contexts. (unu.edu)
  • Finally, due to high levels of inequality in many developing countries, distributional concerns are even more pressing than in wealthier countries. (unu.edu)
  • The World Bank on Tuesday urged developing countries to build up their buffers against financial storms arising from the high-income countries, especially in Europe. (rawstory.com)
  • If high income countries continue to grow even slowly, "it is still possible for developing countries to turn out very solid growth rates," Timmer said at a news briefing on the World Bank's twice-yearly Global Economic Prospects report. (rawstory.com)
  • He urged developing countries to adjust their economic policies now to "move away from firefighting to strengthening your underlying growth potential. (rawstory.com)
  • However, high-income countries should see a feeble 1.4 percent growth rate this year, under pressure from a 0.3 percent contraction in the ailing eurozone. (rawstory.com)
  • The possibilities for poverty traps - where poor remain poor due to their lack of power - are high in developing countries. (unu.edu)
  • First, low-income countries tend to have less well-functioning public institutions, and the constraints governments face in developing countries are different from those in their high-income counterparts. (unu.edu)
  • The Least Developed Countries ( LDCs ) is a list of the countries that, according to the United Nations , exhibit the lowest indicators of socioeconomic development , with the lowest Human Development Index ratings of all countries in the world . (wikipedia.org)
  • At the UN's fourth conference on LDCs, which was held in May 2011, delegates endorsed a goal targeting the promotion of at least half the current LDC countries within the next ten years. (wikipedia.org)
  • During a United Nations review in 2009, the UN defined LDCs as countries meeting three criteria, one of which was a three-year average estimate of gross national income (GNI) per capita of less than US $905. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of these reports, "ICT and Telecommunications in Least Developed Countries: Review of progress made during the decade 2000-2010", presents projects and actions that ITU has undertaken to help least developed countries (LDCs) join the knowledge economy through the deployment and use of information and communication technologies (ICT). (itu.int)
  • The other report, "The Role of ICT in Advancing Growth in Least Developed Countries: Trends, Challenges and Opportunities", on which this article is largely based, examines some of the emerging trends and current challenges faced by LDCs on their road to poverty alleviation. (itu.int)
  • Climate change is a critical factor, given that eleven of the LDCs are also small island developing States. (itu.int)
  • The ITU reports highlight the important catalytic role that ITU plays in increasing connectivity in LDCs, and provide case study evidence showing how some of these countries have indeed managed to use connectivity successfully to enhance socio-economic development. (itu.int)
  • Since then, 50 countries have been categorized as LDCs, but only three have ever graduated to developing country status: Botswana in 1994, Cape Verde in 2007 and Maldives in 2011 (see article on Maldives ). (itu.int)
  • And since the Third United Nations Conference on the Least Developed Countries in 2001, ITU World Telecommunication Development Conferences and ITU Plenipotentiary Conferences have adopted specific resolutions in favour of LDCs, landlocked developing countries and small island developing States. (itu.int)
  • Through its Special Programme for Least Developed Countries, the ITU Telecommunication Development Bureau (BDT) has undertaken diverse activities and provided concentrated assistance to LDCs to help them develop infrastructure, improve rural telecommunications, introduce new technologies and services, and build human capacity. (itu.int)
  • While recognizing that poverty continues to be a persistent problem in many middle-income countries, where part of donor-earmarked programmes of the ILO is also implemented, the Office has substantially increased its development spending in LDCs in the recent years. (ilo.org)
  • Since 2011, the share of the ILO's country-level funding spent on LDCs has increased from 30.6% to 44.6%, representing US$70.6 million in 2014. (ilo.org)
  • Bangladesh's pharmaceutical industry is unique among least developed countries (LDCs). (un.org)
  • Archives, May 2013) Medecins Sans Frontiers (MSF) is voicing its support to the extension of the transition period for the Least Developed Countries (LDCs). (un.org)
  • The major difficulty now, Ryan added, is in collecting accurate financial statistic from the LDCS - although he noted that it is sometimes harder to get the right numbers from the developed nations. (washingtonpost.com)
  • In Least Developed Countries (LDCs) and Low Income Countries (LICs), GSK has pledged that it will not file patents for any of its medicines, in turn giving license to generic drug manufacturers to make copies of those drugs. (triplepundit.com)
  • For women-owned micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs), especially those in the least developed countries (LDCs), the potential to benefit is even greater. (weforum.org)
  • While there is significant potential for e-businesses to grow in LDCs, the environment in many countries is not conducive to such enterprises developing and thriving - and this is especially so for women-owned MSMEs. (weforum.org)
  • Since more than 70% of the world population lives in developing countries (DCs), and the majority of the world's natural resources and market opportunities are in these countries, both practitioners and researchers have become more interested in understanding their social and business activities. (fgv.br)
  • As a result of this process, the research team, with support from an international network of collaborating researchers and practitioners, have developed tools including text-based and video-based SJTs, multiple mini-interviews (MMIs) and 'developmental' SJTs used to assess and develop professionalism and classroom readiness in initial teacher education programmes. (york.ac.uk)
  • Headquartered in Gebze, Turkey, the UN Technology Bank actively engages with national, regional and international partners to deliver its programme and projects which strengthen science, technology and innovation capacity in least developed countries. (un.org)
  • Iain Richardson, senior director of manufacturing at the pharmaceutical company Eli Lilly, said his company did have a programme focusing on developing drugs for tuberculosis, but that the company decided not to remain in the business because of basic supply and demand problems. (euractiv.com)
  • Prof Yang Xiuwen, Vice-Dean of the International Communications College of CUC, stressed the need to sustain the programme in order to strengthen the bond of relationship among developing countries. (modernghana.com)
  • Strategically, hypertension control is ideally suited to be the initial component of an integrated CVD control programme which has to be implemented in the developing countries. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The automaker is also considering building a diesel plant in the country as an increasing number of people prefer to buy diesel variants as diesel is significantly cheaper than gasoline. (forbes.com)
  • Censuses are the keystone of national statistics - only with comprehensive knowledge of the number and distribution of people in a country, and the shares of children, youth, working-age people and older people, can effective policies be designed and monitored. (unece.org)
  • Ohorongo Cement, a Namibian company, set up its own training center to prepare people for jobs as control room operators-for whom there is high demand in the country. (bcg.com)
  • Recruiting involves creating sophisticated hiring strategies and developing an employer brand to increase the number of applicants and attract talented people. (bcg.com)
  • The number of obese people in the developing world has reached over 900 million, superseding rates in the developed world, a study has revealed. (rt.com)
  • In 2008, over 900 million people in poorer countries were classified as being overweight, in comparison with 550 million in higher income countries. (rt.com)
  • People that live in developing countries often can't get enough to eat. (theecologist.org)
  • According to Nahle, by being overpopulated means that people in that country or that area consume too many limited resources, including natural objects like forest, facilities, or nonrenewable energy that would run out in the next few decades (2003). (ipl.org)
  • Because people move one country to another country that's why population is increasing day by day and crowd is enhancing. (ipl.org)
  • Furthermore, when immigrants move to another land then they also bring many diseases in the countries and this is very harmful for the host countries people. (ipl.org)
  • Although people are equipped about their career, they are not able to find a job in many countries and cities. (ipl.org)
  • However, this terminology has been used to hide the exploitation and oppression of people in the so-called developing countries - exploitation by corporations headquartered in the developed countries, by dictators installed or supported by the U.S. government or its allies, or by the governments and militaries of the developing countries themselves. (encyclopedia.com)
  • However, people in developing countries typically do not voice concerns over privacy and security with biometric data, says Mark Thomas, the executive director of VaxTrac, a nonprofit that worked with the Benin trials. (technologyreview.com)
  • With every one percent decline in developing country growth rates, approximately 20 million more people are added to this rapidly swelling number. (worldbank.org)
  • Wasn't it better that an aggressive brain drain did not bring Hassan Fathy to our land instead of him becoming Egypt's "people architect" to show poor Egyptian peasants how to build small homes from the soil beneath their feet and stimulate architectural counterparts in other developing countries? (opednews.com)
  • A quick glance at the annual report of the Ashoka Community of Fellows, founded by Bill Drayton, showcases the kind of skilled people from developing countries who became "change makers" because they remained in their own countries where they learned their many talents and refined their motivations. (opednews.com)
  • Roche , with almost $50 billion in annual revenues, says it has not filed for pharmaceutical patents in poorer countries for several years, with the result that over 22 million people in 55 countries have access to its HIV/AIDS drugs. (triplepundit.com)
  • Zinc status, psychological and nutritional assessment in old people recruited in five European countries: Zincage study. (springer.com)
  • Join us in empowering people in the developing world. (technoserve.org)
  • Many People suffer from Healthcare issue in Developing Countries, adults and children. (smore.com)
  • The people in these countries have very limited health care with little to no public services. (smore.com)
  • People in under developed countries are scared to go to hospitals a lot of the time because they say it is where people go to die. (smore.com)
  • Many people in the developing world do not have proper lighting in their homes, which causes problems for school children needing to study at night. (greenprophet.com)
  • It looks at people born between 1940 and 1980, and finds that 46 out of 50 countries with the lowest rates of mobility from the bottom to the top are in the developing world. (worldbank.org)
  • In addition to region-specific access to medicine programs in developing countries, Johnson and Johnson has developed the Web site access2wellness.com to help people find ways to get the medicines they need. (webwire.com)
  • Policymakers in developing countries have long been troubled by the unde-sirable, but apparently unavoidable, choice between providing broad access to education and developing high-quality schools. (psu.edu)
  • Incentives, decentralized decisionmaking, and evaluation are alien terms to education, in both industrial and developing countries, but they hold the key to improvement that has eluded policymakers pursuing traditional practices. (psu.edu)
  • The announcement was made this morning in Oxford during the 2009 Skoll World Forum on Social Entrepreneurship, a gathering of more than 700 leading social entrepreneurs, funders, academics and policymakers from more than 60 countries. (nextbillion.net)
  • A new study that surveyed reports on modalities for treating addiction and their effectiveness in the developing world calls on policymakers to use this information to support the design of programs that meet known population needs. (elsevier.com)
  • This led to a call by policymakers to improve access to treatment for SUD in developing nations. (elsevier.com)
  • Food Safety and Quality Systems in Developing Countries, Volume 2: Case Studies of Effective Implementation begins with a general overview of some of the issues and considerations that impact effective implementation of food safety and quality systems and put this in the context of some of the more noteworthy foodborne illness incidents in the recent past. (elsevier.com)
  • These considerations further complicate the design process, especially for an engineer inexperienced with designing for the developing world and unfamiliar with the specific developing world environment being designed for. (mit.edu)
  • This thesis primarily uses literature review to provide insight into human gait and amputee characteristics, as well as developing world considerations for designers of prosthetic limbs. (mit.edu)
  • A metric is also developed by which those developing world considerations can be managed, weighed and incorporated into the design. (mit.edu)
  • While Americans were appalled at the shenanigans of Martin Shkreli -- the so-called 'Pharma Bro' -- for what many described as cruel price-gouging of lifesaving drugs, the conflict between drug prices and affordability has long festered resentment in poorer countries. (triplepundit.com)
  • Countries with populations over 75 million are excluded. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conditions including cardiovascular disease, cancer and obesity (previously a problem mostly in Western countries) are emerging as health risks as their populations' vocations, diets and lifestyles change, says Ronald de Jong, CEO of Emerging Markets for Philips Healthcare, a maker of imaging equipment that is sponsoring Radiology-Readiness and providing RAD-AID and Project HOPE with technical expertise. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Small businesses provide important goods and services to underserved populations in the developing world. (technoserve.org)
  • Because developing nations are not "going to give up the immediate aspirations of their (often growing) populations for climate-change benefits that are largely in the future," the U.S. and Europe will need to work with them to ensure that they adopt emissions-lowering technologies, such as Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), and cleaner renewable sources. (treehugger.com)
  • Although further investigation is clearly needed in order to better understand the specific needs of developing world populations, assisting those populations should be a primary goal of all endeavors. (elsevier.com)
  • While there has been improvement in global health and living standards, a great gulf has opened between the developed world and the developing world, between urban and rural populations and between women and men,' she said. (voanews.com)
  • It does not provide quantitative information on research being carried out in international centres located in developing countries, or on the level of funding any individual technology receives. (scidev.net)
  • Over 50 correspondents from 54 countries contribute to the database, with articles about individual countries' policy frameworks, research institutes and biosafety regulations. (scidev.net)
  • On behalf of the U of T research community, congratulations to these global health experts," said Professor Paul Young , vice president, research and innovation at U of T. "We are thrilled that these scientists are contributing to the global fight to improve health and health care in developing countries. (utoronto.ca)
  • Most research into Autism Spectrum Disorders has been conducted in affluent English-speaking countries which have extensive professional support services. (hindawi.com)
  • Past research on children with ASD and the effects on parents of having a child with ASD has been limited largely to families in western countries [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Hence indigenous research is needed to identify the particular needs of families in nonwestern countries and how information and supports can be better tailored to their needs and be respectful of their cultures. (hindawi.com)
  • The findings from a series of research studies undertaken by the authors are summarised and comparisons are made with the results reported in similar studies undertaken in other countries. (hindawi.com)
  • "The growing rates of overweight and obesity in developing countries are alarming," said the report's author, ODI Research Fellow Steve Wiggins. (rt.com)
  • Renewable energy in developing countries TharunaPapari TEC 5970B Research Paper Summer 2014 Eastern Illinois University Abstract Renewable is which never runs out or infinitely available in nature. (bartleby.com)
  • Representatives from 42 countries participated in an international event to address this topic at the WIPO International Symposium on Intellectual Property Education and Research held in Geneva on June 30 and July 1. (wipo.int)
  • The cooperation between academic institutions and different stakeholders - for example private enterprise and government agencies - will also have to be developed and expanded since there is a growing need for an interdisciplinary approach to IP research capacity. (wipo.int)
  • And while advancements in HIV/AIDS pharmaceutical research means the virus no longer imposes a death sentence, many developing countries are now coping with the costs of new drugs that are more effective in countering high blood pressure and cancer. (triplepundit.com)
  • New research, undertaken by Occupational Knowledge International ( OK International ) and published in the Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene has found that children who lived close to lead processing plants in countries such as Mexico had lead levels up to 13 times that found in American children. (earthtimes.org)
  • Research into dementia is needed in developing countries. (nih.gov)
  • Our algorithm is a sound basis for culturally and educationally sensitive dementia diagnosis in clinical and population-based research, supported by translations of its constituent measures into most languages used in the developing world. (nih.gov)
  • a country where, I am told, research facilities are superb. (newscientist.com)
  • Yet, the quality of fundamental research in many areas, while competently performed on excellent equipment, often fails to match that carried out in Western countries. (newscientist.com)
  • They are also being trialled with other partners in several countries, highlighting the international engagement with this research and clear potential for further impact. (york.ac.uk)
  • We will reduce ambulance response times by developing a software system leveraging existing infrastructure that optimizes ambulance pre-positioning locations, and provides real-time travel time estimation and route optimization info to drivers. (utoronto.ca)
  • A developed country is a country that has progressed relatively far during time and has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure. (bartleby.com)
  • We also know that the transmission of global prices to domestic markets varies considerably across countries depending on their integration in world markets, the efficiency of the infrastructure in place, and the degree of market orientation in domestic agriculture policy. (oecd.org)
  • If a need is identified, the next step is to develop a plan to deliver the imaging equipment, train locals to use it and ensure that the local infrastructure is able to reliably support it. (scientificamerican.com)
  • It contains the latest insights and analyses of innovation based on intensive interviews as well as primary and secondary data of manufacturing firms in developing countries, Vietnam and Laos in particular. (springer.com)
  • Second, an overwhelming majority of innovations currently used in poor countries are developed in advanced countries, so technology transfer and learning from the latter are a fundamental source of innovation in the former. (springer.com)
  • Third, a surprisingly high rate of firms (around 50%) reported that they introduced new or significantly improved products or processes in poor countries, and this high innovation rate is a great benefit to be enhanced by government policies. (springer.com)
  • Fifth, the impact of innovation on firm performance is found to be mixed in these countries. (springer.com)
  • Although some of these devices, like an artificial, self-healing hydrogen producing leaf are still in the innovation stage, other new solar devices are now ready to be marketed to the masses who really need them in the developing world. (greenprophet.com)
  • The classification (as of June 2017 [update] ) applies to 47 countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cambodia was one of the first countries to undergo an eTrade Readiness Assessment in 2017, and has been using the analysis to guide its digital trade efforts. (weforum.org)
  • The report includes a Deal Book with detailed fact sheets for all impact bonds in developing countries, featuring both the four contracted and 24 in design phases, as of August 1, 2017. (brookings.edu)
  • 1 Ninety eight per cent of deaths in children occur in the developing world, mostly as a result of infections. (bmj.com)
  • Fact: Nearly all of the deaths occur in the developing world, with poor children facing twice the risk of dying compared to richer children. (smore.com)
  • In addition, investment in ad campaigns in South Korea and the large-scale training of women to prepare meals high in vegetable content and low in fat has improved nutrition in the country. (rt.com)
  • Although even the most potent and recently developed antimicrobial drugs are available throughout the world, in developing countries their use is confined to those who are wealthy enough to afford them. (bmj.com)
  • Liechtenstein has very low taxes imposed on its citizens and is a center of investment from countries and the wealthy. (listverse.com)
  • G rowth rates in the developing world remain far too modest to create the kind of jobs we need to improve the lives of the poorest 40 per cent," said World Bank Group President Jim Yong Kim. (rediff.com)
  • This figure has more than tripled since 1980 in underdeveloped countries, while in wealthier nations the rate has grown by 1.7 times, the report says. (rt.com)
  • This joint study by the International Labour Office and the Secretariat of the World Trade Organization focuses on the relationship between trade and the growth of the informal economy in developing countries. (slideshare.net)
  • For countries such as the United States, if consumers ate according to the national and international protein recommendations and reduced food waste by 50 percent, their total nitrogen footprint would decrease by over 35 percent," the duo wrote. (yahoo.com)
  • The PCT is an international treaty, administered by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), between more than 140 Paris Convention countries. (un.org)
  • The Academy offers grants to individuals and organizations to fund international volunteer and humanitarian projects under the Skin Care for Developing Countries program. (aad.org)
  • Ryan, who said his views reflected a consensus of opinion in the Carter administration, said he was optimistic about loans to less developed countries (LDC) largely because of new international financing facilities being planned by the International Monetary Fund and other lending groups. (washingtonpost.com)
  • As business activities become international and most recently global, and geographical borders between countries vanish, there are closer and more frequent interactions among organizations, firms, industries and institutions both within and between countries. (fgv.br)
  • Waste Management is an international journal devoted to the presentation and discussion of information on the generation, prevention, characterization, monitoring, treatment, handling, reuse and ultimate residual disposition of solid wastes, both in industrialized and in economically developing countries. (environmental-expert.com)
  • This mother-of-all whammies overburdens international humanitarian systems, as developed countries focus on domestic needs, limiting much-needed funding for international emergencies that have become back-page news. (thestar.com)
  • Children and workers in developing countries face significant risks of lead poisoning, which can cause lifelong health problems," said Perry Gottesfeld from OK International. (earthtimes.org)
  • Regional variations are also noted, notably between developed and developing countries as participation to international trade is becoming an increasing attribute of developing countries, notably in Pacific Asia. (hofstra.edu)
  • Sweden also serves as a major tourist destination for millions of international travelers, as the country has a long and rich history. (listverse.com)
  • Prof Liu was opening a seminar on Media and Media Education for 43 journalists drawn from 22 developing countries in the Chinese capital of Beijing. (modernghana.com)
  • According to authors such as Walt Whitman Rostow developing countries are in transition from traditional lifestyles towards the modern lifestyle which began in the Industrial Revolution in the 18th and 19th centuries. (wikipedia.org)
  • This article provides some guidelines to develop these frameworks by elaborating some of the major characteristics of strategies, structures, decision-makings and management systems in Developing Countries (DC). (fgv.br)
  • Recognizing the limitations of Western management theories across nations will provide impetus for developing new theoretical frameworks for understanding management activities in non-industrialized countries. (fgv.br)
  • How, with what means, and from what perspectives these less-known systems should be observed are the type of questions that provide a starting point for proposing guidelines for developing better theoretical frameworks for understanding management systems in different contexts. (fgv.br)
  • The curriculum was developed with input from the World Health Organization. (innovations-report.com)
  • GlaxoSmithKline is currently researching and developing drugs and vaccines for three of the most deadly diseases that according to the World Health Organization receive little attention from most pharmaceutical companies: HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis. (webwire.com)
  • Norvatis has also increased efforts to further the access to medicine programs it runs in other countries by reaching out to the World Health Organization (WHO) and other nongovernmental organizations. (webwire.com)
  • Identifying and assessing talent covers both understanding the profile of the workforce and developing a structured performance assessment. (bcg.com)
  • This paper documents the main stylized features of macroeconomic fluctuations for 12 developing countries. (imf.org)
  • Moreover, immigration is the main reason why the population in developed countries like American is still growing. (ipl.org)
  • It is concluded that the provision of technical change and investment opportunities may be less costly than direct subsidization as a way of bringing down rural interest rates in developing countries. (rand.org)
  • This book presents the situation regarding energy provision and policy in developing countries. (routledge.com)
  • Integrated financial services provision (IFSP) is becoming the norm around the world, with many countries today having no or very few restrictions on the ability of banks to offer securities, asset management, or insurance services in addition to commercial banking services. (jhu.edu)
  • The first country to graduate from LDC status was Botswana in 1994. (wikipedia.org)
  • North (1994) and Olson (1992) claim that successful national business systems of industrialized countries may not be successful in other parts of the world. (fgv.br)
  • There are more than 300 million small and mid-sized enterprises (SMEs) in developing countries, which contribute up to 40% of national GDP. (technoserve.org)
  • SMEs account for about 70% of all jobs in developing countries. (technoserve.org)
  • SMEs in developing countries often face much heavier regulatory burdens than in the EU. (euractiv.com)
  • In developing countries, they often don't have data protection, and creating a business-friendly environment and bringing SMEs into the formal economy and keeping them there to succeed must be as much as a priority as cutting red tape," Deva said. (euractiv.com)
  • That wiped out about seven percent of the value in stock markets in advanced and developing countries, hitting commodity prices hard, and strengthening the dollar as investors sought a safe haven. (rawstory.com)
  • Since the late 1990s, developing countries tended to demonstrate higher growth rates than developed countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • It also examines how high rates of informal employment diminish the scope for developing countries to translate trade openness into sustainable long-term growth. (slideshare.net)
  • Developing countries-at first sheltered from the worst elements of the turmoil-are now much more vulnerable, with dwindling capital flows, huge withdrawals of capital leading to losses in equity markets, and skyrocketing interest rates. (worldbank.org)
  • Diarrheal diseases are major causes of morbidity, with attack rates ranging from two to 12 or more illnesses per person per year in developed and developing countries. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, countries that implement the regulation in a harmonized manner will reduce trade barriers and provide opportunities for sharing resources, such as testing facilities. (nrdc.org)
  • Although comprehensive overviews of treatment models were markedly absent from the literature surveyed, the studies highlight specific areas of need within developing countries, building on existing awareness of general barriers to treatment in those countries. (elsevier.com)
  • There is a need to identify both the barriers and the enablers to design within a rural context in developing countries (DC). (mdpi.com)
  • We chart the progress and impact of bacterial resistance to antimicrobial drugs in the developing world. (bmj.com)
  • Since 1995, when Jeffrey Sachs and Andrew Warner published their influential study claiming that natural resource abundance has a strong negative impact on growth, the term "resource curse" has been associated with mineral wealth in developing countries. (worldbank.org)
  • China's impact is clearest on East Asian countries: in other developing regions, it was swamped by other causes of structural change. (repec.org)
  • Efforts to share sustainable agriculture practices with farmers in developing nations can have widespread impact, especially since a substantial portion of the population in these countries is typically involved in the agriculture industry. (theecologist.org)
  • Impact of Information Technology in the Developing Countries Information technology is the use of different systems to store, transfer and retrieve data for meaningful purposes. (bartleby.com)
  • A recent article on Mashable, the technology web news site, reports on 11 ingenious solar devices that are having a positive impact on the developing world . (greenprophet.com)
  • Automation is having a global impact, but it will manifest differently in different regions and countries," says Martin Ford , author of the book Rise of the Robots: Technology and the Threat of a Jobless Future . (asiasociety.org)
  • In the developing countries, factory robots will have a huge impact. (asiasociety.org)
  • One way to improve our understanding is to analyze management systems of socalled less-developed countries, with the assumption that this can provide useful information to us (Miller, 1953). (fgv.br)
  • Sure, nobody is forcing skilled workers from less developed countries to come to the US other than dictators, but if the US wants peace, stability and better livelihoods to have a chance, it has to tell its giant corporations to pull back on their gluttonous appetite to recruit the "cream of the crop" from these countries and invest in American skills. (opednews.com)
  • Given Toyota's success in developing markets, its global footprint and the growth characteristics of these markets, we believe this is a good focus for the company going forward. (forbes.com)
  • This paper provides estimates of both national and global welfare costs of bilateral quotas on textiles and apparel using an applied general equilibrium model which covers bilateral quotas on exports of textiles and apparel negotiated between three major developed importing countries (the US, Canada and the EEC) and 34 supplying developing countries under the provisions of the Multifibre Arrangement applying in mid-1980s (MFA 111). (nber.org)
  • Based on a global trade database of 188 countries, the study showed the bulk of nitrogen emissions in 2010 came from industry and agriculture, which accounted for 161 teragrams (trillion grammes), while 28 Tg was produced by consumers -- mainly from sewage. (yahoo.com)
  • In total, 114.3 million hectares of GM crops were cultivated worldwide, with 43 per cent of the global GM crop area in developing countries. (scidev.net)
  • What countries can do is to take action to ensure more confidence in global markets and assure smoother flows of food, especially in emergency situations. (oecd.org)
  • Therefore, understanding how organizations in different countries adapt, resist and generally manage themselves may be one of the key success factors for global business activities in the new century. (fgv.br)
  • Although there is nearly $16 billion in worldwide funding for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) services, countries with the highest burden of disease rely heavily on donor funding for their HIV programs, including such sources as the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM). (rand.org)
  • The report draws on a newly developed Global Database of Intergenerational Mobility with unprecedented coverage of 148 countries, home to 96 percent of the world's population. (worldbank.org)