Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
Countries that have reached a level of economic achievement through an increase of production, per capita income and consumption, and utilization of natural and human resources.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.
The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.
The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)
Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.
The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)
An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.
All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
Aspects of health and disease related to travel.
The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
The islands of the Pacific Ocean divided into MICRONESIA; MELANESIA; and POLYNESIA (including NEW ZEALAND). The collective name Oceania includes the aforenamed islands, adding AUSTRALIA; NEW ZEALAND; and the Malay Archipelago (INDONESIA). (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p910, 880)
The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.
Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)
The science of utilization, distribution, and consumption of services and materials.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
International organizations which provide health-related or other cooperative services.
A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.
Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.
Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.
Value of all final goods and services produced in a country in one year.
Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.
Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.
The area that lies between continental North and South America and comprises the Caribbean Sea, the West Indies, and the adjacent mainland regions of southern Mexico, Central America, Colombia, and Venezuela.
An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)
Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.
The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.
All organized methods of funding.
The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.
People who leave their place of residence in one country and settle in a different country.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.
A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.
A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)
Method of measuring performance against established standards of best practice.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The provision of monetary resources including money or capital and credit; obtaining or furnishing money or capital for a purchase or enterprise and the funds so obtained. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed.)
Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.
The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)
Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
Termination of all transmission of infection by global extermination of the infectious agent through surveillance and containment (From Porta, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 5th ed).
The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.
Created as the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes in 1918. Yugoslavia became the official name in 1929. BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA; CROATIA; and SLOVENIA formed independent countries 7 April 1992. Macedonia became independent 8 February 1994 as the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (MACEDONIA REPUBLIC).
Maternal deaths resulting from complications of pregnancy and childbirth in a given population.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.
The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.
The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.
The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
The geographical area of Asia comprising KAZAKHSTAN; KYRGYZSTAN; TAJIKISTAN; TURKMENISTAN; and UZBEKISTAN. The desert region of Kara Kum (Qara Qum) is largely in Turkmenistan and the desert region of Kyzyl Kum (Kizil Kum or Qizil Qum), is in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p233, 590, 636)
A historical and cultural entity dispersed across the wide geographical area of Europe, as opposed to the East, Asia, and Africa. The term was used by scholars through the late medieval period. Thereafter, with the impact of colonialism and the transmission of cultures, Western World was sometimes expanded to include the Americas. (Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)
Persons who have acquired academic or specialized training in countries other than that in which they are working. The concept excludes physicians for which FOREIGN MEDICAL GRADUATES is the likely heading.
A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.
Demographic and epidemiologic changes that have occurred in the last five decades in many developing countries and that are characterized by major growth in the number and proportion of middle-aged and elderly persons and in the frequency of the diseases that occur in these age groups. The health transition is the result of efforts to improve maternal and child health via primary care and outreach services and such efforts have been responsible for a decrease in the birth rate; reduced maternal mortality; improved preventive services; reduced infant mortality, and the increased life expectancy that defines the transition. (From Ann Intern Med 1992 Mar 15;116(6):499-504)
Somalia is located on the east coast of Africa on and north of the Equator and, with Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, and Kenya, is often referred to as the Horn of Africa. It comprises Italy's former Trust Territory of Somalia and the former British Protectorate of Somaliland. The capital is Mogadishu.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The geographical designation for the countries of the MIDDLE EAST and the countries BANGLADESH; BHUTAN; INDIA; NEPAL; PAKISTAN; and SRI LANKA. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993 & Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A geographic area of east and southeast Asia encompassing CHINA; HONG KONG; JAPAN; KOREA; MACAO; MONGOLIA; and TAIWAN.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.
An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)
An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.
The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.
People who frequently change their place of residence.
A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.
Travel to another country for the purpose of medical treatment.
The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.
Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)
The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).
The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.
A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.
Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.
Persons fleeing to a place of safety, especially those who flee to a foreign country or power to escape danger or persecution in their own country or habitual residence because of race, religion, or political belief. (Webster, 3d ed)
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.
Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.
Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.
Australia, New Zealand and neighboring islands in the South Pacific Ocean. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed.)
A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Port-au-Prince. With the Dominican Republic it forms the island of Hispaniola - Haiti occupying the western third and the Dominican Republic, the eastern two thirds. Haiti belonged to France from 1697 until its rule was challenged by slave insurrections from 1791. It became a republic in 1820. It was virtually an American protectorate from 1915 to 1934. It adopted its present constitution in 1964 and amended it in 1971. The name may represent either of two Caribbean words, haiti, mountain land, or jhaiti, nest. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p481 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p225)
A republic in western Africa, north of NIGERIA and west of CHAD. Its capital is Niamey.
The status of health in rural populations.
A country located in north Africa, bordering the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, with a southern border with Western Sahara, eastern border with Algeria. The capital is Rabat.
A republic in southern Africa, southwest of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and west of ZAMBIA. Its capital is Luanda.
Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.
Administration and functional structures for the purpose of collectively systematizing activities for a particular goal.

Role of schools in the transmission of measles in rural Senegal: implications for measles control in developing countries. (1/5036)

Patterns of measles transmission at school and at home were studied in 1995 in a rural area of Senegal with a high level of vaccination coverage. Among 209 case children with a median age of 8 years, there were no deaths, although the case fatality ratio has previously been 6-7% in this area. Forty percent of the case children had been vaccinated against measles; the proportion of vaccinated children was higher among secondary cases (47%) than among index cases (33%) (prevalence ratio = 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.76). Vaccinated index cases may have been less infectious than unvaccinated index cases, since they produced fewer clinical cases among exposed children (relative risk = 0.55, 95% CI 0.29-1.04). The secondary attack rate was lower in the schools than in the homes (relative risk = 0.31, 95% CI 0.20-0.49). The school outbreaks were protracted, with 4-5 generations of cases being seen in the two larger schools. Vaccine efficacy was found to be 57% (95% CI -23 to 85) in the schools and 74% (95% CI 62-82) in the residential compounds. Measles infection resulted in a mean of 3.8 days of absenteeism per case, though this did not appear to have an impact on the children's grades. Among the index cases, 56% of children were probably infected by neighbors in the community, and 7% were probably infected at health centers, 13% outside the community, and 24% in one of the three schools which had outbreaks during the epidemic. However, most of the school-related cases occurred at the beginning and therefore contributed to the general propagation of the epidemic. To prevent school outbreaks, it may be necessary to require vaccination prior to school entry and to revaccinate children in individual schools upon detection of cases of measles. Multidose measles vaccination schedules will be necessary to control measles in developing countries.  (+info)


nvited commentary: vaccine failure or failure to vaccinate?  (+info)

The present state and future prospects of occupational health in Bangladesh. (3/5036)

Bangladesh is a relatively young and developing country. At the present time, like in most developing countries, a clear demarcation between occupational health care and general medical care is difficult to be recognized in Bangladesh. Occupational health is a fairly new field, as the country is undergoing industrialization and occupational health activities are operated by several ministries, such as Labour, Health, Industry and Transport. Legal foundations of the occupational health-care system based on British India and Pakistani era, were adopted and amended by the Government of Bangladesh after the liberation of the country in 1971. Most of the Labour laws have been rectified by the Government of Bangladesh according to the ILO Conventions. Reconsideration of the occupational health service system avoiding duplication for the 'occupational health' component in several ministries might be helpful to achieve the successful provision of an occupational health service in the developing Bangladesh.  (+info)

Epidemiology and prevention of group A streptococcal infections: acute respiratory tract infections, skin infections, and their sequelae at the close of the twentieth century. (4/5036)

Infections of the upper respiratory tract and skin due to group A Streptococcus are common, and the organism is highly transmissible. In industrialized countries and to some extent in developing countries, control efforts continue to emphasize that group A streptococcal pharyngitis should be properly diagnosed and appropriately treated. In developing countries and in indigenous populations where the burden of group A streptococcal diseases appears greatest, the epidemiology is less completely defined and may differ from that in industrialized countries. There is a need for accurately collected epidemiological data from developing countries, which may also further clarify the pathogenesis of group A streptococcal infections and their sequelae. While proper treatment of group A streptococcal pharyngitis continues to be essential in all populations, it may be appropriate in developing countries to consider additional strategies to reduce rates of pyoderma.  (+info)

Antibiotic strategies for developing countries: experience with acute respiratory tract infections in Pakistan. (5/5036)

The Pakistan program for control of acute respiratory tract infections (ARIs) adopted the standard ARI-case-management strategy of the World Health Organization and recommended co-trimoxazole for the management of nonsevere pneumonia. Reports in that country of high in vitro antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae to co-trimoxazole prompted the program to reevaluate its treatment policy. Two community-based studies during 1991-1993 showed in vivo efficacy of co-trimoxazole in 92% and 91% of children with nonsevere pneumonia. A third double-blind trial showed co-trimoxazole and oral amoxicillin to be equally effective in vivo in cases of nonsevere pneumonia, despite high in vitro resistance. Country-wide surveillance from 1991 to 1994 revealed 78.3%-79.9% in vitro resistance to co-trimoxazole among S. pneumoniae isolates and 59.5%-61.0% among H. influenzae isolates. Co-trimoxazole is still recommended by the Pakistan ARI control program. The fact that amoxicillin is three times more expensive and must be administered more frequently is a big impediment to recommending it as a first-line drug for nonsevere pneumonia.  (+info)

Burden of infection on growth failure. (6/5036)

The high prevalence of infections among children living in poor areas of developing countries impairs linear growth in these populations. Acute, invasive infections, which provoke a systemic response (e.g., dysentery and pneumonia), and chronic infections, which affect the host over a sustained period (e.g., gut helminth infections), have a substantial effect on linear growth. Such infections can diminish linear growth by affecting nutritional status. This occurs because infections may decrease food intake, impair nutrient absorption, cause direct nutrient losses, increase metabolic requirements or catabolic losses of nutrients and, possibly, impair transport of nutrients to target tissues. In addition, induction of the acute phase response and production of proinflammatory cytokines may directly affect the process of bone remodeling that is required for long bone growth. Infection of cells directly involved in bone remodeling (osteoclasts or osteoblasts) by specific viruses may also directly affect linear growth. Many interventions are possible to diminish the effect of infection on growth. Prevention of disease through sanitation, vector control, promotion of breast-feeding and vaccination is crucial. Appropriate treatment of infections (e.g., antibiotics for pneumonia) as well as supportive nutritional therapy (again including breast-feeding) during and after recovery, is also important. Targeted therapeutic interventions to decrease the prevalence of gut helminth infections may also be appropriate in areas in which such infections are widespread. Such interventions are of public health benefit not only because they reduce the incidence or severity of infections, but also because they decrease the long-term detrimental effect of malnutrition on populations.  (+info)

Role of intergenerational effects on linear growth. (7/5036)

Current knowledge on the role of intergenerational effects on linear growth is reviewed on the basis of a literature search and recent findings from an ongoing study in Guatemala. Fourteen studies were identified, most of which examined the intergenerational relationships in birth weight. Overall, for every 100 g increase in maternal birth weight, her child's birth weight increased by 10-20 g. The study samples were primarily from developed countries, and birth weight data were extracted from hospital records and/or birth registries. Among the few studies that examined associations between the adult heights of parents and their offspring, correlation coefficients of 0.42-0.5 were reported. None of the studies examined intergenerational relationships in birth length or linear growth patterns during early childhood, preadolescence and/or adolescence. Prospectively collected data from long-term studies being carried out in rural Guatemala provide the first evidence of intergenerational relationships in birth size in a developing country setting. Data were available for 215 mother-child pairs. Maternal birth size was a significant predictor (P < 0.05) of child's birth size after adjusting for gestational age and sex of the child and other potential confounders. Child's birth weight increased by 29 g/100 g increase in maternal birth weight which is nearly twice that reported in developed countries. Similarly, child's birth length increased by 0.2 cm for every 1 cm increase in mother's birth length. The effect of maternal birth weight remained significant even after adjusting for maternal adult size. More evidence from developing countries will help explain the underlying mechanisms and identify appropriate interventions to prevent growth retardation.  (+info)

Risk of Helicobacter pylori infection among long-term residents in developing countries. (8/5036)

The seroprevalence and incidence of Helicobacter pylori infection were determined among 312 North American missionaries who were serving in developing countries between 1967 and 1984. The majority (81%) resided in sub-Saharan Africa. When initially evaluated, the missionaries had a mean age of 40 years, 65% were female, and all were of white race/ethnicity. An ELISA showed that the initial prevalence of IgG antibody to H. pylori was 17%. After a mean of 7.4 years of service (1917 person-years of exposure), 37 (14%) of 259 initially seronegative subjects seroconverted to anti-H. pylori, giving an annual incidence of 1.9%. These data indicate a relatively higher risk of H. pylori infection among missionaries compared with an annual incidence of seroconversion of 0.3-1.0% in industrialized nations. Long-term residents in developing countries should be evaluated for H. pylori infection when gastrointestinal symptoms develop.  (+info)

During the Cold War, unaligned countries of the Third World[6] were seen as potential allies by both the First and Second World. Therefore, the United States and the Soviet Union went to great lengths to establish connections in these countries by offering economic and military support to gain strategically located alliances (e.g. the United States in Vietnam or the Soviet Union in Cuba).[6] By the end of the Cold War, many Third World countries had adopted capitalist or communist economic models and continued to receive support from the side they had chosen. Throughout the Cold War and beyond, the countries of the Third World have been the priority recipients of Western foreign aid and the focus of economic development through mainstream theories such as modernization theory and dependency theory.[6] By the end of the 1960s, the idea of the Third World came to represent countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America that were considered underdeveloped by the West based on a variety of ...
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These findings, which were the results of review and analysis of all published studies of pediatric adherence to ART in low income countries, appear in the August 2008 issue of The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, and provide the first complete picture of ART adherence among individuals under age 18 in limited income countries, as defined by the World Bank.. While many have thought that people wont be able to take medicines as well as they need to due to limited resources in poor countries, our review of all studies on the topic strongly suggests that children in low income countries are able to maintain at least a comparable degree of ART adherence, if not better adherence, than children in high income countries, said Rachel Vreeman, M.D., M.S., first author of the study. Dr. Vreeman is assistant professor of pediatrics at IU School of Medicine and a Regenstrief Institute affiliated scientist. Healthcare systems need to carefully monitor how children with HIV take their medicines. This ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Detection and management of drug-resistant tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients in lower-income countries. AU - Ballif, M. AU - Nhandu, V. AU - Wood, R. AU - Dusingize, J C. AU - Carter, E J. AU - Cortes, C P. AU - McGowan, C C. AU - Diero, L. AU - Graber, C. AU - Renner, L. AU - Hawerlander, D. AU - Kiertiburanakul, S. AU - Du, Q T. AU - Sterling, T R. AU - Egger, M. AU - Fenner, L. AU - International epidemiological Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA). AU - Sodemann, Morten PY - 2014/11. Y1 - 2014/11. N2 - SETTING: Drug resistance threatens tuberculosis (TB) control, particularly among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected persons.OBJECTIVE: To describe practices in the prevention and management of drug-resistant TB under antiretroviral therapy (ART) programs in lower-income countries.DESIGN: We used online questionnaires to collect program-level data on 47 ART programs in Southern Africa (n = 14), East Africa (n = 8), West Africa (n = 7), Central Africa (n = 5), Latin ...
Basel, September 22, 2017 - Novartis announced a new collaboration with The Max Foundation to support continued access to treatment at no cost for nearly 34,000 current patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), gastrointestinal tumors (GIST) and other rare cancers. The two organizations have been long-time collaborators in providing access to care for patients in lower-income countries through the Glivec International Patient Assistance Program (GIPAP), one of the most innovative patient assistance programs ever implemented on a global scale. The new collaboration, called CMLPath to Care(TM), is an evolution from GIPAP, a partnership that provided Glivec (imatinib)* at no cost to diagnosed patients in lower-income countries where there may not be access to reimbursement or funding mechanisms, and to those unable to pay for the medication. Under the new initiative, The Max Foundation, a global, patient-focused, non-governmental organization (NGO), will assume from Novartis the responsibility ...
Basel, September 22, 2017 - Novartis announced a new collaboration with The Max Foundation to support continued access to treatment at no cost for nearly 34,000 current patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), gastrointestinal tumors (GIST) and other rare cancers. The two organizations have been long-time collaborators in providing access to care for patients in lower-income countries through the Glivec International Patient Assistance Program (GIPAP), one of the most innovative patient assistance programs ever implemented on a global scale. The new collaboration, called CMLPath to Care(TM), is an evolution from GIPAP, a partnership that provided Glivec (imatinib)* at no cost to diagnosed patients in lower-income countries where there may not be access to reimbursement or funding mechanisms, and to those unable to pay for the medication. Under the new initiative, The Max Foundation, a global, patient-focused, non-governmental organization (NGO), will assume from Novartis the responsibility ...
Natural News) The City of Angels is looking a whole lot more like a Den of Demons these days, as the second-largest city in the United States descends into complete breakdown, according to Dr. Drew Pinsky, a longtime L.A. resident and radio personality who gave his take on the current crumbling state of the worlds biggest entertainment hub during a recent episode of The Ingraham Angle.. Rampant illegal immigration, homelessness, rodent infestation, and infectious disease are just a few of the many serious problems afflicting todays LA, according to reports. And in the eyes of Dr. Pinsky, the California mecca is now, in many ways, worse-off than many Third World countries because of it all.. We have a complete breakdown of the basic needs of civilization in Los Angeles right now, Dr. Pinsky stated frankly to Laura Ingraham during the segment.. We have the three prongs of airborne disease, tuberculosis is exploding, (and) rodent-borne. We are one of the only cities in the country that ...
The implementation of policies arising out of fraudulent fearmongering and biased studies on global warming is already devastating the third world, with a doubling in food prices causing mass starvation and death - a primary reason why the climategate crooks and their allies should be criminally investigated and hit with the strongest charges possible.. As Lord Monckton outlined in his recent Alex Jones Show appearance, climate change alarmism and implementation of global warming policies is a crime of the highest nature, because it is already having a genocidal impact in countries like Haiti, where the doubling of food prices is resulting in a substantial increase in starvation, poverty and death.. Poor people around the world, Are being killed in large numbers by starvation as a result of (climate change) policy, said Monckton, due to huge areas of agricultural land being turned over to the growth of biofuels.. Take Haiti where they live on mud pie with real mud costing 3 cents ...
I would like to comment on the August 4 piece titled Avoiding the Next Obama and commend the author, L.E. Ikenga, for a job well-done. She articulated nicely something Ive long lamented: the virulence of the virus of liberalism. It is so virulent, in fact, that it spreads like wildfire even throughout a place such as the Third World, which some may think would have little acquaintance with it. And I have sometimes told people how it spreads: oh-so bright young skulls full of mush from faraway lands come to the West to be educated at our oh-so fine universities, contract the virus, and then return to their own nations and infect the hapless souls who lap up their intellectualism ...
Third World Newsreel (TWN) fosters the creation, appreciation and dissemination of independent progressive media by and about people of color and allies.
Third World Newsreel (TWN) fosters the creation, appreciation and dissemination of independent progressive media by and about people of color and allies.
In reading about the possible land battles that might have ensued in a Third World War in Europe, Ive found an interesting parallel with the Schlieffen Plan of 1914 and the Manstein Plan of 1940.
For instance, he accurately quotes World Bank statistics to show that multinational corporations are not investing in the poorest countries of the Third World, but mostly in each other and middle-tier countires like Brazil and Mexico. Hes right to point out that this pattern of investment is not a repeat of what Lenin described as the super-exploitation of the third world. (MNCs, as a rule, dont go to the poorest countries unless they harbor certain resources like oil.) What he fails to mention is that this same data points to a failure of the dominant development model, as pushed by the World Bank itself, along with the IMF. The World Bank, whose mission is to help poor countries develop, is the leader of the banking pack. Where its investments go, MNC investments often follow. MNCs rarely invest in countries unless the bank has been there first. In effect, the bank does due diligence on third world risks for the multinationals. The problem is that most of the Banks money (particularly ...
you dont have the swine flu.... hey remember a few years ago when they said that we where all going to die from sars? and then we where all going to died from the bird flu? and now we are all going to die from the swine flu...we arent going to die from some global disease because this isnt a movie. IN MOVIES these things could spread like wildfire because there is so much global travel and global trade and all it takes is one affected guy to go to new York city and next thing you know...were all dead...IN MOVIES that could happen...this is real life and there are a million variables in that keep things like this from happening, first and formost being the amazing human immune system and the wide differences between individual immune systems, that and how climates affect airborne diseases, the vast differences in the cleanliness of first world countries compared to third world countries, the general health differences between first and third world countries and on and on and on . see when you ...
Child mortality is on the rise in the United States. For half a century the US has seen a sustained decline in the number of children who die before their fifth birthday. But since 2000 this trend has been reversed.. Although the US leads the world in healthcare spending - per head of population it spends twice what other rich OECD nations spend on average, 13 per cent of its national income - this high level goes disproportionately on the care of white Americans. It has not been targeted to eradicate large disparities in infant death rates based on race, wealth and state of residence.. The infant mortality rate in the US is now the same as in Malaysia. High levels of spending on personal health care reflect Americas cutting-edge medical technology and treatment. But the paradox at the heart of the US health system is that, because of inequalities in health financing, countries that spend substantially less than the US have, on average, a healthier population. A baby boy from one of the top 5 ...
Free Nursing Essay Sample: AbstractBackground Nepal is representative of Low and Middle Income Countries LMIC with - NursingPaper
The vicious form of cholera has already killed 7,000 people in Haiti, where it surfaced in a remote village in October 2010. Leading researchers from Harvard Medical School and elsewhere told ABC News that, despite UN denials, there is now a mountain of evidence suggesting the strain originated in Nepal, and was carried to Haiti by Nepalese soldiers who came to Haiti to serve as UN peacekeepers after the earthquake that ravaged the country on Jan. 12, 2010 -- two years ago today. Haiti had never seen a case of cholera until the arrival of the peacekeepers, who allegedly failed to maintain sanitary conditions at their base ...
Kaposis sarcoma (KS)is the commonest malignancy associated with HIV/AIDS. Therapy for this cancer, which causes substantial morbidity, is suboptimal in resource poor settings. The reasons for this are: advanced state of immunosuppression when patients present for clinical care, concomitant opportunistic infections, non- availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART), non-availability and toxicity of chemotherapy (CXT), when available, in patients with full blown AIDS, prohibitive costs of bone marrow support and fiscal constraints in resource poor settings.. A recent Cochrane Review assessed the effectiveness of current therapeutic regimens for HIV KS, with a focus on options available in resource poor settings. The major selection criteria for this review were randomized controlled trials for HIV KS in adults. The main conclusions were that data from randomized controlled trials on effective treatments for HIV KS are sparse, particularly among people who are also taking highly active ...
Kaposis sarcoma (KS)is the commonest malignancy associated with HIV/AIDS. Therapy for this cancer, which causes substantial morbidity, is suboptimal in resource poor settings. The reasons for this are: advanced state of immunosuppression when patients present for clinical care, concomitant opportunistic infections, non- availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART), non-availability and toxicity of chemotherapy (CXT), when available, in patients with full blown AIDS, prohibitive costs of bone marrow support and fiscal constraints in resource poor settings.. A recent Cochrane Review assessed the effectiveness of current therapeutic regimens for HIV KS, with a focus on options available in resource poor settings. The major selection criteria for this review were randomized controlled trials for HIV KS in adults. The main conclusions were that data from randomized controlled trials on effective treatments for HIV KS are sparse, particularly among people who are also taking highly active ...
Maybe one of the MDs on here can comment, but Ill bet it is safer for the woman to do it this way. Since apparently this abortion doctor was a bit fumble-fingered, he may have decided to avoid further perforated uteruses, cervixes, and bowels by not attempting the equivalent of dismembering a small chicken using small pliers, while reaching through a flexible fire hose into a easily torn plastic bag. I mean really, once youre in the baby-killin bidness, why NOT just ignore a silly legal fiction and minimize the risk to mom by extracting the baby the old fashioned way and then doing the necessary? Who was going to complain? His poor (in every sense) patients, desperate to be rid of the curse of motherhood? The government inspectors who had granted him de facto immunity from, um, everything? ...
Every once in a while a simple solution gracefully solves a problem that affects a large number of people. It doesnt happen often, but when it does, its wonderful to see the results. This is the type of thing most scientist hope to experience at least once in their careers. I think most of us at one point in time have hoped: please let me improve the world in some small way to make life easier for some people.. I have to admit as a scientist I love to see graceful solutions to any problem. Prof. Josh Silver at the University of Oxford has come up with just such a brilliant simple solution that any scientist who understands index of refraction will say: Ahhh… yes! about. Prof. Silver has made plastic glasses with adaptive lenses for third world countries. In third world countries to get glasses right now you have to either already know (by magic) your prescription, or try and somehow happen across an optometrist (and you thought it was just about affording a roof over your head!). ...
Why should the developed world care about cancer in the third world? Well, certainly for humanitarian reasons, but also because developing nations have much to teach developed countries about cancer, notes Joe Harford, PhD, Director of the Office of International Affairs in NCIs Office of the Director.. Research done anywhere can help everywhere, he said, citing chemotherapy treatment for Burkitts lymphoma, which grew out of research done in Africa. He noted that as third world countries become more developed and adopt western diets and lifestyles, this transition provides unique cancer research opportunities.. Many US organizations, even though they may have American in their name, are becoming much more internationally focused, added Dr. Harford, noting that the US National Cancer Act of 1971 specifically directed the United States to support cancer research beyond its geographical boundaries.. Historically, cancer has not been thought of as a public health problem in the developing ...
Its unbelievable. I didnt realize the number was so astounding, said Kathleen Zein, a native of Port-Au-Prince, Haiti living in Houston. I think the report is very sad. Hopefully things will change around, but its an ongoing process. Its just bad choices, and they dont have the right mentors to guide them and [provide them with the appropriate way of] protecting themselves.. Today, the American Reading Foundation offers these educational facts: The United States houses 42 million Americans and non-citizens that cannot read, write or perform simple math. Another 50 million American citizens cannot read past the 4th grade level. ILLITERACY DEFINES THE THIRD WORLD. In my world travels, I witnessed unimaginable poverty, misery and human suffering in third world countries. Where you enjoy grocery stores filled with food and schools with teachers, over 1 billion humans cannot find a clean glass of drinking water daily. Because of that, 18 million humans starve to death annually. Yet, third ...
While explaining CEED and its mission, I often get asked, what about the poor children in America? Its a fair question. Especially if you havent traveled to a third world country and seen firsthand what third world poverty looks like. Heres the difference, in Africa, child poverty means hunger, disease, illiteracy, abuse, lack of healthcare, and…. ...
I know either I have IBD or IBS. LAST 30 years I have it. I came back from death time to time. First time when the doctor told my mother (30 years ago, in a third world country) there were no treatment for me. Just Pray . Only God can cure me. We submitted ourselves to God and relax. My mom gave me liquid diet almost one year. I became a skeleton. Then slowly I became human again!! Fortunately, 30 year ago, in a third world, there were no Western treatments for my disease. I had to follow my mothers natural diet and pray. Nothing else. I survive with a very healthy body. It comes once in a year, bits me up, puts me in the bed for a day or two (usually it happens when I am emotionally distrub or some specific food I eat). Otherwise I am good in health. I never go to the doctor for that. Because I count it as a blessing compair to one year non stop suffering ...
However, over the past half century, as the world population has increased and water has become increasingly scarce, it has become less and less a shared resource. By the 1970s international organisations such as the United Nations, UNICEF, World Health Organisation and the UN Development Plan began to highlight the plight of the poor in the third world. By 2003 more than a billion people, a quarter of the worlds population, had no access to safe drinking water. Every year more than five million people (mostly children) die from water-born diseases, such as dysentery and diarrhoea. Global water consumption is now doubling every twenty years, more than twice the rate of population growth. The UN is now predicting that water will become more and more scarce, and global per capita water availability could decline by a third during the next twenty years. The poor in the third world, who are already suffering from lack of water, will be the worst affected. ...
Bettelheim vigorously disagreed. He argued that both theory and concrete analysis show that differences in living standards and class consciousness between the first and third world working classes were rooted in the unequal development of capitalist production in different countries, and the effects of this inequality of development on the intensity and productivity of labor.5 It was differences in the organic composition of capital that allowed workers in imperialist countries to produce more value in a given period of labor-time, which in turn accounted for international wage differentials. The rate of exploitation within imperialist countries, according to Bettelheim, was actually greater than in the colonized countries. This was not to suggest that their level of consumption was lower than the that of the third world; rather that wages there are relatively lower, in comparison with productivity expressed in money terms.6 At the heart of Emmanuels thesis of unequal exchange, ...
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For decades, the leading causes of mortality have differed between low income countries and high income countries. Those who have worked their careers in health and development probably never thought they would see the day when maternal/child health and communicable diseases would not be the leading health burden in many low income countries.. The new actor is non-communicable diseases (NCDs), which are characterized by chronic diseases (cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and chronic respiratory disease), along with injury and mental health which are now responsible for half the health burden in South Asia. Thus, the challenge now is how best to juggle this double burden.. Currently, many compelling reasons are pushing countries toward starting to tackle NCDs. From both a social and political standpoint, South Asians are 6 years younger than those in the rest of the world at their first heart attack. This type of trend threatens a countrys ability to fully capitalize on the demographic ...
Rt Hon Jacinda Ardern, Prime Minister, New Zealand said: Dose sharing can help us make the best use of available vaccines, and the COVAX Facility provides an efficient and equitable way to share doses with others.. Per Olsson Fridh, Minister for International Development Cooperation, Sweden said: COVAX represents our best way of ending the pandemic by ensuring equitable global access to safe and effective vaccines. Already reaching over 100 countries, COVAX also shows what we can achieve by working together - from scientists and manufacturers to governments and multilateral organizations, to health workers around the globe. I am proud of Swedens contribution of US$ 280 million, making Sweden the largest contributor relative to our population. This is an investment not only in global solidarity, but also in our common objective of putting an end to the pandemic. Minimising the risk of dangerous virus variants, enabling a quicker economic recovery and minimising the already devastating impact ...
Obstetrics and Gynecology International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that aims to provide a forum for scientists and clinical professionals working in obstetrics and gynecology. The journal publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies related to obstetrics, maternal-fetal medicine, general gynecology, gynecologic oncology, uro-gynecology, reproductive medicine and infertility, reproductive endocrinology, and sexual medicine.
Purpose Access to critical care is a crucial component of healthcare systems. In low-income countries, the burden of critical illness is substantial, but the capacity to provide care for critically ill patients in intensive care units (ICUs) is unknown. Our aim was to systematically review the published literature to estimate the current ICU capacity in low-income countries. Methods We searched 11 databases and included studies of any design, published 2004-August 2014, with data on ICU capacity for pediatric and adult patients in 36 low-income countries (as defined by World Bank criteria; population 850 million). Neonatal, temporary, and military ICUs were excluded. We extracted data on ICU bed numbers, capacity for mechanical ventilation, and information about the hospital, including referral population size, public accessibility, and the source of funding. Analyses were descriptive. Results Of 1,759 citations, 43 studies from 15 low-income countries met inclusion criteria. They described 36
Dont say we can trade for food. Our trade depends on cheap oil, and that era is rapidly coming to an end. Also, the whole world is undergoing a population explosion - those countries with food surpluses to trade are going to need those surpluses to feed their own increased populations. Anyhow, what, exactly, are we going to trade with? We have exported the bulk of our real wealth creation - manufacturing. The City? All smoke and mirrors. The City doesnt create wealth: all it does is concentrate money. The creation of real wealth is the creation of manufactured goods. Suppose you had all the money in the world, and I had all the manufactured goods. But tomorrow you need to buy a car to travel somewhere. How much do you suppose Im going to make you pay for that car? By the day after tomorrow I would have all the manufactured goods in the world minus one car, and I would also have all the money in the world. All you would have is one car. How would you pay for fuel for that car ...
Hello, there is a war going on against ISIS Mr. sent in Special Forces to defeat these barbaric killers why not send soldiers to back up the Forces and finally get done what is needed there.....Instead you are preoccupied with helping Africa but refuse to protect the American people!! And something else! If Nurses in a first world country whom have had experience in dealing with all kinds of illnesses and extensive patient care...CAN NOT EVEN PROTECT THEMSELVES FROM COMING DOWN WITH EBOLA, WHAT MAKES YOU THINK SOLDIERS WHO ARE NOT TRAINED AS NURSES OR HAVE NOT HAD EXPERIENCE WITH INFECTOUS DISEASES ARE GOING TO BE ABLE TO PROTECT THEMSELVES IN A THIRD WORLD COUNTRY??? This logic is ridiculous!! and uninformed from one who is clueless about diseases and humans ...
The socioeconomic health and other development status of the world have changed rapidly and radically in recent years. Spectacular scientific advancement has led humans into outer space and also to apply such advanced knowledge and skill to health sciences, with which millions of lives have been saved. Yet, the majority of people in over 150 countries around the world had a per-capita Gross National Income (GNI) of below US$10 725 in 2005, which are known generally, as the low- and middle-income (LMI) countries as classified by the World Bank (World Bank 2006a). People in many LMI countries live in poverty with inadequate healthcare and low health status. This chapter reviews the history and development of public health in LMI countries of which about one-third are classified as least-developed nations. It provides an insight that could contribute to the solution of present and future challenges and opportunities for health development which actually influence the health of the world. Learning from the
Researchers have discovered a mechanism that provides natural protection against intestinal roundworm infections, which affect more than 1.4 billion people throughout the world...
Just because some Labour numpty thought that walking in a third world market was a nice experience and thought they would bring that to every street in London, does not mean it is correct, right or in any sense desirable. I never voted for multi bloody culturism neither did anyone else in this country. If these Labour scum wish to live in the third world in a sea of filth, then I am sure we can afford a few air tickets for them to be banished forever. I once watched a programme about a typical northern mill town. As I watched, there was not a single British person in the streets, nor a single person wearing western clothes. Not one ...
Indias water mismanagement is enough to make one drown in despair.. Today, all rivers and lakes within and near population centres are grossly polluted with organic and hazardous pollutants. Not a single Indian city can provide potable tap water.. Interstate water disputes over river water allocations are becoming intense and widespread. And there are no signs that the situation will improve in the near future.. The reasons are many. They include decades of incompetence and indifference at central, state and municipal levels, a population expected to grow to 1.7 billion by 2050, and a mushrooming middle class eating a more protein-rich diet requiring significantly more water to produce. Laws and regulations are rarely enforced and there appears to be little appetite for better technologies.. The last truly competent water minister was K L Rao, an engineering professor who built irrigation infrastructure to improve agriculture when he was in office more than half a century ago.. If surface water ...
I often wonder - the third world child is carried everywhere until they walk and see much of social life, then they are sat in the same room as a collection of adults having adult conversation, and allowed to run around the village. Modern North American children, by contrast, are stuck in a separate room staring at a ceiling a lot of the time. If theyre lucky, the same playtime mobile for a year. What little social input they get, a lot comes from television, a non-responsive medium. Then, in early adolescence when third-world children must deal with the puzzle and challenges of simple survival let alone succeeding, our adolescents are left to sit in a separate rec room and vegetate if they so desire - think Waynes World, but without the Mandarin fluency. So, third world children should be competitive despite their nutrition handicap ...
This article is third in Poverty series, readers may enjoy some previous work on same topic… happy reading. My experience of working in Africa and the Asia Pacific gave me an opportunity to observe another...
Feb 26th, 2013 | By Christina England In January 2013, Bill Gates told the world in an interview that he had no need for money and that he believed the global vaccination program was Gods work. [1]
RL: That was the third World Championships I qualified for. It is a lot of hard work to make it that far in Powerlifting, hours and hours of work in the gym.. The first World Championships I qualified for (82.5 KG, unequipped), I failed to place. I was so far behind the Gold medalist it was as if there was an extra event in his total I hadnt shown up for, lol.. I didnt pay it no mind, though. I did my best and stuck to my game plan. I kept at it, and as the years went by I qualified for the Single Lift World Championships in the 90KG weight class (unequipped). That time I was able to place and bring home some medals.. However, it was not the three lift Powerlifting World Championships. I had unfinished business in the 3 lift. This last World Championships was for the three lift World title, and it was my third World Championships. I felt I was ready. I refused to be denied.. As for celebrating, we were in Boston, and went to a restaurant called the Prudential. It is 52 stories up, overlooks ...
RL: That was the third World Championships I qualified for. It is a lot of hard work to make it that far in Powerlifting, hours and hours of work in the gym.. The first World Championships I qualified for (82.5 KG, unequipped), I failed to place. I was so far behind the Gold medalist it was as if there was an extra event in his total I hadnt shown up for, lol.. I didnt pay it no mind, though. I did my best and stuck to my game plan. I kept at it, and as the years went by I qualified for the Single Lift World Championships in the 90KG weight class (unequipped). That time I was able to place and bring home some medals.. However, it was not the three lift Powerlifting World Championships. I had unfinished business in the 3 lift. This last World Championships was for the three lift World title, and it was my third World Championships. I felt I was ready. I refused to be denied.. As for celebrating, we were in Boston, and went to a restaurant called the Prudential. It is 52 stories up, overlooks ...
1 in 4 sexually active teenagers become infected with an STD every year, in the United States alone. Now, more than ever, we need to join together to fight this growing issue. As I read through your website, it is clear that you share the same passion for STD/STI awareness. We here, at, understand the importance of STD/STI prevention and treatments. If you could, please list us as a resource or host our social book mark button, it would be much appreciated. We can not reach every teenager, but together we can try ...
1 in 4 sexually active teenagers become infected with an STD every year, in the United States alone. Now, more than ever, we need to join together to fight this growing issue. As I read through your website, it is clear that you share the same passion for STD/STI awareness. We here, at, understand the importance of STD/STI prevention and treatments. If you could, please list us as a resource or host our social book mark button, it would be much appreciated. We can not reach every teenager, but together we can try ...
by Christina England In January 2013, Bill Gates told the world in an interview that he had no need for money and that he
Cancer care is really fundamentally sensitive to improvements in overall health system strengthening. Cancer really stresses all that we know about health systems in terms of their weaknesses, their strengths and the opportunities and in order to deliver really good high quality cancer outcomes you need to have built into your healthcare system all the foundational aspects - medicine, pathology, surgery. So overall health system strengthening is absolutely crucial to delivering high quality cancer outcomes.. How do these systemic barriers affect low and middle income countries?. In low and middle income countries were seeing very different health transitions from what we experienced in high income countries. Theyre aging far more rapidly; there are some very complex transitions occurring so theyre not experiencing just cancer and other non-communicable diseases, theyre also having to deal with parallel increases in communicable diseases as well. This makes it very complex for health system ...
Despite having some of the highest tax rates in the country, Los Angeles is also crumbling at the infrastructure level. As we reported back in 2014, the writing was already on the wall for L.A. back then, with mainstream media reports explaining that:. … from buckling sidewalks to potholed thoroughfares to storm drains that cant handle a little rain, the infrastructure that holds the second-largest U.S. city together is suffering from years of deferred maintenance.. Much of California - and much of the U.S. as a whole, for that matter - is in similar serious disrepair. San Francisco has become a giant toilet; Mississippis roadways are collapsing; and lets not even talk about the bridges in Rhode Island.. One might try to exclusively blame Leftist politics for these failures, but lets face it: Both blue and red states are stricken with the types of political corruption that are causing this country to become worse than a Third World country - or as Dr. Pinsky puts it, we have too many ...
Gross national income (constant LCU) in Malawi was last measured at 654964888749.57 in 2011, according to the World Bank. Gross national income is derived as the sum of GNP and the terms of trade adjustment. Data are in constant local currency.This page has the latest values, historical data, forecasts, charts, statistics, an economic calendar and news for Gross national income (constant LCU) in Malawi.
By the end of this century, with increasing development and industrialization, many of the Third World countries will become highly urbanised. Thus there seems to be a genuine concern about tackling the issues of urban growth and the various problems related to this growth. The book by Gilbert and Gugler studies various concepts in urbanisation and offers a rich review of previously published material. They deal with how poverty, development and cities are linked and the effect they have on each other. They also deal with political responses both by the government and the urban poor to these problems. ...
Risk-factor burden was greatest in high-income countries with the mean INTERHEART score highest in these nations, intermediate in middle-income countries, and lowest in low-income countries (p < 0.001). In high-income countries, the INTERHEART score was higher in rural areas, compared to urban areas; in lower- and middle-income countries, the risk score was higher in urban areas, compared to rural areas. Conversely, the rates of major cardiovascular events (death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, stroke, or heart failure) were lowest in high-income countries, intermediate in middle-income countries, and highest in low-income countries, with rates of 3.99, 5.38, and 6.43 events per 1,000 person-years, respectively (p < 0.001). ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chromatography in the third world and in the first world. AU - Marriott, Philip. PY - 2005/11/1. Y1 - 2005/11/1. UR - U2 - 10.1002/jssc.200590069. DO - 10.1002/jssc.200590069. M3 - Editorial. AN - SCOPUS:28844432380. VL - 28. JO - Journal of Separation Science. JF - Journal of Separation Science. SN - 1615-9314. IS - 17. ER - ...
The Professional Footballers Association have questioned whether there is any purpose to Fifa’s concussion protocol after Morocco openly flouted guidelines without any sanction and there was then a third World Cup controversy on Friday over the reaction to a head injury.
Im excited to be spending the week with US policy makers and representatives from the LIVESTRONG Foundation and MSH in Uganda and Rwanda. Were here to look at the burden of Non-Communicable Disease and how they are, or are not, taken into account in the national health systems of the two countries. So far, over a very short period of time weve been privileged to meet with many of the top decision-makers and senior management of Ugandas health system and have heard first hand of the challenges and triumphs theyve experienced in dealing with NCDs in low resource settings.. The great challenge of combating NCDs in a country like Uganda is that they are just one of many critical priorities within the health sector; not surprisingly most of Ugandas health budget and donor aid for health are channeled into fighting communicable disease and funding child survival and maternal health programming.. There is strong clear message from donors and government alike that additional funds will not be ...
The international research team found risk factors for cardiovascular disease was lowest in low income countries, intermediate in middle income countries and highest in high income countries. However, the incidence of serious cardiovascular disease such as heart attacks, strokes, heart failure and deaths followed the opposite pattern: highest in the low income countries, intermediate in middle income countries and lowest in high income countries. Hospitalizations for less severe cardiovascular diseases were highest in the high income countries.
Fine. lets say: if one stops eating but gets hit by a car 10 days later because he was too hungry to walk properly and see clearly, lets be call that death by starvation too. Happy?. With the 2nd definition, perhaps most people in China in those years were in a state of hunger, and most died indirectly as a result.. If you go with the 2nd criterion, then you have to be consistent: a third world, a poor nation, with its food supply issue not fully resolved, naturally will have most of its citiznes living in hunger and poverty, and the average life span is short as a result. Its pretty natural and unsurprising to conclude then, that in any third world poor nation, most seniors deaths were indirectly as result of hunger, so most senior citizens in poor third world countries starved to deaths (going with the 2nd defintion).. So, going with this defintion, ever since the founding of Peoples Republic in 49, before Chinese economic reforms in early 80′s, most of Chinese seniors starved to ...
Sub-Saharan Africa is the eye of the HIV epidemic. This study was conducted when treatment for the majority of HIV-infected patients in low resource settings was considered unattainable and the risks of diagnosing HIV often outweighed the benefits. Coupled with the complexities of HIV diagnosis in infancy, children typically were only diagnosed once already ill or not at all. Key strategies to address the paediatric epidemic focused on preventing mother to child transmission and reducing mortality and morbidity of infected children predominantly with co-trimoxazole prophylaxis. Both strategies required early diagnosis of HIV infection in infancy for monitoring prevention programs and identifying infected children respectively. The diagnostic algorithm for resource limited settings recommended the use of inexpensive, technically simpler HIV antibody detection assays that are unsuitable for use in HIV-exposed children under 12-months of age. Paradoxically this algorithm provided a barrier to HIV ...
I saw one post where the poster says we need to become globally competitive in manufacturing. I say we dont. We need to start thinking about rebuilding our infrastructure, and new engineering projects. Mainly because we are falling behind on this, and our interstate system is crumbling, a lot of our infrastructure is starting to crumble. no one wants to invest in it? why? it very expensive. This is the problem with todays capitalism. Its a race to the bottom to the point where even fewer people within a developed country get to enjoy the conditions of living in a developed country. it doesnt mean a life of luxury, but simply being able to live, and not worry about boiling sewage so that you have drinking water. But if we have to accept lower wages to be competitive I think thats not viable, and for a lot of these developing countries. They need to have a union movement, the working class has to rise up.... We cant take away the things that we have today(which we are doing). Too many of the ...
I saw one post where the poster says we need to become globally competitive in manufacturing. I say we dont. We need to start thinking about rebuilding our infrastructure, and new engineering projects. Mainly because we are falling behind on this, and our interstate system is crumbling, a lot of our infrastructure is starting to crumble. no one wants to invest in it? why? it very expensive. This is the problem with todays capitalism. Its a race to the bottom to the point where even fewer people within a developed country get to enjoy the conditions of living in a developed country. it doesnt mean a life of luxury, but simply being able to live, and not worry about boiling sewage so that you have drinking water. But if we have to accept lower wages to be competitive I think thats not viable, and for a lot of these developing countries. They need to have a union movement, the working class has to rise up.... We cant take away the things that we have today(which we are doing). Too many of the ...
I thought it was a very interesting discussion. I started with an overview of the role of pathology in managing patients in developing countries and why pathology is important. So in order to treat a patient and manage a patient appropriately we need the correct diagnosis and thats where pathology comes to assess whether at first their tumour is benign or malignant, whether it needs to be taken out or not, what type, how aggressive it is, the nodal status and so on, all the prognostic parameters that tell us how to manage the patient and whats the likelihood for this patient to survive. There was an overview as well of the resources in these countries and how little pathology is supported there. The number of pathologists is low and there are four countries, for example, in sub-Saharan Africa with no pathology at all. So this was really eye-opening.. Then we talked about some experiences from the pathologists in the UK helping out pathologists in Africa, particularly in Nigeria and Egypt, and ...
Assessing the impact of digital health projects and applications is a key challenge, especially in low resource settings. Full evaluative field studies are resource-intensive and time-consuming. Less demanding approaches that could provide rapid insights would be helpful. This paper presents some short-cut approaches for rapid assessments that can provide useful early indications of strengths and weaknesses and can ensure that evaluative efforts are focused on key uncertainties, are not wasted on unpromising interventions, and make the most of what is already known.. ...
INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological transition theory, first postulated by Omran in 1971, provides a useful framework for understanding cause-specific mortality changes and may contribute usefully to predictions about cause-specific mortality. However, understandings of mortality transitions and associated epidemiological changes remain poorly defined for public health practitioners due to lack of evidence from low- and middle-income countries. Therefore, understanding of the concept and development of epidemiological transition theory as well as population burden of premature mortality attributable to risk factors is needed.. OBJECTIVES: This thesis aims to understand how epidemiological transition theory has been applied in different contexts, using available evidence on mortality transitions from high, middle- and low- income countries, as well as the contribution of risk factors to mortality transitions, particularly for premature mortality.. METHODS: A Medline literature search from 1971 to 2013 ...
THIRD WORLD NETWORK BIOSAFETY INFORMATION SERVICE. Dear friends and colleagues. FAQs on Water Efficient Maize for Africa (WEMA). We are pleased to share with you these FAQs on Water Efficient Maize for Africa (WEMA), published by the African Centre for Biodiversity and Third World Network.. The WEMA initiative aims to develop drought-tolerant and insect-resistant maize, using conventional breeding, marker-assisted breeding, and genetic engineering. Five African countries - Kenya, Mozambique, South Africa, Tanzania and Uganda - are participating in WEMA.. The FAQs unpack WEMA, looking at various aspects such as the ability of genetic engineering to deliver drought tolerance, yield data, stacking with the insect resistance trait, the claims of safety, intellectual property aspects and alternatives to genetic engineering.. The FAQs can be downloaded at With best wishes,. Third World ...
A very interesting discussion. Here some personal observations. Let me state that I am a wilderness tour guide in a third world country with small groups. For some reason or another I have teachers from all over the world among my clients. I spent hours taking to them and I believe we are facing a world wide crisis not only an American one. I believe though that in America it is the worst and it has something to do with American culture. But before I elaborate here a few stories that have stuck in my mind:. - PE teacher from Boulder CO. Great guy, lovely character a real role model if there ever was one. He tells how kids from affluent!!! families don´t even have eaten breakfast when they come to school. Why not? To stressful for the parents no time. In that particular third world country that was unheard of. My partner guide who is a local PE teacher couldn´t believe it. No matter how poor the parents no mother lets her kid go to school without breakfast. Our customer from Boulder also told ...
Healthyaddict also attempts to tackle the dilemma of altruism. Why do humans do things that are a cost to them and a benefit to others? It doesnt make any sense according to evolution where everything is measured only by its survival benefit. Healthyaddict suggests altruism is a sort of reverse to the dont kill and you wont be killed principle; altruism is a do this and theyll do it back to you strategy. She gives the example of chimps picking bugs off other chimps. They do it in the hope that later, some chimp will pick bugs off them. I think healthyaddict needs to look up the definition of altruism. If you are expecting something in return, then it isnt altruism by definition. When people give money to starving children in third world countries, they never expect the children to someday repay them. Neither does the giver imagine that someday he might find himself in a third world country and will need some, middle class Westerner to give him food. ...
|jats:title|Abstract|/jats:title||jats:sec||jats:title|Background|/jats:title||jats:p|Non-pharmaceutical intervention (NPI) remains the most reliable COVID-19 containment tool for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) given the inequality of vaccine distribution and their vulnerable healthcare systems. We aimed to develop mathematical models that capture LMIC demographic characteristics such as young population and large household size and assess NPI effectiveness in rural and urban communities.|/jats:p||/jats:sec||jats:sec||jats:title|Methods|/jats:title||jats:p|We constructed synthetic populations for rural, non-slum urban and slum settings to capture LMIC demographic characteristics that vary across communities. We integrated age mixing and household structure into contact networks for each community setting and simulated COVID-19 outbreaks within the networks. Using this agent-based model, we evaluate NPIs including testing and isolation, tracing and quarantine, and physical distancing. We
Nations cant be mentally ill because they are not people. But nations are quite capable of creating conditions that either exacerbate or assuage. If you look at the rates quoted by our Fake Ranch, it sounds really bad, but he isnt giving you the whole truth. Mental illness is seen at nearly double our rates in third world countries. All those happy, non-WEIRD farmers and ranchers of the world are doing much worse because they are living under the stresses of eking out a sub-subsistence existence where the slightest disruption in the weather can cause mass starvation, migration and civil war. Compare the US to other First World countries and you find that the US is at the bottom of the barrel. We would all be in much better shape in most parts of Europe, excepting (interestingly enough) the UK and Holland. Aside from Holland, all the First World countries that have high rates of mental illness are English-speaking countries - Canada, Australia, New Zealand. The more Germanic, Scandinavian, ...
Nations cant be mentally ill because they are not people. But nations are quite capable of creating conditions that either exacerbate or assuage. If you look at the rates quoted by our Fake Ranch, it sounds really bad, but he isnt giving you the whole truth. Mental illness is seen at nearly double our rates in third world countries. All those happy, non-WEIRD farmers and ranchers of the world are doing much worse because they are living under the stresses of eking out a sub-subsistence existence where the slightest disruption in the weather can cause mass starvation, migration and civil war. Compare the US to other First World countries and you find that the US is at the bottom of the barrel. We would all be in much better shape in most parts of Europe, excepting (interestingly enough) the UK and Holland. Aside from Holland, all the First World countries that have high rates of mental illness are English-speaking countries - Canada, Australia, New Zealand. The more Germanic, Scandinavian, ...
Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a major contributor to neonatal mortality worldwide. However, little information is available regarding rates of RDS-specific mortality in low-income countries, and technologies for RDS treatment are used inconsistently in different health care settings. Our objective was to better understand the interventions that have decreased the rates of RDS-specific mortality in high-income countries over the past 60 years. We then estimated the effects on RDS-specific mortality in low-resource settings.
The recent violence in South Africa wasnt just a battle between different factions of the governing African National Congress. Clearly, there were tensions between black supporters of former president Jacob Zuma and current president Cyril Ramaphosa. Some Zuma supporters may never stop demanding his release from prison. However, there were deeper tensions and problems that the riots, looting, and violence revealed. Last week was just another step in the process of a once First World country reverting to the African mean.. The looting was much worse than the brazen crime and theft we now take for granted in San Francisco. Queen Nandi Drive in Durban was pillaged mercilessly. The city was probably the hardest hit in the entire country, with 40,000 businesses and 5,000 informal traders reportedly damaged by rioting. Soweto and Johannesburg also looked devastated.. ...
Third World countries need for hard currency is the main reason to log the rainforests, as most of the logs are exported to First World countries. Ironically, developing nations pay almost half of their total earnings from tropical hardwood exports for paper pulp,[85] as they buy their wood chips back as pulp. Almost two- thirds of paper pulp produced is manufactured into packaging materials, tissues, and convenience products such as paper cups and plates.[86]. Japan is heavily dependent on foreign sources of wood chips: it seeks about half of its sources overseas.[87] If US and Canadian softwood chip prices increase, Japan and Europe will turn to Southeast Asia and tropical America for hardwood chips. Canadas forests are only a few thousand years old and will disappear under ice during the next ice age in twenty thousand years. Some forests of southeast Asia have existed continuously for seventy million years, or since the days of the dinosaurs.[88]. It could take hundreds of thousands of ...
Scientists in developed and developing countries need to be on an equal footing when they work together on global issues from climate change to public health, AAAS President Geri Richmond said Thursday at the start of the 2016 AAAS Annual Meeting.. Richmond has worked to improve scientific capacity and collaborations in Africa, South America, and most recently Southeast Asia as a U.S. Science Envoy to the region. Scientists from developed countries must recognize the importance of having everyone at the table when were discussing global problems, she said. Its important that we have a variety of voices, a variety of backgrounds, and a variety of cultures in order to come up with these solutions.. At a breakfast for journalists at the meeting, Richmond also answered questions about several high-profile cases of sexual misconduct and sexual harassment in science. She said the recent cases are probably the tip of the iceberg and that left unchecked, pervasive harassment would slow down ...
Low-income countries were hit especially hard by sharp increases in world food and fuel prices in 2007-08 and the global financial crisis that followed. In response, the International Monetary Fund scaled up its financial assistance to low-income countries and revamped its concessional lending facilities to make them more flexible in meeting the diverse needs of these countries. Creating Policy Space in Low-Income Countries during the Recent Crises assesses empirically the outcome of the IMF response, and provides insight into how IMF-supported programs in low-income countries have been adapted to the changing economic circumstances in these countries. The authors report that these programs have provided expanded policy space in the face of the global price shocks and financial crisis.
Numerous studies have reported the economic burden of childhood diarrhea in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Yet, empirical data on the cost of diarrheal illness is sparse, particularly in LMICs. In this study we review the existing literature on the cost of childhood diarrhea in LMICs and generate comparable estimates of cost of diarrhea across 137 LMICs. The systematic literature review included all articles reporting cost estimates of diarrhea illness and treatment from LMICs published between January 2006 and July 2018. To generate country-specific costs, we used service delivery unit costs from the World Health Organizations Choosing Interventions that are Cost-Effective (WHO-CHOICE database). Non-medical costs were calculated using the ratio between direct medical and direct non-medical costs, derived from the literature review. Indirect costs (lost wages to caregivers) were calculated by multiplying the average GDP per capita per day by the average number of days lost to illness
Framework Programs for Global Health Innovation (FRAME Innovation) will provide support to institutions in the U.S. and in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to build capacity within their institutions to develop broadly interdisciplinary, postdoctoral (or post-terminal degree) research training programs in global health directed towards encouraging innovation in health-related products, processes and policies. The program emphasizes hands-on, problem-solving, and collaborative approaches and allows U.S. and LMIC trainees to be trained together.. Interdisciplinary trainee teams should be challenged to identify critical health needs in LMICs that can be addressed through innovation, and carry out the underlying scientific research necessary to develop, validate, and test their concepts. To increase the potential for translation of research findings into realized health benefits, project design should include considerations of implementation appropriate to low resource settings in LMICs, ...
Background This study explores the relationship between BMI and national-wealth and the cross-level interaction effect of national-wealth and individual household-wealth using multilevel analysis. Methods Data from the World Health Survey conducted in 2002-2004, across 70 low-, middle- and high-income countries was used. Participants aged 18 years and over were selected using multistage, stratified cluster sampling. BMI was used as outcome variable. The potential determinants of individual-level BMI were participants sex, age, marital-status, education, occupation, household-wealth and location(rural/urban) at the individual-level. The country-level factors used were average national income (GNI-PPP) and income inequality (Gini-index). A two-level random-intercepts and fixed-slopes model structure with individuals nested within countries was fitted, treating BMI as a continuous outcome. Results The weighted mean BMI and standard-error of the 206,266 people from 70-countries was 23.90 (4.84). All
Background: In Bangladesh, most patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) cannot afford standard treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) or a standard plasma exchange (PE) course, which partly explains the high rate of mortality and residual disability associated with GBS in this country. Small volume plasma exchange (SVPE) is an affordable and potentially effective alternative form of plasma exchange. SVPE is the repeated removal of small volumes of supernatant plasma over several days via sedimentation of patient whole blood. The aim of this study is to define the clinical feasibility and safety of SVPE in patients with GBS in resource poor settings. Methods: A total of 20 adult patients with GBS will be enrolled for SVPE at a single center in Bangladesh. Six daily sessions of whole blood sedimentation and plasma removal will be performed in all patients with GBS with a target to remove an overall volume of at least 8 liters (L) of plasma over a total of 8 days. Serious adverse ...
In many high-income countries, national and regional health authorities, along with individual healthcare institutions, are putting into place prevention, control, surveillance and reporting measures. Even if significantly reduced in the recent years, incidence of HAI remains high, particularly among at-risk populations. For example, approximately 25-30% of ICU patients in high-income countries experience at least one HAI episode1,2. In low- and middle- income countries, the challenges are further complicated by underdeveloped infrastructures and issues related to hygiene and sanitation. The WHO estimates that ICU-acquired infection is at least 2-3-fold higher than in high-income countries and that device-associated infection may be up to 13 times higher than in the US1.. HAIs include all types of infections including urinary-tract infections (most common in higher-income countries1,2), surgical site infections (most common in lower-income countries1), respiratory infections, gastro-intestinal ...
2013 Jan] Minimum of 40 Children Paralyzed After New Meningitis Vaccine By Christina England [2012 Dec] The British Dimension - the WHO Mercury Cover-Up and the CDC By John Stone [2012 June] U.S. Pediatricians Endorse Continued Injection of Mercury into Children in Developing Countries [2010 Jan] WHOS FUKUDA GRILLED AT COUNCIL OF EUROPE HEARING: START OF SUBSTANTIAL INVESTIGATION INTO THE SWINE FLU SCAM [2010 Jan] When did WHO change the definition of pandemic? If the WHO is lying about changing the definition of the word pandemic in order to ramp up fear, so that Big Pharma farms even bigger profits, and WHO does too, what else are they lying about? [2010 Jan] National governments must be investigated, not just WHO, says Le Temps Is WHO being set up to bear the brunt of the criticism of the swine flu scam in order that national governments can avoid drawing attention to their own complicity? This is the question posed by the headline in Le Temps.With the exception of the Polish health ...
Access. The LMIC is open to all Indiana University researchers. We also invite other university and commercial researchers to use our facility. The LMIC is located in the basement of Myers Hall, room 059 (map). New users should contact the imaging center to get started (LMIC or 812-856-1734) - or just drop by. All new users must be trained by LMIC staff.. The imaging center is available 24 hours a day to approved, experienced users.. Scheduling. To schedule a training appontment or consultation contact the imaging center (LMIC or 812-856-1734).. Equipment scheduling for trained users is done using iLab. Instructions for iLab for the LMIC can be found here.. You may reserve time up to two weeks in advance. Please be considerate of the needs of others by reserving only 4 hours/day between 9am and 5pm Monday - Friday. Remember to release your time if your plans change (charges may apply - see policies page).. ...
The award earlier this month of the Nobel Peace Prize to Muhammad Yunus and his Grameen Bank of Bangladesh has directed attention to the phenomenon of microfinance, which Yunus and his bank have pioneered. The term refers to the making of tiny loans to poor people in underdeveloped countries, like Bangladesh. The amounts are sometimes only tens of dollars, the borrowers are small farmers, shopkeepers, artisans, and other minute commercial enterprises--overwhelmingly female (97 percent)--and the interest rates, which are designed to compensate the lenders fully, are high—sometimes as high as 20 percent a day. Although Yunuss motivation is not primarily...
The award earlier this month of the Nobel Peace Prize to Muhammad Yunus and his Grameen Bank of Bangladesh has directed attention to the phenomenon of microfinance, which Yunus and his bank have pioneered. The term refers to the making of tiny loans to poor people in underdeveloped countries, like Bangladesh. The amounts are sometimes only tens of dollars, the borrowers are small farmers, shopkeepers, artisans, and other minute commercial enterprises--overwhelmingly female (97 percent)--and the interest rates, which are designed to compensate the lenders fully, are high—sometimes as high as 20 percent a day. Although Yunuss motivation is not primarily...
Developing countries[edit]. In both developed and developing countries, many of the organizations active in water, sanitation ... WaterAid is researching options of appropriate unisex public toilets in developing countries. In 2017 they stated that those ... Legislation and country examples[edit]. Toilet sign for "unisex ambulant toilet" (accessible toilet) at a park in Brisbane, ... "Being LGBT in Asia Nepal Country Report" (PDF). US Aid. 2014. Retrieved April 28, 2017.. ...
Funds for grants in developing countries[edit]. The following table lists the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation's committed ... Alliance for Financial Inclusion (AFI): A $35 million grant for the AFI supports a coalition of countries from the developing ... As a result, its investments include companies that have been criticized for worsening poverty in the same developing countries ... "Gates Foundation, Norway Contribute $1 Billion to Increase Child Immunization in Developing Countries" (Press release). GAVI ...
... s in developing countries[edit]. Landline vs. Mobile phones in Africa: 1998-2008 ... In many countries the landline has not been readily available to most people. In some countries in Africa, the rise in cell ... China had more than any other country at 350 million and the United States was second with 268 million. The United Kingdom had ...
Developed countries[edit]. An estimated 500,000 burn injuries receive medical treatment yearly in the United States.[43] They ... Developing countries[edit]. In India, about 700,000 to 800,000 people per year sustain significant burns, though very few are ... In many countries in the developing world, however, females have twice the risk of males. This is often related to accidents in ... deaths from burns occur at more than ten times the rate in the developing than the developed world.[18] Overall, in children it ...
MMR in developed countries[edit]. Until the early 20th century developed and developing countries had similar rates of maternal ... Developed countries had rates of maternal mortality similar to those of developing countries until the early 20th century, ... Transmission of HIV/AIDS through breastfeeding is a huge issue in developing countries, namely in African countries.[63] The ... of maternal deaths in the developing world but only 13% of maternal deaths in developed countries.[88] ...
Developed vs. developing countries. "By 1975, Thailand, with the help of World Bank economists, had instituted a National Plan ... Prostitution law varies widely from country to country, and between jurisdictions within a country. At one extreme, ... Some believe that women in developing countries are especially vulnerable to sexual exploitation and human trafficking, while ... In some countries, (or administrative subdivisions within a country), prostitution is legal and regulated. In these ...
Developing countries. Bananas and plantains constitute a major staple food crop for millions of people in developing countries ... The banana fruits develop from the banana heart, in a large hanging cluster, made up of tiers (called "hands"), with up to 20 ... Source: FAOSTAT of the United Nations[82][83] Note: Some countries distinguish between bananas and plantains, but four of the ... A stem develops which grows up inside the pseudostem, carrying the immature inflorescence until eventually it emerges at the ...
The term rural development is not limited to issues of developing countries. In fact many developed countries have very active ... In developing countries like Nepal, Pakistan, India, Bangladesh and China, integrated development approaches are being followed ... The role of NGOs/non-profits in developing countries[edit]. Because decentralization policies made development problems the ... Consequently, nonprofits and NGOs are also greatly involved in the provisioning of needs in developing countries and they play ...
... plays an important role in disease prevention efforts in both the developing world and in developed countries, ... In studies done by the World Bank on populations in developing countries, it was found that when women had more control over ... These goals hope to lessen the burden of disease and inequality faced by developing countries and lead to a healthier future. ... The World Health Organization estimates that 12.9 percent of the population in developing countries is undernourished.[36] ...
Home hygiene in developing countries[edit]. In developing countries, universal access to water and sanitation has been seen as ... Drinking water quality remains a significant problem in developing[46] and in developed countries;[47] even in the European ... 4.8 Home hygiene in developing countries *4.8.1 Household water treatment and safe storage ... in rural areas of some developing countries. Household water treatment and safe storage[edit]. Household water treatment and ...
In most developed countries, asbestos is typically disposed of as hazardous waste in landfill sites. ... The use of asbestos in new construction projects has been banned for health and safety reasons in many developed countries or ... There has been no significant change in production and use of A/C sheets in developing countries following the widespread ... Some countries, such as India, Indonesia, China, Russia and Brazil, have continued widespread use of asbestos. The most common ...
Developing countries. Bananas and plantains constitute a major staple food crop for millions of people in developing countries. ... The banana fruits develop from the banana heart, in a large hanging cluster, made up of tiers (called "hands"), with up to 20 ... A stem develops which grows up inside the pseudostem, carrying the immature inflorescence until eventually it emerges at the ... In the plantation system of cultivation, only one of the offshoots will be allowed to develop in order to maintain spacing.[17] ...
Developing countries reacted to the document by saying that the developed countries had worked behind closed doors and made an ... The Accord also favors developed countries' paying developing countries to reduce emissions from deforestation and degradation ... Indian journalist Praful Bidwai puts the blame on both developed and a few developing countries such as India, arguing that the ... and developed countries emissions to fall by 80% by 2050 compared to 1990. Khor states that this is when other countries began ...
talk , contribs)‎ (→‎Developing countries: replaced the 2.3 billion figure with the more important 4.5 billion figure with ...
"Developing Countries Initiatives". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2016-04-01. Retrieved 2016-07-13.. ... is available to more than 100 developing countries[14] and for some categories of papers such as colloquia. Abstracts, tables ...
International / developing countries". Vaccine Weekly: 9-10. 1995. PMID 12346214.. *^ Weatherbe S (12 November 2014). "Kenyan ... It has been alleged that a non-conjugated tetanus vaccine used in developing countries is laced with a human chorionic ... He reasoned that HCG must be programming the hypothalamus to do this in the former cases in order to protect the developing ... and therefore neither HCG in its pure form nor any preparations containing HCG may be sold legally in the country except by ...
Normally, developing societies have lower life expectancies in comparison to developed countries. They have also found ... In many developing countries the only health care available until a few decades ago were those based on traditional medicine ... Asian countries, which are mostly developing nations, are aging rapidly even as they are attempting to build their economies. ... ISBN 978-0-415-12244-3. United Nations Industrial Development Organization (1978). Technologies from Developing Countries. ISBN ...
"Developing Countries". Archived from the original on 25 April 2017. Retrieved 24 April 2017. "One of the poorest ... Romania ranks 49th in the Human Development Index, and is a developing country with a high-income economy. It has the world's ... The country had a 2019 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 5.95/10, ranking it 90th globally out of 172 countries. ... The country applied in June 1993 for membership in the European Union and became an Associated State of the EU in 1995, an ...
"Developing Countries". IUPHAR Subcommittee for Clinical Pharmacology in Developing Countries. Retrieved 20 May 2016. " ... IUPHAR is involved in the development of pharmacology in developing countries. In conjunction with ICSU the Pharmacology for ... The Division of Clinical Pharmacology, including 3 subcommittees of Developing Countries, Geriatrics, and Pharmacoepidemiology ... Where relevant, data on the rat and mouse homologues are presented to assist researchers and clinicians in developing and/or ...
Simplified sewers are most common in Brazil and are also used in a number of other[which?] developing countries.[citation ... In the developed world, sewers are pipes from buildings to one or more levels of larger underground trunk mains, which ...
"GravityLight: lighting for developing countries". Indiegogo. Retrieved 16 February 2014.. *^ "GravityLight 2: Made in Africa". ... While Moulton did not reportedly develop a prototype, Wofsey did develop a rudimentary prototype that used a custom-machined ... GravityLight is a gravity-powered lamp designed by the company Deciwatt for use in developing or third-world nations, as a ... An early Gravity Light concept was developed concurrently by Clay Moulton and also by Ruphan as part of his Ph.D. in applied ...
"Impacts on Developing Countries of Changing Production and Consumption Patterns in Developed Countries: The Case of Ecotourism ... Country profiles (1999-2005)". Retrieved 2008-08-08.. Population estimated for 2007 (search values for each country profile) ... Bookman, Milica Z.; Bookman, Karla R. (2007). Medical Tourism in Developing Countries. Palgrave Macmillan, New York. pp. 3-4, ... Country. of origin Visitor. arrivals. 2018 % Yearly growth Ranking Country. of origin Visitor. arrivals. 2018 % Yearly growth ...
... still see subsidies in developed countries artificially deflating global prices, causing hardship in developing countries with ... Based on the experience of countries in the Nile river basin (Ethiopia, Kenya and Sudan) and other developing countries, ... "Weed Management for Developing Countries. FAO. Retrieved 4 May 2013.. *^ "Farmers Guide to GMOs" (PDF). Rural Advancement ... in countries like the US and Canada to over 80% in many African nations.[56] In developed countries, these figures are ...
Among the 47 developing countries surveyed for the study, Peru had the greatest rural- urban disparity in stunting rates. One ... Evidence from 47 developing countries". Tinbergen Institute Discussion Paper. TI 2007-035/3. Gajate-Garrido, Gissele (2013). " ...
Company, Nestlé Alimentana (1975). Nestlé in the developing countries. Nestlé Alimentana S.A. pp. 100-101. Retrieved 24 ... Its composition and taste differ from country to country. Milo maintains significant popularity in a diverse range of countries ... Milo is available as a premixed beverage in some countries, and has been subsequently developed into a snack bar, breakfast ... It was originally developed in Australia by Thomas Mayne in 1934. Most commonly sold as a powder in a green tin, often ...
Spataro, Salvatore (2011). NEEDS Architecture in developing Countries. Lettera Ventidue. ISBN 8862420323.. ... Although Burkina Faso is one of the poorest countries on earth, it is also a country with a strong sense of national pride. ... Burkina Faso is the 7th least developed country in the world. Lack of education, low income and life expectancy hold back the ... Therefore, Kéré developed an innovative concept: In preparation for planting the tree a hole is dug and filled with old bones ...
Social Security in Developing Countries. Oxford: Clarendon Press.. *Drèze J. and Sen, A. 1995. The political Economy of Hunger ... In Ahmad E, Drèze J, Hills J, Sen A K (eds.). Social Security in Developing Countries. Clarendon Press, Oxford. ... He uniquely brings to the table his extensive fieldwork-few economists live as much in the country's villages-combined with ...
"Developing drugs for developing countries". Health Aff (Millwood). 25 (2): 313-24. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.25.2.313. PMID 16522573. ... "Optional Rewards for New Drugs for Developing Countries" (PDF). Submissions: Commission on Intellectual Property Rights, ... but helps to increase incentives through creating distortions in markets in developed countries". This is entirely a separate ... patients in the developing world can have faster access to lifesaving products that may not otherwise be developed. And ...
... of water withdrawn in some developing countries[66] and significant proportions in more economically developed countries (in ... In the developing world, 90% of all wastewater still goes untreated into local rivers and streams.[63] Some 50 countries, with ... 1.6 billion people have gained access to a safe water source since 1990.[164] The proportion of people in developing countries ... Ravindranath, Nijavalli H.; Jayant A. Sathaye (2002). Climate Change and Developing Countries. Springer. ISBN 978-1-4020-0104-8 ...
Ridley DB, Grabowski HG, Moe JL (2006). "Developing drugs for developing countries". Health Aff (Millwood). 25 (2): 313-24. ... "Developing Drugs for Developing Countries."[88] In 2007 United States Senators Sam Brownback (R-KS) and Sherrod Brown (D-OH) ... While often developed countries will rely on government-run and private partnerships to fund such projects, developing nations ... "Buruli Ulcer Endemic Countries". Retrieved 12 March 2014.. *^ a b c d e f g "Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis)". ...
Do not think that he who loves his own country must hate and despise other nations, or wish for war, which is a remnant of ... Among the leaders of the Socialist Party's effort to develop Socialist Sunday Schools was Bertha Mailly, for a time Secretary ... Socialist Schools in other countries[edit]. According to Kenneth Teitelbaum, a scholar of the Socialist youth education ... The primary Socialist Sunday School movement in the United States was that connected with the country's largest socialist ...
Surgery is not performed in early childhood in every country; in some countries surgical intervention can take place in the ... have an increased risk of developing OSA. The children have nearly 50% chance of developing this condition.[5] ... Firstly, the extended strip craniectomy will be discussed, which is a further developed form of the traditional craniectomy.[42 ... Children born with unilateral coronal synostosis develop due to compensatory mechanisms a skew head; a plagiocephaly.[10][11] ...
The label requirements must be met and the label must contain the English language and the language of the receiving country( ... develop bulletins containing habitat location and pesticide use limitations. *distributing the bulletins containing this ...
Most countries have breed descriptions that say that the Irish Terrier should not be more than 48 cm measured at the withers. ... They have a highly developed sense of loyalty and it is important that they have a strong responsible leader, for whom they ... In countries where docking is prohibited, the conformation judges emphasise tail carriage. The tail should start up quite high ...
RaeLynn, country music star and competed on The Voice (TV series) in 2012. ... developed as early boomtowns.[8] The "East" in East Baytown was later dropped because it was west of Goose Creek.[9] ... in developing the Goose Creek Oil Field, built the first offshore drilling operation in Texas and the second in the United ...
It is the country's most important waterway and natural symbol, and the term "Vistula Land" (Polish: kraj nad Wisłą) can be ... Many rivers in the Commonwealth were used for shipping, including the Vistula, which had a relatively well-developed ... Both cities were among the largest in the country. Around 70% the exports from Gdańsk were of grain.[35] ... most highly developed, and by far the largest center of crafts and manufacturing, and the most autonomous of the Polish cities. ...
The series was developed by Ceri Barnes, Lee Walters, Nigel Pickard and Rick Gitelson, from an original idea by Dan Good (who ... Country of origin. United Kingdom. Original language(s). English. No. of seasons. 2. ...
This group eventually developed into the college of Electors. The Holy Roman Empire eventually came to be composed of four ... He eventually incorporated the territories of present-day France, Germany, northern Italy, the Low Countries and beyond, ... This state developed into modern Germany. The only princely member states of the Holy Roman Empire that have preserved their ... The Low Countries were also more coherent than Germany, being entirely under the dominion of the Spanish Netherlands as part of ...
The authors develop ideas such as synergy effects, and the precautionary and substitution principles. They claim that many ... Country. United States. Subject. Consumer movement. Published. *1933 (Vanguard Press). *1935 (Grosset & Dunlap) ...
... in the least developed countries.[13] Women seem to be at a greater risk as do certain ethnic groups,[10][126] such as South ... Diabetes is common both in the developed and the developing world.[10] It remains uncommon, however, ... Dietary factors also influence the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks in excess is ... diet and exercise either alone or in combination with metformin or acarbose may decrease the risk of developing diabetes.[25][ ...
Programme for advanced training in Food Science and Technology for fellows from developing countries. He retired from CFTRI in ...
Ireland and the UK belong to this category, and in contrast to the EU core countries above, these countries first joined the EU ... During the 1880s Trade unions developed among shearers, miners, and stevedores (wharf workers), but soon spread to cover almost ... Union law varies from country to country, as does the function of unions. For example, German and Dutch unions have played a ... Trade unions by country[edit]. Australia[edit]. The Australian labour movement generally sought to end child labour practices, ...
By the end of 2017, there were 19 LNG exporting countries and 40 LNG importing countries. The three biggest LNG exporters in ... The LNG industry developed slowly during the second half of the last century because most LNG plants are located in remote ... Today, only 19 countries export LNG.[72] Compared with the crude oil market, in 2013 the natural gas market was about 72 ... Due to natural gas shortage concerns in the northeastern U.S. and surplus nature gas in the rest of the country, many new LNG ...
"Ash dieback: App developed to track diseased trees". BBC News. 29 October 2012. Retrieved 2 November 2012.. ... There are currently no effective strategies for managing the disease, and most countries which have tried to control its spread ... A free mobile phone application, Ashtag, is available to help report and identify cases.[35] Developed by the University of ... "Ash decline in Nordic and Baltic countries". Metla. 3 July 2007. Retrieved 6 November 2012.. ...
Other countries have similar types of schools, such as specialist schools in England. The majority of these are academically ... Later, voluntary school integration plans were developed. One approach that educators within the public school system came up ... Across the country, magnet school application forms assume that its readers are proficient in reading and writing in English, ... By the end of the decade, nearly 1,400 magnet schools were operating across the country.[14] ...
Regulation and licensing of alternative medicine ranges widely from country to country, and state to state.[152] In Austria and ... Developed before knowledge of atoms and molecules, or of basic chemistry, which shows that repeated dilution as practiced in ... Chiropractic was developed in the belief that manipulating the spine affects the flow of a supernatural vital energy and ... In developing nations, access to essential medicines is severely restricted by lack of resources and poverty. Traditional ...
"Canadian Cowboy Country Magazine. Retrieved 2019-03-24.. *^ "Facts and Stats". Alberta Cattle Feeders Association. Retrieved ... In the late 1960s a new generation emerged and sought to develop a uniquely Albertan style of architecture that responded to ... The country and western genre plays a significant part in Alberta's music scene. Although born in Victoria, British Columbia, ... Alberta's ranches contain just over 40% of the country's beef cattle herd.[6] Accordingly, beef is one of the province's most ...
By the mid-1980s, a low-level insurgency against Ba'athist drainage and resettlement projects had developed in the area, led by ... the Maʻdān had developed a unique culture centered on the marshes' natural resources. Many of the marshes' inhabitants were ...
As part of the new Presidium, Pol Pot became the country's Prime Minister.[259] It was at this point that he took on the public ... Developing the Marxist-Leninist movement: 1955-1959Edit. Cambodia's Marxist-Leninists wanted to operate clandestinely but also ... Their food was brought to them and provided through the only shop that remained open in the country.[309] Pol Pot saw the Khmer ... Pol Pot initiated a series of major irrigation projects across the country.[269] In the Eastern Zone, for instance, a huge dam ...
But it is not circumscribed by the confines of a single country, it does not belong peculiarly and forever to a bounded part of ... which is at variance with the geocentric view developed by the later day Hindu nationalist ideologues such as Veer Savarkar and ... He also referred to the rest of Northern India as Mughlan (Country of Mughals) and called the region infiltrated by Muslim ... The self proclamation was done to enforce Hindu social code Dharmaśāstra over his reign and refer to his country as being ...
This type of policy is most common in countries with developing insurance markets and as protection for vacant or unoccupied ... Countries such as China, Australia, and the United Kingdom use a more straightforward approach to home insurance, called " ... During the 1950s policy forms were developed allowing the homeowner to purchase all the insurance they needed on one complete ... Home insurance in the United States may differ from other countries; for example, in Britain, subsidence and subsequent ...
It is widely celebrated by the country's large Azerbaijani minority (~7% of the total population)[112] as well as by the ... "It is possible that the splendor of the Babylonian festivities at this season led the Iranians to develop their own spring ... Before the collapse of the Soviet Union, Iran was the only country that officially observed the ceremonies of Nowruz. When the ... People from all over the country travel to Mazar-i-Sharif to attend the Nauruz festivals. Various activities and customs are ...
Due to the importance of disease caused by S. pneumoniae, several vaccines have been developed to protect against invasive ... it is incorporated into the childhood immunization schedule in a number of countries including the United Kingdom,[24] the ...
Maybe other countries have reported on it, but I didn't very much about it on the Dutch news. In fact, it isn't even at the ... Added, although 2006 Bangkok bombings is a more fully-developed article. -- tariqabjotu 21:58, 31 December 2006 (UTC) ... This is highly likely to play a large part in the relations between the countries on the Pacific rim. Aecis Dancing to electro- ... These murders are not only covered in Anglophonic countries. Aecis Dancing to electro-pop like a robot from 1984. 13:54, 15 ...
This language flourished during the 13th and 14th centuries as a language of culture, developing a rich lyric tradition of ... With the advent of democracy, Galician has been brought into the country's institutions, and it is now co-official with Spanish ... During the 19th century a thriving literature developed, in what was called the Rexurdimento (Resurgence), of the Galician ... Aside from the lyric genres, Galicia developed also a minor tradition on literary prose, most notably in translation of ...
"Bahrain: Foreign population by country of citizenship, sex and migration status (worker/ family dependent) (selected countries ... The modern literary form of Bengali was developed during the 19th and early 20th centuries based on the dialect spoken in the ... Bengali literature, with its millennium-old history and folk heritage, has extensively developed since the Bengali renaissance ...
Yttrium is mostly produced as oxide, by a single country, China (99%).[75] Lutetium and scandium are also mostly obtained as ... In the decades after French scientist Antoine Lavoisier developed the first modern definition of chemical elements, it was ...
As Le Gallou grew in importance, he developed and promoted the concept of "national preference",[25] and served as a link ... the labour reserve will be situated in the remotest countries, where the population is less assimilable."[15] ...
Kesselman, Mark (2012-01-01). Introduction to Politics of the Developing World: Political Challenges and Changing Agendas. ... Under the one country, two systems system, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau, which were previously ... in a United Front similar to the popular fronts of former Communist-era Eastern European countries such as the National Front ... "The system of the multi-party cooperation and political consultation led by the Communist Party of China will exist and develop ...
"In a society developed on these lines, the voluntary associations which already now begin to cover all the fields of human ... Craig Brown (11 May 2009). World's Happiest Countries? Social Democracies Diarsipkan 2017-10-20 di Wayback Machine.. ... a feature of rich industrialized countries and poor peasant-based communities" Michael Newman. Socialism: A very Short ...
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country ( ... developing countries tended to demonstrate higher growth rates than developed countries.[4] Developing countries include, in ... Least Developed Countries. Therefore, the least developed countries are the poorest of the developing countries. ... Developed countries and developed markets. *Developing countries include in decreasing order of economic growth or size of the ...
Least developed countries can be distinguished from developing countries, "less developed countries", "lesser developed ... a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Also a landlocked developing country ... United Nations, "LDCs: Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries, and Small Island Developing States" ... "Least Developed Countries. UN-OHRLLS. Retrieved 2014-01-24.. *^ "Least Developed Countries". UN-Department of Economic and ...
Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States. (2005). Landlocked Developing Countries. Retrieved from ... Landlocked developing countries (LLDC) are developing countries that are landlocked. The economic and other disadvantages ... The United Nations has an Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries ... "Country profiles". UN-OHRLLS. Retrieved 2020-09-11. Also a Least Developed Country Bulag, U. E. (2010). Mongolia in 2009: From ...
Over the past seven years, China has drawn developing countries closer by offering rhetorical South-South partnerships and ... some political and civil leaders in developing countries--those most in Beijings clutches and with the most to lose-are no ... as did the countrys former finance minister. A member of Kenyas Parliament and the countrys former vice president both said ... For these countries, along with the other two dozen that owe at least 20 percent of their GDPs to China, the economic calamity ...
Developing Countries, a Flipboard topic with the latest stories powered by top publications and the best from the Flipboard ... Developing Countries. Justin Yifu Lin calls for green fund for developing countries - Xinhua. BEIJING, Dec. 10 (Xinhua) -- ... Wealthy countries are falling well short of their pledge to provide $100 billion a year to developing countries by 2020 as part ... Developing Countries Win Concessions on Early Climate Action at UN Talks. Moroccan diplomats, who were charged with brokering a ...
FAO-BioDeC is a database of agricultural biotechnologies being researched, developed or applied in developing countries. It ... Over 50 correspondents from 54 countries contribute to the database, with articles about individual countries policy ... not provide quantitative information on research being carried out in international centres located in developing countries, or ...
Toyota Motors is investing heavily in developing countries. With a greater focus on developing cars suited to the needs of the ... In India, the automaker is in the process of developing cars to bridge the gap between its existing models in the country. For ... This is the automakers third plant in the country with the fourth one due to begin production from 2015. Brazil is the fourth ... The automaker is also considering building a diesel plant in the country as an increasing number of people prefer to buy diesel ...
... Jeffrey D. Sachs, Anthony M. Solomon, William S. Ogden, Eduardo Wiesner, R. T. McNamar. Chapter in ... Conditionality, Debt Relief, and the Developing Country Debt Crisis. Feldstein. Introduction to International Economic ...
A comparison of Internet use in LDCs with that in developing countries as a whole, and with developed countries, shows that ... landlocked developing countries and small island developing States.. Through its Special Programme for Least Developed ... Both reports were prepared by the Programme for Least Developed Countries, Countries in Special Need, Emergency ... United Nations Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small ...
Judgement : In countries or in zones within a country free or nearly free of FMD diseased or suspect animals are prohibited to ... Brucellosis is an important zoonosis in particular in rural areas in developing countries and is an important occupational ... In countries where this disease is present, the judgement should be in accordance with the current animal health requirements, ... In some countries, the carcass is approved if inactive lesions (calcified and/or encapsulated) are observed in organs and ...
The larvae develop to the infective stage in these insect vectors. Infection of cattle occurs when these biting flies with the ... In some countries in Africa the cysticerci appear to show uniform distribution in the musculature. If ingested by man, the ... They are further ingested by ants of the genus Formica where they develop into metacercariae. Several species of this genus can ... The larvae develop within 24 hours, and burrow into the living flesh, creating large, deep, open wounds which attract further ...
... higher Income developing countries (like other developing countries) gain market share at the expense of reduced developed ... developing countries would receive gains by eliminating the MFA. In the central variant analysis, all developing countries gain ... the developing countries (including Hong Kong, South Korea and Taiwan) are relatively small compared to developed countries ... Do Developing Countries Lose From the MFA?. Irene Trela, John Whalley. NBER Working Paper No. 2618. Issued in June 1988. NBER ...
Another problem in developing countries is the quality and potency of antimicrobial drugs. In some countries many different ... lived in developing countries. Of the 39.5 million deaths in the developing world, 9.2 million were estimated to have been ... In many developing countries the use of antimicrobial drugs for treating people and animals is unregulated; antibiotics can be ... Epidemiology of sexuallyt ransmitted infection and AIDS in developing countries. In: Arya OP, Hart CA, eds. Sexually ...
... Upcoming SlideShare Loading in …5 ... Both developed and emerging countries * 23. 24 GLOBALIZATION AND INFORMAL JOBS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES have raised some of ... Globalization In Informal Jobs In Developing Countries * 1. GLOBALIZATION AND INFORMAL JOBS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES A joint ... fix to labour market problems in developing countries. However, with around 60 per cent of employees in developing countries ...
Eight University of Toronto researchers just got a big boost for their work in the developing world, thanks to grants from ... Timothy Chan is developing a system that will reduce the response time for ambulances in developing countries (photo by Mark ... AERO: Ambulance Emergency Response Optimization system for developing countries. "We will reduce ambulance response times by ... "We will develop a low-cost disposable test for rapidly diagnosing malaria in low resource settings. This test will be based on ...
ILO expenditures in the Least Developed Countries (in US$ thousands). LDC country data and ILO results. Afghanistan. Angola. ... Least Developed Countries (LDC). In LDCs, the ILOs support focuses on comprehensive employment policies, investment in rural ... Growth, Productive Employment and Decent Work in the Least Developed Countries [pdf 2210KB] ... Since 2011, the share of the ILOs country-level funding spent on LDCs has increased from 30.6% to 44.6%, representing US$70.6 ...
As the gap in connection speeds between developed and developing nations continues to widen, columnist Alexis Sanders argues ... AMP: A case for websites serving developing countries. As the gap in connection speeds between developed and developing nations ... especially in developing countries.. 5. The divide in speed is growing. In the chart below, I choose nine developing countries ... Developing countries dont have the same internet and wireless network infrastructure as developed economies. This means that ...
With 189 member countries, staff from more 170 countries, and offices in over 130 locations, the World Bank Group is a unique ... Since the global financial crisis in 2008, of the low and low-middle income countries, only mineral-dependent countries posted ... Low-income mineral dependent countries scored substantially higher than non-mining countries. For example, the Human ... has been associated with mineral wealth in developing countries. Their study has been challenged by Lederman and Maloney (2007 ...
... in rich nations leaves a deep footprint in the form of potentially-dangerous nitrogen pollution in developing countries, a ... pointed out that developed countries such as Japan, Germany, Britain and the US had a reactive nitrogen footprint "twice as ... "For countries such as the United States, if consumers ate according to the national and international protein recommendations ... Based on a global trade database of 188 countries, the study showed the bulk of nitrogen emissions in 2010 came from industry ...
crowding-out: the interaction of formal and informal credit markets in developing countries," Journal of Development Economics ... "Risk, Financial Markets, and Human Capital in a Developing Country," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. ... "Rural Financial Markets in Developing Countries," Handbook of Agricultural Economics, in: Robert Evenson & Prabhu Pingali (ed ... "Rural Financial Markets in Developing Countries," Center Discussion Papers 28458, Yale University, Economic Growth Center. * ...
Census Recommendations developed at UNECE call for countries to gather data on a core set of variables and provide detailed ... The guidance, endorsed by more than 65 countries, provides a stronger legal basis for statistics in support of informed ... only with comprehensive knowledge of the number and distribution of people in a country, and the shares of children, youth, ...
Dengue: the risk to developed and developing countries. T P Monath. PNAS March 29, 1994 91 (7) 2395-2400; ...
Policymakers in developing countries have long been troubled by the unde-sirable, but apparently unavoidable, choice between ... in both industrial and developing countries, but they hold the key to improvement that has eluded policymakers pursuing ... Recent evidence, how-ever, suggests that this is a bad way to think about human capital develop-ment. Grade repetition and high ... and it underscores the im-portance of developing high-quality schools, even if this goal appears to impinge on access to ...
You are here Home > ITU Publications > Development (ITU-D) > Study Groups > Spectrum Management System for Developing Countries ... Spectrum Management System for Developing Countries). SMS4DC is a practical, user-friendly tool that is a great advance on the ... automated technical administrative tool for spectrum management in developing countries under the brand name SMS4DC ( ... Spectrum Management System for Developing Countries (SMS4DC) Version 1.1. Year: Edition 2006. Persistent link: http://handle. ...
4. Educating Parents about Autism in Developing Countries. Parents in many developing countries are reliant on informal sources ... Certainly in less developed countries with their dearth of professional services, self-help becomes the major strategy for on- ... To date nearly all prevalence studies of ASD included in recent reviews [3, 4, 9] were undertaken in developed countries. There ... Autism in Developing Countries: Lessons from Iran. Sayyed Ali Samadi and Roy McConkey ...
... and of countries to reach their potential. Particularly in developing countries, the private sector needs to play an active ... Bridging the Skills Gap in Developing Countries. March 14, 2016 By Fabian Barthel, Sven Witthöft, Alexander Baic, and Rainer ... This practical and hands-on approach, which is well suited to small and midsize enterprises in developing countries, consists ... To be successful, companies in developing countries will frequently have to look outside their own organization to solve skills ...
... Individuals residing in one of the World Bank low-income, lower middle-income, and ...
Using panel data for 63 developed and developing countries covering the period 1982-2009, empirical models are developed and ... The research findings suggest that, in most cases, reform process causes price-cost margins in different countries to move ... Furthermore, the study suggests that power consumption, income level, electricity losses and country specific features ... meaning that as countries take more reform steps the size of cross subsidy between consumer groups tends to decline. Overall, ...
Both developed and developing countries have indicated that they will do their "fair share" of GHG mitigation in order to reach ... we found that the current declared targets of developed countries are roughly similar in terms of costs across countries, with ... Developed countries have a responsibility not only to take the lead on emissions, but also to significantly scale-up financing ... OECD Home Green growth and sustainable developmentReducing greenhouse gas emissions in developed countries Green growth and ...
  • The Least Developed Countries ( LDCs ) is a list of the countries that, according to the United Nations , exhibit the lowest indicators of socioeconomic development , with the lowest Human Development Index ratings of all countries in the world . (
  • [9] At the UN's fourth conference on LDCs, which was held in May 2011, delegates endorsed a goal targeting the promotion of at least half the current LDC countries within the next ten years. (
  • During a United Nations review in 2009, the UN defined LDCs as countries meeting three criteria, one of which was a three-year average estimate of gross national income (GNI) per capita of less than US $905. (
  • One of these reports, "ICT and Telecommunications in Least Developed Countries: Review of progress made during the decade 2000-2010", presents projects and actions that ITU has undertaken to help least developed countries (LDCs) join the knowledge economy through the deployment and use of information and communication technologies (ICT). (
  • The other report, "The Role of ICT in Advancing Growth in Least Developed Countries: Trends, Challenges and Opportunities", on which this article is largely based, examines some of the emerging trends and current challenges faced by LDCs on their road to poverty alleviation. (
  • Climate change is a critical factor, given that eleven of the LDCs are also small island developing States. (
  • The ITU reports highlight the important catalytic role that ITU plays in increasing connectivity in LDCs, and provide case study evidence showing how some of these countries have indeed managed to use connectivity successfully to enhance socio-economic development. (
  • Since then, 50 countries have been categorized as LDCs, but only three have ever graduated to developing country status: Botswana in 1994, Cape Verde in 2007 and Maldives in 2011 (see article on Maldives ). (
  • And since the Third United Nations Conference on the Least Developed Countries in 2001, ITU World Telecommunication Development Conferences and ITU Plenipotentiary Conferences have adopted specific resolutions in favour of LDCs, landlocked developing countries and small island developing States. (
  • Through its Special Programme for Least Developed Countries, the ITU Telecommunication Development Bureau (BDT) has undertaken diverse activities and provided concentrated assistance to LDCs to help them develop infrastructure, improve rural telecommunications, introduce new technologies and services, and build human capacity. (
  • While recognizing that poverty continues to be a persistent problem in many middle-income countries, where part of donor-earmarked programmes of the ILO is also implemented, the Office has substantially increased its development spending in LDCs in the recent years. (
  • Since 2011, the share of the ILO's country-level funding spent on LDCs has increased from 30.6% to 44.6%, representing US$70.6 million in 2014. (
  • Bangladesh's pharmaceutical industry is unique among least developed countries (LDCs). (
  • Archives, May 2013) Medecins Sans Frontiers (MSF) is voicing its support to the extension of the transition period for the Least Developed Countries (LDCs). (
  • The major difficulty now, Ryan added, is in collecting accurate financial statistic from the LDCS - although he noted that it is sometimes harder to get the right numbers from the developed nations. (
  • In Least Developed Countries (LDCs) and Low Income Countries (LICs), GSK has pledged that it will not file patents for any of its medicines, in turn giving license to generic drug manufacturers to make copies of those drugs. (
  • For women-owned micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs), especially those in the least developed countries (LDCs), the potential to benefit is even greater. (
  • While there is significant potential for e-businesses to grow in LDCs, the environment in many countries is not conducive to such enterprises developing and thriving - and this is especially so for women-owned MSMEs. (
  • While bringing some concessions, the 'least developed countries' (LDCs) designation - introduced five decades ago - has not generated changes needed to accelerate sustainable development for all. (
  • LDCs are 27% more vulnerable than other developing countries, where 12% are extreme poor. (
  • Some LDCs - especially the resource-rich - are middle-income countries (MICs) disqualified from graduation by other criteria. (
  • The economic and other disadvantages experienced by such countries makes the majority of landlocked countries Least Developed Countries (LDCs), with inhabitants of these countries occupying the bottom billion tier of the world's population in terms of poverty. (
  • This is particularly significant in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) where up to 35% of individuals using the Internet are between the ages of 15 and 24. (
  • There is no established convention for the designation of "developed" and "developing" countries or areas in the United Nations system. (
  • The United Nations Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States (UN-OHRLLS) coordinates UN support and provides advocacy services for Least Developed Countries. (
  • ITU contributed two major reports * to the Fourth United Nations Conference on the Least Developed Countries (UNLDC-IV), held in Istanbul, Turkey, on 9-13 May 2011. (
  • As a way of providing special support to its most vulnerable members, the United Nations General Assembly in 1971 created the category of "Least Developed Country" to cover low-income economies that face severe structural impediments to growth. (
  • Every three years, the Committee for Development Policy (CDP), a subsidiary body of the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), reviews the socio-economic conditions of all low-income economies to determine whether a country should be added to - or recommended for graduation from - the LDC category. (
  • 2. Disclaimer The designations employed in ILO and WTO publications, which are in conformity with United Nations practice, and the presentation of material therein do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the International Labour Offi ce or the World Trade Organization concerning the legal status of any country, area or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers. (
  • In the chart below, I choose nine developing countries (per the United Nations' World Economic Situation and Prospects report) to compare with the United States' internet speed (which ranked 10th worldwide in the last report). (
  • On 26 February 2013, the joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and United Nations Developed Program (UNDP) and published a Issue Brief on TRIPS trasition. (
  • According to United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization or UNESCO, migration refers to the movement of person or group of people who live temporarily or permanently in the destination but not their home country (n.d. (
  • Health status of least developed countries : second United Nations Conference on the Least Developed Countries, Paris, 3-14 September 1990. (
  • The United Nations Technology Bank for Least Developed Countries is a global organization dedicated to enhancing the contribution of science, technology and innovation for sustainable development in the world's least developed countries. (
  • The Istanbul Programme of Action for Least Developed Countries is adopted at the Fourth United Nations Conference on Least Developed Countries. (
  • The leaders of the World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund are emphasizing that prevention is the key to reducing the high death rate among children in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. (
  • The UN implies that developing countries are those not on a tightly defined list of developed countries: There is no established convention for the designation of "developed" and "developing" countries or areas in the United Nations system. (
  • This is a problem because the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) predicts that countries will need to select and train almost 70 million teachers by 2030 but current selection methods are known to be both ineffective and expensive. (
  • In addition, Helping Babies Breathe could help developing countries meet United Nations Millennium Developmental Goal 4 targets, which call for reducing mortality among children under 5 by two-thirds from 1990 to 2015. (
  • In addition to Brazil, Toyota is also investing significantly in Asian countries such as China , Thailand and India. (
  • In India, the automaker is in the process of developing cars to bridge the gap between its existing models in the country. (
  • For illustration, I've pulled device data to compare the US versus the developing economies of India and Kenya. (
  • A recent eMarketer study on Internet Users Worldwide (August 2017) shows a high level of growth in developing countries, such as India, at 15.2 percent. (
  • Credit Market Constraints, Consumption Smoothing, and the Accumulation of Durable Production Assets in Low-Income Countries: Investment in Bullocks in India ," Journal of Political Economy , University of Chicago Press, vol. 101(2), pages 223-244, April. (
  • Credit Market Constraints, Consumption Smoothing and the Accumulation of Durable Production Assets in Low-Income Countries: Investments in Bullocks in India ," Bulletins 7487, University of Minnesota, Economic Development Center. (
  • China and India, in particular, are going through profound changes as their economies develop. (
  • This study investigates the anatomy of rural finance markets (RFMs) in a major developing country, India. (
  • We are looking at acquisition in India and other developing markets in the spaces of home care and personal care," Agrawal told Mint. (
  • Indeed, unless a climate change policy is seen as being consistent with the growth needs of countries like China or India, it is not likely to go very far. (
  • India, China and Mexico retain their position as the top recipients of migrant remittances among developing countries. (
  • In this case, experience and observations from the author's work on prosthetics in India are used to assess the contexts and contributions of various developing world factors to the successful incorporation of a prosthetic knee design into that environment. (
  • In developing countries, attack rates range from 5-12 episode/child/year with the highest rates in the 1st 2 years of life (e.g., in India among the urban poor, 18.6 episodes/child/year. (
  • Some non-Annex I countries are also coming forward - including Korea, Mexico and South Africa. (
  • This model regulation will be provided to United for Efficiency partner countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. (
  • South Africa remains the only African country to have authorised the sale of GM crops. (
  • Developing countries - generally referring to the countries of Africa, Asia , and Latin America - is a term that was inspired by Walt Whitman Rostow ' s classic work, The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto (1960). (
  • The World Bank Group's response to this crisis includes increased lending for crisis-hit developing countries-likely to nearly triple from US$13.5 billion last year to more than US$35 billion this year-as well as accelerated grants and virtually interest-free long-term loans to the world's 78 poorest countries, 39 of which are in Africa. (
  • Porchia Green National American University - Online I have always been fascinated with developing countries, especially in Africa. (
  • Currently, none of the countries in Sub-Saharan Africa is close to meeting the goals," Dr. Perlman said. (
  • Solar e nergy projects for developing countries in Africa and the Middle East MENA Region have often been put on the backburner due to financial considerations as well as lack of attention by local government bodies. (
  • We are talking about possibly thousands of clinics, many of which are faith-based missions mainly in Africa and Papua New Guinea as well as centres in other developing countries such as Haiti and Ethiopia. (
  • ITU's passionate commitment to the world's least developed countries dates back to 1971 when this category was established. (
  • As the first week of the Nov. 6-17 U.N. climate summit in Bonn, Germany, drew towards a close, the European Union, Switzerland and Canada reiterated their commitment to increase financial help to developing countries to US$100 billion per year by 2020. (
  • Projections of disability adjusted life years (that is, the years of life without disability) for the year 2020 show great improvement in developing regions: people are living longer without disabilities. (
  • The combined effects of the developed country targets would lead, according to our analysis, to only 8 to 14% reduction in their emissions by 2020 compared with 1990. (
  • Unlike in Europe and the United States where these energy-guzzling bulbs are due to be phased out in mid-2018 and 2020, respectively, these old-fashioned bulbs will still be available for purchase in developing countries. (
  • Development aid or development cooperation is financial aid given by governments and other agencies to support the economic, environmental, social and political development of developing countries. (
  • Over the past seven years, China has drawn developing countries closer by offering rhetorical South-South partnerships and investing in them through the Belt and Road Initiative, Beijing's Marshall Plan-like economic and marketing campaign. (
  • For these countries, along with the other two dozen that owe at least 20 percent of their GDPs to China, the economic calamity caused by the coronavirus poses a tangible threat to their sovereignty. (
  • The study found that mineral wealth not only propelled economic growth, but it also translated into larger improvements in human development in these same mineral-rich countries, more so than in similar non-mining countries. (
  • Also analyzed are the effects of industrial country economic conditions on output fluctuations in these countries. (
  • Rural Financial Markets in Developing Countries ," Center Discussion Papers 28458, Yale University, Economic Growth Center. (
  • In addition, we want to step up our economic diplomacy in the same countries. (
  • Developing countries often struggle the most with food scarcity, but sustainable farming techniques could change their food system and lead to economic development and environmental protection. (
  • Deploying sustainable farming practices in a developing nation also increases economic opportunity for those that live there, both directly and indirectly. (
  • Economic growth in developed countries slowed for the second straight quarter in early 2015, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development said, as the recovery from the financial crisis remained weak and uneven. (
  • It assumes a desire to develop along the traditional Western model of economic development which a few countries, such as Cuba and Bhutan, choose not to follow. (
  • One of the first critical thinkers to analyze the true situation of the developing countries was Ra ú l Prebisch of the Economic Commission for Latin America, who argued that the relationship between developed and developing countries was exploitive. (
  • A preview of the analysis for this year's Global Economic Prospects report, to be published December 9, 2008, shows that real GDP growth will slow down across all developing regions in 2009. (
  • While the US Agency for International Development (USAID) is stressing the need for developing countries to build up their "human capital," back in the US, the corporate powers-that-be and their political allies are undermining this tenet of US foreign economic policy. (
  • Many countries, however, lack qualified personnel with the knowledge and skills of the IP system required to transform these resources into valuable economic assets. (
  • Political, Economic and Social Risks of Developing Countries International trade barriers, for most, have long fallen. (
  • First, a government from a developing country may not provide political/economic and social stability. (
  • Social, political and economic development have been and continue to be some of the greatest challenges for low income and least-developed states within the international community. (
  • Development" can be explained in a variety of ways, including economic growth and purchasing power parity, but one of the best ways to illustrate development is described by Amartya Sen as the capability or opportunity to develop. (
  • The Country Risk Tier (CRT) reflects A.M. Best's assessment of three categories of risk: Economic, Political and Financial System Risk. (
  • LONDON - A group of major philanthropic foundations today announced the launch of a new economic development network that would increase investment and business assistance for entrepreneurs and small and growing businesses in the developing world. (
  • The organization was formed to advance small and growing businesses development as a strategy to promote economic progress and prosperity in developing markets. (
  • Amid the turmoil of the global economic crisis, the launch of this network offers reason to be optimistic in entrepreneurial quarters of the developing world," said Peter Reiling, executive vice president of the Aspen Institute. (
  • Members of the new network rank among the most effective organizations addressing economic development and poverty in the developing world. (
  • It's thought that many organisations are taking advantage of less strict legislation regarding lead processing in developing countries and seeing the economic benefits of sending lead products to be recycled there instead of at home. (
  • E-commerce has the potential to level the economic playing field for women in developing countries. (
  • The main points of the book are summarized as follows: First, for most poor countries "learning innovation" is considered the key to economic growth rather than "leading-edge innovation", which is a more popular theme in similar books on innovation. (
  • However, the risk factors include uncertainty about the intensity and duration of the economic crisis, volatility in exchange rates, and the possible tightening of immigration controls in major destination countries. (
  • In line with a recent revision in the World Bank's forecast of economic growth, the new update (2009-2011) stresses the impact of the present financial crisis on the remittance flows and describes area and country specific trends. (
  • SYDNEY and KUALA LUMPUR, Aug 31 2021 (IPS) - The pandemic is pushing back the world's poorest countries with the least means to finance economic recovery and contagion containment efforts. (
  • If high income countries continue to grow even slowly, "it is still possible for developing countries to turn out very solid growth rates," Timmer said at a news briefing on the World Bank's twice-yearly Global Economic Prospects report. (
  • He urged developing countries to adjust their economic policies now to "move away from firefighting to strengthening your underlying growth potential. (
  • Shifts into and out of the informal sector are important margins of labour market adjustment to economic shocks, particularly in developing countries. (
  • Landlocked countries experience economic growth 6% less than their non-landlocked countries, holding other variables constant. (
  • Just recently, it has been economically modeled that if the economic size of a transit country is increased by just 1%, a subsequent increase of at least 2% is experienced by the landlocked country, which shows that there is hope for LLDCs if the conditions of their transit neighbours are addressed. (
  • The statistics surrounding the economic environment in Nigeria are about on par with comparative countries in the developing Sub-Saharan region. (
  • Epidemics of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) are presently occuring or accelerating in developing countries, as epidemiologic transition accompanies socio-economic and demographic changes. (
  • The Commission of the European Communities, DG XII (Science, Research and Development), issues a call for proposals for the Specific Programme of Research and Technological Development in the field of Life Sciences and Technologies for Developing Countries, (STD 3, 1990-1994). (
  • Headquartered in Gebze, Turkey, the UN Technology Bank actively engages with national, regional and international partners to deliver its programme and projects which strengthen science, technology and innovation capacity in least developed countries. (
  • Iain Richardson, senior director of manufacturing at the pharmaceutical company Eli Lilly, said his company did have a programme focusing on developing drugs for tuberculosis, but that the company decided not to remain in the business because of basic supply and demand problems. (
  • Prof Yang Xiuwen, Vice-Dean of the International Communications College of CUC, stressed the need to sustain the programme in order to strengthen the bond of relationship among developing countries. (
  • Strategically, hypertension control is ideally suited to be the initial component of an integrated CVD control programme which has to be implemented in the developing countries. (
  • Since more than 70% of the world population lives in developing countries (DCs), and the majority of the world's natural resources and market opportunities are in these countries, both practitioners and researchers have become more interested in understanding their social and business activities. (
  • In addition, the report draws on discussions from an intensive daylong workshop held in London in November 2016, in which impact bond practitioners from developing countries shared their experiences and early lessons learned. (
  • As a result of this process, the research team, with support from an international network of collaborating researchers and practitioners, have developed tools including text-based and video-based SJTs, multiple mini-interviews (MMIs) and 'developmental' SJTs used to assess and develop professionalism and classroom readiness in initial teacher education programmes. (
  • The classification (as of June 2017 [update] ) applies to 47 countries. (
  • Cambodia was one of the first countries to undergo an eTrade Readiness Assessment in 2017, and has been using the analysis to guide its digital trade efforts. (
  • The report includes a Deal Book with detailed fact sheets for all impact bonds in developing countries, featuring both the four contracted and 24 in design phases, as of August 1, 2017. (
  • The report, "ICT Facts and Figures 2017," showed that 830 million people in the 104 countries tracked were online today, or about 80% of the youth population in those countries. (
  • In the 2016 edition of its World Development Indicators, the World Bank made a decision to no longer distinguish between "developed" and "developing" countries in the presentation of its data. (
  • We will reduce ambulance response times by developing a software system leveraging existing infrastructure that optimizes ambulance pre-positioning locations, and provides real-time travel time estimation and route optimization info to drivers. (
  • The visuals show a clear picture: Developing countries don't have the same internet and wireless network infrastructure as developed economies. (
  • In addition, where higher levels of fiscal revenues were used to build infrastructure and develop human capital, this in turn has been shown to lead to the development or expansion of other non-mining related industries. (
  • A developed country is a country that has progressed relatively far during time and has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure. (
  • We also know that the transmission of global prices to domestic markets varies considerably across countries depending on their integration in world markets, the efficiency of the infrastructure in place, and the degree of market orientation in domestic agriculture policy. (
  • This is not the case, however, in many developing countries, which often lack the equipment, expertise and/or infrastructure to diagnose and treat health care problems with the help of radiology. (
  • If a need is identified, the next step is to develop a plan to deliver the imaging equipment, train locals to use it and ensure that the local infrastructure is able to reliably support it. (
  • Its goal is to drive innovation in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) by coordinating use of radio spectrum and satellite orbits, establishing standards for communications systems and helping to improve communication infrastructure in the developing world. (
  • Not surprising Developing countries don't have the support for legacy infrastructure that the U.S. has, so it's not surprising that young people won't put up with a system even worse than ours. (
  • Analyze challenges to overcoming infrastructure disparities in a developing nation. (
  • Policymakers in developing countries have long been troubled by the unde-sirable, but apparently unavoidable, choice between providing broad access to education and developing high-quality schools. (
  • Incentives, decentralized decisionmaking, and evaluation are alien terms to education, in both industrial and developing countries, but they hold the key to improvement that has eluded policymakers pursuing traditional practices. (
  • The announcement was made this morning in Oxford during the 2009 Skoll World Forum on Social Entrepreneurship, a gathering of more than 700 leading social entrepreneurs, funders, academics and policymakers from more than 60 countries. (
  • A new study that surveyed reports on modalities for treating addiction and their effectiveness in the developing world calls on policymakers to use this information to support the design of programs that meet known population needs. (
  • This led to a call by policymakers to improve access to treatment for SUD in developing nations. (
  • According to the UN, LCDs are low-income countries confronting severe structural impediments to sustainable development . (
  • The automaker is also considering building a diesel plant in the country as an increasing number of people prefer to buy diesel variants as diesel is significantly cheaper than gasoline. (
  • Censuses are the keystone of national statistics - only with comprehensive knowledge of the number and distribution of people in a country, and the shares of children, youth, working-age people and older people, can effective policies be designed and monitored. (
  • Ohorongo Cement, a Namibian company, set up its own training center to prepare people for jobs as control room operators-for whom there is high demand in the country. (
  • Recruiting involves creating sophisticated hiring strategies and developing an employer brand to increase the number of applicants and attract talented people. (
  • The number of obese people in the developing world has reached over 900 million, superseding rates in the developed world, a study has revealed. (
  • In 2008, over 900 million people in poorer countries were classified as being overweight, in comparison with 550 million in higher income countries. (
  • People that live in developing countries often can't get enough to eat. (
  • According to Nahle, by being overpopulated means that people in that country or that area consume too many limited resources, including natural objects like forest, facilities, or nonrenewable energy that would run out in the next few decades (2003). (
  • Because people move one country to another country that's why population is increasing day by day and crowd is enhancing. (
  • Furthermore, when immigrants move to another land then they also bring many diseases in the countries and this is very harmful for the host countries people. (
  • Although people are equipped about their career, they are not able to find a job in many countries and cities. (
  • These programs have given people at more than 6000 institutions in over 100 countries and territories in the developing world free or low cost access to more than 35,000 peer-reviewed international scientific journals, books and databases provided by the world's leading academic and professional publishers. (
  • However, this terminology has been used to hide the exploitation and oppression of people in the so-called developing countries - exploitation by corporations headquartered in the developed countries, by dictators installed or supported by the U.S. government or its allies, or by the governments and militaries of the developing countries themselves. (
  • However, people in developing countries typically do not voice concerns over privacy and security with biometric data, says Mark Thomas, the executive director of VaxTrac, a nonprofit that worked with the Benin trials. (
  • With every one percent decline in developing country growth rates, approximately 20 million more people are added to this rapidly swelling number. (
  • Wasn't it better that an aggressive brain drain did not bring Hassan Fathy to our land instead of him becoming Egypt's "people architect" to show poor Egyptian peasants how to build small homes from the soil beneath their feet and stimulate architectural counterparts in other developing countries? (
  • A quick glance at the annual report of the Ashoka Community of Fellows, founded by Bill Drayton, showcases the kind of skilled people from developing countries who became "change makers" because they remained in their own countries where they learned their many talents and refined their motivations. (
  • Roche , with almost $50 billion in annual revenues, says it has not filed for pharmaceutical patents in poorer countries for several years, with the result that over 22 million people in 55 countries have access to its HIV/AIDS drugs. (
  • Zinc status, psychological and nutritional assessment in old people recruited in five European countries: Zincage study. (
  • Join us in empowering people in the developing world. (
  • Many People suffer from Healthcare issue in Developing Countries, adults and children. (
  • The people in these countries have very limited health care with little to no public services. (
  • People in under developed countries are scared to go to hospitals a lot of the time because they say it is where people go to die. (
  • Many people in the developing world do not have proper lighting in their homes, which causes problems for school children needing to study at night. (
  • Eight University of Toronto researchers just got a big boost for their work in the developing world, thanks to grants from Grand Challenges Canada (GCC). (
  • We provide a wide array of financial products and technical assistance, and we help countries share and apply innovative knowledge and solutions to the challenges they face. (
  • Examines methods of adapting psychiatric assessment tools for use cross-culturally and presents challenges for developing interventions for use in low-resource contexts. (
  • INASP is an international development charity working with a global network of partners to improve access, production and use of research information and knowledge, so that countries are equipped to solve their development challenges. (
  • Through a range of activities, it explores some of the unique challenges developing country libraries, researchers and publishers experience. (
  • The RAND Corporation is a research organization that develops solutions to public policy challenges to help make communities throughout the world safer and more secure, healthier and more prosperous. (
  • To ensure that these future leaders are well equipped for the challenges ahead, educators need appropriate and effective mechanisms to boost understanding of IP and ensure that its application mirrors the specific IP needs of individual countries. (
  • WRSTSD addresses issues that will be central to world sustainable development through efficient and effective technology transfer, the challenges these pose for developing countries, and the global framework for dealing with science/technology. (
  • Despite its great importance, the SME sector in the developing world faces enormous challenges to unleashing its full potential. (
  • These challenges provided the impetus for a review of the current literature on SUD treatment in the developing world, with the aim of informing future program development and research. (
  • Designers of prosthetics for developing countries face similar challenges. (
  • In addition to the projects of U of T researchers, GCC funded 75 other initiatives being led by researchers from a variety of other countries. (
  • Biometric researchers from Michigan State University have developed a fingerprint-scanning system for children under five years old that could replace ineffective paper vaccination records. (
  • The Michigan State University researchers developed software that makes it feasible to accurately match fingerprints of children under five with off-the-shelf equipment. (
  • Since the late 1990s, developing countries tended to demonstrate higher growth rates than developed countries. (
  • Given Toyota's success in developing markets, its global footprint and the growth characteristics of these markets, we believe this is a good focus for the company going forward. (
  • This joint study by the International Labour Office and the Secretariat of the World Trade Organization focuses on the relationship between trade and the growth of the informal economy in developing countries. (
  • It also examines how high rates of informal employment diminish the scope for developing countries to translate trade openness into sustainable long-term growth. (
  • User penetration as a percent of a country's total population shows there is still room for growth as well - especially in developing countries. (
  • Since 1995, when Jeffrey Sachs and Andrew Warner published their influential study claiming that natural resource abundance has a strong negative impact on growth, the term "resource curse" has been associated with mineral wealth in developing countries. (
  • GDP growth in developing countries-only recently expected to increase by 6.4 percent in 2009-is now likely to be only 4.5 percent, according to economists at the World Bank. (
  • We believe that by supporting small businesses with high-growth potential we can help influence systemic changes in countries that have for too long faced high rates of poverty. (
  • Finding a clean energy source that is cheaper than those currently available is the only politically-plausible way of curbing continuing growth in developing nations' emissions. (
  • Growth in developing countries was expected to slow to 5.3 percent in 2012, the weakest rate in the past decade, and then modestly pick up in 2013-2014, according to the report. (
  • However, high-income countries should see a feeble 1.4 percent growth rate this year, under pressure from a 0.3 percent contraction in the ailing eurozone. (
  • China's impact is clearest on East Asian countries: in other developing regions, it was swamped by other causes of structural change. (
  • During the 1980s and 1990s, many developing countries implemented macroeconomic stabilisation and structural adjustment policies from the Washington-based International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank. (
  • This column develops a structural equilibrium model of trade and informality to study the effects of trade openness on unemployment, welfare, productivity, and wage inequality. (
  • A developing country (or a low and middle income country ( LMIC ), less developed country , less economically developed country ( LEDC ), or underdeveloped country ) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries. (
  • Their paper, The Contribution of the Mining Sector to Socioeconomic and Human Development , shows that low and middle-income mining countries grew by over one percent annually faster than similar non-mining countries from 2001 to 2011. (
  • In the 21st century, the mining sector has been shown to make important contributions to development in many low and middle income countries. (
  • Since the global financial crisis in 2008, of the low and low-middle income countries, only mineral-dependent countries posted higher human development improvement rates than the world average. (
  • For example, the Human Development Index (HDI) health index increased at a 50% faster rate among mining low- and low-middle income countries than among their non-mining counterparts in 2007-2012. (
  • For those families in low-and middle-income countries who have a child with ASD, access to professional support services will be limited. (
  • In Lower Middle Income Countries (LMICs), GSK will apply for patents but let them lapse after 10 years. (
  • Resources to address SUD in the developing world are severely limited, however, and some 34% of low- and middle-income nations have not yet developed a substance use policy. (
  • But the epicentre of the pandemic could soon shift again - to low and middle-income countries, including those already fragile after years of conflict. (
  • The term low and middle-income country (LMIC) is often used interchangeably but refers only to the economy of the countries. (
  • In the case of a development impact bond (DIB), "development" referring to their primary application to low- or middle-income countries, this is usually a third party such as a donor or foundation (Center for Global Development and Social Finance, 2013). (
  • This report takes the field further forward, exploring the lessons learned in the development of impact bonds in low- and middle-income countries, bringing together the findings from interviews with stakeholders and research into the impact bond space conducted by the authors over the course of a year. (
  • This column presents new evidence of the effect of ocean acidification on early-childhood mortality in low- and middle-income countries. (
  • This column proposes a measure of the ability to work from home in low- and middle-income countries. (
  • This column presents evidence from seven low- and middle-income countries with diverse drug procurement systems to assess the effect of centralised procurement on drug prices. (
  • Lower middle income countries had GNI per capita between US$1,026 and US$4,035. (
  • Landlocked developing countries (LLDC) are developing countries that are landlocked. (
  • The term "less economically developed country" (LEDC) is also used today. (
  • Proper sanitation and safe water are essential for an environment, especially in lesser economically developed countries. (
  • Governments in most developing and transition countries engage in petroleum price smoothing, as the survey of country practice carried out for this paper shows. (
  • These simulations reveal the presence of a sharp trade-off between price smoothing and fiscal stability, suggesting that developing and transition country governments should engage in limited price smoothing and, if possible, rely on hedging instruments to do so. (
  • According to authors such as Walt Whitman Rostow, developing countries are in transition from traditional lifestyles towards the modern lifestyle which began in the Industrial Revolution in the 18th and 19th centuries. (
  • While Americans were appalled at the shenanigans of Martin Shkreli -- the so-called 'Pharma Bro' -- for what many described as cruel price-gouging of lifesaving drugs, the conflict between drug prices and affordability has long festered resentment in poorer countries. (
  • The COVID-19 pandemic has so far had the greatest impact in developed economies with strong health systems. (
  • This has major implications for sites serving content to developing counties. (
  • In addition, investment in ad campaigns in South Korea and the large-scale training of women to prepare meals high in vegetable content and low in fat has improved nutrition in the country. (
  • Along with the current level of development, countries can also be classified by how much their level of development has changed over a specific period of time. (
  • The Telecommunication Development Bureau (BDT) of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has released the first version of a harmonized, efficient, automated technical administrative tool for spectrum management in developing countries under the brand name SMS4DC (Spectrum Management System for Developing Countries). (
  • Unfortunately, in less affluent countries, there is a dearth of studies to inform the development of support services. (
  • Our aim is to identify important lessons that can guide the development of family support services in low-income countries. (
  • We are also looking at how best to govern this new scaled-up financing to ensure it is in line with developing country development plans and objectives. (
  • The study carried out by the UK-based think-tank Overseas Development Institute (ODI) reveals the rate of obesity in developing countries is almost double that in developed countries. (
  • Whereas ODA in 1990 constituted 72 % of capital flows into development countries (of a total of 77,5 bn), this had in 2013 changed to only 16% (of a total of 889 bn). (
  • Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) and private capital has increasingly become much more important for the development of poor countries. (
  • Development countries want partnership and investments. (
  • We want to step up support to private sector development as part of our cooperation with developing countries. (
  • This perspective was further developed by Andre Gunder Frank, who introduced the concept of dependent development . (
  • According to Frank, development strategies promoted by the wealthy countries were designed to ensure that the " developing " countries remained in a subordinate position. (
  • initiation of the Millennium Development Goals in 2000, securing democratic freedoms in developing countries has become a major global-political concern. (
  • The International Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development addresses matters related to environment and sustainable development, paying special attention to relevant issues in developing countries while reporting on the latest environmental trends in industrialised nations. (
  • Special issues are regularly devoted to research and development of nanotechnology in individual countries and on specific topics. (
  • Based in Washington, D.C. at the Aspen Institute, the Aspen Network of Development Entrepreneurs includes for-profit and non-profit social venture funds, business assistance providers, international development organizations and philanthropic foundations active in the developing world. (
  • The research also showed a strong foundation to build on in the future, with 150 players - mostly foundations, development finance institutions and private investors - who have already injected $4 billion in capital and services into small and growing businesses in the developing world. (
  • We currently implement nearly 30 enterprise development programs in more than 20 countries, which provide an excellent base of data and learning. (
  • A new report by the development group Action Aid, a London-based anti-poverty group, says the European Union?s aid to the developing world may be put at risk by the EU?s expansion. (
  • According to its so-called M49 standards, published in 1999: The designations "developed" and "developing" are intended for statistical convenience and do not necessarily express a judgement about the stage reached by a particular country or area in the development process. (
  • There are several terms used to classify countries into rough levels of development. (
  • In 2015, the Brookings Institution published a report on the potential and limitations of impact bonds, which chronicled the development of the first 38 impact bonds in high-income countries and analyzed the landscape. (
  • Developing countries have fewer means to weather shocks to their economies than they had in 2007, before the global financial crisis accelerated, and need to prepare for long-running turbulence, the development lender said. (
  • Participants will be taken through lectures related to basic conditions of China, traditional Chinese culture, higher education development process in China and the countries co-operation and communication with other developing nations. (
  • They will also learn about the history and policies of international communication in china, the history and status quo of Chinese media, history of development and status quo of higher education for the media in China, cultivation of Chinese media talents and the international communication of media education in developing countries. (
  • The designations "developed" and "developing" are intended for statistical convenience and do not necessarily express a judgment about the stage reached by a particular country or area in the development process. (
  • In response to a widespread teacher retention crisis, we are developing a suite of innovative, culturally sensitive, evidence-based teacher selection and development tools. (
  • Apart from Europe, there is not a single successful highly developed landlocked country as measured by the Human Development Index (HDI), and nine of the twelve countries with the lowest HDI scores are landlocked. (
  • Landlocked European countries are exceptions in terms of development outcomes due to their close integration with the regional European market. (
  • insist that though LLDCs vary across the board in terms of HDI index scores, LLDCs almost uniformly straddle at the bottom of HDI rankings in terms of region, suggesting a correlated dependency relationship of development for landlocked countries with their respective regions. (
  • Problem -The conventional view of new product development (NPD) methodologies focuses on marketing and commercial prospects in developed countries. (
  • Though Nigeria is a third-world country and could be considered part of the developing world, there are a few strong arguments to justify Nigeria's completed development and many arguments to justify Nigeria's status as an underdeveloped country. (
  • The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic used to rank countries according to their development levels from "very high" to "low. (
  • Countries with populations over 75 million are excluded. (
  • Conditions including cardiovascular disease, cancer and obesity (previously a problem mostly in Western countries) are emerging as health risks as their populations' vocations, diets and lifestyles change, says Ronald de Jong, CEO of Emerging Markets for Philips Healthcare, a maker of imaging equipment that is sponsoring Radiology-Readiness and providing RAD-AID and Project HOPE with technical expertise. (
  • Small businesses provide important goods and services to underserved populations in the developing world. (
  • Because developing nations are not "going to give up the immediate aspirations of their (often growing) populations for climate-change benefits that are largely in the future," the U.S. and Europe will need to work with them to ensure that they adopt emissions-lowering technologies, such as Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), and cleaner renewable sources. (
  • Although further investigation is clearly needed in order to better understand the specific needs of developing world populations, assisting those populations should be a primary goal of all endeavors. (
  • While there has been improvement in global health and living standards, a great gulf has opened between the developed world and the developing world, between urban and rural populations and between women and men,' she said. (
  • On behalf of the U of T research community, congratulations to these global health experts," said Professor Paul Young , vice president, research and innovation at U of T. "We are thrilled that these scientists are contributing to the global fight to improve health and health care in developing countries. (
  • The main focus of this book is innovation for developing countries: what is the innovation for, what are the current conditions of the innovation, and how to effectively innovate in developing economies. (
  • It contains the latest insights and analyses of innovation based on intensive interviews as well as primary and secondary data of manufacturing firms in developing countries, Vietnam and Laos in particular. (
  • Second, an overwhelming majority of innovations currently used in poor countries are developed in advanced countries, so technology transfer and learning from the latter are a fundamental source of innovation in the former. (
  • Third, a surprisingly high rate of firms (around 50%) reported that they introduced new or significantly improved products or processes in poor countries, and this high innovation rate is a great benefit to be enhanced by government policies. (
  • Fifth, the impact of innovation on firm performance is found to be mixed in these countries. (
  • Although some of these devices, like an artificial, self-healing hydrogen producing leaf are still in the innovation stage, other new solar devices are now ready to be marketed to the masses who really need them in the developing world. (
  • Thomas Friedman contends that globalization 1.0 shrunk the world from large to medium and countries and governments were the main protagonists. (
  • The governments of countries would finance explorers like Christopher Columbus to discover new parts of the world to enhance trade and commerce. (
  • This is, in part, because of the limited capacity of these countries' governments to conduct national surveys, but it is also due to underinvestment in mental health care in these countries and to underutilization of mental health services in resource-poor settings," says Craig L. Katz, MD, of the Departments of Psychiatry and Medical Education, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York. (
  • Achieving the SDGs will require governments and multilaterals to develop and apply innovative financing tools to make the best use of existing funds. (
  • In an effort to fulfill ACM's mission of disseminating computing and information technology ideas, techniques and discoveries, as widely as possible, ACM has developed a special set of membership dues (based on the World Bank GNI per capita Atlas method data ) and Digital Library subscription pricing affordable to computing professionals residing in economically developing countries. (
  • As of 2015 [update] a country must have GNI per capita less than US $ 1,035 to be included on the list, and over $1,242 to graduate from it. (
  • There are no universally agreed-upon criteria for what makes a country developing versus developed and which countries fit these two categories, although there are general reference points such as a nation's GDP per capita compared to other nations. (
  • The World Bank classifies the world's economies into four groups, based on Gross National Income per capita: high, upper-middle, lower-middle, and low income countries. (
  • [1] There are no universally agreed-upon criteria for what makes a country developing versus developed and which countries fit these two categories, [2] although there are general reference points such as a nation's GDP per capita compared with other nations. (
  • Low income countries had GNI per capita of US$1,025 or less. (
  • In case of a serious financial crisis, no developing country will be spared. (
  • Ryan, who said his views reflected a consensus of opinion in the Carter administration, said he was optimistic about loans to less developed countries (LDC) largely because of new international financing facilities being planned by the International Monetary Fund and other lending groups. (
  • One way to improve our understanding is to analyze management systems of socalled less-developed countries, with the assumption that this can provide useful information to us (Miller, 1953). (
  • These include less-developed countries , underdeveloped countries , undeveloped countries , backward countries , Third World countries , and newly industrializing countries . (
  • Sure, nobody is forcing skilled workers from less developed countries to come to the US other than dictators, but if the US wants peace, stability and better livelihoods to have a chance, it has to tell its giant corporations to pull back on their gluttonous appetite to recruit the "cream of the crop" from these countries and invest in American skills. (
  • Census Recommendations developed at UNECE call for countries to gather data on a core set of variables and provide detailed guidelines for definitions and classifications to ensure comparability across countries. (
  • Classification of any given country differs across sources, and sometimes these classifications or the specific terminology used is considered disparaging. (
  • The focus of the funding - which comes from the Government of Canada - is on health care innovations that could transform the way disease is treated in the developing world. (
  • With 189 member countries, staff from more 170 countries, and offices in over 130 locations, the World Bank Group is a unique global partnership: five institutions working for sustainable solutions that reduce poverty and build shared prosperity in developing countries. (
  • Allocations by country and activity must be made on the basis of poverty indicators - not the EU?s own security agenda. (
  • As amputees in the developing world are often subject to an inescapable life of poverty because they are unable to work and support their families, there is a strong impetus to design effective limbs for this population. (
  • In addition, the country has very low unemployment and poverty rates, has equal and free access to health care, and has been one of the most active supporters of environmental sustainability today and pushes for other countries to "Go green. (
  • This paper documents the main stylized features of macroeconomic fluctuations for 12 developing countries. (
  • What is the likely prevalence of the condition within the country? (
  • The high prevalence rate of primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) in the developing world is due to higher parental consanguinity in some communities. (
  • OECD Home About the OECD Secretary-General Why Commodity Market Volatility Matters for Developed Countries? (
  • Extractives specialists Gary McMahon and Susana Moreira find that many, indeed most, of the world's fastest-growing countries since 2000 have been resource-rich. (
  • 1 Ninety eight per cent of deaths in children occur in the developing world, mostly as a result of infections. (
  • Fact: Nearly all of the deaths occur in the developing world, with poor children facing twice the risk of dying compared to richer children. (
  • Although even the most potent and recently developed antimicrobial drugs are available throughout the world, in developing countries their use is confined to those who are wealthy enough to afford them. (
  • Liechtenstein has very low taxes imposed on its citizens and is a center of investment from countries and the wealthy. (
  • This figure has more than tripled since 1980 in underdeveloped countries, while in wealthier nations the rate has grown by 1.7 times, the report says. (
  • It does not provide quantitative information on research being carried out in international centres located in developing countries, or on the level of funding any individual technology receives. (
  • For countries such as the United States, if consumers ate according to the national and international protein recommendations and reduced food waste by 50 percent, their total nitrogen footprint would decrease by over 35 percent," the duo wrote. (
  • The PCT is an international treaty, administered by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), between more than 140 Paris Convention countries. (
  • The Academy offers grants to individuals and organizations to fund international volunteer and humanitarian projects under the Skin Care for Developing Countries program. (
  • As business activities become international and most recently global, and geographical borders between countries vanish, there are closer and more frequent interactions among organizations, firms, industries and institutions both within and between countries. (
  • Representatives from 42 countries participated in an international event to address this topic at the WIPO International Symposium on Intellectual Property Education and Research held in Geneva on June 30 and July 1. (
  • Waste Management is an international journal devoted to the presentation and discussion of information on the generation, prevention, characterization, monitoring, treatment, handling, reuse and ultimate residual disposition of solid wastes, both in industrialized and in economically developing countries. (
  • This mother-of-all whammies overburdens international humanitarian systems, as developed countries focus on domestic needs, limiting much-needed funding for international emergencies that have become back-page news. (
  • New research, undertaken by Occupational Knowledge International ( OK International ) and published in the Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene has found that children who lived close to lead processing plants in countries such as Mexico had lead levels up to 13 times that found in American children. (
  • Children and workers in developing countries face significant risks of lead poisoning, which can cause lifelong health problems," said Perry Gottesfeld from OK International. (
  • Regional variations are also noted, notably between developed and developing countries as participation to international trade is becoming an increasing attribute of developing countries, notably in Pacific Asia. (
  • Patients in the developing world often face prices for essential medicines far in excess of international reference levels, even if those drugs have lost patent protection. (
  • They are also being trialled with other partners in several countries, highlighting the international engagement with this research and clear potential for further impact. (
  • Sweden also serves as a major tourist destination for millions of international travelers, as the country has a long and rich history. (
  • Countries may "graduate" out of the LDC classification when indicators exceed these criteria. (
  • The criteria for categorizing a country as an LDC have been refined over time. (
  • Criteria for Developing and Selecting Energy Models 28. (
  • LDC criteria differ from World Bank low-income country benchmarks for concessional loan eligibility. (
  • Over 50 correspondents from 54 countries contribute to the database, with articles about individual countries' policy frameworks, research institutes and biosafety regulations. (
  • Most research into Autism Spectrum Disorders has been conducted in affluent English-speaking countries which have extensive professional support services. (
  • Past research on children with ASD and the effects on parents of having a child with ASD has been limited largely to families in western countries [ 2 ]. (
  • Hence indigenous research is needed to identify the particular needs of families in nonwestern countries and how information and supports can be better tailored to their needs and be respectful of their cultures. (
  • The findings from a series of research studies undertaken by the authors are summarised and comparisons are made with the results reported in similar studies undertaken in other countries. (
  • "The growing rates of overweight and obesity in developing countries are alarming," said the report's author, ODI Research Fellow Steve Wiggins. (
  • Renewable energy in developing countries TharunaPapari TEC 5970B Research Paper Summer 2014 Eastern Illinois University Abstract Renewable is which never runs out or infinitely available in nature. (
  • The Paris-based research body said the combined gross domestic products of its 34 members--most of which are developed countries--was just 0.3% higher in the first three months of 2015 than it was in the final three of 2014. (
  • GOALI (Global Online Access to Legal Information) provides free or low cost online access to legal research and training in the developing world. (
  • The cooperation between academic institutions and different stakeholders - for example private enterprise and government agencies - will also have to be developed and expanded since there is a growing need for an interdisciplinary approach to IP research capacity. (
  • And while advancements in HIV/AIDS pharmaceutical research means the virus no longer imposes a death sentence, many developing countries are now coping with the costs of new drugs that are more effective in countering high blood pressure and cancer. (
  • a country where, I am told, research facilities are superb. (
  • Yet, the quality of fundamental research in many areas, while competently performed on excellent equipment, often fails to match that carried out in Western countries. (
  • Prof Liu was opening a seminar on Media and Media Education for 43 journalists drawn from 22 developing countries in the Chinese capital of Beijing. (
  • This article provides some guidelines to develop these frameworks by elaborating some of the major characteristics of strategies, structures, decision-makings and management systems in Developing Countries (DC). (
  • Recognizing the limitations of Western management theories across nations will provide impetus for developing new theoretical frameworks for understanding management activities in non-industrialized countries. (
  • How, with what means, and from what perspectives these less-known systems should be observed are the type of questions that provide a starting point for proposing guidelines for developing better theoretical frameworks for understanding management systems in different contexts. (
  • Most of the theoretical and empirical studies of organizations and management issues have been developed based on samples from industrialized countries or firms and organizations established in these countries. (
  • This paper provides estimates of both national and global welfare costs of bilateral quotas on textiles and apparel using an applied general equilibrium model which covers bilateral quotas on exports of textiles and apparel negotiated between three major developed importing countries (the US, Canada and the EEC) and 34 supplying developing countries under the provisions of the Multifibre Arrangement applying in mid-1980s (MFA 111). (
  • All of this is to say that if your brand serves the global market, and especially developing economies, AMP is worth the thought exercise of assessing its implications on your business and user experience. (
  • Based on a global trade database of 188 countries, the study showed the bulk of nitrogen emissions in 2010 came from industry and agriculture, which accounted for 161 teragrams (trillion grammes), while 28 Tg was produced by consumers -- mainly from sewage. (
  • In total, 114.3 million hectares of GM crops were cultivated worldwide, with 43 per cent of the global GM crop area in developing countries. (
  • What countries can do is to take action to ensure more confidence in global markets and assure smoother flows of food, especially in emergency situations. (
  • Therefore, understanding how organizations in different countries adapt, resist and generally manage themselves may be one of the key success factors for global business activities in the new century. (
  • Although there is nearly $16 billion in worldwide funding for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) services, countries with the highest burden of disease rely heavily on donor funding for their HIV programs, including such sources as the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM). (
  • The term "Global South" is used by some as an alternative term to developing countries. (
  • The ITU forecasts there will be 4.3 billion global mobile broadband subscribers by the end of this year, with mobile broadband more affordable than fixed-line in most developing countries. (
  • Just under 40% of global telecom revenue comes from developing markets, home to 83% of the world's population. (
  • Planning allows organizations to detect potential skills gaps and develop measures to close them, by both increasing supply and managing demand. (
  • Most are non-profit organizations that supply financing and business training to entrepreneurs in developing countries. (
  • It is concluded that the provision of technical change and investment opportunities may be less costly than direct subsidization as a way of bringing down rural interest rates in developing countries. (
  • This book presents the situation regarding energy provision and policy in developing countries. (
  • Integrated financial services provision (IFSP) is becoming the norm around the world, with many countries today having no or very few restrictions on the ability of banks to offer securities, asset management, or insurance services in addition to commercial banking services. (
  • Countries on the other end of the spectrum are usually referred to as high-income countries or developed countries. (
  • The World Bank on Tuesday urged developing countries to build up their buffers against financial storms arising from the high-income countries, especially in Europe. (
  • Primary combined trabeculotomy-trabeculectomy is often the preferred technique in the developing world. (
  • Primary congenital glaucoma in the developing world. (
  • We will develop a low-cost disposable test for rapidly diagnosing malaria in low resource settings. (
  • Legal and regulatory boundaries between different financial intermediaries have been rapidly disappearing in many countries, as in the repeal in 1999 of the Glass-Steagall Act in the United States. (
  • The first country to graduate from LDC status was Botswana in 1994. (
  • North (1994) and Olson (1992) claim that successful national business systems of industrialized countries may not be successful in other parts of the world. (
  • There are more than 300 million small and mid-sized enterprises (SMEs) in developing countries, which contribute up to 40% of national GDP. (
  • SMEs account for about 70% of all jobs in developing countries. (
  • SMEs in developing countries often face much heavier regulatory burdens than in the EU. (
  • In developing countries, they often don't have data protection, and creating a business-friendly environment and bringing SMEs into the formal economy and keeping them there to succeed must be as much as a priority as cutting red tape," Deva said. (
  • That wiped out about seven percent of the value in stock markets in advanced and developing countries, hitting commodity prices hard, and strengthening the dollar as investors sought a safe haven. (
  • In common practice, Japan in Asia, Canada and the United States in northern America, Australia and New Zealand in Oceania, and Europe are considered "developed" regions or areas. (
  • The use of ultrasound has developed in medical practice clinic in different specialties. (
  • The socialist and largely liberal European country of Sweden (officially the Kingdom of Sweden) is led by Prime Minister Fredrick Reinfeldt and is about the size of the US state of California (or Spain if unfamiliar with the CA) and has an approximate population of 9.3 million with the capital and largest city being Stockholm. (