Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
Countries that have reached a level of economic achievement through an increase of production, per capita income and consumption, and utilization of natural and human resources.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.
The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.
The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)
Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.
The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)
An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.
All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
The geographical area of Asia comprising BORNEO; BRUNEI; CAMBODIA; INDONESIA; LAOS; MALAYSIA; the MEKONG VALLEY; MYANMAR (formerly Burma), the PHILIPPINES; SINGAPORE; THAILAND; and VIETNAM.
Aspects of health and disease related to travel.
The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
The islands of the Pacific Ocean divided into MICRONESIA; MELANESIA; and POLYNESIA (including NEW ZEALAND). The collective name Oceania includes the aforenamed islands, adding AUSTRALIA; NEW ZEALAND; and the Malay Archipelago (INDONESIA). (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p910, 880)
The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.
Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)
The science of utilization, distribution, and consumption of services and materials.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
International organizations which provide health-related or other cooperative services.
A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.
Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.
Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.
Value of all final goods and services produced in a country in one year.
Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.
Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.
The area that lies between continental North and South America and comprises the Caribbean Sea, the West Indies, and the adjacent mainland regions of southern Mexico, Central America, Colombia, and Venezuela.
An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)
Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.
The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.
All organized methods of funding.
The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.
People who leave their place of residence in one country and settle in a different country.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.
A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.
A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)
Method of measuring performance against established standards of best practice.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The provision of monetary resources including money or capital and credit; obtaining or furnishing money or capital for a purchase or enterprise and the funds so obtained. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed.)
Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.
The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)
Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
Termination of all transmission of infection by global extermination of the infectious agent through surveillance and containment (From Porta, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 5th ed).
The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.
Created as the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes in 1918. Yugoslavia became the official name in 1929. BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA; CROATIA; and SLOVENIA formed independent countries 7 April 1992. Macedonia became independent 8 February 1994 as the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (MACEDONIA REPUBLIC).
The geographical area of Africa comprising BENIN; BURKINA FASO; COTE D'IVOIRE; GAMBIA; GHANA; GUINEA; GUINEA-BISSAU; LIBERIA; MALI; MAURITANIA; NIGER; NIGERIA; SENEGAL; SIERRA LEONE; and TOGO.
Maternal deaths resulting from complications of pregnancy and childbirth in a given population.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.
The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.
The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.
The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
The geographical area of Asia comprising KAZAKHSTAN; KYRGYZSTAN; TAJIKISTAN; TURKMENISTAN; and UZBEKISTAN. The desert region of Kara Kum (Qara Qum) is largely in Turkmenistan and the desert region of Kyzyl Kum (Kizil Kum or Qizil Qum), is in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p233, 590, 636)
A historical and cultural entity dispersed across the wide geographical area of Europe, as opposed to the East, Asia, and Africa. The term was used by scholars through the late medieval period. Thereafter, with the impact of colonialism and the transmission of cultures, Western World was sometimes expanded to include the Americas. (Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)
Persons who have acquired academic or specialized training in countries other than that in which they are working. The concept excludes physicians for which FOREIGN MEDICAL GRADUATES is the likely heading.
A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.
Demographic and epidemiologic changes that have occurred in the last five decades in many developing countries and that are characterized by major growth in the number and proportion of middle-aged and elderly persons and in the frequency of the diseases that occur in these age groups. The health transition is the result of efforts to improve maternal and child health via primary care and outreach services and such efforts have been responsible for a decrease in the birth rate; reduced maternal mortality; improved preventive services; reduced infant mortality, and the increased life expectancy that defines the transition. (From Ann Intern Med 1992 Mar 15;116(6):499-504)
Somalia is located on the east coast of Africa on and north of the Equator and, with Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, and Kenya, is often referred to as the Horn of Africa. It comprises Italy's former Trust Territory of Somalia and the former British Protectorate of Somaliland. The capital is Mogadishu.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The geographical designation for the countries of the MIDDLE EAST and the countries BANGLADESH; BHUTAN; INDIA; NEPAL; PAKISTAN; and SRI LANKA. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993 & Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A geographic area of east and southeast Asia encompassing CHINA; HONG KONG; JAPAN; KOREA; MACAO; MONGOLIA; and TAIWAN.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.
An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)
An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.
The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.
People who frequently change their place of residence.
A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.
Travel to another country for the purpose of medical treatment.
The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.
Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)
The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).
The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.
A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.
Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.
Persons fleeing to a place of safety, especially those who flee to a foreign country or power to escape danger or persecution in their own country or habitual residence because of race, religion, or political belief. (Webster, 3d ed)
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.
Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.
Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.
Australia, New Zealand and neighboring islands in the South Pacific Ocean. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed.)
A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Port-au-Prince. With the Dominican Republic it forms the island of Hispaniola - Haiti occupying the western third and the Dominican Republic, the eastern two thirds. Haiti belonged to France from 1697 until its rule was challenged by slave insurrections from 1791. It became a republic in 1820. It was virtually an American protectorate from 1915 to 1934. It adopted its present constitution in 1964 and amended it in 1971. The name may represent either of two Caribbean words, haiti, mountain land, or jhaiti, nest. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p481 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p225)
A republic in western Africa, north of NIGERIA and west of CHAD. Its capital is Niamey.
The status of health in rural populations.
A country located in north Africa, bordering the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, with a southern border with Western Sahara, eastern border with Algeria. The capital is Rabat.
A republic in southern Africa, southwest of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and west of ZAMBIA. Its capital is Luanda.
Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.
Administration and functional structures for the purpose of collectively systematizing activities for a particular goal.

Epidemiology and prevention of group A streptococcal infections: acute respiratory tract infections, skin infections, and their sequelae at the close of the twentieth century. (1/736)

Infections of the upper respiratory tract and skin due to group A Streptococcus are common, and the organism is highly transmissible. In industrialized countries and to some extent in developing countries, control efforts continue to emphasize that group A streptococcal pharyngitis should be properly diagnosed and appropriately treated. In developing countries and in indigenous populations where the burden of group A streptococcal diseases appears greatest, the epidemiology is less completely defined and may differ from that in industrialized countries. There is a need for accurately collected epidemiological data from developing countries, which may also further clarify the pathogenesis of group A streptococcal infections and their sequelae. While proper treatment of group A streptococcal pharyngitis continues to be essential in all populations, it may be appropriate in developing countries to consider additional strategies to reduce rates of pyoderma.  (+info)

Preventing the spread of antimicrobial resistance among bacterial respiratory pathogens in industrialized countries: the case for judicious antimicrobial use. (2/736)

The spread of antimicrobial resistance is an important emerging health threat in developed countries. Widespread outpatient antimicrobial use leads to the spread of resistance among community-acquired pathogens such as Streptococcus pneumoniae. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and partner organizations have initiated a national campaign promoting more judicious antimicrobial use to decrease the spread of resistance. The initial focus is to improve management of respiratory tract infections, which account for most outpatient antimicrobial use. Survey and focus group results indicate that patient pressure and suboptimal diagnosis and treatment contribute to antibiotic overuse. To educate physicians, a series of "principles of judicious antibiotic use" have been developed that identify optimal approaches to management of common respiratory infections. Patient education materials and strategies to improve doctor-patient communication also have been developed. Several studies currently under way will evaluate the impact of intervention on antibiotic use practices and resistant carriage or infection.  (+info)

International trends in rates of hypospadias and cryptorchidism. (3/736)

Researchers from seven European nations and the United States have published reports of increasing rates of hypospadias during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. Reports of increasing rates of cryptorchidism have come primarily from England. In recent years, these reports have become one focus of the debate over endocrine disruption. This study examines more recent data from a larger number of countries participating in the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Monitoring Systems (ICBDMS) to address the questions of whether such increases are worldwide and continuing and whether there are geographic patterns to any observed increases. The ICBDMS headquarters and individual systems provided the data. Systems were categorized into five groups based on gross domestic product in 1984. Hypospadias increases were most marked in two American systems and in Scandinavia and Japan. The increases leveled off in many systems after 1985. Increases were not seen in less affluent nations. Cryptorchidism rates were available for 10 systems. Clear increases in this anomaly were seen in two U.S. systems and in the South American system, but not elsewhere. Since 1985, rates declined in most systems. Numerous artifacts may contribute to or cause upward trends in hypospadias. Possible "real" causes include demographic changes and endocrine disruption, among others.  (+info)

Epidemiology of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in a randomly selected population in a developed country. (4/736)

This cross-sectional study of 400 sera from a randomly selected adult population in Northern Ireland, using a microimmunofluorescence assay, demonstrated high overall seropositivity (70%) for IgG Chlamydia pneumoniae antibodies in developed populations. Seropositivity was shown to be unrelated to gender, age or smoking but there was an inverse trend between infection and educational level achieved as a measure of socio-economic status. IgG levels were also higher during the winter months suggesting seasonal variation of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. The high prevalence of evidence of exposure to Chlamydia pneumoniae as described in this study may have implications for prevention of cardiovascular disease if further evidence conclusively determines that infection with this organism is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.  (+info)

Using perinatal audit to promote change: a review. (5/736)

Close to half of all infant deaths world-wide now occur in the first week of life, almost all in developing countries, and the perinatal mortality rate (PNMR) is used as an indicator of the quality of health service delivery. Clinical audit aims to improve quality of care through the systematic assessment of practice against a defined standard, with a view to recommending and implementing measures to address specific deficiencies in care. Perinatal outcome audit evaluates crude or cause-specific PNMRs, reviewing secular trends over several years or comparing rates between similar institutions. However, the PNMR may not be a valid, reliable and sensitive indicator of quality of care at the institutional level in developing countries because of variations in the presenting case-mix, various confounding non-health service factors and the small number of deaths which occur. Process audit compares actual practice with standard (best) practice, based on the evidence of research or expert consensus. Databases reviewing the management of reproductive health problems in developing countries are currently being prepared so as to provide clinicians and health service managers with up-to-date information to support the provision of evidence-based care. Standard practice should be adapted and defined in explicit management guidelines, taking into account local resources and circumstances. Forms of process audit include the review of care procedures in cases which have resulted in a pre-defined adverse outcome, know as 'sentinel event audit'; and the review of all cases where a particular care activity was received or indicated, known as 'topic audit'. These are complementary and each depends on the quality of recorded data. The forum for comparing observed practice with the standard may be external, utilising an 'expert committee', or internal, in which care providers audit their own activities. Local internal audit is more likely to result in improvements in care if it is conducted in a structured and culturally sensitive way, and if all levels of staff are involved in reviewing activities and in formulating recommendations. However, further research is needed to identify the factors which determine the effectiveness and sustainability of perinatal audit in different developing country settings.  (+info)

Environment, development and health: ideological metaphors of post-traditional societies? (6/736)

Environment and health have become nearly interchangeable concepts in post-traditional societies. We are able to observe almost an obsession with them, as if individual changes in ways of life--important for the individual and significant for the culture though they may be--possessed the power to overthrow a system of economic relations that aims at growth in numerical terms rather than at development, enabling society to sustain its specific modes of private and public interaction.  (+info)

Complications of varicella in a defined central European population. (7/736)

AIMS: To describe complications of varicella requiring hospitalisation in a defined population (canton of Bern) and to compare the hospitalisation rates for varicella with published data. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of hospital records of patients less than 16 years of age admitted with complications of varicella to the hospitals serving this population (University Children's Hospital of Bern and the Wildermeth Children's Hospital of Biel, Switzerland), and calculation of hospitalisation rates for varicella and its complications based on birth rates and varicella antibody prevalence rates. RESULTS: From 1986 to 1996, 113 cases (median age, 5.6 years) were identified. Younger siblings were overrepresented (odds ratio (OR), 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09 to 1.84). Central nervous system (CNS) complications (26 patients; 23%) were found predominantly in previously healthy children (relative risk, 7.1; 95% CI, 1.01 to 49.86). Group A beta haemolytic streptococci were recovered from only one of 35 patients with bacterial complications. The hospitalisation rates for primary varicella (9.2/10(4) cases; 95% CI, 7.4 to 11/10(4), skin infections (2.0/10(4) cases; 95% CI, 1.2 to 2.9/10(4), and pneumonia (0.8/10(4) cases; 95% CI, 0.3 to 1.3/10(4)) were significantly lower than reported previously. The CNS complication rate (2.2/10(4) cases; 95% CI, 1.3 to 3.1/10(4) was among the highest rates reported. CONCLUSIONS: The low hospitalisation rate in comparison with studies from elsewhere indicates that there is a large regional variability in complications associated with varicella. Such data should be taken into consideration when local varicella immunisation strategies are developed.  (+info)

Biotechnology: enhancing human nutrition in developing and developed worlds. (8/736)

While the last 50 years of agriculture have focused on meeting the food, feed, and fiber needs of humans, the challenges for the next 50 years go far beyond simply addressing the needs of an ever-growing global population. In addition to producing more food, agriculture will have to deal with declining resources like water and arable land, need to enhance nutrient density of crops, and achieve these and other goals in a way that does not degrade the environment. Biotechnology and other emerging life sciences technologies offer valuable tools to help meet these multidimensional challenges. This paper explores the possibilities afforded through biotechnology in providing improved agronomic "input" traits, differentiated crops that impart more desirable "output" traits, and using plants as green factories to fortify foods with valuable nutrients naturally rather than externally during food processing. The concept of leveraging agriculture as green factories is expected to have tremendous positive implications for harnessing solar energy to meet fiber and fuel needs as well. Widespread adaptation of biotech-derived products of agriculture should lay the foundation for transformation of our society from a production-driven system to a quality and utility-enhanced system.  (+info)

Policymakers in the OECD countries still generally look upon the SDGs as a development policy issue. The task for high-income countries, one might assume, is simply to provide greater levels of offi cial development assistance (ODA), specifically, pushing efforts closer to the target of 0.7 percent of GDP, which few countries have managed so far. The truth is, however, that the SDGs will not just require rich countries to increase development funds for others; they will need fundamental policy changes in their own countries. If the MDGs were the telescope through which rich countries viewed the developing world, the SDGs are the mirror in which they see their own policies and performance reflected. In other words, every country is now a developing country when it comes to an economic and social model which is both sustainable and socially just.
This paper investigates the validity of purchasing power parity (PPP) for 25 OECD countries by using a panel unit-root methodology. The procedure used here is to examine stationarity of real exchange rate. Using ADF unit-root test on single time-series, it is found that real exchange rate of all OECD countries have unit root. This outcome, however, might be due to the generally low power of this test. The aim of this paper is to reconsider this issue by exploiting the extra information provided by the combination of the time-series and cross-sectional data and the subsequent power advantages of panel data unit-root tests. We apply the test advocated by Im et al. [Im, K.S., Pesaran, M.H., Shin, Y., 1997. Testing for unit roots in heterogenous panels. University of Cambridge, Department of Applied Economics]. According to estimation results real exchange rate in OECD countries are stationary and support long-run purchasing power parity. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. ...
Risk-factor burden was greatest in high-income countries with the mean INTERHEART score highest in these nations, intermediate in middle-income countries, and lowest in low-income countries (p < 0.001). In high-income countries, the INTERHEART score was higher in rural areas, compared to urban areas; in lower- and middle-income countries, the risk score was higher in urban areas, compared to rural areas. Conversely, the rates of major cardiovascular events (death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, stroke, or heart failure) were lowest in high-income countries, intermediate in middle-income countries, and highest in low-income countries, with rates of 3.99, 5.38, and 6.43 events per 1,000 person-years, respectively (p < 0.001). ...
The National Accounts of OECD Countries, Main Aggregates covers expenditure-based GDP, output-based GDP, income-based GDP, GDP per capita, disposable income, saving and net lending, population and employment. It includes also comparative tables based on purchasing power parities (PPPs) and exchange rates. Data are shown for 34 OECD countries and the Euro area back to 2005. Country tables are expressed in national currency. Data are based on the System of National Accounts 1993 (1993 SNA).. ...
Adam, A., Delis, M., Kammas, P., (2011). Public Sector efficiency: Leveling the playing field between OECD countries. Public Choice 146, 163- 183.. Alesina, A., Angeloni , I., Etro, F., (2005). International Unions, American Economic Review 95, 602-15.. Alesina, A., Devleeschauwer, A., Easterly, W., Kurlat, S., Wacziarg, R., (2003). Fractionalization. Journal of Economic Growth 8, 155-194.. Alesina, A., La Ferrara, E., (2005). Preferences for redistribution in the land of opportunities. Journal of Public Economics 89, 897-931.. Afonso, A., St. Aubyn, M., (2005). Non-parametric approaches to education and health: Expenditure efficiency in OECD countries. Journal of Applied Economics 8, 227-246.. Afonso, A., Schuknecht, L., Tanzi, V., (2005). Public sector efficiency: An international comparison. Public Choice 123, 321-347.. Afonso, A., Schuknecht, L., Tanzi, V., (2006). Public sector efficiency: Evidence for new EU member states and emerging markets. ECB Working Paper no. 581.. Anderson, T.W., ...
The international research team found risk factors for cardiovascular disease was lowest in low income countries, intermediate in middle income countries and highest in high income countries. However, the incidence of serious cardiovascular disease such as heart attacks, strokes, heart failure and deaths followed the opposite pattern: highest in the low income countries, intermediate in middle income countries and lowest in high income countries. Hospitalizations for less severe cardiovascular diseases were highest in the high income countries.
ries and do not feed the local population. Furthermore, the production is largely owned by companies residing in rich countries. When agricultural production is largely exported, the poor countries end up as importers of food required by the local people. With regard to industrial production, much of it is done for export. Again, the companies are largely parts of multinational ones with headquarters in rich countries. The reasons for production in poor countries is first that the salaries are very low, but also that environmental standards required for production in rich countries need not be followed whereby production costs are minimized. This type of cutting cost is the greedy economic globalism, which the true sustainable globalism should do its utmost to fight against. The solution to decreasing wealth inequality is actually quite simple. All the products from poor areas are priced as if they were produced in rich countries, and the difference in the present and future price is given to ...
Downloadable! Prevalence of non-communicable diseases has increased in past decades in the OECD. These conditions have many risk factors, including poor quality diet, insufficient physical activity, and excess sedentarism. These behaviours are also at the root of overweight and obesity, which are themselves risk factors leading to non-communicable diseases. Using the most recent data available from individual-level national health surveys and health interviews, this paper paints a picture of the situation in terms of diet and physical activity in eleven OECD countries. Fruit and vegetable consumption remains low in all countries, as daily consumption of five fruit and vegetables per day rarely reaches 40%; diet quality can also be improved, although it is higher in some countries. Physical activity levels are more encouraging, with over 50% of the population reporting to reach the World Health Organization target in all countries, and excess sedentarism is high in two of the seven countries studied.
Downloadable! Recent discussions about rising inequality in industrialized countries have triggered calls for more government intervention and redistribution. Due to obvious behavioral effects caused by redistribution, it is however not clear whether redistributional policies are indeed able to combat inequality. This paper contributes to this relevant research question by using different contextual country-level data sources to study inequality trends in OECD countries since the 1980s. We first investigate the development of inequality over time before analyzing the question of whether governments can effectively reduce inequality. Different identification strategies, using fixed effects and instrumental variables models, provide some evidence that governments are capable of reducing income inequality despite countervailing behavioral adjustments. The effect is stronger for social expenditure policies than for progressive taxation, which seems to trigger more inequality increasing indirect behavioral
Background This study explores the relationship between BMI and national-wealth and the cross-level interaction effect of national-wealth and individual household-wealth using multilevel analysis. Methods Data from the World Health Survey conducted in 2002-2004, across 70 low-, middle- and high-income countries was used. Participants aged 18 years and over were selected using multistage, stratified cluster sampling. BMI was used as outcome variable. The potential determinants of individual-level BMI were participants sex, age, marital-status, education, occupation, household-wealth and location(rural/urban) at the individual-level. The country-level factors used were average national income (GNI-PPP) and income inequality (Gini-index). A two-level random-intercepts and fixed-slopes model structure with individuals nested within countries was fitted, treating BMI as a continuous outcome. Results The weighted mean BMI and standard-error of the 206,266 people from 70-countries was 23.90 (4.84). All
The correlation between a firms size and its productivity level varies considerably across OECD countries, suggesting that some countries are more successful at channelling resources to high productivity firms than others.
The present study is designed to compare the mortality and potential years of life lost of colorectal cancer between OECD countries and Korea before (1990-1999) and after (2000-2009) to provide data of more accurate strategy of public health policy and education about cancer treatment and prevention through examining differences of changes among the OECD countries. We statistically compared mortality and potential years of life lost from 32 OECD countries including Korea, except 2 nations with inadequate data, between before (1990-1999) and after the year 2000 (2000-2009) using OECD Health Data 2012 using the method of paired t-test. Male mortality of colorectal cancer was increased in 8 OECD countries including Korea and the female mortality was only increased in Chile and Korea. In particular, the increased rate of mortality was significantly high in Korean male and female. Moreover, increased rate of potential years of life lost for colorectal cancer was also significantly high in Korea: ...
Chapter 11 EQUITY IN THE USE OF PHYSICIAN VISITS IN OECD COUNTRIES: HAS EQUAL TREATMENT FOR EQUAL NEED BEEN ACHIEVED? by Eddy van Doorslaer *, Xander Koolman * and Frank Puffer ** Abstract This paper uses
Results The 12-month prevalence of reported exacerbations ranged from 1.9% in Guangzhou, China to 14.2% in Lexington, USA, it was higher in subjects with spirometrically defined COPD as compared to subjects without spirometric COPD (14.4% vs 4.2%, p,0.0001) and in low and middle income countries as compared to high income countries (7.9% vs 4.9%, p,0.0001). Exacerbations were associated with doctor diagnosed asthma, COPD stage 1+, chronic bronchitis, increase in MMRC dyspnoea score, current exposures to biomass and dusty jobs and history of TB (see Abstract P209 table 1). Similar trends for overall effect estimates were obtained for low and middle income countries and high income countries with and without biomass exposure information. The variation in reported exacerbations across sites is unlikely to be due to variation in the influence of different risk factors between sites except for COPD stages 1 and 2 (I2=44%, p=0.03), biomass exposure (I2=57%, p=0.01) and reported history of TB ...
JAMA.: February 27, 2013. The United States spends more on health care than does any other country, but its health outcomes are generally worse than those of other wealthy nations. People in the United States experience higher rates of disease and injury and die earlier than people in other high-income countries. Although this health disadvantage has been increasing for decades, its scale is only now becoming more apparent.. A new report1 from the National Research Council and Institute of Medicine (NRC/IOM) documents that US males and females in almost all age groups-up to age 75 years-have shorter life expectancies than their counterparts in 16 other wealthy, developed nations: Australia, Austria, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. The scope of the US health disadvantage is pervasive and involves more than life expectancy: the United States ranks at or near the bottom in both prevalence ...
This review provides a synthesis of literature concerning the acute treatment costs of trauma in high-income countries and the drivers of higher costs. Results showed the cost of acute treatment was a median of $22,448 across studies (IQR: $11,819-$33,701) and identified factors such as injury severity, surgical interventions, ICU and hospital LOS, were consistently associated with higher treatment costs. Across studies, we identified marked variability in reporting, methods of costing and actual costs and charges [15].. The broad inclusion criteria and time period used in this review resulted in a representative sample, although comparison and ranking of costs between studies was limited due to the variety of costing and statistical methods. The predominance of US data may not be generalisable to universal access health systems such as those in Australia and Canada. Although 90% of the worlds deaths from injuries occur in developing countries [51], there is limited external validity of our ...
Vaccination against Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is recommended for adolescent young women prior to sexual debut to reduce cervical cancer related mortality and morbidity. Understanding factors affecting decision-making of HPV vaccination of young women is important so that effective interventions can be developed which address barriers to uptake in population groups less likely to receive the HPV vaccine. We undertook a qualitative systematic review and evidence synthesis to examine decision-making relating to the HPV vaccination of young women in high-income countries. A comprehensive search of databases from inception to March 2012 was undertaken to identify eligible studies reporting the perspectives of key stakeholders including policy makers, professionals involved in programme, parents, and young women. Factors affecting uptake of the vaccine were examined at different levels of the socio-ecological model (policy, community, organisational, interpersonal and intrapersonal). Forty-one studies were
The United States spent approximately twice as much as other high-income countries on medical care, yet utilization rates in the United States were largely similar to those in other nations. Prices of labor and goods, including pharmaceuticals, and administrative costs appeared to be the major drive …
For research papers The BMJ has fully open peer review. This means that accepted research papers submitted from September 2014 onwards usually have their prepublication history posted alongside them on thebmj.com.. This prepublication history comprises all previous versions of the manuscript, the study protocol (submitting the protocol is mandatory for all clinical trials and encouraged for all other studies at The BMJ), the report from the manuscript committee meeting, the reviewers comments, and the authors responses to all the comments from reviewers and editors.. In rare instances we determine after careful consideration that we should not make certain portions of the prepublication record publicly available. For example, in cases of stigmatised illnesses we seek to protect the confidentiality of reviewers who have these illnesses. In other instances there may be legal or regulatory considerations that make it inadvisable or impermissible to make available certain parts of the ...
In many high-income countries, national and regional health authorities, along with individual healthcare institutions, are putting into place prevention, control, surveillance and reporting measures. Even if significantly reduced in the recent years, incidence of HAI remains high, particularly among at-risk populations. For example, approximately 25-30% of ICU patients in high-income countries experience at least one HAI episode1,2. In low- and middle- income countries, the challenges are further complicated by underdeveloped infrastructures and issues related to hygiene and sanitation. The WHO estimates that ICU-acquired infection is at least 2-3-fold higher than in high-income countries and that device-associated infection may be up to 13 times higher than in the US1.. HAIs include all types of infections including urinary-tract infections (most common in higher-income countries1,2), surgical site infections (most common in lower-income countries1), respiratory infections, gastro-intestinal ...
NEW ORLEANS, La - Low- and middle income countries have lower per-capita consumption of antibiotics than high income countries yet bear a larger burden of antimicrobial resistance, panelists said at IDWeek. While high-income countries are looking to develop innovative stewardship programs and new drugs to combat antimicrobial resistance, low- and middle-income countries often have limited capacity […]. ...
This report examines how countries perform in their ability to prevent, manage and treat cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. The last 50 years have witnessed remarkable improvements in CVD outcomes. Since 1960, overall CVD mortality rates have fallen by over 60%, but these improvements are not evenly spread across OECD countries, and the rising prevalence of diabetes and obesity are threatening to offset gains. This report examines how OECD countries deliver the programmes and services related to CVD and diabetes. It considers how countries have used available health care resources to reduce the overall burden of CVD and diabetes, and it focuses on the variation in OECD health systems ability to convert health care inputs (such as expenditure) into health gains.
AIM: To study uptake of care at the antenatal and child health clinic (CHC), and maternal and child health up to 5 years after the birth, as reported by mothers with a non-Swedish speaking background (NSB). METHODS: A sample of 300 women with a NSB, 175 originated from a poor country and 125 originated from a rich country, were compared with a reference group of 2761 women with a Swedish speaking background. Four postal questionnaires were completed: during pregnancy, and 2 months, 1 year and 5 years after the birth. RESULTS: Mothers with a NSB from a poor country of origin did not differ from the reference group of mothers with a Swedish speaking background regarding number of clinic visits, but they had a lower attendance rate at antenatal and postnatal education classes. Depressive symptoms, parental stress and poor self-rated health were more common in these women, and they reported more psychological and behavioral problems in their 5-year olds. Women with a rich country origin did not ...
Population density , People per sq. km: Population density is midyear population divided by land area in square kilometers. Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum, who are generally considered part of the population of their country of origin. Land area is a countrys total area, excluding area under inland water bodies, national claims to continental shelf, and exclusive economic zones. In most cases the definition of inland water bodies includes major rivers and lakes ...
Information on the environment for those involved in developing, adopting, implementing and evaluating environmental policy, and also the general public
The number of children under five dying has declined substantially in the past 20 years and the rate of decline is speeding up, according to a report in The Lancet medical journal. Some developing countries are doing surprisingly well, but rates in the US and Britain are not good by developed world standards -- for reasons that are not clear.
Weve detected that you are using AdBlock Plus or some other adblocking software which is preventing the page from fully loading.. We dont have any banner, Flash, animation, obnoxious sound, or popup ad. We do not implement these annoying types of ads!. We need money to operate the site, and almost all of it comes from our online advertising.. Please add www.nationmaster.com to your ad blocking whitelist or disable your adblocking software.. ...
Its one of the oldest tricks in politics: Talk down expectations to the point that you can meet them.And it played out again in Berlin as 21 countries-including the United States-pledged nearly $9.5 billion to the Green Climate Fund, a UN body tasked with helping developing countries cope with climate change and transition to clean energy systems.The total-which will cover a four-year period before new pledges are made-included $3 billion from the United States, $1.5 billion from Japan, and around $1 billion each from the United Kingdom, France, and Germany. | By Oscar Reyes
Two-thirds of the worlds population under 50 have the highly infectious herpes virus that causes cold sores around the mouth, the World Health Organization said on Wednesday, in its first estimate of global prevalence of the disease.. More than 3.7 billion people under the age of 50 suffer from the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), usually after catching it in childhood, according to a the WHO study.. That is in addition to 417 million people in the 15-49 age range who have the other form of the disease, HSV-2, which causes genital herpes.. HSV-1 normally causes mouth ulcers rather than genital infection, but it is becoming an increasing cause of genital infection too, mainly in rich countries.. That is because improved hygiene in rich countries is lowering HSV-1 infection rates in childhood, leaving young people more at risk of catching it via oral sex when they become sexually active.. HSV-2 can increase the risk of catching and spreading HIV, the disease that causes AIDS. Little is known ...
But industry is impotent if it cant trade freely across national boundaries. This required action to sweep away old taxes and duties, especially tariffs against foreign goods. In 1846, Sir Robert Peel, fearing Chartist revolution, repealed the Corn Laws, allowing cheap food freely into Britain. Peel began the global trade explosion we still enjoy, which has rescued a billion-plus people from poverty.. The economic system has changed. For the first time in human history, says Spanish sociologist Manuel Castells, the human mind is a direct productive force. Computers, communication systems, and genetic programming are all amplifiers and extensions of the human mind. This is wonderful - it is ecological, it is creative, it gives power to individuals; it undermines centralised power and monolithic corporations, whether funded by the state or the stock market.. But post-industrial society can also widen the gap between the best-educated and richest third of the population and the bottom third, ...
LONDON - Politicians and public health leaders have publicly committed to equitably sharing any coronavirus vaccine that works, but the top global ini...
Globally, more children are still underweight rather than obese although the researchers think that will change by 2022 if trends continue.
articles, news, reports and publications on quality of healthcare, quality assurance, quality improvement, quality indicators, quality measures, health services research, patient safety, medical errors, hospital performance, health information technology and more from The New England Journal of Medicine, The Lancet, JAMA, BMJ, CMAJ, MJA, Medical Care, Health Affairs and other leading medical journals and from AHRQ, CMWF, CMS, RAND, NHS and other international health Agency. ...
Although the U.S. spends far more per person on medical care than any other nation, the results have been less than impressive. Relative to other developed nations, the U.S. consistently performs worse on a wide range of health measures, including infant mortality, premature deaths, life expectancy, and prevalence of heart disease, diabetes, and other chronic illnesses. Many health care experts have pointed to inefficiencies in our health care system as the cause for this paradox. Bradley and Taylor identify another culprit - too little attention to the social, environmental, and behavioral factors that impact health.. The book begins with a summary of the authors previous research comparing spending on health care and social services among OECD countries. This research found that when spending on health care is combined with spending on social services, the U.S only ranks in the middle of OECD countries. More importantly, the U.S. is an outlier when comparing the ratio of a nations social to ...
The Netherlands spends relatively more money on short-term admissions for mental and behaviourial disorders than other OECD countries. At hospitals (including GGZ institutions) expenditure on these disorders takes up nearly a quarter of the total ||link 1||, more than twice the amount spent in other OECD countries.
Eesti Teadusinfosüsteem koondab informatsiooni teadus- ja arendusasutuste, teadlaste, teadusprojektide ning erinevate teadustegevuste tulemuste kohta.
Overweight and obesity are major risk factors for a number of chronic diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer and while it was once an issue only in high income countries, overweight and obesity has now dramatically risen in low- and middle-income countries.Such countries are now facing a double burden of disease, for while they continue to deal with the problems of infectious disease and under-nutrition, they are also experiencing a rapid upsurge in chronic disease risk factors such as obesity and overweight, particularly in urban settings ...
There is currently very limited data and evidence on the impacts of COVID-19 on people with disabilities and pre-existing health conditions, with no disability-disaggregated data on mortality rates available in the public sphere. However, reports from the media, disability advocates and disabled peoples organisations (DPOs) point to several emerging impacts, including primary and secondary impacts including on health, education, food security and livelihoods. Most of the available data is from high income countries (HICs) though reports from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are likely to emerge. Evidence was gathered by a rapid desk based review. Gaps are identified. The section concerned with lessons drawn from similar epidemics draws heavily on lessons learned from the Ebola outbreak in West Africa in 2014-2016, and touches on lessons from the Zika outbreak in 2015-2016 and the SARS pandemic in the early 2000s.10 It also touches briefly on SARS, MERS and H1N1 (swine flu). Primary and ...
In high-income countries, we have nearly reached optimisation of present anticancer treatments, says Professor Kathy Pritchard-Jones.. New regulatory approval and research strategies are urgently needed to speed the development of new, effective, and safer treatments for children with cancer if we are to continue to improve the cure rate, reduce toxicity compared to existing treatments, and minimise side effects in later life, she continues.. Although more children and young people in high-income countries are surviving cancer than ever before, cancer remains the leading cause of death from disease in children aged 1 to 15 years. More than 5,000 children still lose their lives to cancer every year in these regions.. Increased participation in international, collaborative clinical trials has successfully raised survival from 30% to 80% over the last half century. But an increasingly complex and strict regulatory environment for clinical research and data sharing is limiting childrens access ...
The OECD estimates that 5% of working populations in high income countries are affected by severe mental health problems, with a further 15% affected by moderate mental health problems. Guidelines developed for employers to detect, prevent, and manage mental health problems in the workplace were reviewed for quality and completeness. The review authors indicate that although access to employee early assistance programs (EAPs) can be effective, intervention is only truly preventative when both individual and organisational factors are considered. Across the 20 guidelines assessed, the Canadian Standard scored highest for quality and comprehensiveness of content, followed by the Australian Heads-Up material from Beyond Blue ...
While many high-income countries observe a relative decline in the population impact of heart disease and deal with the problem of an older patient population who readily survive earlier non-fatal encounters with the condition, Africa contends with a typically younger population with frequently advanced and often fatal heart disease. While high-income countries exclusively deal with non-communicable forms of heart disease, Africa contends with both communicable and non-communicable forms of heart disease ...
A new HIV Medicine study identified several barriers to routine HIV testing in emergency departments and acute medical units in the UK and US.
The economical crisis is affecting everything. We are all familiar with budget cuts, restrinctions, debt, risk premium,... In most high income countries the new mantra are make things profitable, tax-payers money should be used only to support areas with added value, let´s avoid unnecessary things, ... Not surprisingly this politicians view is also affecting science. Five to seven years ago many grant funding agencies, including the European Comission, started to deem basic science as a low priority area. Instead, major funding efforts are increasingly been devoted to those projects/areas showing great promises of transfer the knowledge to the market in a short time. In many places, at least in my own country Spain, basic science is mostly considered a waste of money. Now in every project you write you really need to make a clear business case of the importance of your research, and expected results, for health, society, market,...In the context of biomedical research, my own area ...
These findings, which were the results of review and analysis of all published studies of pediatric adherence to ART in low income countries, appear in the August 2008 issue of The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, and provide the first complete picture of ART adherence among individuals under age 18 in limited income countries, as defined by the World Bank.. While many have thought that people wont be able to take medicines as well as they need to due to limited resources in poor countries, our review of all studies on the topic strongly suggests that children in low income countries are able to maintain at least a comparable degree of ART adherence, if not better adherence, than children in high income countries, said Rachel Vreeman, M.D., M.S., first author of the study. Dr. Vreeman is assistant professor of pediatrics at IU School of Medicine and a Regenstrief Institute affiliated scientist. Healthcare systems need to carefully monitor how children with HIV take their medicines. This ...
Weve the latest report out trying to convince us that fossil fuel companies, those exploring for coal, oil and natural gas, are subsidised by some vast amount by the rich countries. More specifically that the G-20 countries cough up $88 billion a year to aid in the exploration for such [...]
GLOBAL - Assets in the pension funds of OECD countries reached $19.13trn at the end of 2010, up from $19.07trn at the end of 2007, a new OECD report shows.
Source: World Development Indicators and UN International Migration Report3. The graph shows pretty clearly that migrants tend to go to the economically wealthy countries. Heres where the politics kicks in. If you think that the wealthy countries. (a) have pulled themselves up by their own bootstraps. (b) suffer economically as a result of international in-migration. (c) have something called an indigenous population which is unproblematically identifiable and bears superior civic rights over migrants. then chances are youll not be keen on international migration. But if, like me, you think that the wealth of the rich countries is bought to a considerable extent through the poverty of the poorer ones, or that the crises of war, famine and militarized global resource extraction that impel migration are compounded by global power politics dominated by the rich countries, then the case for migration from poor to rich countries is harder to gainsay, regardless of its other implications. Perhaps ...
Source: World Development Indicators and UN International Migration Report3. The graph shows pretty clearly that migrants tend to go to the economically wealthy countries. Heres where the politics kicks in. If you think that the wealthy countries. (a) have pulled themselves up by their own bootstraps. (b) suffer economically as a result of international in-migration. (c) have something called an indigenous population which is unproblematically identifiable and bears superior civic rights over migrants. then chances are youll not be keen on international migration. But if, like me, you think that the wealth of the rich countries is bought to a considerable extent through the poverty of the poorer ones, or that the crises of war, famine and militarized global resource extraction that impel migration are compounded by global power politics dominated by the rich countries, then the case for migration from poor to rich countries is harder to gainsay, regardless of its other implications. Perhaps ...
Heart failure (HF) is a pathophysiologic condition and is a final common pathway of most forms of cardiovascular disease. Patients with HF experience poor quality of life, recurrent emergency hospitalizations and premature mortality.. Recent publications highlight the multiple challenges of dealing with an increasing burden of heart disease within an urban African community. The predominance of women and novel underlying causes contrast with the demographic of HF in high income countries. More than 50% of 5328 de novo cases of heart disease captured at a tertiary clinic in Soweto presented with some form of heart failure, mainly due to poorly treated hypertension, idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, peripartum cardiomyopathy and HIV-related cardiomyopathy. The most prevalent form of heart disease was hypertensive heart failure (, 1100 cases).. Programs have been developed in high income countries that cost-effectively prevent progressive cardiac dysfunction in high risk individuals and apply ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about The BMJ.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
The foreign-born population has generally a lower employment rate and a higher unemployment rate compared to the native-born population in the OECD countries. Today, 26 out of 34 OECD countries have a statutory minimum wage, while the minimum wage in the other countries is differentiated between the sectors and determined by the labour market parties. In the countries with a statutory minimum wage, there is a great variation between the minimum wage share of the median wage, which is believed to have an effect on employment and unemployment. The aim of this thesis is to study whether an increase of the quotient between the median wage and the minimum wage increases the foreign-born population employment and decreases the foreign-born unemployment. In order to control this effect in all OECD countries despite wage formation system, the wage dispersion measure 50/10-ratio is used since it measures the ratio of the median wage and the ten percent of the population with the lowest wages. This study ...
The Solow-Swan model augmented with human capital predicts that the income levels of poor countries will tend to catch up with or converge towards the income levels of rich countries if the poor countries have similar savings rates for both physical capital and human capital as a share of output, a process known as conditional convergence. However, savings rates vary widely across countries. In particular, since considerable financing constraints exist for investment in schooling, savings rates for human capital are likely to vary as a function of cultural and ideological characteristics in each country.[20] Since the 1950s, output/worker in rich and poor countries generally has not converged, but those poor countries that have greatly raised their savings rates have experienced the income convergence predicted by the Solow-Swan model. As an example, output/worker in Japan, a country which was once relatively poor, has converged to the level of the rich countries. Japan experienced high growth ...
Lack of state supported care services begets the informal caregiving by family members as the mainstay of care provided to the dependent older people in many Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs), including India. Little is known about the time spent on caregiving, its cost and the burden experienced by these informal caregivers. We aimed to estimate the costs of informal caregiving and to evaluate the nature as well as correlates of caregivers burden in a rural Indian community. We assessed 1000 people aged above 65 years, among whom 85 were dependent. We assessed their socioeconomic profiles, disability, health status and health expenditures. Their caregivers socio-demographic profiles, mental health, and the time spent on caregiving were assessed using standard instruments. Caregivers burden was evaluated using Zarit Burden Scale. We valued the annual informal caregiving costs using proxy good method. We employed appropriate non-parametric multivariate statistics to evaluate the correlates of
Cross-national comparisons allow us to track the performance of the U.S. health care system, highlight areas of strength and weakness, and identify factors that may impede or accelerate improvement. This analysis is the latest in a series of Commonwealth Fund cross-national comparisons that use health data from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), as well as from other sources, to assess U.S. health care system spending, supply, utilization, and prices relative to other countries, as well as a limited set of health outcomes.1,2 Thirteen high-income countries are included: Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. On measures where data are widely available, the value for the median OECD country is also shown. Almost all data are for years prior to the major insurance provisions of the Affordable Care Act; most are for 2013.. Health care spending in the U.S. far ...
The best numbers on death worldwide come from the World Health Organization. They divide their data into low, medium and high income countries because the standard of living equates to better or worse access to health care. For that reason malaria appears in the low-income data but not middle or high-income nations. On the other side of the dark coin, Alzheimers related deaths appear only in the high-income countries. A comprehensive global comparison would run far beyond the scope of a single blog post. So I focused on the U.S. numbers ...
The following question crossed my mind recently: how many lives are lost from excess infant mortality?. I asked this question because I wondered if anti-abortion activists couldnt better spend their time saving the lives of children that died in their first year of life, rather than protesting at abortion clinics. Saving the life of a child who has been born seems like an easier political task, and will almost certainly be more effective.. We have a pretty good sense that this is theoretically possible because of the considerable variation in infant mortality that exists worldwide. Most poor countries have high infant mortality rates (IMR), and most rich countries have low infant mortality rates. There are a number of countries in Africa with IMR above 50 per 1000 live births (meaning 50 children die in their first year for every 1000 live births). There are rich countries with IMR below 5. The difference between these numbers-roughly 45 per 1000 births-tells us that preventing infant death ...
Economic environment. Expenditure on the publicly-funded health care system as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) is one of the lowest in the European Union (6.3% in 2017). It is likely that tensions will increase between the opportunities for health care financing (due to moderate GDP growth in Spain13) and trends in health spending, which is growing in all Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries at a faster rate than GDP.14 There are basically 2 ways to alleviate this tension: cost control or improved efficiency. Cost control has been the strategy applied in Spain, one of the OECD countries that has made the deepest cuts in health spending.15 While cost control is simple and immediate, the efficiency approach requires wisdom, planning, and involvement of professionals in the management of the system; this is the course of action championed and investigated by the SEC in this project.. Political environment. The instruments of cohesion of the SNS are ...
Adam, A., Delis, M., Kammas, P. 2011. Public sector efficiency: leveling the playing field between OECD countries. Public Choice, 146, 163-183. Afonso, A., Aubyn, M. S. 2004. Non-parametric Approaches to Education and Helth Expenditure Efficiency in OECD Countries. Journal of Applied Economics, 8, 227-246. Afonso, A., Schuknecht, L. Tanzi, V., 2003. Public sector efficiency: an international comparison, Frankfurt am Main, European Central Bank. Afonso, A., Schunknecht, L.,Tanzi, V. 2005. Public sector efficiency: An international comparison. Public Choice, 123, 321-347. Agasisti, T. 2014. The Efficiency of Public Spending on Education: an empirical comparison of EU countries. European Journal of Education, 49, 543-557. Al, S., Samarrai, S. 2002. Achieving Education for All: How Much Does Money Matter. IDS, Brighton, Working Paper, 175. Alesina, A., Di Tella, R., Macculloch, R. 2004. Inequality and happiness: are Europeans and Americans different? Journal of Public Economics, 88, 2009-2042. ...
This reliable source of yearly data covers a wide range of statistics on international trade of OECD countries and provides detailed data in value by commodity and by partner country. Each of the first four volumes of International Trade by Commodity Statistics contains the tables for seven countries, published in the order in which they become available. The fifth volume includes the OECD country groupings OECD Total and EU27-Extra. For each country, this publication shows detailed tables relating to the Standard International Trade Classification (SITC), Revision 3, Sections and Divisions (one- and two- digit). Each table presents imports and exports of a given commodity with more than seventy partner countries or country groupings for the most recent five-year period available.. ...
Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement Latest Breaking News, Pictures, Videos, and Special Reports from The Economic Times. Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement Blogs, Comments and Archive News on Economictimes.com
In the IEO2007 reference case, which does not include specific policies to limit greenhouse gas emissions, energy-related carbon dioxide emissions are projected to rise from 26.9 billion metric tons in 2004 to 33.9 billion metric tons in 2015 and 42.9 billion metric tons in 2030. From 2003 to 2004, carbon dioxide emissions from the non-OECD countries grew by almost 10 percent, while emissions in the OECD countries grew by less than 2 percent. The result of the large increase in non-OECD emissions was that 2004 marked the first time in history that emissions from the non-OECD exceeded those from the OECD countries. Further, because of the expectation that non-OECD countries will rely on fossil fuels to supply much of their future energy demand growth, carbon dioxide emissions from the non-OECD countries in 2030 are projected to exceed those from the OECD by 57 percent ...
This chapter examines the impact of the immigration of highly educated workers on employment, productivity, and capital accumulation in the recipient countries, to see whether the presumed positive impact of highly educated immigrants is actually confirmed by aggregate data analysis. The chapter identifies a robust and significant positive effect of the brain gain on employment and capital accumulation, on top of the effect produced by the total immigration rate. The chapter finds that the total inflow of immigrants does not crowd-out native employment, on the contrary, it stimulates investment even in the short term. Moreover, the share of highly educated immigrants adds a positive employment and capital accumulation effect. The chapter also analyses whether the effects of migration differ in bad and good economic times.
It is expected, based on the available literature, that technology will be the major determinant of health expenditure. Much of the existing literature on this topic, though, suffers from the use of econometric techniques-such as standard ordinary least-squares (OLS) regression-to analyse time-series data. This is now known to be problematic as, typically, health expenditure (HE) and GDP are cointegrated [27]. Modern time-series econometric techniques are able to overcome the possibly spurious results [76] that can be associated with regressing non-stationary cointegrated time-series. Given the statistical problems that beset the historical literature on this topic, it is interesting that research tends to confirm its long-standing and somewhat counter-intuitive result: technically (according to the standard economic definition), health care is a luxury. Specifically, spending in the health sector tends to rise at a faster rate than national income. Indeed the income elasticity of HE (i.e., ...
In United States, healthcare spending rate has outpaced the growth rate of gross domestic product (GDP) for many years. The United States of America (U.S.) healthcare spending exhibited a growth rate of 4.6% to reach USD 3.6 trillion or USD 11,172 per person in 2018 as per data released from U.S. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Further, sustained increase in U.S. healthcare spending in the past years is likely to continue in the years ahead. In middle income countries, average per capita spending on health care has grown to two-fold since 2000. In high income countries, governments have increased their health care budgets. Further, it is believed that global health care expenditure is expected to flourish at a CAGR of 5% between 2019-2023 ...
This paper analyzes the empirical determinants of household saving using data from 21 OECD countries for 1975-95. A particular focus is the influence of the tax and social security systems on household saving. The paper therefore extends the usual set of explanatory variables used to explain household saving behavior to include variables that capture the structure of the tax system and the financing and generosity of the social security and welfare system. These variables are found to have an important impact on household saving. Accordingly, by changing the design of these systems, governments may be able to influence saving.
The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) tracks and reports annually on more than 1,200 health system measures across 30 industrialized countries, ranging from population health status and nonmedical determinants of health to health care resources and utilization. Based on analysis of OECD health data from 2008, the United States continues to differ markedly from other countries on a number of health system measures. The U.S. has a comparatively low number of hospital beds and physicians per capita, and patients in the U.S. have fewer hospital and physician visits than those in most other countries. At the same time, spending per hospital visit is highest in the U.S., and American patients are among the most likely to receive procedures requiring complex technology. The nation now ranks in the bottom quartile in life expectancy among OECD countries and has seen the smallest improvement in this metric over the past 20 years.. ...
For decades, the leading causes of mortality have differed between low income countries and high income countries. Those who have worked their careers in health and development probably never thought they would see the day when maternal/child health and communicable diseases would not be the leading health burden in many low income countries.. The new actor is non-communicable diseases (NCDs), which are characterized by chronic diseases (cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and chronic respiratory disease), along with injury and mental health which are now responsible for half the health burden in South Asia. Thus, the challenge now is how best to juggle this double burden.. Currently, many compelling reasons are pushing countries toward starting to tackle NCDs. From both a social and political standpoint, South Asians are 6 years younger than those in the rest of the world at their first heart attack. This type of trend threatens a countrys ability to fully capitalize on the demographic ...
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and St. Jude Childrens Research Hospital are joining forces to combat childhood cancers in developing countries, where children are four times more likely to die of the disease than in high-income countries due to a lack of affordable treatment and quality care options.. Under a new agreement signed today, the IAEA and the U.S. research hospital will work together to raise awareness of childhood cancers, mobilize resources to support Member States in the establishment of nuclear and radiation medicine services, increase training for professionals in the field of radiotherapy, and support research in paediatric radiation oncology and related areas.. With at least 300,000 new cases each year, paediatric cancer is a leading cause of death globally among children and adolescents according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In high-income countries, more than 80 per cent of children with such cancers are cured, but this figure is only 20 per cent in ...
The Hindu, November 20, 2013. On the day that the BASIC countries came together to take the high moral ground against non-delivery of commitments by the developed world, India took on the rich countries for trying to put a Trojan horse to break the differentiation between developed and developing countries in the Warsaw decisions. Inside negotiating rooms India demanded that the decisions countries would take in 2015 for the new agreement should not be prejudged at the Polish capital.. Suggesting that decisions to break the differentiation between developed and developing countries were against the basic principles of the convention, India along with several allies in the developing world, including China fought a pitched battle that lasted till midnight on two successive days.. The battles took place over a draft of the decisions that the Warsaw meeting is to adopt by consensus by Friday night. The draft did not use the language of differentiation between developed and developing world and ...
There has been too little progress in ending poverty since President Johnson famously declared war on poverty in the United States in his January 8, 1964 State of the Union Message. Over one seventh of Americans still are poor. Recent poverty rates are among the highest since the declaration of a war on poverty. Women, children, Blacks, and Hispanics are still disproportionately poor. Without public benefits, many more would be poor. The U.S. has an exceptionally high relative poverty rate among high income countries at least in part because our public benefits do less to reduce poverty. Official poverty measurement does not capture the sizable gains in health care coverage for the poor since the 1960s, but health care coverage still falls far short of the universal coverage that is now standard in other high income ...
New research, published in The Lancet today ahead of World Prematurity Day on Saturday Nov. 17, has found that if the worlds 39 highest-income countries were to fully implement five interventions to prevent preterm births, ...
This article describes the design and commissioning of a micro-combustor for energy recovery from human faeces, which can operate both in updraft and downdraft modes. Energy recovery from faecal matter via thermochemical conversion has recently been identified as a feasible solution for sanitation problems in low income countries and locations of high income countries where access to sewage infrastructures is difficult or not possible. This technology can be applied to waterless toilets with the additional outcome of generating heat and power that can be used to pre-treat the faeces before their combustion and to ensure that the entire system is self-sustaining. The work presented here is framed within the Nano Membrane Toilet (NMT) project that is being carried out at Cranfield University, as part of the Reinvent the Toilet Challenge of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. For this study, preliminary trials using simulant faeces pellets were first carried out to find out the optimum values ...
Relationships between SES and blood pressure with gender specific patterns consistent with our results (i.e. a protective effect of SES among women and a harmful effect among men) have been previously found in South Africa [5] and other middle-income countries [38-40]. These findings are in partial contrast with those in high income countries, where an inverse gradient SESblood pressure is commonly found in both genders, even though often stronger and more consistent across SES indicators in women than in men [2]. In our study, total mediated effects (i.e. the sum of the effects through all indirect pathways) were similar in direction and magnitude across genders, and therefore the observed discrepancies cannot be explained by gender differences in the distribution of the hypothesised mediators. It is conversely the presence - in women but not in men - of sizable unexplained protective effects outmatching the overall mediated effects (harmful in both genders) which makes the difference and ...
Three bioethicists have today published an argument in The Lancet, one of the worlds leading medical journals, in favour of a global kidney exchange (GKE) program that matches donors and recipients across low and middle-income countries with pairs in high income countries.
One in five children in high-income countries lives in relative income poverty, and an average of one in eight faces food insecurity, according to a new report released today by the United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF).. The latest Report Card issued by the UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre underscores that rich nations also face challenges meeting global commitments to children.. Report Card 14 is a wake-up-call that even in high-income countries progress does not benefit all children, said Sarah Cook, Director of UNICEF Innocenti.. ...
In the latest issue of Health Affairs, Mortality Under Age 50 Accounts For Much Of The Fact That US Life Expectancy Lags That Of Other High-Income Countries: Life expectancy at birth in the United States is among the lowest of all high-income countries. Most recent studies have concentrated on older ages, finding
The Stillbirth Foundation Australia, the Department of Health and Ageing, Canberra, Australia, and the Mater Foundation, Brisbane, Australia.
Authors: Andrea Parisi, John A Crump, Kathryn Glass, Benjamin P Howden, Luis Furuya-Kanamori, Samantha Vilkins, Darren J Gray, Martyn D Kirk
HIV and related materials, including patient information booklets, email bulletins, listings of HIV services, reference materials for professionals working in HIV, books, posters and illustrated leaflets
Tobacco smoking is the worlds leading cause of premature death and disability. Global targets to reduce premature deaths by 25% by 2025 will require a substantial increase in the number of smokers making a quit attempt, and a significant improvement in the success rates of those attempts in low, middle and high income countries. In many countries the only place where the majority of smokers can access support to quit is primary care. There is strong evidence of cost-effective interventions in primary care yet many opportunities to put these into practice are missed. This paper revises the approach proposed by the International Primary Care Respiratory Group published in 2008 in this journal to reflect important new evidence and the global variation in primary-care experience and knowledge of smoking cessation. Specific for primary care, that advocates for a holistic, bio-psycho-social approach to most problems, the starting point is to approach tobacco dependence as an eminently treatable condition. We
There has been much comment in the media over recent weeks about the cost of cancer in New Zealand. This has been driven by two recently published reports - a Ministry of Health report, The Price of Cancer, which has put the cost of diagnosing and treating cancer at over $500 million each year. This figure is likely to increase by 20% by 2021. An article also appeared in the Lancet journal Delivering affordable cancer care in high income countries, which puts the worldwide cost of cancer from disability and premature death at US$895 billion.. These reports have raised some key questions. What are the drivers and solutions to the cost of cancer in New Zealand and how are we going to deliver high quality and equitable care?. There is no getting around it - cancer is expensive to treat and blood cancer is in the top three of the most expensive cancers (behind breast cancer and colorectal cancer). Treatments for blood cancer are complex, and often long-term. Bone marrow transplants do not ...
There has been much comment in the media over recent weeks about the cost of cancer in New Zealand. This has been driven by two recently published reports - a Ministry of Health report, The Price of Cancer, which has put the cost of diagnosing and treating cancer at over $500 million each year. This figure is likely to increase by 20% by 2021. An article also appeared in the Lancet journal Delivering affordable cancer care in high income countries, which puts the worldwide cost of cancer from disability and premature death at US$895 billion.. These reports have raised some key questions. What are the drivers and solutions to the cost of cancer in New Zealand and how are we going to deliver high quality and equitable care?. There is no getting around it - cancer is expensive to treat and blood cancer is in the top three of the most expensive cancers (behind breast cancer and colorectal cancer). Treatments for blood cancer are complex, and often long-term. Bone marrow transplants do not ...
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has transformed the clinical profile of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from an acute infection with a high mortality into a treatable, chronic disease. As a result, the clinical sequelae of HIV infection are changing as patients live longer. HIV-associated cardiomyopathy (HIVAC) is a stage IV, HIV-defining illness and remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected individuals despite ART. Causes and clinical manifestations of HIVAC depend on the degree of host immunosuppression. Myocarditis from direct HIV toxicity, opportunistic infections, and nutritional deficiencies are implicated in causing HIVAC when HIV viral replication is unchecked, whereas cardiac autoimmunity, chronic inflammation, and ART cardiotoxicity contribute to HIVAC in individuals with suppressed viral loads. The initiation of ART has dramatically changed the clinical manifestation of HIVAC in high income countries from one of severe, left ventricular systolic dysfunction to
This weeks topics: Abortion in Alabama, CVD trends in high income countries, gene therapy cures, National Prescription Drug Take Back Day, and effect of negative patient behavior on physicians ...
"Developed Countries Demography". Institut National d'Études Demographiques - INED. Retrieved 5 September 2017. Népmozgalom ( ... Country comparison to the world: 12th Total fertility rate 1.45 children born/woman (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world ... Country comparison to the world: 25th male: 40.8 years female: 44.7 years (2018 est.) total: 42.3 years male: 40.4 years female ... 30 A Country Study: Hungary. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. Retrieved 2009-03-06. Eurasian studies yearbook , ...
OECD developed countries). Accordingly, the US military is estimated to be the number one fossil fuel consumer in the world. ... During World War I (WW I), German chemists developed chlorine gas and mustard gas. The development of these gases led to many ... According to the 2005 CIA World Factbook, when compared with the consumption per country the DoD would rank 34th in the world ... Another big problem was the population crash in Rwanda shifted personnel and capital to other parts of the country, thereby ...
"Developed Countries Demography". Institut National d'Études Demographiques - INED. Retrieved 4 September 2017. "Monthly ... "Country Comparison: GDP - Per Capita (PPP)". The World Factbook. Retrieved 24 April 2016. Peering into the crystal ball: How ... In 2005 alone, 21,500 Israelis left the country and had not yet returned at the end of 2006; among them 73% were Jews, 5% Arabs ... Hebrew is the official language of the country, and Arabic is given special status, while English and Russian are the two most ...
"Developed Countries Demography". Institut National d'Études Démographiques - INED. Retrieved 3 December 2017. "Fertility ... France was also at the time the European country with the lowest fertility rate, which meant that the country had a very hard ... Until 1795 metropolitan France was the most populous country of Europe, ahead of Russia, and the fourth most populous country ... Inflow of third-country nationals by country of nationality, by year (in French) Audio book (mp3) - Introduction and first ...
is developed countries. This is map and list of European countries by Human Development Index for the year 2019. The color ... per capita List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita List of countries by GDP ( ... in Europe List of countries by Human Development Index List of European countries by budget revenues List of European countries ... of the country, making it a transcontinental country. Some definitions of Europe mark the Caucasus Mountains as its border, ...
ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5. Schultz, T. Paul (2008). "Fertility in Developing Countries". The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics ... ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5. Adsera, Alicia (2008). "Fertility in Developed Countries". The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. ... 2001). Population Matters: Demographic Change, Economic Growth, and Poverty in the Developing World. Oxford: Oxford University ...
In developing countries, smaller (micro) and informal firms, have a larger share[of what?] than in developed countries.[ ... Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are highly significant in both developed and developing countries as a proportion of ... The criteria for defining the size of a business differ from country to country, with many countries having programs of ... Compare: Antoldi, Fabio; Cerrato, Daniele; Depperu, Donatella (2012). Export Consortia in Developing Countries: Successful ...
In developing countries, it is estimated that 400-500 calories per day per person are wasted, while in developed countries ... In low-income countries, most loss occurs during production, while in developed countries much food - about 100 kilograms (220 ... Nevertheless, on-farm losses in storage in developing countries, particularly in African countries, can be high although the ... Important in many developing countries, particularly in Africa, are on-farm losses during storage, when the grain is being ...
"Least Developed Countries (LDCs) , Department of Economic and Social Affairs". Economic Analysis & Policy Division , Dept of ... It belongs to the least developed country group, referring to its numerous "severe structural impediments to sustainable ... Access to water supply sanitation is as low as in some sub-Saharan African countries. Yemen is both the poorest country and the ... They can also be found throughout Morocco and in Algeria as well as in other North African Countries. Yemen is the only country ...
"List of Least Developed Countries". UN-OHRLLS. 2005. Archived from the original on 26 October 2013. Stephen Codrington (2005). ... Burma's admittance to least developed country status by the United Nations in 1987 highlighted its economic bankruptcy. After ... Energy shortages are common throughout the country including in Yangon. About 30 percent of the country's population is without ... with the exception of developed countries like Singapore. Burma also has a low fertility rate, of 2.07 children per woman (2010 ...
... seeking only to protect jobs in developed countries. Additionally, workers in the least developed countries only accept jobs if ... That they accept low-paying jobs from companies in developed countries shows that their other employment prospects are worse. A ... There is broad consensus among economists that free trade helps workers in developing countries, even though they are not ... For example, some commentators, such as Jagdish Bhagwati, see developed countries' efforts in imposing their own labor or ...
"The Poor In Developed Countries". Encyclopedia.com. 20 October 2020. White, Jerry (9 October 2009). "The socialist answer to ... Khan, Mahmood H. "Rural Poverty in Developing Countries - Implications for Public Policy". IMF. TEODORO, LUIS V. (15 August ... Bhattacharyya, Sambit (19 May 2016). "The Historical Origins of Poverty in Developing Countries". The Oxford Handbook of the ... Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) "Root Causes of Violent Conflict in Developing Countries." BMJ: British Medical Journal ...
Comparing English-speaking developed countries; the overall incarceration rate in the US is 639 per 100,000 population of all ... For detailed information for each country click on any country name in lists. See also the WPB main data page and click on the ... Comparing other developed countries, the rate of Spain is 122 per 100,000 (as of 2020), France is 90 per 100,000 (as of 2020), ... and jails in Indian country. Highest to Lowest. World Prison Brief (WPB). Use dropdown menu to choose lists of countries by ...
The CIA classifies Turkey as a developed country. It is often classified as a newly industrialized country by economists and ... Developed Countries, CIA World Factbook. Mauro F. Guillén (2003). "Multinationals, Ideology, and Organized Labor". The Limits ... I found a healthy preoccupation with the country's economic prospects. "Could Indonesia do what's needed to lift the country's ... These four countries are also part of the "Next Eleven". In a column for Bloomberg View a few years after Fidelity coined the ...
Chinese Acquisitions in Developed Countries. Measuring Operations Performance. Springer, cham. Switzerland AG. Casanova, L. ... Chinese Acquisitions in Developed Countries: Operational Challenges and Opportunities. Springer International Publishing. pp. 1 ...
The CIA classifies Turkey as a developed country. Turkey is often classified as a newly industrialized country by economists ... Developed Countries, World Factbook, CIA. Mauro F. Guillén (2003). "Multinationals, Ideology, and Organized Labor". The Limits ... Turkey is among the world's developed countries according to the CIA World Factbook. Turkey is also defined by economists and ... "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". www.imf.org. Retrieved 11 September 2018. "Report for Selected Countries and ...
In less-developed countries[which?], in addition to land use and density requirements, a requirement that a large majority of ... The Randstad is the country's largest conurbation located in the west of the country and contains the four largest cities: ... European countries[which?] define urbanized areas on the basis of urban-type land use, not allowing any gaps of typically more ... The country's urbanization rate increased from 17.4% to 46.6% between 1978 and 2009. Between 150 and 200 million migrant ...
The CIA classifies Turkey as a developed country. It is often classified as a newly industrialized country by economists and ... In 2010, he said, "emerging markets will grow three times as fast as developed countries this year", adding that the center of ... Developed Countries, World Factbook, CIA. Mauro F. Guillén (2003). "Multinationals, Ideology, and Organized Labor". The Limits ... All the CIVETS countries except Colombia and South Africa are also 'Next Eleven' countries. All of these states also share ...
"List of Least Developed Countries". UN-OHRLLS. 2005. Archived from the original on 26 October 2013. "Myanmar and IRRI" (PDF). ... Myanmar asked for admittance to a least developed country status in 1987 to receive debt relief. The major agricultural product ... The country had a 2019 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 7.18/10, ranking it 49th globally out of 172 countries. ... Official United States policy retains Burma as the country's name, although the State Department's website lists the country as ...
"Developing Countries". isi-web.org. Archived from the original on 25 April 2017. Retrieved 24 April 2017. "One of the poorest ... Romania ranks 49th in the Human Development Index, and is a developing country with a high-income economy. It has the world's ... The country had a 2019 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 5.95/10, ranking it 90th globally out of 172 countries. ... The country applied in June 1993 for membership in the European Union and became an Associated State of the EU in 1995, an ...
"Developing Countries". IUPHAR Subcommittee for Clinical Pharmacology in Developing Countries. Retrieved 20 May 2016. " ... IUPHAR is involved in the development of pharmacology in developing countries. In conjunction with ICSU the Pharmacology for ... The Division of Clinical Pharmacology, including 3 subcommittees of Developing Countries, Geriatrics, and Pharmacoepidemiology ... Where relevant, data on the rat and mouse homologues are presented to assist researchers and clinicians in developing and/or ...
Simplified sewers are most common in Brazil and are also used in a number of other[which?] developing countries.[citation ... In the developed world, sewers are pipes from buildings to one or more levels of larger underground trunk mains, which ...
John Dixon; Robert P. Scheurell (March 17, 2016). Social Welfare in Developed Market Countries. Routledge. p. 48. ISBN 978-1- ... The country has a multi-party system in which many of its legislative practices derive from the unwritten conventions of and ... "No country for old men". The Economist. 2015-01-08. Archived from the original on 2017-07-25. Elections Canada , Official ... In none of the other countries is a centre party even a major player, much less the dominant.... Amanda Bittner; Royce Koop (1 ...
Other developed countries have similar requirements. A U.S. study showed that this requirement was fulfilled by almost all ... Respirator selection and use are regulated by national legislation in many countries. These requirements include a test of ... Detailed descriptions are given in the US standard, developed by Occupational Safety and Health Administration OSHA. This ...
Roebroek, Joop M. (2016). Dixon Scheurell, John Robert P. (ed.). Social Welfare in Developed Market Countries. Routledge. pp. ... "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". www.imf.org. Retrieved 10 September 2018. "Report for Selected Countries and ... The Netherlands was one of the few countries in the world where the interest paid on mortgages is almost fully deductible from ... The number of people employed in agriculture decreased while the country made a heroic effort to revive its stake in the highly ...
... much lower than most developed countries. The budget forecasted that net government debt would increase to $346.8 and $356.4 ... "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 8 May 2020. "Role and Function". ... presented to the Asian Development Bank Conference on Government Bond Markets and Financial Sector Development in Developing ...
It ranks alongside moderately developed countries. In 2010, it was ranked first economically in Henan Province (perennial top ...
It is most common in developing countries, where young children get diarrhea on average three times a year. Total deaths from ... In resource-poor countries, treatment with antibiotics may be beneficial. However, some bacteria are developing antibiotic ... This lack of access is one of many challenges to proper hygiene in less developed countries." Solutions to this barrier require ... It is estimated that around 21% of child mortalities in developing countries are due to diarrheal disease. The word diarrhea is ...
John Dixon; Robert P. Scheurell (17 March 2016). Social Welfare in Developed Market Countries. Routledge. pp. 48-. ISBN 978-1- ... language and culture in Quebec while remaining unconcerned about issues with other minorities or in other parts of the country ...
Lipton, Michael (1970). "Interdisciplinary Studies in Less Developed Countries". Journal of Development Studies. 7 (1): 5-18. ...
Do not think that he who loves his own country must hate and despise other nations, or wish for war, which is a remnant of ... Among the leaders of the Socialist Party's effort to develop Socialist Sunday Schools was Bertha Mailly, for a time Secretary ... Socialist Schools in other countries[edit]. According to Kenneth Teitelbaum, a scholar of the Socialist youth education ... The primary Socialist Sunday School movement in the United States was that connected with the country's largest socialist ...
Surgery is not performed in early childhood in every country; in some countries surgical intervention can take place in the ... have an increased risk of developing OSA. The children have nearly 50% chance of developing this condition.[5] ... Firstly, the extended strip craniectomy will be discussed, which is a further developed form of the traditional craniectomy.[42 ... Children born with unilateral coronal synostosis develop due to compensatory mechanisms a skew head; a plagiocephaly.[10][11] ...
The label requirements must be met and the label must contain the English language and the language of the receiving country( ... develop bulletins containing habitat location and pesticide use limitations. *distributing the bulletins containing this ...
Most countries have breed descriptions that say that the Irish Terrier should not be more than 48 cm measured at the withers. ... They have a highly developed sense of loyalty and it is important that they have a strong responsible leader, for whom they ... In countries where docking is prohibited, the conformation judges emphasise tail carriage. The tail should start up quite high ...
RaeLynn, country music star and competed on The Voice (TV series) in 2012. ... developed as early boomtowns.[8] The "East" in East Baytown was later dropped because it was west of Goose Creek.[9] ... in developing the Goose Creek Oil Field, built the first offshore drilling operation in Texas and the second in the United ...
It is the country's most important waterway and natural symbol, and the term "Vistula Land" (Polish: kraj nad Wisłą) can be ... Many rivers in the Commonwealth were used for shipping, including the Vistula, which had a relatively well-developed ... Both cities were among the largest in the country. Around 70% the exports from Gdańsk were of grain.[35] ... most highly developed, and by far the largest center of crafts and manufacturing, and the most autonomous of the Polish cities. ...
The series was developed by Ceri Barnes, Lee Walters, Nigel Pickard and Rick Gitelson, from an original idea by Dan Good (who ... Country of origin. United Kingdom. Original language(s). English. No. of seasons. 2. ...
This group eventually developed into the college of Electors. The Holy Roman Empire eventually came to be composed of four ... He eventually incorporated the territories of present-day France, Germany, northern Italy, the Low Countries and beyond, ... This state developed into modern Germany. The only princely member states of the Holy Roman Empire that have preserved their ... The Low Countries were also more coherent than Germany, being entirely under the dominion of the Spanish Netherlands as part of ...
The authors develop ideas such as synergy effects, and the precautionary and substitution principles. They claim that many ... Country. United States. Subject. Consumer movement. Published. *1933 (Vanguard Press). *1935 (Grosset & Dunlap) ...
... in the least developed countries.[13] Women seem to be at a greater risk as do certain ethnic groups,[10][126] such as South ... Diabetes is common both in the developed and the developing world.[10] It remains uncommon, however, ... Dietary factors also influence the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks in excess is ... diet and exercise either alone or in combination with metformin or acarbose may decrease the risk of developing diabetes.[25][ ...
Programme for advanced training in Food Science and Technology for fellows from developing countries. He retired from CFTRI in ...
Ireland and the UK belong to this category, and in contrast to the EU core countries above, these countries first joined the EU ... During the 1880s Trade unions developed among shearers, miners, and stevedores (wharf workers), but soon spread to cover almost ... Union law varies from country to country, as does the function of unions. For example, German and Dutch unions have played a ... Trade unions by country[edit]. Australia[edit]. The Australian labour movement generally sought to end child labour practices, ...
By the end of 2017, there were 19 LNG exporting countries and 40 LNG importing countries. The three biggest LNG exporters in ... The LNG industry developed slowly during the second half of the last century because most LNG plants are located in remote ... Today, only 19 countries export LNG.[72] Compared with the crude oil market, in 2013 the natural gas market was about 72 ... Due to natural gas shortage concerns in the northeastern U.S. and surplus nature gas in the rest of the country, many new LNG ...
"Ash dieback: App developed to track diseased trees". BBC News. 29 October 2012. Retrieved 2 November 2012.. ... There are currently no effective strategies for managing the disease, and most countries which have tried to control its spread ... A free mobile phone application, Ashtag, is available to help report and identify cases.[35] Developed by the University of ... "Ash decline in Nordic and Baltic countries". Metla. 3 July 2007. Retrieved 6 November 2012.. ...
Other countries have similar types of schools, such as specialist schools in England. The majority of these are academically ... Later, voluntary school integration plans were developed. One approach that educators within the public school system came up ... Across the country, magnet school application forms assume that its readers are proficient in reading and writing in English, ... By the end of the decade, nearly 1,400 magnet schools were operating across the country.[14] ...
Regulation and licensing of alternative medicine ranges widely from country to country, and state to state.[152] In Austria and ... Developed before knowledge of atoms and molecules, or of basic chemistry, which shows that repeated dilution as practiced in ... Chiropractic was developed in the belief that manipulating the spine affects the flow of a supernatural vital energy and ... In developing nations, access to essential medicines is severely restricted by lack of resources and poverty. Traditional ...
By the mid-1980s, a low-level insurgency against Ba'athist drainage and resettlement projects had developed in the area, led by ... the Maʻdān had developed a unique culture centered on the marshes' natural resources. Many of the marshes' inhabitants were ...
As part of the new Presidium, Pol Pot became the country's Prime Minister.[259] It was at this point that he took on the public ... Developing the Marxist-Leninist movement: 1955-1959Edit. Cambodia's Marxist-Leninists wanted to operate clandestinely but also ... Their food was brought to them and provided through the only shop that remained open in the country.[309] Pol Pot saw the Khmer ... Pol Pot initiated a series of major irrigation projects across the country.[269] In the Eastern Zone, for instance, a huge dam ...
But it is not circumscribed by the confines of a single country, it does not belong peculiarly and forever to a bounded part of ... which is at variance with the geocentric view developed by the later day Hindu nationalist ideologues such as Veer Savarkar and ... He also referred to the rest of Northern India as Mughlan (Country of Mughals) and called the region infiltrated by Muslim ... The self proclamation was done to enforce Hindu social code Dharmaśāstra over his reign and refer to his country as being ...
It is widely celebrated by the country's large Azerbaijani minority (~7% of the total population)[112] as well as by the ... "It is possible that the splendor of the Babylonian festivities at this season led the Iranians to develop their own spring ... Before the collapse of the Soviet Union, Iran was the only country that officially observed the ceremonies of Nowruz. When the ... People from all over the country travel to Mazar-i-Sharif to attend the Nauruz festivals. Various activities and customs are ...
Due to the importance of disease caused by S. pneumoniae, several vaccines have been developed to protect against invasive ... it is incorporated into the childhood immunization schedule in a number of countries including the United Kingdom,[24] the ...
Maybe other countries have reported on it, but I didn't very much about it on the Dutch news. In fact, it isn't even at the ... Added, although 2006 Bangkok bombings is a more fully-developed article. -- tariqabjotu 21:58, 31 December 2006 (UTC) ... This is highly likely to play a large part in the relations between the countries on the Pacific rim. Aecis Dancing to electro- ... These murders are not only covered in Anglophonic countries. Aecis Dancing to electro-pop like a robot from 1984. 13:54, 15 ...
This language flourished during the 13th and 14th centuries as a language of culture, developing a rich lyric tradition of ... With the advent of democracy, Galician has been brought into the country's institutions, and it is now co-official with Spanish ... During the 19th century a thriving literature developed, in what was called the Rexurdimento (Resurgence), of the Galician ... Aside from the lyric genres, Galicia developed also a minor tradition on literary prose, most notably in translation of ...
"Bahrain: Foreign population by country of citizenship, sex and migration status (worker/ family dependent) (selected countries ... The modern literary form of Bengali was developed during the 19th and early 20th centuries based on the dialect spoken in the ... Bengali literature, with its millennium-old history and folk heritage, has extensively developed since the Bengali renaissance ...
Yttrium is mostly produced as oxide, by a single country, China (99%).[75] Lutetium and scandium are also mostly obtained as ... In the decades after French scientist Antoine Lavoisier developed the first modern definition of chemical elements, it was ...
Kesselman, Mark (2012-01-01). Introduction to Politics of the Developing World: Political Challenges and Changing Agendas. ... Under the one country, two systems system, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau, which were previously ... in a United Front similar to the popular fronts of former Communist-era Eastern European countries such as the National Front ... "The system of the multi-party cooperation and political consultation led by the Communist Party of China will exist and develop ...
Survivors develop antibodies against Ebola that last at least 10 years, but it is unclear whether they are immune to additional ... The country's Minister of Health and Zaire President Mobutu Sese Seko declared the entire region, including Yambuku and the ... Evidence indicates that both domestic dogs and pigs can also be infected with EBOV.[83] Dogs do not appear to develop symptoms ... in countries without widespread Ebola disease transmission: direct contact with a person showing symptoms of the disease while ...
a b Library of Congress: Country Studies. 1995. Harappan Culture. Retrieved 13 January 2006. ... The Harappan architecture and Harappan Civilisation was one of the most developed in the old Bronze Age. ... As a result the Ganges Valley settlement gained prominence and Ganges cities developed.[10] ...
Used in Europe and North America for summer and fall harvest, it was developed in Germany in the 18th century, and includes the ... "Production/Crops, Quantities by Country for Cauliflowers and Broccoli for 2016". Food and Agricultural Organization of the ... Used in Europe for winter and early spring harvest, this was developed in France in the 19th century, and includes the old ... A tropical cauliflower used in China and India, it was developed in India during the 19th century from the now-abandoned ...
Minority/Cultural/National language in various other countries/dependencies. Regulated by. No official regulation (German ... Standard German originated not as a traditional dialect of a specific region, but as a written language, developed over a ... The 1996 spelling reform was based on an international agreement signed by the governments of the German-speaking countries ... Of all the German-speaking countries Switzerland has however the most retained its ability to use dialect in everyday ...
Least developed countries can be distinguished from developing countries, "less developed countries", "lesser developed ... a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Also a landlocked developing country ... United Nations, "LDCs: Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries, and Small Island Developing States" ... "Least Developed Countries. UN-OHRLLS. Retrieved 2014-01-24.. *^ "Least Developed Countries". UN-Department of Economic and ...
A comparison of Internet use in LDCs with that in developing countries as a whole, and with developed countries, shows that ... landlocked developing countries and small island developing States.. Through its Special Programme for Least Developed ... Both reports were prepared by the Programme for Least Developed Countries, Countries in Special Need, Emergency ... United Nations Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small ...
ILO expenditures in the Least Developed Countries (in US$ thousands). LDC country data and ILO results. Afghanistan. Angola. ... Least Developed Countries (LDC). In LDCs, the ILOs support focuses on comprehensive employment policies, investment in rural ... Growth, Productive Employment and Decent Work in the Least Developed Countries [pdf 2210KB] ... Since 2011, the share of the ILOs country-level funding spent on LDCs has increased from 30.6% to 44.6%, representing US$70.6 ...
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country ( ... developing countries tended to demonstrate higher growth rates than developed countries.[4] Developing countries include, in ... Least Developed Countries. Therefore, the least developed countries are the poorest of the developing countries. ... Developed countries and developed markets. *Developing countries include in decreasing order of economic growth or size of the ...
Both developed and developing countries have indicated that they will do their "fair share" of GHG mitigation in order to reach ... we found that the current declared targets of developed countries are roughly similar in terms of costs across countries, with ... Developed countries have a responsibility not only to take the lead on emissions, but also to significantly scale-up financing ... OECD Home Green growth and sustainable developmentReducing greenhouse gas emissions in developed countries Green growth and ...
... Jeffrey D. Sachs, Anthony M. Solomon, William S. Ogden, Eduardo Wiesner, R. T. McNamar. Chapter in ... Conditionality, Debt Relief, and the Developing Country Debt Crisis. Feldstein. Introduction to International Economic ...
OECD Home About the OECDSecretary-GeneralWhy Commodity Market Volatility Matters for Developed Countries? Secretary-General. ... What countries can do is to take action to ensure more confidence in global markets and assure smoother flows of food, ... Ministers asked us to help them develop policies that work, and we are doing exactly. But we could use your help as well and so ... We also know that the transmission of global prices to domestic markets varies considerably across countries depending on their ...
Developing Country Debt Jeffrey D. Sachs, Anthony M. Solomon, William S. Ogden, Eduardo Wiesner & R. T. McNamar ...
Please click on the below and select your country of residence:. Special rates for Professionals in economically developing ... Membership Application for Individuals Residing in Economically Developing Countries. In an effort to fulfill ACMs mission of ... and Digital Library subscription pricing affordable to computing professionals residing in economically developing countries. ... countries. *Complete the online membership application and pay using a credit card, or print the PDF form and fax or mail it to ...
Several factors have brought the debt issue to the forefront of the problems facing a number of countries, including the rapid ... The external indebtedness of non-oil developing countries has been of growing concern in recent years. ... External Indebtedness of Developing Countries. Author/Editor:. Ulrich Baumgartner ; G. G. Johnson ; K. Burke Dillon ; R. C. ... The external indebtedness of non-oil developing countries has been of growing concern in recent years. Several factors have ...
Dengue: the risk to developed and developing countries. T P Monath. PNAS March 29, 1994 91 (7) 2395-2400; https://doi.org/ ...
Over the past seven years, China has drawn developing countries closer by offering rhetorical South-South partnerships and ... some political and civil leaders in developing countries--those most in Beijings clutches and with the most to lose-are no ... as did the countrys former finance minister. A member of Kenyas Parliament and the countrys former vice president both said ... For these countries, along with the other two dozen that owe at least 20 percent of their GDPs to China, the economic calamity ...
... the importance of vaccination in the prevention of infectious diseases and discusses vaccine implementation in developing ... Introducing New Vaccines in Developing Countries. Sonali Kochhar; Barbara Rath; Lea D Seeber; Gabriella Rundblad; Ali ... There is a need to collect information from various vaccine introduction projects in the developing countries. Information on ... The information may be used to design appropriate strategies for the countries, who wish to introduce the vaccine in their ...
... the importance of vaccination in the prevention of infectious diseases and discusses vaccine implementation in developing ... There is little incentive for them to develop vaccines for diseases largely prevalent in the developing countries alone (e.g., ... Less attention has been paid to the proactive monitoring of the safety of vaccines in developing countries. All countries, ... Several vaccines that were previously used both in developed and developing countries are being replaced with newer generation ...
EMR implementation in hospitals in developing countries using indigenous solutions Dr Deepak Agrawal Assistant Professor, ... Computerisation of hospitals in developing countries * 1. Computerization & EMR implementation in hospitals in developing ... 7. SOFTWARE ,ul,,li,Vista EHR ,/li,,/ul,,ul,,ul,,li,Open source (free to download & use!) ,/li,,/ul,,/ul,,ul,,ul,,li,Developed ... countries using indigenous solutions Dr Deepak Agrawal Assistant Professor, Neurosurgery JPN Apex Trauma centre, All India ...
... new official financing flows to developing countries; developments in export credits;financing from multilateral institutions; ... Topics of interest include external debt sustainability for heavily indebted poor countries; ... This study provides information on official financing for developing countries with the focus on low and lower-middle-income ... countries. It updates the 1995 edition and reviews developments in direct financing by offical and multilateral sources. ...
Developing Countries, a Flipboard topic with the latest stories powered by top publications and the best from the Flipboard ... Developing Countries. Justin Yifu Lin calls for green fund for developing countries - Xinhua. BEIJING, Dec. 10 (Xinhua) -- ... Wealthy countries are falling well short of their pledge to provide $100 billion a year to developing countries by 2020 as part ... Developing Countries Win Concessions on Early Climate Action at UN Talks. Moroccan diplomats, who were charged with brokering a ...
FAO-BioDeC is a database of agricultural biotechnologies being researched, developed or applied in developing countries. It ... Over 50 correspondents from 54 countries contribute to the database, with articles about individual countries policy ... not provide quantitative information on research being carried out in international centres located in developing countries, or ...
Toyota Motors is investing heavily in developing countries. With a greater focus on developing cars suited to the needs of the ... In India, the automaker is in the process of developing cars to bridge the gap between its existing models in the country. For ... This is the automakers third plant in the country with the fourth one due to begin production from 2015. Brazil is the fourth ... The automaker is also considering building a diesel plant in the country as an increasing number of people prefer to buy diesel ...
... tobacco use still hugely prevalent in developing world; microthrusters pack macro power; panfried meat linked to prostate ... The high smoking rate in many low-income countries "demonstrates an urgent need for policy change in low- and middle-income ... Studying tobacco use in developing nations. At this point, the fact that smoking causes cancer and other serious health ... But the statistic that approximately half of men in various developing nations smoke is. The World Health Organizations new ...
Users in developing countries draw even less per head in advertising revenue than their Western counterparts, who themselves do ... "We are currently testing Facebook Lite in countries where we are seeing lots of new users coming to Facebook for the first time ...
Ethical codes drawn up predominantly by experts from developed countries should not be imposed on the rest of the world warns ... Developed countries warned on imposing ethics. By Tessa Richards. Ethical codes drawn up predominantly by experts from ... Ethical codes drawn up predominantly by experts from developed countries should not be imposed on the rest of the world, an ... which will soon be publishing a report on the ethical aspects of biomedical research in developing countries.. Link to full ...
Judgement : In countries or in zones within a country free or nearly free of FMD diseased or suspect animals are prohibited to ... Brucellosis is an important zoonosis in particular in rural areas in developing countries and is an important occupational ... In countries where this disease is present, the judgement should be in accordance with the current animal health requirements, ... In some countries, the carcass is approved if inactive lesions (calcified and/or encapsulated) are observed in organs and ...
BCG in developing countries. In response to Professor Viroj Wiwnaitkit, I emphasise that BCG is. very useful in tropical ... 3. Shann F. BCG vaccination in developing countries. BMJ 2010;340:720. -1. ... 1. Shann F. BCG vaccination in developing countries. BMJ 2010; 340: c809 ... BCG vaccination in developing countries. BMJ 2010; 340 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.c809 (Published 15 March 2010) Cite ...
Another problem in developing countries is the quality and potency of antimicrobial drugs. In some countries many different ... lived in developing countries. Of the 39.5 million deaths in the developing world, 9.2 million were estimated to have been ... In many developing countries the use of antimicrobial drugs for treating people and animals is unregulated; antibiotics can be ... Epidemiology of sexuallyt ransmitted infection and AIDS in developing countries. In: Arya OP, Hart CA, eds. Sexually ...
... Upcoming SlideShare Loading in …5 ... Both developed and emerging countries * 23. 24 GLOBALIZATION AND INFORMAL JOBS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES have raised some of ... Globalization In Informal Jobs In Developing Countries * 1. GLOBALIZATION AND INFORMAL JOBS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES A joint ... fix to labour market problems in developing countries. However, with around 60 per cent of employees in developing countries ...
The project, Assessing the Economic Contribution of Labour Migration in Developing Countries as Countries of Destination, aimed ... The report covers the ten partner countries: Argentina, Costa Rica, Côte dIvoire, the Dominican Republic, Ghana, Kyrgyzstan, ... on the multiple ways immigrants affect their host countries. ... em>How Immigrants Contribute to Developing Countries Economies ... How immigrants contribute to developing countries economies .... How immigrants contribute to developing countries economies ...
Eight University of Toronto researchers just got a big boost for their work in the developing world, thanks to grants from ... Timothy Chan is developing a system that will reduce the response time for ambulances in developing countries (photo by Mark ... AERO: Ambulance Emergency Response Optimization system for developing countries. "We will reduce ambulance response times by ... "We will develop a low-cost disposable test for rapidly diagnosing malaria in low resource settings. This test will be based on ...
  • As a way of providing special support to its most vulnerable members, the United Nations General Assembly in 1971 created the category of "Least Developed Country" to cover low-income economies that face severe structural impediments to growth. (itu.int)
  • Every three years, the Committee for Development Policy (CDP), a subsidiary body of the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), reviews the socio-economic conditions of all low-income economies to determine whether a country should be added to - or recommended for graduation from - the LDC category. (itu.int)
  • The World Bank classifies the world's economies into four groups, based on Gross National Income per capita: high, upper-middle, lower-middle, and low income countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • The World Bank classifies the world's economies into four groups, based on Gross National Income per capita, re-set each year on July 1: low income countries (similar to least developed countries) lower-middle income countries upper-middle income countries high income countries (similar to developed countries) The three groups that are not "high income" are together referred to as "low and middle income countries" (LMICs). (wikipedia.org)
  • The economic trend is modeled by an inverse function of real GDP per capita with a numerator potentially constant for the largest developed economies. (repec.org)
  • Statistical analysis of 19 selected OECD countries for the period between 1950 and 2004 shows a very weak linear trend in the annual GDP per capita increment for the largest economies: the USA, Japan, France, Italy, and Spain. (repec.org)
  • Developing countries demonstrate the increment values far below the mean increment for the most developed economies. (repec.org)
  • With a greater focus on developing cars suited to the needs of the customers in emerging economies, Toyota hopes to generate 50% of its total vehicle sales from emerging economies by 2015, up from 45% in 2011. (forbes.com)
  • How Immigrants Contribute to Developing Countries' Economies is the result of a project carried out by the OECD Development Centre and the International Labour Organization, with support from the European Union. (ilo.org)
  • All of this is to say that if your brand serves the global market, and especially developing economies, AMP is worth the thought exercise of assessing its implications on your business and user experience. (searchengineland.com)
  • The visuals show a clear picture: Developing countries don't have the same internet and wireless network infrastructure as developed economies. (searchengineland.com)
  • however, users within developing economies could see a substantial lag in performance (which is especially important considering the price of mobile data). (searchengineland.com)
  • The increase in website size and data usage comes at a time when mobile is vital within developing economies , as mobile is a lifeline connection for many countries. (searchengineland.com)
  • For illustration, I've pulled device data to compare the US versus the developing economies of India and Kenya. (searchengineland.com)
  • The ITU's Broadband Commission report (PDF here ) has found that in 19 of the world's least developed economies - mostly in Africa - the cost of broadband exceeds average monthly earnings. (theregister.co.uk)
  • Tax collection is a major challenge for these economies: the tax revenues low-income countries collect amount to about 10%-20% of GDP, on average, compared to about 40% of GDP in high-income countries. (irishexaminer.com)
  • Can you name top 25 Countries with the highest literacy rates that are not classified as IMF Advanced Economies? (sporcle.com)
  • Given the lack of regulatory and enforcement capacity in most developing countries, third party certification programs may be the only viable option to improve conditions, protect human health and strengthen these nations' economies. (redorbit.com)
  • Developing and emerging economies could save $40 billion worth of electricity and prevent 320 million metric tonnes of carbon pollution annually simply by transitioning to LED lighting, according to estimates from United Nation's Environment. (nrdc.org)
  • One of the best investments that developing and emerging economies can make is to switch from the inefficient incandescent light bulb, which is a technology that hasn't changed much in the past 125 years, to super-efficient LED light bulbs. (nrdc.org)
  • One of the fastest and cheapest ways to deliver massive carbon savings and relief to stressed electricity grids commonly found in developing and emerging economies is to shift to energy-saving LED lighting. (nrdc.org)
  • 4 The radical transformations in the political structures of the countries of eastern Europe have affected their economies and their youths' prospects and reproductive behaviors, as well as their health care systems. (guttmacher.org)
  • China and India, in particular, are going through profound changes as their economies develop. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The Least Developed Countries ( LDCs ) is a list of the countries that, according to the United Nations , exhibit the lowest indicators of socioeconomic development , with the lowest Human Development Index ratings of all countries in the world . (wikipedia.org)
  • The United Nations Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States (UN-OHRLLS) coordinates UN support and provides advocacy services for Least Developed Countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • During a United Nations review in 2009, the UN defined LDCs as countries meeting three criteria, one of which was a three-year average estimate of gross national income (GNI) per capita of less than US $905. (wikipedia.org)
  • ITU contributed two major reports * to the Fourth United Nations Conference on the Least Developed Countries (UNLDC-IV), held in Istanbul, Turkey, on 9-13 May 2011. (itu.int)
  • And since the Third United Nations Conference on the Least Developed Countries in 2001, ITU World Telecommunication Development Conferences and ITU Plenipotentiary Conferences have adopted specific resolutions in favour of LDCs, landlocked developing countries and small island developing States. (itu.int)
  • There is no established convention for the designation of "developed" and "developing" countries or areas in the United Nations system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The UN implies that developing countries are those not on a tightly defined list of developed countries: There is no established convention for the designation of "developed" and "developing" countries or areas in the United Nations system. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2. Disclaimer The designations employed in ILO and WTO publications, which are in conformity with United Nations practice, and the presentation of material therein do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the International Labour Offi ce or the World Trade Organization concerning the legal status of any country, area or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers. (slideshare.net)
  • In the chart below, I choose nine developing countries (per the United Nations' World Economic Situation and Prospects report) to compare with the United States' internet speed (which ranked 10th worldwide in the last report). (searchengineland.com)
  • LONDON -- The United Nations plans to unveil a report Monday showing that unhealthy diets and insufficient exercise are taking an ever-increasing toll on the global population, especially in developing countries. (wsj.com)
  • A study conducted by Intel, the United Nations and the U.S. State Department finds that in developing countries, the gap climbs to 23 percent. (wired.com)
  • This is a problem because the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) predicts that countries will need to select and train almost 70 million teachers by 2030 but current selection methods are known to be both ineffective and expensive. (york.ac.uk)
  • For the countries involved, it was important to announce this long-awaited decision before the Paris conference, at which the members of the United Nations will try to reach an ambitious agreement to limit climate change. (euractiv.com)
  • According to United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization or UNESCO, migration refers to the movement of person or group of people who live temporarily or permanently in the destination but not their home country (n.d. (ipl.org)
  • SYDNEY and KUALA LUMPUR, Feb 23 2021 (IPS) - The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is adversely impacting most developing countries disproportionately, especially the United Nations' least developed countries (LDCs) and the World Bank's low-income countries (LICs). (ipsnews.net)
  • United Nations Secretary-General António Guterres cautioned last July that COVID-19 was making achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) " even more challenging " as many developing countries were already "off track" in 2019, before the pandemic. (ipsnews.net)
  • In addition to Brazil, Toyota is also investing significantly in Asian countries such as China , Thailand and India. (forbes.com)
  • In India, the automaker is in the process of developing cars to bridge the gap between its existing models in the country. (forbes.com)
  • This study includes a comprehensive assessment of the situation of urban climate finance in the three countries of South Africa, Chile and India with a specific focus on the partner cities of the "Cities Fit for Climate Change" (CFCC) project: eThekwini (Durban), Santiago de Chile and Chennai. (eldis.org)
  • A recent eMarketer study on Internet Users Worldwide (August 2017) shows a high level of growth in developing countries, such as India, at 15.2 percent. (searchengineland.com)
  • Credit Market Constraints, Consumption Smoothing, and the Accumulation of Durable Production Assets in Low-Income Countries: Investment in Bullocks in India ," Journal of Political Economy , University of Chicago Press, vol. 101(2), pages 223-244, April. (repec.org)
  • Credit Market Constraints, Consumption Smoothing and the Accumulation of Durable Production Assets in Low-Income Countries: Investments in Bullocks in India ," Bulletins 7487, University of Minnesota, Economic Development Center. (repec.org)
  • India and other southern Asian countries have the lowest numbers of women online overall, at just 8 percent. (wired.com)
  • In developing countries, attack rates range from 5-12 episode/child/year with the highest rates in the 1st 2 years of life (e.g., in India among the urban poor, 18.6 episodes/child/year. (nih.gov)
  • Developing countries such as China and India have therefore, become appealing markets to foreign investors. (bartleby.com)
  • Poor people and poor countries are the most vulnerable victims of the emerging epidemic of noncommunicable diseases related to obesity," says Dr. Srinath Reddy, director of cardiology for the All India Institute of Medical Sciences in New Delhi. (prb.org)
  • This study investigates the anatomy of rural finance markets (RFMs) in a major developing country, India. (rand.org)
  • We are looking at acquisition in India and other developing markets in the spaces of home care and personal care," Agrawal told Mint. (livemint.com)
  • [9] At the UN's fourth conference on LDCs, which was held in May 2011, delegates endorsed a goal targeting the promotion of at least half the current LDC countries within the next ten years. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of these reports, "ICT and Telecommunications in Least Developed Countries: Review of progress made during the decade 2000-2010", presents projects and actions that ITU has undertaken to help least developed countries (LDCs) join the knowledge economy through the deployment and use of information and communication technologies (ICT). (itu.int)
  • The other report, "The Role of ICT in Advancing Growth in Least Developed Countries: Trends, Challenges and Opportunities", on which this article is largely based, examines some of the emerging trends and current challenges faced by LDCs on their road to poverty alleviation. (itu.int)
  • Climate change is a critical factor, given that eleven of the LDCs are also small island developing States. (itu.int)
  • The ITU reports highlight the important catalytic role that ITU plays in increasing connectivity in LDCs, and provide case study evidence showing how some of these countries have indeed managed to use connectivity successfully to enhance socio-economic development. (itu.int)
  • Since then, 50 countries have been categorized as LDCs, but only three have ever graduated to developing country status: Botswana in 1994, Cape Verde in 2007 and Maldives in 2011 (see article on Maldives ). (itu.int)
  • Through its Special Programme for Least Developed Countries, the ITU Telecommunication Development Bureau (BDT) has undertaken diverse activities and provided concentrated assistance to LDCs to help them develop infrastructure, improve rural telecommunications, introduce new technologies and services, and build human capacity. (itu.int)
  • While recognizing that poverty continues to be a persistent problem in many middle-income countries, where part of donor-earmarked programmes of the ILO is also implemented, the Office has substantially increased its development spending in LDCs in the recent years. (ilo.org)
  • Since 2011, the share of the ILO's country-level funding spent on LDCs has increased from 30.6% to 44.6%, representing US$70.6 million in 2014. (ilo.org)
  • The major difficulty now, Ryan added, is in collecting accurate financial statistic from the LDCS - although he noted that it is sometimes harder to get the right numbers from the developed nations. (washingtonpost.com)
  • In the process of increasing awareness towards the needs of the LDCs, the importance of the inputs and contributions of the members of the Civil Society were first acknowledged during the NGO Forum held in parallel to the third UN Conference on Least Developed Countries in Brussels in 2001. (wikipedia.org)
  • The contribution of the least developed countries (LDCs) to the greenhouse gas problem is very small. (eldis.org)
  • Years of public sector underinvestment seriously undermined public health systems in most developing countries, especially LDCs and LICs. (ipsnews.net)
  • Some non-Annex I countries are also coming forward - including Korea, Mexico and South Africa. (oecd.org)
  • The developed world had promised Africa US$60 billion in aid per year up to 2010. (scidev.net)
  • What donor countries fail to realise, argues Sachs, is that following through on their promises to build African infrastructure would not only help Africa pump clean water, irrigate crops and power hospitals, but would also provide an enormous stimulus for the faltering factories in developed countries. (scidev.net)
  • The differences in the economic profitability between intensive and extensive pig farming systems in some sub-Saharan countries will illustrate the inherent difficulties in the development of intensive pig husbandry in Africa. (fao.org)
  • He will conclude by discussing the policy insights and other lessons learned from his own recent empirical work on the power sector in Brazil, Nepal, Ukraine, and a number of countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. (worldbank.org)
  • She has contributed to client dialogue, as well as advisory and lending engagements, in more than 30 countries across Africa, Latin America, Europe, Asia and the Middle East. (worldbank.org)
  • Poor fiscal management means that developing countries - particularly in Africa, home to 27 of the world's 28 poorest countries - are often plagued by debt crises and inflation, and many are at the mercy of commodity-price cycles. (irishexaminer.com)
  • The agreement also excludes medium sized "supercritical" power stations in countries that suffer from energy precariousness, including many in sub-Saharan Africa. (euractiv.com)
  • This model regulation will be provided to United for Efficiency partner countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. (nrdc.org)
  • Those who attend this workshop will learn about current projects in Asia, Africa, and the Caribbean, organizations involved in this type of work, and the fundamentals of designing for rural areas in the developing world. (nesea.org)
  • Developing countries - generally referring to the countries of Africa, Asia , and Latin America - is a term that was inspired by Walt Whitman Rostow ' s classic work, The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto (1960). (encyclopedia.com)
  • The World Bank Group's response to this crisis includes increased lending for crisis-hit developing countries-likely to nearly triple from US$13.5 billion last year to more than US$35 billion this year-as well as accelerated grants and virtually interest-free long-term loans to the world's 78 poorest countries, 39 of which are in Africa. (worldbank.org)
  • As of 2015 [update] a country must have GNI per capita less than US $ 1,035 to be included on the list, and over $1,242 to graduate from it. (wikipedia.org)
  • A country is classified among the Least Developed Countries if it meets three criteria: Poverty - adjustable criterion based on GNI per capita averaged over three years. (wikipedia.org)
  • As of 2018[update] a country must have GNI per capita less than US$ 1,025 to be included on the list, and over $1,230 to graduate from it. (wikipedia.org)
  • In an effort to fulfill ACM's mission of disseminating computing and information technology ideas, techniques and discoveries, as widely as possible, ACM has developed a special set of membership dues (based on the World Bank GNI per capita Atlas method data ) and Digital Library subscription pricing affordable to computing professionals residing in economically developing countries. (acm.org)
  • Real GDP per capita in developed countries ," Papers 0811.0889, arXiv.org. (repec.org)
  • Real GDP per capita in developed countries ," MPRA Paper 2738, University Library of Munich, Germany. (repec.org)
  • There are no universally agreed-upon criteria for what makes a country developing versus developed and which countries fit these two categories, although there are general reference points such as a nation's GDP per capita compared to other nations. (dbpedia.org)
  • [1] There are no universally agreed-upon criteria for what makes a country developing versus developed and which countries fit these two categories, [2] although there are general reference points such as a nation's GDP per capita compared with other nations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Low income countries had GNI per capita of US$1,025 or less. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lower middle income countries had GNI per capita between US$1,026 and US$4,035. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3 Countries with per capita GDP that are well under $5,000-such as Pakistan and Nigeria-annually face significant risks from obesity and high cholesterol leading to heart disease. (prb.org)
  • The US may have more personal motor vehicles per capita than any other country, but it is also a leader in drug use, and the catastrophes associated with it. (jpost.com)
  • The WHO says that consumption of such foods has increased rapidly in poorer countries and, along with increasingly sedentary lifestyles, contributed to an explosion in preventable diseases once found mainly in wealthy nations. (wsj.com)
  • Those are the labor‐​intensive goods poorer countries can produce and sell at competitive prices. (cato.org)
  • In 2008, over 900 million people in poorer countries were classified as being overweight, in comparison with 550 million in higher income countries. (rt.com)
  • Gilead Sciences said it would allow generic drug makers to make cheaper versions of its hepatitis C pill to sell in poorer countries. (wsj.com)
  • The classification (as of June 2017 [update] ) applies to 47 countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Maldives graduated to developing country status on 1 January 2011, Samoa graduated in 2014, Equatorial Guinea in 2017, and Vanuatu in December 2020. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study published in Proceedings of the National Academy of the Sciences covers 209 countries between 1993 and 2017 and shows that access to mobile phones is associated with multiple indicators linked to global social development, such as good health, gender equality, and poverty reduction. (hindustantimes.com)
  • A financial package to support sustainable investments in the poorest countries could boost development, stimulate manufacturing in richer countries and lead to global environmental sustainability, says Jeffrey Sachs. (scidev.net)
  • Siaka Traore, a farmer in the desert country of Burkina Faso, was able to buy a set of machines that grinds and presses manioc into a food called attièke -- which was previously done manually by women working day and night. (forbes.com)
  • Thus in Cameroon, a country quite different from Burkina Faso so far as price structure of pig production is concerned, the traditional pig farming is more profitable than the other systems. (fao.org)
  • The research is based on case studies in three countries: Ghana, Burkina Faso and the Dominican Republic. (europa.eu)
  • As of December 2020, 46 countries are classified as LDC, while six have been upgraded between 1994 and 2020. (wikipedia.org)
  • The classification (as of December 2020[update]) applies to 46 countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • The combined effects of the developed country targets would lead, according to our analysis, to only 8 to 14% reduction in their emissions by 2020 compared with 1990. (oecd.org)
  • As the first week of the Nov. 6-17 U.N. climate summit in Bonn, Germany, drew towards a close, the European Union, Switzerland and Canada reiterated their commitment to increase financial help to developing countries to US$100 billion per year by 2020. (flipboard.com)
  • Projections of disability adjusted life years (that is, the years of life without disability) for the year 2020 show great improvement in developing regions: people are living longer without disabilities. (bmj.com)
  • Unlike in Europe and the United States where these energy-guzzling bulbs are due to be phased out in mid-2018 and 2020, respectively, these old-fashioned bulbs will still be available for purchase in developing countries. (nrdc.org)
  • In the early 20th century, Latin American countries such as Argentina and Uruguay were among the richest in the world because of their agricultural exports. (cato.org)
  • The writer might well have added that it is also commonly overlooked that food technology was not suddenly developed in the 20th century but has been very much a part of the lives of people everywhere ever since they began doing more to their food than gathering it and eating it raw. (sciencemag.org)
  • But while all of these trends mimic similar progressions in developed countries at the turn of the 20th century, their development has been radically accelerated in less developed countries. (prb.org)
  • ITU's passionate commitment to the world's least developed countries dates back to 1971 when this category was established. (itu.int)
  • Their paper, The Contribution of the Mining Sector to Socioeconomic and Human Development , shows that low and middle-income mining countries grew by over one percent annually faster than similar non-mining countries from 2001 to 2011. (worldbank.org)
  • OECD Home About the OECD Secretary-General Why Commodity Market Volatility Matters for Developed Countries? (oecd.org)
  • The European Union and eight OECD countries have agreed to reduce state aid for coal-fired power stations in developing countries. (euractiv.com)
  • Claiming that we have to maintain the subsidies to the least polluting power stations in order to prevent the construction of more polluting ones by non-OECD member countries is a scam," said Pinson. (euractiv.com)
  • This study provides information on official financing for developing countries with the focus on low and lower-middle-income countries. (imf.org)
  • The high smoking rate in many low-income countries "demonstrates an urgent need for policy change in low- and middle-income countries," according to lead researcher Gary Giovino. (yahoo.com)
  • The current economic crisis is hitting developing countries hard - bank loans to middle-income countries are expected to fall by US$60 billion, expatriates are returning home or reducing the amount of money sent back, and donor countries are cutting aid. (scidev.net)
  • In the 21st century, the mining sector has been shown to make important contributions to development in many low and middle income countries. (worldbank.org)
  • Since the global financial crisis in 2008, of the low and low-middle income countries, only mineral-dependent countries posted higher human development improvement rates than the world average. (worldbank.org)
  • For example, the Human Development Index (HDI) health index increased at a 50% faster rate among mining low- and low-middle income countries than among their non-mining counterparts in 2007-2012. (worldbank.org)
  • For those families in low-and middle-income countries who have a child with ASD, access to professional support services will be limited. (hindawi.com)
  • But a silent epidemic of obesity-related diseases-among them, cardiovascular diseases, stroke, and Type-2 diabetes-is also spreading rapidly across poor and middle-income countries, where such illnesses have been overshadowed by infectious diseases and undernutrition. (prb.org)
  • With increasing uptake of modern-day conveniences-TVs, cars, computers-low- and middle-income countries could see the same obesity and diabetes rates as in high-income countries that are the result of too much sitting, less physical activity and increased consumption of calories," says Lear, who also holds the SFU Pfizer/Heart & Stroke Foundation Chair in Cardiovascular Prevention Research at St. Paul's Hospital. (eurekalert.org)
  • Rates of increase of obesity and diabetes are expected to rise as low- and middle-income countries develop and become more industrialized. (eurekalert.org)
  • Low and middle-income countries lose US$167~200 billion annually , around 1.2~1.5% of their national incomes, to corporate tax competition. (ipsnews.net)
  • One of the first critical thinkers to analyze the true situation of the developing countries was Ra ú l Prebisch of the Economic Commission for Latin America, who argued that the relationship between developed and developing countries was exploitive. (encyclopedia.com)
  • We also know that the transmission of global prices to domestic markets varies considerably across countries depending on their integration in world markets, the efficiency of the infrastructure in place, and the degree of market orientation in domestic agriculture policy. (oecd.org)
  • We will reduce ambulance response times by developing a software system leveraging existing infrastructure that optimizes ambulance pre-positioning locations, and provides real-time travel time estimation and route optimization info to drivers. (utoronto.ca)
  • In addition, where higher levels of fiscal revenues were used to build infrastructure and develop human capital, this in turn has been shown to lead to the development or expansion of other non-mining related industries. (worldbank.org)
  • A developed country is a country that has progressed relatively far during time and has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure. (bartleby.com)
  • Developed nations have great infrastructure and technology with a much better and complex economy than developing nations. (bartleby.com)
  • This is not the case, however, in many developing countries, which often lack the equipment, expertise and/or infrastructure to diagnose and treat health care problems with the help of radiology. (scientificamerican.com)
  • If a need is identified, the next step is to develop a plan to deliver the imaging equipment, train locals to use it and ensure that the local infrastructure is able to reliably support it. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Oxfam's 'Paying for People' report, published in February this year, said that poor countries are suffering because they lack the infrastructure of a health service. (cnn.com)
  • But at a time when nationalist rhetoric and isolationist policies are gaining traction in some of the world's biggest traditional donor countries - beginning with the United States - ODA will not be sufficient. (irishexaminer.com)
  • Indonesia Foreign Minister Retno Marsudi said in a video conference on Tuesday at midnight that the NAM countries would form a task force to compile crucial "medical and humanitarian" needs for member states, that would then be conveyed to donor countries and organizations. (reuters.com)
  • Eight University of Toronto researchers just got a big boost for their work in the developing world, thanks to grants from Grand Challenges Canada (GCC). (utoronto.ca)
  • In addition to the projects of U of T researchers, GCC funded 75 other initiatives being led by researchers from a variety of other countries. (utoronto.ca)
  • Still, despite the proliferation of mobile networks, the researchers acknowledge that digital divides by gender and socioeconomic strata persist in the developing world. (hindustantimes.com)
  • By allocating carbon emissions to particular products and sources, the researchers were able to calculate the net emissions "imported" or "exported" by specific countries. (eurekalert.org)
  • Over a third of the carbon dioxide emissions linked to good and services consumed in many European countries actually occurred elsewhere, the researchers found. (eurekalert.org)
  • As a result of this process, the research team, with support from an international network of collaborating researchers and practitioners, have developed tools including text-based and video-based SJTs, multiple mini-interviews (MMIs) and 'developmental' SJTs used to assess and develop professionalism and classroom readiness in initial teacher education programmes. (york.ac.uk)
  • Researchers have been questioning the applicability of Western theories of organizations and management systems to non-industrialized countries for at least the last two decades (e.g. (fgv.br)
  • Since more than 70% of the world population lives in developing countries (DCs), and the majority of the world's natural resources and market opportunities are in these countries, both practitioners and researchers have become more interested in understanding their social and business activities. (fgv.br)
  • Through a range of activities, it explores some of the unique challenges developing country libraries, researchers and publishers experience. (brill.com)
  • Biometric researchers from Michigan State University have developed a fingerprint-scanning system for children under five years old that could replace ineffective paper vaccination records. (technologyreview.com)
  • The Michigan State University researchers developed software that makes it feasible to accurately match fingerprints of children under five with off-the-shelf equipment. (technologyreview.com)
  • Researchers, who questioned participants about ownership as well as physical activity and diet, found a 400 per cent increase in obesity and a 250 per cent increase in diabetes among owners of these items in low-income countries. (eurekalert.org)
  • Comparatively, researchers found no association in high-income countries, suggesting that the effects of owning items linked to sedimentary lifestyles has already occurred, and is reflected in current high rates of these conditions. (eurekalert.org)
  • The term "less economically developed country" (LEDC) is also used today. (wikipedia.org)
  • A developing country (or a low and middle income country ( LMIC ), less developed country , less economically developed country ( LEDC ), or underdeveloped country ) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Terms used include less developed country or less economically developed country, and for the more extreme, least developed country or least economically developed country. (wikipedia.org)
  • Globalization, while it has its faults has been able to propel developing countries into prosperous world powers, especially economically. (bartleby.com)
  • However, there are three main effects that follow regarding high rate of immigration into those more developed countries. (ipl.org)
  • Moreover, immigration is the main reason why the population in developed countries like American is still growing. (ipl.org)
  • Thomas Friedman contends that globalization 1.0 shrunk the world from large to medium and countries and governments were the main protagonists. (bartleby.com)
  • This means that, to implement the SDGs, developing countries will need to rely increasingly on their own resources. (irishexaminer.com)
  • What countries can do is to take action to ensure more confidence in global markets and assure smoother flows of food, especially in emergency situations. (oecd.org)
  • Where aid once represented a majority of the funds from high income countries to developing countries, this has now been surpassed by investments and worker's remittances, and these flows show no sign of slowing down - maybe pausing for an occasional downturn in the global economy. (grida.no)
  • Whereas ODA in 1990 constituted 72 % of capital flows into development countries (of a total of 77,5 bn), this had in 2013 changed to only 16% (of a total of 889 bn). (regjeringen.no)
  • Developing countries-at first sheltered from the worst elements of the turmoil-are now much more vulnerable, with dwindling capital flows, huge withdrawals of capital leading to losses in equity markets, and skyrocketing interest rates. (worldbank.org)
  • Clearly, this falls short of the 25 to 40% reduction that, according to the IPCC, developed countries must achieve to put emissions on a pathway that would prevent temperatures from rising by more than 2°C. So, more ambitious action is needed. (oecd.org)
  • Developed countries have a responsibility not only to take the lead on emissions, but also to significantly scale-up financing to support mitigation action in developing countries, as well as adaptation efforts. (oecd.org)
  • Based on a global trade database of 188 countries, the study showed the bulk of nitrogen emissions in 2010 came from industry and agriculture, which accounted for 161 teragrams (trillion grammes), while 28 Tg was produced by consumers -- mainly from sewage. (yahoo.com)
  • Palo Alto, CA-- A new study by scientists at the Carnegie Institution finds that over a third of carbon dioxide emissions associated with consumption of goods and services in many developed countries are actually emitted outside their borders. (eurekalert.org)
  • Some countries, such as Switzerland, "outsource" over half of their carbon dioxide emissions, primarily to developing countries. (eurekalert.org)
  • Most of these emissions are outsourced to developing countries, especially China. (eurekalert.org)
  • Just like the electricity that you use in your home probably causes CO 2 emissions at a coal-burning power plant somewhere else, we found that the products imported by the developed countries of western Europe, Japan, and the United States cause substantial emissions in other countries, especially China," says Davis. (eurekalert.org)
  • In Switzerland and several other small countries, outsourced emissions exceeded the amount of carbon dioxide emitted within national borders. (eurekalert.org)
  • The net result is that the U.S. outsources about 11% of total consumption-based emissions, primarily to the developing world. (eurekalert.org)
  • Our analysis of the carbon dioxide emissions associated with consumption in each country just states the facts," says Caldeira. (eurekalert.org)
  • This could be taken into consideration when developing emissions targets for these countries, but that's a decision for policy-makers. (eurekalert.org)
  • To the extent that constraints on developing countries' emissions are the major impediment to effective international climate policy, allocating responsibility for some portion of these emissions to final consumers elsewhere may represent an opportunity for compromise. (eurekalert.org)
  • Sachs recommends the G20 countries devote at least US$25 billion of 'urgent additional funding' to African sustainable development in 2009 and another US$25 billion for low-income countries elsewhere. (scidev.net)
  • It also examines how high rates of informal employment diminish the scope for developing countries to translate trade openness into sustainable long-term growth. (slideshare.net)
  • With 189 member countries, staff from more 170 countries, and offices in over 130 locations, the World Bank Group is a unique global partnership: five institutions working for sustainable solutions that reduce poverty and build shared prosperity in developing countries. (worldbank.org)
  • Putting smartphones in women's hands could be a powerful tool to support sustainable development goals in the developing world. (hindustantimes.com)
  • Sustainable agriculture can lead to a more stable environment and a healthier economy in countries most affected by food scarcity. (theecologist.org)
  • Developing countries often struggle the most with food scarcity, but sustainable farming techniques could change their food system and lead to economic development and environmental protection. (theecologist.org)
  • Here are five of the most impactful changes sustainable food production can have in developing countries. (theecologist.org)
  • Deploying sustainable farming practices in a developing nation also increases economic opportunity for those that live there, both directly and indirectly. (theecologist.org)
  • Efforts to share sustainable agriculture practices with farmers in developing nations can have widespread impact, especially since a substantial portion of the population in these countries is typically involved in the agriculture industry. (theecologist.org)
  • This active-learning workshop will explore the challenges of sustainable design in developing countries. (nesea.org)
  • There is little incentive for them to develop vaccines for diseases largely prevalent in the developing countries alone (e.g. (medscape.com)
  • Development aid or development cooperation is financial aid given by governments and other agencies to support the economic, environmental, social and political development of developing countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Along with the current level of development, countries can also be classified by how much their level of development has changed over a specific period of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to its so-called M49 standards, published in 1999: The designations "developed" and "developing" are intended for statistical convenience and do not necessarily express a judgement about the stage reached by a particular country or area in the development process. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several terms used to classify countries into rough levels of development. (wikipedia.org)
  • We are also looking at how best to govern this new scaled-up financing to ensure it is in line with developing country development plans and objectives. (oecd.org)
  • O51 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - U.S. (repec.org)
  • It assumes a desire to develop along the traditional Western model of economic development which a few countries, such as Cuba and Bhutan, choose not to follow. (dbpedia.org)
  • In the 2016 edition of its World Development Indicators, the World Bank made a decision to no longer distinguish between "developed" and "developing" countries in the presentation of its data. (dbpedia.org)
  • The study found that mineral wealth not only propelled economic growth, but it also translated into larger improvements in human development in these same mineral-rich countries, more so than in similar non-mining countries. (worldbank.org)
  • In light of the great diversity in socio-cultural, religious, economic, political, demographic and ecological environments in the different continents, the lessons which one can learn from the experiences in pig farming and pig development projects in developing countries are numerous and varied. (fao.org)
  • National broadband policy is an "in" topic worldwide, with the commission noting that 119 countries have some kind of policy in place, and another 12 are in development. (theregister.co.uk)
  • The Telecommunication Development Bureau (BDT) of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has released the first version of a harmonized, efficient, automated technical administrative tool for spectrum management in developing countries under the brand name SMS4DC (Spectrum Management System for Developing Countries). (itu.int)
  • Unfortunately, in less affluent countries, there is a dearth of studies to inform the development of support services. (hindawi.com)
  • Our aim is to identify important lessons that can guide the development of family support services in low-income countries. (hindawi.com)
  • The designations "developed" and "developing" are intended for statistical convenience and do not necessarily express a judgment about the stage reached by a particular country or area in the development process. (wikipedia.org)
  • In response to a widespread teacher retention crisis, we are developing a suite of innovative, culturally sensitive, evidence-based teacher selection and development tools. (york.ac.uk)
  • Developed countries may be gradually cutting coal out of their own energy mixes, but many of them still fund coal-fired power stations in developing countries, where access to energy is often one of the major restraints on economic and societal development. (euractiv.com)
  • The study carried out by the UK-based think-tank Overseas Development Institute (ODI) reveals the rate of obesity in developing countries is almost double that in developed countries. (rt.com)
  • Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) and private capital has increasingly become much more important for the development of poor countries. (regjeringen.no)
  • Development countries want partnership and investments. (regjeringen.no)
  • We want to step up support to private sector development as part of our cooperation with developing countries. (regjeringen.no)
  • Population has a great impact on the development of a country, for if a country has a high population, that means fewer resources will be available, which will make the country poorer and less developed, while having a low population, will provide more resources, which will help the country develop further. (ipl.org)
  • Though Nigeria is a third-world country and could be considered part of the developing world, there are a few strong arguments to justify Nigeria's completed development and many arguments to justify Nigeria's status as an underdeveloped country. (reference.com)
  • Native Americans, besides accomplishing marvels in plant genetics and crop development, also developed water extraction methods for treating acorns to render the flour palatable and edible, and the alkali method of processing maize. (sciencemag.org)
  • INASP is an international development charity working with a global network of partners to improve access, production and use of research information and knowledge, so that countries are equipped to solve their development challenges. (brill.com)
  • This perspective was further developed by Andre Gunder Frank, who introduced the concept of dependent development . (encyclopedia.com)
  • According to Frank, development strategies promoted by the wealthy countries were designed to ensure that the " developing " countries remained in a subordinate position. (encyclopedia.com)
  • While the US Agency for International Development (USAID) is stressing the need for developing countries to build up their "human capital," back in the US, the corporate powers-that-be and their political allies are undermining this tenet of US foreign economic policy. (opednews.com)
  • Introducing a new vaccine in a developing country may face several financial and logistical challenges. (medscape.com)
  • [ 6-9 ] Global challenges include the fact that newer generation vaccines are often too expensive to be introduced in developing countries. (medscape.com)
  • The in-country challenges include uncertainty of local health officials with regard to when and how the vaccine should be introduced as well as how to evaluate the program. (medscape.com)
  • To address these challenges, the vaccine introduction program should develop epidemiological and laboratory methods to quickly assess the burden of the disease in the country. (medscape.com)
  • We provide a wide array of financial products and technical assistance, and we help countries share and apply innovative knowledge and solutions to the challenges they face. (worldbank.org)
  • Examines methods of adapting psychiatric assessment tools for use cross-culturally and presents challenges for developing interventions for use in low-resource contexts. (merlot.org)
  • The nutritional transition poses new challenges to nutritionists and public health experts who have spent decades battling undernutrition in poor countries. (prb.org)
  • Wasden and David Levy, MD, also a global healthcare leader for PwC, said mHealth is more of a disruptive force in developed nations because it challenges the status quo and forces providers and payers to accept that patients have more control of their healthcare choices. (healthcareitnews.com)
  • The RAND Corporation is a research organization that develops solutions to public policy challenges to help make communities throughout the world safer and more secure, healthier and more prosperous. (rand.org)
  • To ensure that these future leaders are well equipped for the challenges ahead, educators need appropriate and effective mechanisms to boost understanding of IP and ensure that its application mirrors the specific IP needs of individual countries. (wipo.int)
  • As of 2018, 10 or more countries are expected to be upgraded until 2024, with Bangladesh and Djibouti satisfying all criteria in 2018 already. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nepal was selected to be graduated to developing countries on 2018. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several factors have brought the debt issue to the forefront of the problems facing a number of countries, including the rapid rise in extenal debt in the recent past, changes in the composition of debt (toward a greater proportion owed to commercial banks) and the attendant deterioration in the terms of debt, and the rise in debt service resulting from these developments. (imf.org)
  • Debt relief and debt repayment obligations from official creditors (for developing countries) need be rediverted into financing the handling of COVID-19. (reuters.com)
  • Before the COVID-19 pandemic, low income countries already had the largest deficits, higher borrowing costs and more debt relative to government revenue than high-income countries. (ipsnews.net)
  • Renewable energy in developing countries TharunaPapari TEC 5970B Research Paper Summer 2014 Eastern Illinois University Abstract Renewable is which never runs out or infinitely available in nature. (bartleby.com)
  • In many developing countries, pro-market reforms have encouraged faster growth, diversification of exports, and more effective participation in the multilateral trading system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the late 1990s, developing countries tended to demonstrate higher growth rates than developed countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Given Toyota's success in developing markets, its global footprint and the growth characteristics of these markets, we believe this is a good focus for the company going forward. (forbes.com)
  • This joint study by the International Labour Office and the Secretariat of the World Trade Organization focuses on the relationship between trade and the growth of the informal economy in developing countries. (slideshare.net)
  • User penetration as a percent of a country's total population shows there is still room for growth as well - especially in developing countries. (searchengineland.com)
  • Since 1995, when Jeffrey Sachs and Andrew Warner published their influential study claiming that natural resource abundance has a strong negative impact on growth, the term "resource curse" has been associated with mineral wealth in developing countries. (worldbank.org)
  • An Afghan woman shops for shoes in Kabul (file photo) (AFP) December 13, 2006 (RFE/RL) -- Developing countries will be the major driving force behind global economic growth in the next 25 years. (rferl.org)
  • Rural Financial Markets in Developing Countries ," Center Discussion Papers 28458, Yale University, Economic Growth Center. (repec.org)
  • A new study of the global mHealth market finds that consumers and developing countries are driving its growth, while physicians are reluctant to adapt. (healthcareitnews.com)
  • GDP growth in developing countries-only recently expected to increase by 6.4 percent in 2009-is now likely to be only 4.5 percent, according to economists at the World Bank. (worldbank.org)
  • With every one percent decline in developing country growth rates, approximately 20 million more people are added to this rapidly swelling number. (worldbank.org)
  • A preview of the analysis for this year's Global Economic Prospects report, to be published December 9, 2008, shows that real GDP growth will slow down across all developing regions in 2009. (worldbank.org)
  • "The growing rates of overweight and obesity in developing countries are alarming," said the report's author, ODI Research Fellow Steve Wiggins. (rt.com)
  • The significant rise is obesity figures in the developing world can be attributed to the recent shift in diets, the study claims. (rt.com)
  • October 2005) In the developed world, obesity is an object of everyday conversation and mounting public concern. (prb.org)
  • The potential cost from obesity and overweight populations to poor countries is enormous. (prb.org)
  • Conditions including cardiovascular disease, cancer and obesity (previously a problem mostly in Western countries) are emerging as health risks as their populations' vocations, diets and lifestyles change, says Ronald de Jong, CEO of Emerging Markets for Philips Healthcare, a maker of imaging equipment that is sponsoring Radiology-Readiness and providing RAD-AID and Project HOPE with technical expertise. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The spread of obesity and type-2 diabetes could become epidemic in low-income countries, as more individuals are able to own higher priced items such as TVs, computers and cars. (eurekalert.org)
  • While Western countries are pushing the boundaries of scientific knowledge, discovering the potential of nanotechnology and other high-tech solutions to the developed world's diseases, like diabetes, cancer and obesity, poor countries are struggling to combat health problems such as HIV, malaria and TB. (cnn.com)
  • This has major implications for sites serving content to developing counties. (searchengineland.com)
  • In addition, investment in ad campaigns in South Korea and the large-scale training of women to prepare meals high in vegetable content and low in fat has improved nutrition in the country. (rt.com)
  • The automaker is also considering building a diesel plant in the country as an increasing number of people prefer to buy diesel variants as diesel is significantly cheaper than gasoline. (forbes.com)
  • Censuses are the keystone of national statistics - only with comprehensive knowledge of the number and distribution of people in a country, and the shares of children, youth, working-age people and older people, can effective policies be designed and monitored. (unece.org)
  • Ohorongo Cement, a Namibian company, set up its own training center to prepare people for jobs as control room operators-for whom there is high demand in the country. (bcg.com)
  • Recruiting involves creating sophisticated hiring strategies and developing an employer brand to increase the number of applicants and attract talented people. (bcg.com)
  • Unfortunately, due to the unaffordable cost of healthcare for many families in developing countries, fewer than 1 in 6 people have access to one. (dhl.com)
  • This U.S. based non-profit provides free wheelchairs to people with disabilities across the world, particularly in developing countries. (dhl.com)
  • He has been involved in distributing wheelchairs since 1996, helping more than 65,000 people in over 70 countries, from Central America to the Far East, to become mobile. (dhl.com)
  • In 2016, for example, Global Mobility provided over 2,100 free mobility aids to people in 10 countries. (dhl.com)
  • The number of obese people in the developing world has reached over 900 million, superseding rates in the developed world, a study has revealed. (rt.com)
  • The World Health Organization estimates that 120 million people are over-exposed to lead (approximately three times the number infected by HIV/AIDS) and 99% of the most severely affected are in the developing world. (redorbit.com)
  • People that live in developing countries often can't get enough to eat. (theecologist.org)
  • According to Nahle, by being overpopulated means that people in that country or that area consume too many limited resources, including natural objects like forest, facilities, or nonrenewable energy that would run out in the next few decades (2003). (ipl.org)
  • Because people move one country to another country that's why population is increasing day by day and crowd is enhancing. (ipl.org)
  • Furthermore, when immigrants move to another land then they also bring many diseases in the countries and this is very harmful for the host countries people. (ipl.org)
  • Although people are equipped about their career, they are not able to find a job in many countries and cities. (ipl.org)
  • Developing nations have a larger population with lower standards of living for the people. (bartleby.com)
  • It is particularly important for us not to lose sight of the fact that people have been around for a long time and that they achieved remarkable technical skills long before Western science was developed. (sciencemag.org)
  • And the total number of obese or overweight people is projected to grow by 50 percent in the next 10 years, primarily in poor countries. (prb.org)
  • The figure below shows the increases in rates of overweight people between 2002 and 2010 for selected countries representing a range of income levels. (prb.org)
  • These programs have given people at more than 6000 institutions in over 100 countries and territories in the developing world free or low cost access to more than 35,000 peer-reviewed international scientific journals, books and databases provided by the world's leading academic and professional publishers. (brill.com)
  • The trend toward lower adolescent birthrates and pregnancy rates over the past 25 years is widespread and is occurring across the industrialized world, suggesting that the reasons for this general trend are broader than factors limited to any one country: increased importance of education, increased motivation of young people to achieve higher levels of education and training, and greater centrality of goals other than motherhood and family formation for young women. (guttmacher.org)
  • SINGAPORE, Nov. 13 (Xinhua) -- China remains a developing country by any standard, and the Chinese people obtained their due wealth by hard work, Chinese Premier Li Keqiang said on Tuesday in Singapore. (xinhuanet.com)
  • Facebook even launched a lite app to keep people with poor connections online, so it's easy to see the network's appeal in developing nations. (adweek.com)
  • However, this terminology has been used to hide the exploitation and oppression of people in the so-called developing countries - exploitation by corporations headquartered in the developed countries, by dictators installed or supported by the U.S. government or its allies, or by the governments and militaries of the developing countries themselves. (encyclopedia.com)
  • However, people in developing countries typically do not voice concerns over privacy and security with biometric data, says Mark Thomas, the executive director of VaxTrac, a nonprofit that worked with the Benin trials. (technologyreview.com)
  • And in countries where no healthcare system exists, people are extremely vulnerable to diseases, which can spread rampantly and unchecked through communities. (cnn.com)
  • Wasn't it better that an aggressive brain drain did not bring Hassan Fathy to our land instead of him becoming Egypt's "people architect" to show poor Egyptian peasants how to build small homes from the soil beneath their feet and stimulate architectural counterparts in other developing countries? (opednews.com)
  • A quick glance at the annual report of the Ashoka Community of Fellows, founded by Bill Drayton, showcases the kind of skilled people from developing countries who became "change makers" because they remained in their own countries where they learned their many talents and refined their motivations. (opednews.com)
  • Angola was expected to graduate in 2021, but the preparatory period was extended by three years because of the economic difficulties of the country and its dependence on commodities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over the past seven years, China has drawn developing countries closer by offering rhetorical South-South partnerships and investing in them through the Belt and Road Initiative, Beijing's Marshall Plan-like economic and marketing campaign. (foreignpolicy.com)
  • All countries, irrespective of the economic status of its population and technological advances, have room for improving vaccine safety monitoring. (medscape.com)
  • The project, Assessing the Economic Contribution of Labour Migration in Developing Countries as Countries of Destination, aimed to provide empirical evidence - both quantitative and qualitative - on the multiple ways immigrants affect their host countries. (ilo.org)
  • In addition, we want to step up our economic diplomacy in the same countries. (regjeringen.no)
  • The statistics surrounding the economic environment in Nigeria are about on par with comparative countries in the developing Sub-Saharan region. (reference.com)
  • Because China is a developing country when it comes to logistics, it opens up a lot of revenue and business to foreigners and is rapidly expanding its economic health because of trade. (bartleby.com)
  • China, which is one of the developing countries, is said to be the next economic super power. (bartleby.com)
  • Many countries, however, lack qualified personnel with the knowledge and skills of the IP system required to transform these resources into valuable economic assets. (wipo.int)
  • It does not provide quantitative information on research being carried out in international centres located in developing countries, or on the level of funding any individual technology receives. (scidev.net)
  • Over 50 correspondents from 54 countries contribute to the database, with articles about individual countries' policy frameworks, research institutes and biosafety regulations. (scidev.net)
  • On behalf of the U of T research community, congratulations to these global health experts," said Professor Paul Young , vice president, research and innovation at U of T. "We are thrilled that these scientists are contributing to the global fight to improve health and health care in developing countries. (utoronto.ca)
  • In this Policy Research Talk, World Bank economist Jevgenijs Steinbuks will present key insights from recent studies of electricity access and reliability in developing countries. (worldbank.org)
  • Most research into Autism Spectrum Disorders has been conducted in affluent English-speaking countries which have extensive professional support services. (hindawi.com)
  • Past research on children with ASD and the effects on parents of having a child with ASD has been limited largely to families in western countries [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Hence indigenous research is needed to identify the particular needs of families in nonwestern countries and how information and supports can be better tailored to their needs and be respectful of their cultures. (hindawi.com)
  • The findings from a series of research studies undertaken by the authors are summarised and comparisons are made with the results reported in similar studies undertaken in other countries. (hindawi.com)
  • They are also being trialled with other partners in several countries, highlighting the international engagement with this research and clear potential for further impact. (york.ac.uk)
  • GOALI (Global Online Access to Legal Information) provides free or low cost online access to legal research and training in the developing world. (brill.com)
  • Lear headed an international research team that analyzed data on more than 150,000 adults from 17 countries, ranging from high and middle income to low-income nations. (eurekalert.org)
  • With campuses in Vancouver, Burnaby and Surrey, B.C., SFU engages actively with the community in its research and teaching, delivers almost 150 programs to more than 30,000 students, and has more than 125,000 alumni in 130 countries. (eurekalert.org)
  • Representatives from 42 countries participated in an international event to address this topic at the WIPO International Symposium on Intellectual Property Education and Research held in Geneva on June 30 and July 1. (wipo.int)
  • The cooperation between academic institutions and different stakeholders - for example private enterprise and government agencies - will also have to be developed and expanded since there is a growing need for an interdisciplinary approach to IP research capacity. (wipo.int)
  • However, it is observed in many developing countries, (in spite of considerable effort by national authorities, financing organizations and technical assistance), that the intensive pig farming sector is stagnant, whereas, often forgotten traditional sector has a tendency to progress. (fao.org)
  • Extractives specialists Gary McMahon and Susana Moreira find that many, indeed most, of the world's fastest-growing countries since 2000 have been resource-rich. (worldbank.org)
  • Introducing new vaccines into a country's immunization schedule is challenging, particularly in developing countries. (medscape.com)
  • Brazilian President Lula da Silva has said that all his country's efforts and exports are useless "if the rich countries continue to preach free trade on one side and practise protectionism on the other side. (cato.org)
  • The term "Global South" is used by some as an alternative term to developing countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Major global vaccine manufacturers tailor their selection of vaccines to the needs of the developed world. (medscape.com)
  • Developing countries are likely to grow from about a fifth of the global economy to a third of the global economy, depending on how you measure it,' said Richard Newfarmer, the report's lead authoer. (rferl.org)
  • A recent World Bank report concluded that 24 developing countries with a total population of 3 billion are integrating into the global economy more than ever. (cato.org)
  • Caldeira and lead author Steven Davis, also at Carnegie, used published trade data from 2004 to create a global model of the flow of products across 57 industry sectors and 113 countries or regions. (eurekalert.org)
  • To provide the correct wheelchairs, Global Mobility partners with hospitals and rehabilitation centers in developing countries to assess the special needs of their region. (dhl.com)
  • The Global Agriculture & Food Security Program expects to help provide new, improved or rehabilitated irrigation and drainage services on 44,415 hectares of land in 12 countries. (theecologist.org)
  • JAKARTA (Reuters) - Indonesian President Joko Widodo called on Monday for "equal access" for developing countries to medicine to treat the new coronavirus, as global cases pass three million. (reuters.com)
  • As business activities become international and most recently global, and geographical borders between countries vanish, there are closer and more frequent interactions among organizations, firms, industries and institutions both within and between countries. (fgv.br)
  • Therefore, understanding how organizations in different countries adapt, resist and generally manage themselves may be one of the key success factors for global business activities in the new century. (fgv.br)
  • We believe that operating on a global scale requires that we also give something back to the academic community, particularly in developing countries. (brill.com)
  • Climate change is a global issue that brings together government, utilities, non-governmental organizations, sophisticated cities, and developing countries," said Esri president Jack Dangermond. (esri.com)
  • Several vaccines that were previously used both in developed and developing countries are being replaced with newer generation vaccines in the developed world (e.g., whole-cell pertussis vaccine being replaced by acellular pertussis vaccine) but continue to be used in developing countries due to their low cost. (medscape.com)
  • Meanwhile, rich countries have secured many times more vaccines than they need. (ipsnews.net)
  • We are currently testing Facebook Lite in countries where we are seeing lots of new users coming to Facebook for the first time, and are looking to start off with a more simple experience," Facebook said. (theregister.co.uk)
  • Users in developing countries are able to get mobile devices with Facebook as the sole app, and Facebook access is included in the data plan at no extra charge. (adweek.com)
  • Interestingly, there seems to be a disparity in some developing countries between internet users and Facebook users. (adweek.com)
  • Mirani notes that many service providers in developing countries offer cheaper Facebook specific data plans because of consumer demand. (adweek.com)
  • This article examines levels of adolescent childbearing, abortion and pregnancy in developed countries in the mid-1990s, as well as trends over recent decades. (guttmacher.org)
  • Poor countries' tax bases have narrowed since the 1990s , with Sub‐Saharan African countries suffering the highest revenue losses as a share of national incomes. (ipsnews.net)
  • This figure has more than tripled since 1980 in underdeveloped countries, while in wealthier nations the rate has grown by 1.7 times, the report says. (rt.com)
  • Rich country resistance to the developing countries' request for a TRIPS waiver , vaccine imperialism and the flawed COVAX arrangements are deepening the crisis in poor countries as most remain far behind in the vaccine queue. (ipsnews.net)
  • The experience in countries with long-standing immunization programs tells us that, as vaccine-preventable diseases are brought under control and memories fade, public attention will shift to vaccine safety. (medscape.com)
  • Diarrheal diseases are major causes of morbidity, with attack rates ranging from two to 12 or more illnesses per person per year in developed and developing countries. (nih.gov)
  • Many poor countries also find their health budgets already stretched thin as they try to address primary health care needs and infectious diseases. (prb.org)
  • Her first-hand experience of the divide between the healthcare available in richer countries, and that on offer in poorer ones, has given her the impetus to try and narrow the gap. (cnn.com)
  • We review available information on zoonotic TB in developing countries, analyze risk factors that may play a role in the disease, review recent WHO activities, and recommend actions to assess the magnitude of the problem and control the disease in humans and animals. (nih.gov)
  • Our idea is to develop new technology for detecting TB via direct liquid microculture that is cheap, easy to use, and able to assess resistance to many drugs at once. (utoronto.ca)
  • This study aims to assess the effectiveness of developing countries' national control mechanisms in overseeing budget support. (europa.eu)
  • 12 days from the start of the UN's 21st Conference of the Parties on climate change (COP21) in Paris, a group of developed countries has taken a big step towards ending coal subsidies. (euractiv.com)
  • Climate change adds another challenge to developing countries that are already struggling with issues like poverty and conflict," Cummens said. (esri.com)
  • We chart the progress and impact of bacterial resistance to antimicrobial drugs in the developing world. (bmj.com)
  • But the agreement, hammered out this Wednesday (18 November) despite the resistance of certain countries like South Korea and Australia, contains a barrage of exceptions. (euractiv.com)
  • The 48-page report, based on two separate surveys conducted by the Economist Intelligence Unit and analyzing 10 nations, indicates developing nations are quicker to accept and adopt telehealth because it's seen as a way to increase access to healthcare, while developed nations like the United States are being dogged down by regulatory hurdles and a resistance to change among providers. (healthcareitnews.com)
  • In common practice, Japan in Asia, Canada and the United States in northern America, Australia and New Zealand in Oceania, and Europe are considered "developed" regions or areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • and countries of eastern Europe and of the Commonwealth of Independent States [the former Soviet Union] in Europe are not included under either developed or developing regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surveillance should document the burden of the disease in countries and regions in sufficient detail to allow local health officials to make informed decisions about the need of the vaccine. (medscape.com)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that human tuberculosis (TB) incidence and deaths for 1990 to 1999 will be 88 million and 30 million, respectively, with most cases in developing countries. (nih.gov)
  • The first country to graduate from LDC status was Botswana in 1994. (wikipedia.org)
  • North (1994) and Olson (1992) claim that successful national business systems of industrialized countries may not be successful in other parts of the world. (fgv.br)
  • There is a need to collect information from various vaccine introduction projects in the developing countries. (medscape.com)
  • Paris (AFP) - The production of goods for consumers in rich nations leaves a deep footprint in the form of potentially-dangerous nitrogen pollution in developing countries, a study said Monday. (yahoo.com)
  • A study in the journal Nature Geoscience said many developed nations had a sky-high nitrogen pollution "footprint" -- much of it left far away in the developing world. (yahoo.com)
  • The study flags some countries as exemplary in the push to change eating habits. (rt.com)
  • Documenting the hazards of lead battery manufacturing and recycling operations in emerging markets, a study in the September issue of the Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene reports that children living near these facilities in developing countries had approximately 13 times more lead in their blood than American children. (redorbit.com)
  • Children and workers in developing countries face significant risks of lead poisoning, which can cause lifelong health problems," said Perry Gottesfeld, executive director of Occupational Knowledge International (OK International) and author of the study. (redorbit.com)
  • This is why DCs, as one of the well-known clusters of non-industrialized countries, are used in this study. (fgv.br)
  • Years ago I had some limited success with The United States: A Study of a Developing Country . (jpost.com)
  • The BCG might still be highly useful in tropical country according to its newborn vaccination recommendation. (bmj.com)
  • Developing countries overstate vaccination coverage. (who.int)
  • Billions of dollars a year are spent vaccinating children in developing countries, but about half as many immunizations are administered as could be because of unreliable vaccination records. (technologyreview.com)
  • However, the report goes on to warn that the gap between rich and poor could widen in many countries. (rferl.org)
  • In 1995, the EU and the U.S. promised to abolish all quotas that restricted exports of textiles and clothing from poor countries could sell. (cato.org)
  • Some of the same is happening today and many poor countries feel betrayed. (cato.org)
  • According to polls, globalization and trade are popular with the world's poor, but the rich countries and their policies are unpopular. (cato.org)
  • Add poor management of what is collected to that, and these countries consistently fail to deliver necessary public goods and services, let alone ensure fiscal sustainability. (irishexaminer.com)
  • Another loophole makes allowances for subsidies to small "subcritical" power stations in poor developing countries. (euractiv.com)
  • By adopting these regulations, we can be assured that developing and emerging countries don't become the dumping grounds for incandescents and halogens, or poor-quality LED bulbs. (nrdc.org)
  • These developments promise to widen the health disparities between rich and poor and further burden already overwhelmed health care systems in the developing world. (prb.org)
  • Why Are Increasing Numbers in Poor Countries Becoming Obese? (prb.org)
  • 9 But such interventions have not yet been implemented widely or evaluated, and it will be challenging to integrate such steps into the well-entrenched system of programs to address undernutrition in poor countries. (prb.org)
  • Without these key workers, it is questionable whether healthcare in poor countries can be improved. (cnn.com)
  • It is based on data of more than 10.000 SMEs in 6 countries. (ilo.org)
  • Census Recommendations developed at UNECE call for countries to gather data on a core set of variables and provide detailed guidelines for definitions and classifications to ensure comparability across countries. (unece.org)
  • I agree to Inhabitat's Terms of Use , Privacy Policy , and to the Cookie Policy described therein, and I also consent to the collection, storage, and processing of my data in the United States, where data protection laws may be different from those in my country. (inhabitat.com)
  • Impact of Information Technology in the Developing Countries Information technology is the use of different systems to store, transfer and retrieve data for meaningful purposes. (bartleby.com)
  • Trend data on adolescent birthrates were compiled for 46 countries over the period 1970-1995. (guttmacher.org)
  • Abortion rates for a recent year were available for 33 of the 46 countries, and data on trends in abortion rates could be gathered for 25 of the 46 countries. (guttmacher.org)
  • Classification of any given country differs across sources, and sometimes these classifications or the specific terminology used is considered disparaging. (wikipedia.org)