Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.
The isotopic compound of hydrogen of mass 2 (deuterium) with oxygen. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed) It is used to study mechanisms and rates of chemical or nuclear reactions, as well as biological processes.
A research technique to measure solvent exposed regions of molecules that is used to provide insight about PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Methods for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of an indicator, such as a dye, radionuclide, or chilled liquid, into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Atomic species differing in mass number but having the same atomic number. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.
Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
An anti-infective agent most commonly used in the treatment of urinary tract infections. Its anti-infective action derives from the slow release of formaldehyde by hydrolysis at acidic pH. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p173)
The two types of spaces between which water and other body fluids are distributed: extracellular and intracellular.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
A subclass of group I phospholipases A2 that includes enzymes isolated from ELAPID VENOMS.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.
Formed from pig pepsinogen by cleavage of one peptide bond. The enzyme is a single polypeptide chain and is inhibited by methyl 2-diaazoacetamidohexanoate. It cleaves peptides preferentially at the carbonyl linkages of phenylalanine or leucine and acts as the principal digestive enzyme of gastric juice.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Analysis based on the mathematical function first formulated by Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier in 1807. The function, known as the Fourier transform, describes the sinusoidal pattern of any fluctuating pattern in the physical world in terms of its amplitude and its phase. It has broad applications in biomedicine, e.g., analysis of the x-ray crystallography data pivotal in identifying the double helical nature of DNA and in analysis of other molecules, including viruses, and the modified back-projection algorithm universally used in computerized tomography imaging, etc. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
Synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers to study biological membranes. It is also a major constituent of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The scattering of NEUTRONS by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. It is useful in CRYSTALLOGRAPHY and POWDER DIFFRACTION.
The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. This subclass contains the DECARBOXYLASES, the ALDEHYDE-LYASES, and the OXO-ACID-LYASES. EC 4.1.
Electrically neutral elementary particles found in all atomic nuclei except light hydrogen; the mass is equal to that of the proton and electron combined and they are unstable when isolated from the nucleus, undergoing beta decay. Slow, thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons refer to the energy levels with which the neutrons are ejected from heavier nuclei during their decay.
Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.

UV irradiation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ices: production of alcohols, quinones, and ethers. (1/2037)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water ice were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation under astrophysical conditions, and the products were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Peripheral carbon atoms were oxidized, producing aromatic alcohols, ketones, and ethers, and reduced, producing partially hydrogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, molecules that account for the interstellar 3.4-micrometer emission feature. These classes of compounds are all present in carbonaceous meteorites. Hydrogen and deuterium atoms exchange readily between the PAHs and the ice, which may explain the deuterium enrichments found in certain meteoritic molecules. This work has important implications for extraterrestrial organics in biogenesis.  (+info)

Influence of vesicular storage and monoamine oxidase activity on [11C]phenylephrine kinetics: studies in isolated rat heart. (2/2037)

[11C]Phenylephrine (PHEN) is a radiolabeled analogue of norepinephrine that is transported into cardiac sympathetic nerve varicosities by the neuronal norepinephrine transporter and taken up into storage vesicles localized within the nerve varicosities by the vesicular monoamine transporter. PHEN is structurally related to two previously developed sympathetic nerve markers: [11C]-meta-hydroxyephedrine and [11C]epinephrine. To better characterize the neuronal handling of PHEN, particularly its sensitivity to neuronal monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity, kinetic studies in an isolated working rat heart system were performed. METHODS: Radiotracer was administered to the isolated working heart as a 10-min constant infusion followed by a 110-min washout period. Two distinctly different approaches were used to assess the sensitivity of the kinetics of PHEN to MAO activity. In the first approach, oxidation of PHEN by MAO was inhibited at the enzymatic level with the MAO inhibitor pargyline. In the second approach, the two hydrogen atoms on the a-carbon of the side chain of PHEN were replaced with deuterium atoms ([11C](-)-alpha-alpha-dideutero-phenylephrine [D2-PHEN]) to inhibit MAO activity at the tracer level. The importance of vesicular uptake on the kinetics of PHEN and D2-PHEN was assessed by inhibiting vesicular monoamine transporter-mediated storage into vesicles with reserpine. RESULTS: Under control conditions, PHEN initially accumulated into the heart at a rate of 0.72+/-0.15 mL/min/g wet. Inhibition of MAO activity with either pargyline or di-deuterium substitution did not significantly alter this rate. However, MAO inhibition did significantly slow the clearance of radioactivity from the heart during the washout phase of the study. Blocking vesicular uptake with reserpine reduced the initial uptake rates of PHEN and D2-PHEN, as well as greatly accelerated the clearance of radioactivity from the heart during washout. CONCLUSION: These studies indicate that PHEN kinetics are sensitive to neuronal MAO activity. Under normal conditions, efficient vesicular storage of PHEN serves to protect the tracer from rapid metabolism by neuronal MAO. However, it is likely that leakage of PHEN from the storage vesicles and subsequent metabolism by MAO lead to an appreciable clearance of radioactivity from the heart.  (+info)

Solid-state NMR and hydrogen-deuterium exchange in a bilayer-solubilized peptide: structural and mechanistic implications. (3/2037)

Hydrogen-deuterium exchange has been monitored by solid-state NMR to investigate the structure of gramicidin M in a lipid bilayer and to investigate the mechanisms for polypeptide insertion into a lipid bilayer. Through exchange it is possible to observe 15N-2H dipolar interactions in oriented samples that yield precise structural constraints. In separate experiments the pulse sequence SFAM was used to measure dipolar distances in this structure, showing that the dimer is antiparallel. The combined use of orientational and distance constraints is shown to be a powerful structural approach. By monitoring the hydrogen-deuterium exchange at different stages in the insertion of peptides into a bilayer environment it is shown that dimeric gramicidin is inserted into the bilayer intact, i.e., without separating into monomer units. The exchange mechanism is investigated for various sites and support for a relayed imidic acid mechanism is presented. Both acid and base catalyzed mechanisms may be operable. The nonexchangeable sites clearly define a central core to which water is inaccessible or hydroxide or hydronium ion is not even momentarily stable. This provides strong evidence that this is a nonconducting state.  (+info)

Low C18 to C20 fatty acid elongase activity and limited conversion of stearidonic acid, 18:4(n-3), to eicosapentaenoic acid, 20:5(n-3), in a cell line from the turbot, Scophthalmus maximus. (4/2037)

The TF cell line, derived from a top predatory, carnivorous marine teleost, the turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), is known to have a limited conversion of C18 to C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). To illuminate the underlying processes, we studied the conversions of stearidonic acid, 18:4(n-3), and its elongation product, 20:4(n-3), in TF cells and also in a cell line, AS, derived from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), by adding unlabelled (25 microM), U-14C (1 microM) or deuterated (d5; 25 microM) fatty acids. Stearidonic acid, 18:4(n-3), was metabolised to 20:5(n-3) in both cells lines, but more so in AS than in TF cells. Delta5 desaturation was more active in TF cells than in AS cells, whereas C18 to C20 elongation was much reduced in TF as compared to AS cells. Only small amounts of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6(n-3)) were produced by both cell lines, although there was significant production of 22:5(n-3) in both cultures, especially when 20:4(n-3) was supplemented. We conclude that limited elongation of C18 to C20 fatty acids rather than limited fatty acyl Delta5 desaturation accounts for the limited rate of conversion of 18:3(n-3) to 20:5(n-3) in the turbot cell line, as compared to the Atlantic salmon cell line. The results can account for the known differences in conversions of C18 to C20 PUFA by the turbot and the Atlantic salmon in vivo.  (+info)

Chronic protein undernutrition and an acute inflammatory stimulus elicit different protein kinetic responses in plasma but not in muscle of piglets. (5/2037)

The changes in protein metabolism of severe childhood malnutrition are generally perceived as a metabolic adaptation to chronic protein undernutrition. However, severe malnutrition is invariably accompanied by infections which also have profound effects on protein metabolism. This study aimed to distinguish the effect of protein undernutrition from that of an inflammatory stimulus on muscle and plasma protein synthesis rates. Two groups of five piglets consumed diets containing either 23% or 3% protein for 4 wk. They then were infused intravenously with 2H3-leucine before and 48 h after subcutaneous injections of turpentine to measure the fractional synthesis rates (FSR) of muscle protein and both the FSR and the absolute synthesis rates (ASR) of albumin and fibrinogen. Prior to turpentine injection, compared to control piglets, protein-deficient piglets had significantly lower muscle FSR and plasma concentrations of both albumin and fibrinogen, although only albumin had lower FSR and ASR. Turpentine injection decreased muscle FSR but increased the FSR, ASR and plasma concentrations of both albumin and fibrinogen in control piglets. In protein-deficient piglets, the inflammatory stress caused a further decrease in muscle protein FSR and in plasma albumin concentration despite marked increases in albumin FSR and ASR. Fibrinogen FSR, ASR and plasma concentration were increased. We conclude that protein undernutrition and inflammation elicit the same kinetic response in muscle protein but different kinetic responses in plasma proteins. Furthermore, whereas protein deficiency reduces the plasma albumin pool via a reduction in albumin synthesis, inflammation reduces it through a stimulation of catabolism and/or loss from the intravascular space.  (+info)

Lignocellulose degradation by Phanerochaete chrysosporium: purification and characterization of the main alpha-galactosidase. (6/2037)

The main alpha-galactosidase was purified to homogeneity, in 30% yield, from a solid culture of Phanerochaete chrysosporium on 1 part wheat bran/2 parts thermomechanical softwood pulp. It is a glycosylated tetramer of 50 kDa peptide chains, which gives the N-terminal sequence ADNGLAITPQMG(?W)NT(?W)NHFG(?W)DIS(?W)DTI. It is remarkably stable, with crude extracts losing no activity over 3 h at 80 degrees C, and the purified enzyme retaining its activity over several months at 4 degrees C. The kinetics of hydrolysis at 25 degrees C of various substrates by this retaining enzyme were measured, absolute parameters being obtained by active-site titration with 2',4',6'-trinitrophenyl 2-deoxy-2, 2-difluoro-alpha-D-galactopyranoside. The variation of kcat/Km for 1-naphthyl-alpha-D-galactopyranoside with pH is bell-shaped, with pK1=1.91 and pK2=5.54. The alphaD(V/K) value for p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside is 1.031+/-0.007 at the optimal pH of 3.75 and 1.114+/-0.006 at pH7.00, indicating masking of the intrinsic effect at optimal pH. There is no alpha-2H effect on binding galactose [alphaD(Ki)=0.994+/-0.013]. The enzyme hydrolyses p-nitrophenyl beta-L-arabinopyranoside approximately 510 times slower than the galactoside, but has no detectable activity on the alpha-D-glucopyranoside or alpha-D-mannopyranoside. Hydrolysis of alpha-galactosides with poor leaving groups is Michaelian, but that of substrates with good leaving groups exhibits pronounced apparent substrate inhibition, with Kis values similar to Km values. We attribute this to the binding of the second substrate molecule to a beta-galactopyranosyl-enzyme intermediate, forming an E.betaGal. alphaGalX complex which turns over slowly, if at all. 1-Fluoro-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl fluoride, unlike alpha-D-galactopyranosyl fluoride, is a Michaelian substrate, indicating that the effect of 1-fluorine substitution is greater on the first than on the second step of the enzyme reaction.  (+info)

Denatured states of human carbonic anhydrase II: an NMR study of hydrogen/deuterium exchange at tryptophan-indole-H(N) sites. (7/2037)

Hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange measurements in low and moderate concentrations of GuHCI were conducted on the side chain H(N) atoms of the seven tryptophans of pseudo wild-type human carbonic anhydrase II. Tryptophans 5, 16 and 245, situated in or close to the N-terminal domain were found to have little protection against exchange. The H/D exchange results for Trp-123, Trp-192 and Trp-209 showed that a previously identified molten globule and the native state gave a similar protection against exchange. Global unfolding of the protein is necessary for the efficient exchange at Trp-97, which is located in the central part of the beta-sheet.  (+info)

Transfer of the 1-pro-R and the 1-pro-S hydrogen atoms of ethanol in metabolic reductions in vivo. (8/2037)

The transfer of deuterium from [1 R-2H]ethanol and [1 S-2H]-ethanol to reduced metabolites of administered compounds was measured in female rats provided with bile fistulas. Administered cyclohexanone was reduced to cyclohexanol, and in this reduction hydrogen was transferred only from the 1-pro-R position of the ethanol. The deuterium content in the cyclohexanol was about 67% of that in the ethanol. In the reduction of the 17-oxo group in 3beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androstan-17-one, hydrogen was transferred both from the 1-pro-R position and the 1-pro-S position, resulting in degrees of labelling that were about 25% and 2%, respectively, of those in the specific positions of the ethanols. The 1-pro-R and 1-pro-S positions of ethanol contributed about 9% and 5%, respectively, of the 3beta hydrogen in lithocholic acid formed from 3-oxo-5beta-cholanoic acid. The results indicate that alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase do not share a common pool of NAD, and that NADH formed during acetaldehyde oxidation is utilized for reductions in the cytosol to a smaller extent than the NADH formed in the alcohol dehydrogenase reaction. This result supports the concept that aldehyde oxidation is mainly an intramitochondrial process. The relatively extensive utilization of the 1-pro-S hydrogen of ethanol in the reduction of 3-oxo-5beta-cholanoic acid, that is probably NADPH-dependent, indicates that cytosolic NADPH may be produced from malate or isocitrate formed intramitochondrially.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Rate constants and kinetic deuterium isotope effects for hydrogen atom abstraction from phenols by polyvinyl acetate radical. AU - Simonyi, Miklós. AU - Fitos, Ilona. AU - Kardos, Julianna. AU - Lukovits, István. AU - Pospišil, Jan. PY - 1975/1/1. Y1 - 1975/1/1. N2 - The primary kinetic deuterium isotope effect (PKIE) for the hydrogen atom abstraction from substituted phenols by polyvinyl acetate radical shows a large variation, and shows a maximum as a function of the reactivity of the compounds; the high values of PKIE may be attributed to tunnelling.. AB - The primary kinetic deuterium isotope effect (PKIE) for the hydrogen atom abstraction from substituted phenols by polyvinyl acetate radical shows a large variation, and shows a maximum as a function of the reactivity of the compounds; the high values of PKIE may be attributed to tunnelling.. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=37049127504&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - ...
Deuterium isotope effects on 13C-NMR chemical shifts are investigated in a series of 10-hydroxybenzo[h]quinolines (HBQs) The OH proton is deuteriated. The isotope effects on 13C chemical shifts in these hydrogen bonded systems are rather unusual. The formal four-bond effects are found to be negative, indicating transmission via the hydrogen bond. In addition unusual long-range effects are seen. Structures, NMR chemical shifts and changes in nuclear shieldings upon deuteriation are calculated using DFT methods. Two-bond deuterium isotope effects on 13C chemical shifts are correlated with calculated OH stretching frequencies. Isotope effects on chemical shifts are calculated for systems with OH exchanged by OD. Hydrogen bond potentials are discussed. New and more soluble nitro derivatives are synthesized.
Deuterium isotope effects on 13C-NMR chemical shifts are investigated in a series of 10-hydroxybenzo[h]quinolines (HBQs) The OH proton is deuteriated. The isotope effects on 13C chemical shifts in these hydrogen bonded systems are rather unusual. The formal four-bond effects are found to be negative, indicating transmission via the hydrogen bond. In addition unusual long-range effects are seen. Structures, NMR chemical shifts and changes in nuclear shieldings upon deuteriation are calculated using DFT methods. Two-bond deuterium isotope effects on 13C chemical shifts are correlated with calculated OH stretching frequencies. Isotope effects on chemical shifts are calculated for systems with OH exchanged by OD. Hydrogen bond potentials are discussed. New and more soluble nitro derivatives are synthesized ...
Keywords: ab initio calculations ; cycloaddition ; heterocycles ; isotope effects ; sulfur dioxide ; Transition-state structure ; cheletropic additions ; pi-pi ; mechanisms ; competition ; acid ; stereoselectivity ; regioselectivity ; cycloadditions ; 1 ; 3-dienes ; cycloadditions. Note: Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Inst Mol & Biol Chem, BCH, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland. Univ Oviedo, Dept Quim Fis & Analit, Lab Quim Computac, E-33071 Oviedo, Principado Astu, Spain.. ...
A deuterium isotope effect of 1.4 is observed in the excited-state proton or atom transfer of hypocrellin A in methanol and methanol-O-d. This is the most direct and convincing evidence to date that excited-state intramolecular proton or atom transfer occurs in hypocrellin. It is consistent with previous proposals (e.g., Chem. Rev. 1996, 96, 523) that such excited-state intramolecular processes occur generally in the class of polycyclic quinones possessing light-induced antiviral activity, of which hypocrellin and the related compound hypericin are members. The transfer reaction in these compounds is discussed in terms of being in the adiabatic limit in the proton stretch coordinate. We discuss the possibility of presenting a unified picture of the hypericin and hypocrellin photophysics.
Deuterium NMR is NMR spectroscopy of deuterium (2D), an isotope of hydrogen. Deuterium is an isotope with spin = 1, unlike hydrogen which is spin = 1/2. Deuterium NMR has a range of chemical shift similar to proton NMR but with poor resolution. It may be used to verify the effectiveness of deuteration: a deuterated compound will show a peak in deuterium NMR but not proton NMR.[1] Deuterium NMR spectra are especially informative in the solid state because of its relatively small quadrupole moment in comparison with those of bigger quadrupolar nuclei such as chlorine-35, for example.[citation needed] ...
Thermal isomerizations of cis,cis-1,3,5-octatriene at 60-111°C occur with activation parameters log A = 9.1 and Ea = 21.3 (to cis,cis,cis-2,4,6-octatriene) and Ea = 20.2 kcal mol-1 (to cis,cis,trans-2,4,6-octatriene). Primary deuterium kinetic isotope effects for these [1,7] sigmatropic shifts are found to be 6.4-7.7 and not markedly temperature dependent, indicative of a linear or nearly linear C7-H-C1 geometry in the transition-state structure.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Highly enantioselective synthesis induced by chiral primary alcohols due to deuterium substitution [8]. AU - Sato, I.. AU - Omiya, D.. AU - Saito, T.. AU - Soai, K.. PY - 2000/11/29. Y1 - 2000/11/29. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0034731029&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0034731029&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1021/ja002992e. DO - 10.1021/ja002992e. M3 - Letter. AN - SCOPUS:0034731029. VL - 122. SP - 11739. EP - 11740. JO - Journal of the American Chemical Society. JF - Journal of the American Chemical Society. SN - 0002-7863. IS - 47. ER - ...
Departments of Pharmacokinetics Dynamics and Metabolism (R.S., T.J.S., H.G., A.J.C., R.S.O., S.L.R., D.K.S., L.M.T., A.D.N.V.) and Pharmaceutical Sciences (K.S.), Pfizer Global Research and Development, Groton, ...
Scientists have found a new method to strategically add deuterium to benzene, an aromatic compound commonly found in crude oil. When applied to the active ingredient of drugs to incorporate deuterium, it could dramatically improve the drugs efficacy and safety and even introduce new medicines.. To validate the method, which was published in Nature, a team led by W. Dean Harman of the University of Virginia worked with Xiaoping Wang at the Oak Ridge National Laboratorys Spallation Neutron Source. Wang successfully verified the exact position of deuterium atoms that resulted from the selective deuteration of benzene molecules using single crystal neutron diffraction.. Because the high sensitivity of neutrons to hydrogen and its deuterium isotope, we were able to quantitatively assign not only the positions of the deuterium atoms at the atomic level, but also determine precisely how many were added on each side of the benzene molecule, Wang said. This is important in designing new therapeutic ...
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The asymmetry in the deuterium reflectivity with P (Fig. 4) is likely explained by the effects of thermal conduction. The observed reflectivity signal emanates from the deuterium/LiF interface, within a few hundred angstrom optical depth (18). Hydrodynamic simulations of the experimental configuration indicate a ΔT between the bulk deuterium and LiF of between 800 and 1400 K, depending on the experiment; deuterium is considerably more compressible than LiF, resulting in a much higher T with compression (fig. S15). Because both the molecular fluid and the LiF are poor thermal conductors, the interface T before metallization will be somewhere near the average T of the bulk deuterium and LiF, and a thermal gradient in the deuterium of several hundred K will develop. Upon metallization, the thermal conductivity of the atomic fluid will increase by roughly two orders of magnitude (as determined by vdW-DF2), and the thermal gradient will rapidly diminish as the entire deuterium sample approaches the ...
Deuterium is an isotope of hydrogen, the first element. Deuterium has one proton and one neutron. Hydrogen does not have a neutron, only a proton. Another isotope of hydrogen, tritium, has two neutrons. The chemical symbol for Deuterium is 2H but D is also used often. Two deuterium atoms combined with an oxygen atom is sometimes called heavy water. This is because it is like water (H2O), but heavier because deuterium has one more neutron in its nucleus. Heavy water is sometimes used in nuclear reactors. It is also used as a solvent for NMR spectroscopy. This is because it will dissolve the sample, like normal water, but it will not be detected by the magnet in an 1H NMR. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Deuterium and carbon-13 kinetic isotope effects for the reaction of OH with CH4. AU - Melissas, Vasilios S.. AU - Truhlar, Donald G.. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - Interpolated variational transition state theory calculations with centrifugal-dominant, small-curvature tunneling coefficients have been carried out for the case of the deuterium kinetic isotope effect (KIE) in the reaction OH + 12CD4 → HDO+12CD3 and for the 13C KIE for the reaction OH + 13CH4 → H2O + 13CH3. The interpolated variationally optimized generalized transition states predict notably different nontunneling KIEs than the conventional ones, and factorization analyses of the KIEs are presented to illustrate the origin of the differences. The zero-point energies at the variational transition states differ from those at the saddle point by up to 0.19 kcal/mol for the OH + 12CD4 reaction and by up to 0.34 kcal/mol for the OH + 12CH4 reaction. The incorporation of multidimensional tunneling effects partly ...
article{2cb5d1fd-a9b2-4971-a2e2-242f5f3c8278, abstract = {We present a first time-resolved deuterium NMR study on wormlike,br/,,br, micelles under shear. For the investigation, a micellar system made of,br/,,br, soybean phosphatidylcholine (lecithin), D2O, and cyclohexane was,br/,,br, studied in the concentrated regime, in the vicinity of the,br/,,br, isotropic/nematic transition but positioned in the equilibrium,br/,,br, isotropic phase. The D2O dispersed in the micellar core was used as a,br/,,br, probe to study the relaxation of a shearing-induced nematic phase back,br/,,br, to the isotropic liquid state, after cessation of shear. The whole,br/,,br, process was followed through time-resolved deuterium spectra and was,br/,,br, characterized by a continuous decrease of the measured quadrupolar,br/,,br, splitting, proportional to the nematic order parameter.}, author = {Angelico, R and Burgemeister, D and Ceglie, A and Olsson, Ulf and Palazzo, G and Schmidt, C}, issn = {1520-5207}, language = ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Possibility of separation of deuterium from natural hydrogen by a palladium particle bed. AU - Fukada, Satoshi. AU - Fujiwara, Hiroshi. PY - 1999/12/1. Y1 - 1999/12/1. N2 - Deuterium in natural hydrogen can be successfully concentrated by means of frontal chromatography using a Pd particle bed at room temperature. The deuterium concentration at the outlet reaches a maximum immediately after hydrogen breaks through the bed. The outlet concentration curve is correlated to a unified profile based on the plate model regardless of the gaseous flow rate and the inlet deuterium concentration. The height equivalent to a theoretical plate, HETP, decreases from 7.6 to 4.7 mm with an increase of the flow rate from 15 to 87 mL(NTP)/min.. AB - Deuterium in natural hydrogen can be successfully concentrated by means of frontal chromatography using a Pd particle bed at room temperature. The deuterium concentration at the outlet reaches a maximum immediately after hydrogen breaks through the bed. ...
Isotopic substitution can lead to changes in the values of equilibrium constants, especially if hydrogen is replaced by deuterium (or tritium).[16] This equilibrium isotope effect is analogous to the kinetic isotope effect on rate constants, and is primarily due to the change in zero-point vibrational energy of H-X bonds due to the change in mass upon isotopic substitution.[16] The zero-point energy is inversely proportional to the square root of the mass of the vibrating hydrogen atom, and will therefore be smaller for a D-X bond that for an H-X bond.. An example is a hydrogen atom abstraction reaction R + H-R ⇌ R-H + R with equilibrium constant KH, where R and R are organic radicals such that R forms a stronger bond to hydrogen than does R. The decrease in zero-point energy due to deuterium substitution will then be more important for R-H than for R-H, and R-D will be stabilized more than R-D, so that the equilibrium constant KD for R + D-R ⇌ R-D + R is greater than KH. This is ...
Deuterium fusion breakthrough: Triton is currently the strongest radiation source of energy 500 times - Sohu military channel map Z (Z machine). Pictures from the network of nuclear fusion research into a new stage. According to the U.S. science magazine online edition reported that in November 15th, the U.S. Department of energys Sandy National Laboratory in the days before the worlds strongest radiation source - the Z (Z machine) device opens the deuterium tritium - controlled nuclear fusion experiment. When the ratio of deuterium tritium in the future reaches 50: 50, it will produce the energy of the current maximum energy of 500 times. Controlled nuclear fusion, if successful, can almost make people out of the energy crisis. Raw materials: the hydrogen isotope deuterium required from seawater can be extracted, it is estimated that 1 liters of water extract in deuterium if fully participate in the fusion reaction, the energy released is equivalent to 300 liters of gasoline combustion ...
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Deuterium Coherent Fusion Questions:William asked: On page 68 of the second paper under papers in your blog you are discussingnuclear fusion of deuterium.The diagram labeled deuterium showsinteraction of one electron with one nuetron, but deuterium has twoneutrons.Does your theory predict any new experimental observationsthat havebeen verified?What does your theory say about dark energyand mass? It is always a pleasure answering questions and having the theory defend itself...:) I will do my part..|:)Lets see what Wikipedia tells us about Deuterium:
Table of Content 1. Chapter - Report Methodology 1.1. Research Process 1.2. Primary Research 1.3. Secondary Research 1.4. Market Size Estimates 1.5. Data Triangulation 1.6. Forecast Model 1.7. USPs of Report 1.8. Report Description 2. Chapter - Global Deuterium Market Overview: Qualitative Analysis 2.1. Market Introduction 2.2. Executive Summary 2.3. Global Deuterium Market Classification 2.4. Market Drivers 2.5. Market Restraints 2.6. Market Opportunity 2.7. Deuterium Market: Trends 2.8. Porters Five Forces Analysis 2.8.1. Bargaining Power of Suppliers 2.8.2. Bargaining Power of Consumers 2.8.3. Threat of New Entrants 2.8.4. Threat of Substitute Product and Services 2.8.5. Competitive Rivalry within the Industry 2.9. Market Attractiveness Analysis 2.9.1. Market Attractiveness Analysis by Segmentation 2.9.2. Market Attractiveness Analysis by Region 3. Chapter - Global Deuterium Market Overview: Quantitative Analysis 3.1. Global Deuterium Market Revenue (USD Million), Market Share (%) and ...
Protium/deuterium fractionation factors have been widely used to study the strength and geometry of hydrogen bonds in proteins. These studies have shown that amide hydrogen bonds in proteins have fractionation factors in the range of 0.28 to 1.47 (1). A
The current study was approved by the Bioethics Committee of the Oncology Rostov Research Institute of Russian Health Ministry, protocol No. 3 from 14.03.2014. The current study respected the international rules of human treatment of experimental animals. The experiments were conducted on 37 white outbred female rats: 10 young animals (age: 8 - 10 months, weight: 210 ± 12 g) and 27 presenile rats (age 20 - 22 months, weight: 291 ± 32 g), that were divided into group 1 (n = 13) and group 2 (n = 14). In contrast to the rats in group 2 and group young, the animals in group 1 received DDW with a deuterium content of 46 ± 2 ppm in a volume of 25 to 30 mL per day per head (rat) for three weeks. According to NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy, DDW contained about three times less deuterium than the natural water of the region where these rats lived (150 ± 2 ppm). Deuterium depleted water was produced on a plant designed in the Kuban State University, by the electrolytic decomposition ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of deuterium on the circadian period and metabolism in wild-type and tau mutant Syrian hamsters. AU - Oklejewicz, M. AU - Hut, RA. AU - Daan, S. PY - 2000/10/1. Y1 - 2000/10/1. N2 - Homozygous tau mutant Syrian hamsters (tau-/-) have a free-running circadian period (tau) around 20 h and a proportionally higher metabolic rate compared with wild-type hamsters (tau+/+) with a period of circa 24 h. In this study, we applied deuterium oxide (D2O) to hamsters to test whether deuteration affects the circadian period of locomotor activity and metabolic rate in both genotypes. Running wheel activity and the metabolic rate were measured in constant illumination before, during, and after administration of 25% deuterium in drinking water. Wild-type hamsters lengthened their circadian period by 1.19 h (SD = 0.29 h) due to D2O application and tau-/- hamsters by 1.20 h (SD = 0.39 h). Deuteration changed neither the amount of activity nor the duration of activity phase (alpha) in either ...
This thesis describes the development and the use of quantitative deuterium Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (NMR) as a tool in two areas of environmental research: the study of long term climate-plant interactions and the source tracking of persistent organic pollutant.. Long-term interactions between plants and climate will influence climate change during this century and beyond, but cannot be studied in manipulative experiments. We propose that long tree rings series can serve as records for tracking such interactions during past centuries.. The abundance of the stable hydrogen isotope deuterium (D) is influenced by physical and biochemical isotope fractionations. Because the overlapping effects of these fractionations are not understood, studies of the D abundance of tree rings led to conflicting results. We hypothesized that both types of fractionations can be separated if the D abundance of individual C-H groups of metabolites can be measured, that is if individual D isotopomers are ...
The deuterium quadrupole coupling constants and the asymmetry parameters for six bridging metal hydrides, [Et4N][2HCr2(CO)l0], [(Ph3P)2N][2HCr2(CO)10], [Ph4P][2HCr2(CO)10], [Et4N][2HW2(CO)10], [(Ph3P)2N][2HW2(CO)10], and [Ph4P] [2HW2(CO)10], were determined from the Levenberg-Marquardt nonlinear least-squares fit of the solid-state deuterium NMR powder patterns. The quadrupole coupling constant (absolute value) varies from 54.1 (8) to 90.4 (2) kHz; the asymmetry parameter ranges from 0.027 (3) to 0.31 (2). The relationships between the quadrupole coupling constant and M-H bond length and between the asymmetry parameter and the M-H-M bond geometry are discussed on the basis of a point charge model. In order to assess motional averaging at the deuterium site, the temperature dependence of the 2H NMR spectrum for two bridging metal hydrides was examined at 140, 200, and 300 K. In addition, the isotropic chemical shifts have been obtained from 1H CRAMPS. These NMR results are highly pertinent to NMR
In this work we present results about the deuterium isotope effect on the globalkinetics of a Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction in batch conditions. A nonlinear dependenceof the Induction Period upon the percentage of deuterated reactants was found. The isotopiceffect on the bromination reaction of malonic acid was evaluated.
Formic acid (HCOOH) decomposes efficiently to afford H2 and CO2 selectively in the presence of a catalytic amount of a water-soluble rhodium aqua complex, [RhIII(Cp*)(bpy)(H2O)]2+(Cp*=pentamethylcyclopentadienyl, bpy=2,2′-bipyridine) in aqueous solution at 298 K. No CO was produced in this catalytic decomposition of HCOOH. The decomposition rate reached a maximum value at pH 3.8. No deterioration of the catalyst was observed during the catalytic decomposition of HCOOH, and the catalytic activity remained the same for the repeated addition of HCOOH. The rhodium-hydride complex was detected as the catalytic active species that undergoes efficient H/D exchange with water. When the catalytic decomposition of HCOOH was performed in D2O, D2 was produced selectively. Such an efficient H/D exchange and the observation of a deuterium kinetic isotope effect in the catalytic decomposition of DCOOH in H2O provide valuable mechanistic insight into this efficient and selective decomposition process. ...
Preventa 125ppm Still Deuterium Depleted Water DDW Case (12 x 1.5L Bottles) Molecular Water Technology Deuterium content: 125 ppm (265 mg/l HDO); 1.5 L Mineral content: low in Sodium, Calcium-, and Magnesium-hydrogencarbonate Carbon-dioxide: 4 g/l Carbonated and non-carbonated versions are available. 1 case contains 12 bottles.
The results of a computer program written to study rotational dynamics by following the reorientation of a carbon-deuterium (C-D) bond vector in a deuteriated molecule are described. Three-dimensional plots are constructed to show how deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance splittings vary as a function of two rotational parameters. It is suggested that these diagrams provide insight into the rotational motions of the molecule. © 1987 American Chemical Society.
During development of a high-performance hybrid scenario for future deuterium-tritium experiments on the Joint European Torus, an increased level of fast ion losses in the MeV energy range was observed during the instability of high-frequency n = 1 fishbones. The fishbones are excited during deuterium neutral beam injection combined with ion cyclotron heating. The frequency range of the fishbones, 10-25 kHz, indicates that they are driven by a resonant interaction with the NBI-produced deuterium beam ions in the energy range ⩽120 keV. The fast particle losses in a much higher energy range are measured with a fast ion loss detector, and the data show an expulsion of deuterium plasma fusion products, 1 MeV tritons and 3 MeV protons, during the fishbone bursts. An MHD mode analysis with the MISHKA code combined with the nonlinear wave-particle interaction code HAGIS shows that the loss of toroidal symmetry caused by the n = 1 fishbones affects strongly the confinement of non-resonant high energy ...
Deuterium is an isotope of the chemical element hydrogen. The nucleus of protium contains only the single proton, deuteriums nucleus contains one neutron in addition to the proton, and tritiums contains one proton and two neutrons. Deuterium nuclei...
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Deuterium is used for pharmaceuticals and product development for its ability to be used for radiolabeling. Isowaters® move to refining deuterium in a step closer to insuring the worlds supply for deuterium.. www.technologynetworks.com/analysis/articles/shining-a-light-on-drug-development-revolutionizing-radiolabeling-294063 ...
Deuterium atom is an isotope of hydrogen [NP]e- that is a fermion. Would it be correct the model the deuteron [NP] nucleus as a boson, given that it has even number of particles ? That is, would it be correct to say that two deuteron [NP], as bosons, could occupy the same particle state because the Pauli Exclusion would not apply ...
Dive into the research topics of Softening of membrane bilayers by detergents elucidated by deuterium NMR spectroscopy. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
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Top ] [ deuterium ] [ Subroutines ]. NAME. subroutine initDeuterium(teilchen,nuc,eventNummer,keepNumber) PURPOSE. Represents nucleus nuc in phase space by testparticles which are stored in vector teilchen. The ordering in the vector teilchen is choosen to be random. The nucleus must be Deuterium. NOTES. ...
Read the excellent book called Dark Sun by Richard Rhodes, early tests done by Edward Teller, clearly used such techniques for the instrumentation of the devices and I knew a man here locally who personally handled the Liquid deuterium at Enewetok Atoll in the South Pacific.He told me when they set this device off, their ship was over thirty miles away, thats well over the horizon, and they could nt even see the Atoll, and the flash was just astounding. The back reflection of the blast off the atmoshere was beyond their expectations. Just about any radiation I can think of can be wave guided. All the way from the infrared end of the spectrum though microwaves to visible, up to x rays and gamma rays. Of course the wave guides went up with the devices. The first test shot device weighed in at 60 tons, so it was not a practicle device for military purposes ...
Read the excellent book called Dark Sun by Richard Rhodes, early tests done by Edward Teller, clearly used such techniques for the instrumentation of the devices and I knew a man here locally who personally handled the Liquid deuterium at Enewetok Atoll in the South Pacific.He told me when they set this device off, their ship was over thirty miles away, thats well over the horizon, and they could nt even see the Atoll, and the flash was just astounding. The back reflection of the blast off the atmoshere was beyond their expectations. Just about any radiation I can think of can be wave guided. All the way from the infrared end of the spectrum though microwaves to visible, up to x rays and gamma rays. Of course the wave guides went up with the devices. The first test shot device weighed in at 60 tons, so it was not a practicle device for military purposes ...
The tendency for deuterium to be concentrated into the cold dense regions of the galaxy is due to the lower ground state energy of the heavier molecules. Such chemical fractionation leads to [D/H] values as high as 1! In turn this allows the detection of species such as ND_3, H_2D^+ and D_2H^+. The fraction of the interstellar medium (ISM) with such large deuteration is hard to estimate, but may be sufficient to cause both spatially variable and generally low [D/H] values in the diffuse ISM. ...
Cambridge Isotope Laboratories offers a complete listing of Stable Isotope Labeled Deuterium Bromide for all your research needs. View pricing, availability and product specifications.
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Deuterium is an isotope of Hydrogen containing 1 neutron, 1 proton, and 1 electron. This isotope of hydrogen is an essential part of Nuclear Fusion. This article is a stub, and may need more information. You can help Space Wiki by expanding it.
Deuterium is created thru the procedure of refining Di-hydrogen and Tritium in both a medium or massive refiner. You need these large refiners because the fabric calls for slots to create.. Di-hydrogen is located on pretty tons each planet, placed in veins of blue crystal minerals. Large deposits of these crystals would require a sophisticated laser to mine. For smaller blobs, you do not require sophisticated equipment. Di-hydrogen is a essential cloth in numerous crafting recipes, such as the Starship Launch Fuel and Hydraulic Wiring, so that youve probably already encountered it in your adventures. You will want this material on your journey toward your first S-magnificence deliver.. Tritium is an unusual detail and is commonly discovered as large chunks of an asteroid floating in area. It from time to time appears in a dense crystal form known as a Tritium Hypercluster, or you should purchase the material from a trading terminal in case you get fortunate. Tritium is utilized in a large ...
explains, the electric field strips electrons from the gas molecules and accelerates them to huge energies. The electrons then collide with stationary nuclei in the crystal and generate X-rays.. Putterman realised that the electric fields generated were sufficiently strong to spark nuclear fusion in deuterium - a mind-boggling 107 electronvolts as the excited boffin put it.. The recipe for UCLA nuclear fusion is as follows: Bathe lithium tantalate in deuterium gas. Cool to -33°C. Heat to 7°C over three-and-a-half minutes. Wait for electric field to accelerate deuterium nuclei over a distance of 1 centimetre to energies in excess of 100 kiloelectronvolts. Watch as nuclei then collide and fuse with deuterium nuclei that had permeated the surface of the crystal lattice.. And, if you get your recipe right, you should cook up 400 times more neutrons than found in background measurements.. Sounds good, but this represents a few hundred neutrons per second - way short of the millions of ...
A simple interpretative scheme is presented to describe the deuterium quadrupole coupling constant and asymmetry parameter in a wide variety of chemical environments. © 1994, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. All rights reserved.
TY - GEN. T1 - Challenges in measuring lube oil consumption of internal combustion engines using deuterium as a tracer. AU - Rossegger, Bernhard. AU - Engelmayer, Michael. AU - Wimmer, Andreas. PY - 2019/12/9. Y1 - 2019/12/9. U2 - 10.1115/ICEF2019-7111. DO - 10.1115/ICEF2019-7111. M3 - Conference contribution. T3 - Conference Proceedings. BT - ASME 2019 Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical Conference. PB - American Society of Mechanical Engineers(ASME). ER - ...
Deuterium abundance[edit]. The abundance of deuterium in comet Hale-Bopp in the form of heavy water was found to be about twice ... Deuterium was also detected in many other hydrogen compounds in the comet. The ratio of deuterium to normal hydrogen was found ... If Hale-Bopp's deuterium abundance is typical of all comets, this implies that although cometary impacts are thought to be the ... Meier, Roland; Owen, Tobias C. (1999). "Cometary Deuterium". Space Science Reviews. 90 (1-2): 33-43. Bibcode:1999SSRv...90... ...
Deuterium fusion[edit]. The discovery of deuterium burning down to 0.012 solar masses and the impact of dust formation in the ... They are, however, thought to fuse deuterium (2H) and to fuse lithium (7Li) if their mass is above a debated[4] threshold of 13 ... J) are never hot enough to fuse even deuterium, and even those at the high end of the mass range (over 60 M. J) cool quickly ... Larger objects will burn most of their deuterium and smaller ones will burn only a little, and the 13 Jupiter mass value is ...
Hydrogen-deuterium exchange[edit]. Main article: Hydrogen-deuterium exchange. NMR spectroscopy is nucleus specific. Thus it can ... Therefore, techniques utilising relaxation measurements of carbon-13 and deuterium have recently been developed, which enables ... typically deuterium, the reaction can be monitored by NMR spectroscopy. How rapidly a given amide exchanges reflects its ... distinguish between hydrogen and deuterium. The amide protons in the protein exchange readily with the solvent, and, if the ...
"DEUTERIUM , CAMEO Chemicals , NOAA". cameochemicals.noaa.gov. Retrieved Nov 29, 2020. HySafe Initial Guidance for Using ...
"Deuterium". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2020-02-14. PubChem. "Tritium". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2020-02-14 ...
Liquid deuterium was chosen as the fuel for the fusion reaction because its use simplified the experiment from a physicist's ... The cryogenic deuterium provided the fuel for the "secondary" (fusion) stage of the explosion. At one end of the cylindrical ... Due to its physical size and fusion fuel type (cryogenic liquid deuterium), the "Mike" device was not suitable for use as a ... It weighed approximately 54 short tons (49 metric tons). It was capable of holding 1,000 L (260 U.S. gal) of liquid deuterium, ...
Schoenheimer and his colleagues began their research by conducting experiments with the use of deuterium. Deuterium, which is a ... One of the methods used in the experiment involved heavy water administered into animals in order to analyse the deuterium ... Cooper, D.Y, & Osborn, M.E 1999, 'Schoenheimer, Rudolph', American National Biography Helmenstine, A.M 2019, 'Deuterium Facts ... Helmenstine, A.M (2019). "Deuterium Facts". Shemin, David (1942). "The Dynamic State of Body Constituents: By Rudolf ...
... deuterium, tritium; Proto-Isaiah, Deutero-Isaiah. Numbers beyond three are rare; those beyond four are obscure. The first ...
Wineland, D. J.; Ramsey, N. F. (1972). "Atomic Deuterium Maser". Physical Review A. 5 (2): 821. Bibcode:1972PhRvA...5..821W. ... His doctoral dissertation is entitled "The Atomic Deuterium Maser". He then performed postdoctoral research in Hans Dehmelt's ...
Water enriched in molecules that include deuterium instead of normal hydrogen is called heavy water. Deuterium and its ... except for deuterium and tritium. The symbols D and T (instead of 2 H and 3 H) are sometimes used for deuterium and tritium, ... All deuterium in the universe is thought to have been produced at the time of the Big Bang, and has endured since that time. ... Deuterium is also a potential fuel for commercial nuclear fusion. 3 H is known as tritium and contains one proton and two ...
Most recently he has designed a giant spacecraft, propelled with deuterium micro-detonations ignited by a GeV proton beam, ... Most recently, Winterberg has proposed the ignition of a deuterium microexplosion, with a gigavolt super-Marx generator, which ... 174, 212 (1968) Winterberg, Friedwardt (December 1, 2008). "Ignition of a deuterium micro-detonation with a gigavolt super marx ... "Deuterium microbomb rocket propulsion". arXiv:0812.0397. Bibcode:2008arXiv0812.0397W. Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) ...
March 23 - Gilbert N. Lewis (born 1875), American chemist; first to isolate deuterium. March 26 - Gerhard Heilman (born 1859), ...
He has also using radio astronomy made observations of the interstellar medium, concentrating on deuterium. Pasachoff has been ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Pasachoff, Jay M.; Fowler, William A. (1974). "Deuterium in the Universe". Scientific ...
"DEUTERIUM (D, 99.8%) (D2,99.6%+HD,0.4%)". Cambridge Isotope Laboratories. Archived from the original on 2020-04-16. "DEUTERIUM ... For individual isotopes except deuterium, density of base element is used. Spot market price range on 3 February 2020. Market ... "Physical Properties for Deuterium". Air Products & Chemicals. Archived from the original on 2019-08-27. " ... For individual isotopes except deuterium, density of base element is used. Values in parentheses are theoretical predictions. ...
deuterium. Tritium is an. isotope of hydrogen. Heavier:. hydrogen-4. Decay product of:. hydrogen-4. Decay chain. of tritium. ... One mole of deuterium-tritium gas would contain about 3.0 grams of tritium and 2.0 grams of deuterium. In comparison, the 20 ... The experimental fusion reactor ITER and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will use deuterium-tritium fuel. The deuterium- ... a small particle accelerator drives ions of tritium and deuterium to energies above the 15 keV or so needed for deuterium- ...
Millar, T. J. (2003). "Deuterium Fractionation in Interstellar Clouds". Space Science Reviews. 106 (1): 73-86. Bibcode:2003SSRv ...
2013). "Deuterium Burning in Massive Giant Planets and Low-mass Brown Dwarfs Formed by Core-nucleated Accretion". The ... Around this time the protostar begins to fuse deuterium. If the protostar is sufficiently massive (above 80 Jupiter masses (MJ ... Stahler, Steven W. (1988). "Deuterium and the Stellar Birthline". The Astrophysical Journal. 332: 804-825. Bibcode:1988ApJ... ...
Light water refers to deuterium-depleted water (DDW), water in which the deuterium content has been reduced below the standard ... Deuterium oxide, D 2O, is also known as heavy water because of its higher density. It is used in nuclear reactors as a neutron ... Water with one protium and one deuterium atom HDO occur naturally in ordinary water in low concentrations (~0.03%) and D 2O in ... Only 155 ppm include deuterium (2 H or D), a hydrogen isotope with one neutron, and fewer than 20 parts per quintillion include ...
Theory predicts, however, that the hydrogen isotope deuterium fuses with hydrogen-1, creating helium-3. The heat from this ... Stahler, S. W. (1988). "Deuterium and the Stellar Birthline". Astrophysical Journal. 332: 804. Bibcode:1988ApJ...332..804S. doi ...
Similarly, deuterium fuses extremely easily; any alternative explanation must also explain how conditions existed for deuterium ... and all the neutrons fuse to form deuterium, a hydrogen isotope, and most of the deuterium quickly fuses to form helium-4. ... A small amount of deuterium is left unfused because of the very short duration. Therefore, the only stable nuclides created by ... From about 2 minutes, the falling temperature means that deuterium no longer unbinds, and is stable, and starting from about 3 ...
NSTX was a "proof of principle" experiment and therefore employed deuterium plasmas only. If successful it was to be followed ... produced a world-record 10.7 megawatts of fusion power from a plasma composed of equal parts of deuterium and tritium, a fuel ... by similar devices, eventually including a demonstration power reactor (e.g. ITER), burning deuterium-tritium fuel. NSTX ...
These objects cannot fuse deuterium. With no strong central nuclear energy source, the interior of a brown dwarf is in a rapid ...
2, April 1989 [3] Archived 2006-12-29 at the Wayback Machine) is J.Audouze and J.Silk, "Pregalactic Synthesis of Deuterium" in ... 1976). "The origin of deuterium". Nature. 263 (5574): 198-202. Bibcode:1976Natur.263..198E. doi:10.1038/263198a0. S2CID 4213710 ... out that if proton fluxes with energies greater than 500 MeV were intense enough to produce the observed levels of deuterium, ...
The nucleus of deuterium is called a deuteron. Deuterium comprises 0.0026-0.0184% (by population, not by mass) of hydrogen ... Water enriched in molecules that include deuterium instead of protium is called heavy water. Deuterium and its compounds are ... isotope is deuterium and the 3H (or hydrogen-3) isotope is tritium. The symbols D and T are sometimes used for deuterium and ... Presumably the differential concentration of deuterium in the inner solar system is due to the lower volatility of deuterium ...
The Deuterium Array was a 25-element radio telescope array optimized to observe at 327 MHz, which is one of the emission lines ... "MIT Haystack Observatory: Deuterium Array". MIT Haystack Observatory. Retrieved 31 January 2012. "MIT Haystack Observatory: ... of deuterium. Each element, or station, was itself a 25-element array of dipoles. The array operated from 2004 to 2006. ...
The deuterium production is stopped. It is necessary urgently to start the work of the station and find out what happened at a ... Set design of the Deuterium-1010 submarine station was created in three stages: first the bearing part was made in the nearest ... In the Indian Ocean the Deuterium 1010 station for the extraction of heavy water is located - fuel for nuclear power plants ...
Around this time the protostar begins to fuse deuterium. If the protostar is sufficiently massive (above 80 MJ), hydrogen ... Stahler, Steven W. (September 1988). "Deuterium and the Stellar Birthline". The Astrophysical Journal. 332: 804-825. Bibcode: ...
Ball, Justin (2019). "Maximizing specific energy by breeding deuterium". Nuclear Fusion. 59 (10): 106043. arXiv:1908.00834. ...
Fleischmann, Martin; Pons, Stanley (1989). "Electrochemically induced nuclear fusion of deuterium". Journal of ...
Iodoacetamide Polgár, L. (1979). "Deuterium isotope effects on papain acylation. Evidence for lack of general base catalysis ...
... in deuterium-labelled lipid molecules can be quantified using solid state deuterium NMR. Deuterium NMR spectra are especially ... Deuterium occurs in trace amounts naturally as deuterium gas, written 2 H 2 or D2, but most of the naturally occurring atoms in ... Deuterium has a natural abundance in Earths oceans of about one atom in 6420 of hydrogen. Thus deuterium accounts for ... Deuterium-protium ratios thus continue to be an active topic of research in both astronomy and climatology. Deuterium is ...
Deuterium bromide is hydrogen bromide with the hydrogen being the heavier isotope deuterium. Hydrogen represents only a small ... Hydrogen bromide Heavy water (Water with deuterium in place of normal hydrogens.). ...
"Because the high sensitivity of neutrons to hydrogen and its deuterium isotope, we were able to quantitatively assign not only ... Scientists have found a new method to strategically add deuterium to benzene, an aromatic compound commonly found in crude oil ... When applied to the active ingredient of drugs to incorporate deuterium, it could dramatically improve the drugs efficacy and ... Using the single-crystal diffractometer TOPAZ, Oak Ridge National Laboratory confirmed the exact position of deuterium atoms ...
Brannon, P.J.; Church, C.H.; Peters, C.W., Electric field induced spectra of molecular hydrogen, deuterium and deuterium ... Reddy, S.P.; Kuo, C.Z., Collision-induced 1st overtone infrared absorption band of deuterium, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 1971, 37, 327 ... Bredohl, H.; Herzberg, G., The Lyman and Werner bands of deuterium, Can. J. Phys., 1973, 51, 867. [all data] ... Watanabe, A.; Welsh, H.L., Pressure-induced infrared absorption of gaseous hydrogen and deuterium at low temperatures, Can. J. ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Mass spectroscopy based measurement of the rate and/or extent of the hydrogen/deuterium exchange. [ PMID. :. 18948593 ] ... Mass spectroscopy based measurement of the rate and/or extent of the hydrogen/deuterium exchange. ...
The present application describes deuterium-enriched fulvestrant, pharmaceutically acceptable salt forms thereof, and methods ... 7. A deuterium-enriched compound of claim 1, wherein the abundance of deuterium in R3-R4 and R40-R43 is selected from at least ... 8. A deuterium-enriched compound of claim 1, wherein the abundance of deuterium in R1-R4 and R40-R43 is selected from at least ... wherein R1-R47 are independently selected from H and D; and the abundance of deuterium in R1-R47 is at least 2%. 2. A deuterium ...
The present application describes deuterium-enriched amoxicilin, pharmaceutically acceptable salt forms thereof, and methods of ... 5. A deuterium-enriched compound of claim 1, wherein the abundance of deuterium in R10 is selected from 100%. 6. A deuterium- ... wherein R1-R19 are independently selected from H and D; and the abundance of deuterium in R1-R19 is at least 5%. 2. A deuterium ... 3. A deuterium-enriched compound of claim 1, wherein the abundance of deuterium in R1-R5 is selected from at least 20%, at ...
Message boards : Science (non-SETI) : Clean energy from Deuterium Tritium. Message board moderation To post messages, you must ... Message boards : Science (non-SETI) : Clean energy from Deuterium Tritium. ©2017 University of California [email protected] and ...
PerformancePLUS Long-Life Deuterium Detector Lamps are specifically designed for use with Waters detectors to ensure long-life ... PerformancePLUS Long-Life Deuterium Detector Lamps are specifically designed for use with Waters 2487 and 996/2996 Detectors to ... Extend your Empower Data System Capabilities by using High Brightness Deuterium Lamps with Intelligent Technology Learn more. ...
Deuterium is a relatively fragile isotope, and the amount of deuterium has not stayed constant over time. In particular, when ... The Deuterium Puzzle (Click on figures to see larger versions.) Presentation courtesy of William Blair, JHU. A hydrogen atom ... Such material has lower deuterium and higher heavy element abundance fractions. Over time, as shown at right, the cumulative ... The blue regions indicate the spectral fingerprint of deuterium (marked "D I"). The depth and shape of these fingerprints ...
Where does the estimate of deuterium lifetime come from and what is the mechanism of the decay? ... Where does the estimate of deuterium lifetime come from and what is the mechanism of the decay? ...
Nuclear fusion involves reacting light atomic such as hydrogen, or its isotopes deuterium or tritium together to form heavier ... Nuclear fusion involves reacting light atomic such as hydrogen, or its isotopes deuterium or tritium together to form heavier ... However researchers in Gothenburg, Sweden have been splitting deuterium molecules up using a catalyst and an electrical field, ...
The Big Bang theory also gives us an age for the universe. The latest estimate, based on several cosmological observations, is 13.80 +/- 0.02 billion years.. ...
Deuterium (Hydrogen-2) , Listen and download the track, support the artist on Jamendo Music. Free music downloads. ...
Robert Slovak and Victor Sagalovsky discussed deuterium-depleted water. Followed by Dr. Joseph Mercola on the dangers of ... to discuss the hydrogen isotope deuterium in heavy water and the health benefits of deuterium-depleted water. "[Deuterium] is ... The accumulation of deuterium in body is one of the main mechanisms that causes aging, he continued. The isotope causes ... According to both researchers, deuterium-depleted water creates a net energy benefit for the body, which provides more energy ...
... because processing of gas by stars reduces the abundance of deuterium relative to hydrogen. Absorption of radiation from ... THE primordial ratio of deuterium to hydrogen nuclei (D/H), created as a result of the Big Bang, provides the most sensitive ... A precise deuterium abundance: remeasurement of the z = 3.572 absorption system towards the quasar PKS1937-101 *S. Riemer- ... Cosmological baryon density derived from the deuterium abundance at redshift z = 3.57. *David Tytler1,2. , ...
Deuterium is an isotope of hydrogen, the first element. Deuterium has one proton and one neutron. Hydrogen does not have a ... Two deuterium atoms combined with an oxygen atom is sometimes called "heavy water." This is because it is like water (H2O), but ... The chemical symbol for Deuterium is 2H but D is also used often. ... heavier because deuterium has one more neutron in its nucleus. Heavy water is sometimes used in nuclear reactors. It is also ...
Deuterium oxide. Type of composition:. legal entity composition of the substance. State / form:. liquid. Reference substance:. ...
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
This page contains information on the chemical Deuterium including: 23 synonyms/identifiers; USDOT 2008 Emergency Response ... atomic deuterium*d(+) e(-) *D(.) *D2*Deuterium*deuterium atom*Deuterium molecule*deuterium(.) *Deuterium, atomic*Deuterium, ... Deuterium (EnvironmentalChemistry.com),/a,- This page contains information on the chemical Deuterium including: 23 synonyms/ ... Deuterium. No. No. Related Resources. *USDOT Hazardous Materials Table 49 CFR 172.101. An online version of the USDOTs listing ...
SLS204 Deuterium Light Source provides stable illumination from 200 nm to 700 nm. The strong continuous spectrum at short UV ... Products Home / Incoherent Sources / Lamps / Stabilized Deuterium UV Light Source. Stabilized Deuterium UV Light Source. . ... Deuterium. 200 - 700 nm. Free Space or. Fiber Coupled (SMA). 2 mWa. 0.1 mWb. (Typ.). 30 W. N/A. 2000 hc. SLS254B. ... The deuterium bulb in the SLS204 has a lifetime of 2000 hours. Replacement bulbs are available for purchase separately. Please ...
Shop a large selection of Deuterium and Hallow Cathode Lamps today! ... Kinesis Deuterium (D2) lamps are made to fit almost all detectors. These quality lamps are used by leading pharmaceutical and ... Kinesis is world-renowned for chromatography deuterium lamps (D2) and hollow cathode lamps. These lamps are manufactured under ...
Substances : Water: Deuterium Depleted. Diseases : Carcinoma: Non-Small-Cell Lung, Carcinoma: Small Cell Lung, Lung Cancer, ... Additional Keywords : Deuterium Content Of Water, Natural Substances Versus Drugs, Risk Factors, Superiority of Natural ... Deuterium depleted water inhibits the proliferation of human MCF7 breast cancer cell lines by inducing cell cycle arrest.Dec 31 ... Substances : Water: Deuterium Depleted. Diseases : Alzheimers Disease, Brain: Oxidative Stress, Hydrogen Peroxide Induced ...
Deuterium (D) or heavy hydrogen is a natural isotope of hydrogen. Its atomic nucleus consists of a proton and a neutron.. ... Naturally occurring hydrogen contains a deuterium component of about 0.015 per cent. The worlds oceans thus contain about 4.6 ...
D-T stands for Deuterium-Tritium (reaction). D-T is defined as Deuterium-Tritium (reaction) very frequently. ... Each successful deuterium-tritium fusion would produce an alpha particle (an atom of helium-4), an energetic neutron and a good ... Deuterium-tritium fusion, which most controlled fusion experiments today are trying to achieve, produces energetic neutrons, ... The primary OFES program focus is still on deuterium-tritium (DT) fusion in toroidal (donut-shaped) plasma confinement systems. ...
Jones G. (1978) The production of pions by polarized protons incident on hydrogen and deuterium. In: Zingl H., Haftel M., ... The production of pions by polarized protons incident on hydrogen and deuterium. ...
The application of hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) to localize ligand binding sites in carbohydrate- ... Glasoe, P.K., Long, F.A.: Use of glass electrods to measure acidities in deuterium oxide. J. Phys. Chem. 64, 188-189 (1960) ... Hamuro, Y., Coales, S.J., Morrow, J.A., Molnar, K.S., Tuske, S.J., Southern, M.R., Griffin, P.R.: Hydrogen/deuterium-exchange ( ... Wei, H., Ahn, J., Yu, Y.Q., Tymiak, A., Engen, J.R., Chen, G.D.: Using hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry to study ...
Deuterium is an isotope of hydrogen with an added neutron. The ratio of deuterium to hydrogen in water is a key diagnostic to ... The different values of the deuterium-to-hydrogen ratio (D/H) in water observed in various bodies in the Solar System. ...
  • Other natural processes are thought to produce only an insignificant amount of deuterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Big Bang nucleosynthesis models predict the relative amounts of the lightest elements and isotopes, which makes the relative amount of deuterium one of the key measurements needed for understanding the Big Bang. (stsci.edu)
  • Deuterium is a relatively fragile isotope, and the amount of deuterium has not stayed constant over time. (stsci.edu)
  • And so, over the history of the Universe, as material has been processed through stars, astronomers expect the relative amount of deuterium to decrease. (stsci.edu)
  • I'm curious as to the amount of deuterium necessary in a reactor. (fusor.net)
  • It would be very helpful if someone could tell me the approximate volume of their fusor and the amount of deuterium they used. (fusor.net)
  • They have relatively good prices for a large amount of deuterium. (fusor.net)
  • Does the purity effect the amount of deuterium you have to add, or just the probability that the atoms will fuse? (fusor.net)
  • In laboratory-scale tests, the new technique reduced the amount of deuterium in water from about 145 parts per million to 125 parts per million. (medindia.net)
  • 1)H(2)H NMR and mass spectroscopy are standard methods frequently used for determination of location and amount of deuterium substitution. (nih.gov)
  • Probably, it could explain a known fact, why the amount of deuterium is slightly increased during the global changes of climate in warming conditions. (o8ode.ru)
  • The location and relative amount of deuterium exchange along the peptide backbone can be determined roughly by subjecting the protein to proteolysis after the exchange reaction has been quenched. (wikibooks.org)
  • Deuterium sulfide in deuterium oxide. (elsevier.com)
  • Interference with deoxyribonucleic acid replication need not be a primary mechanism in the blockade of cell division by deuterium oxide, but current hypotheses on the molecular basis of the blockade do suggest that such interference might take place under appropriate conditions. (sciencemag.org)
  • To reduce cost, deuterium oxide and a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell was used. (fusor.net)
  • Deuterium oxide is used in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). (alfa.com)
  • Cohen, J. D. Measuring the turnover rates of Arabidopsis proteins using deuterium oxide: an auxin signaling case study. (alfa.com)
  • Metges, C. C. A simplified mass isotopomer approach to estimate gluconeogenesis ratein vivo using deuterium oxide. (alfa.com)
  • Transgenic, cytokinin-overproducing Arabidopsis thaliana plants were incubated in liquid culture media enriched with 30% deuterium oxide, and incorporation into the different parts of the cytokinin molecule was analysed by capillary liquid chromatography/frit-fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry after precolumn propionylation. (nih.gov)
  • The use of the stable isotope deuterium oxide ( 2 H 2 O) is a reference technique for measuring TBW. (scielo.br)
  • Deuterium oxide is a liquid solvent where hydrogen atoms in a water molecule are replaced by the heavier isotope atoms deuterium. (anton-paar.com)
  • Deuterium Oxide, also called 'heavy water', has the chemical formula D 2 O. The deuterium atom, expressed by the symbol D, is a hydrogen isotope. (anton-paar.com)
  • The application of hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) to localize ligand binding sites in carbohydrate-binding proteins is described. (springer.com)
  • The Schriemer group is interested in hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry, because it has the potential to reveal high-resolution structural and temporal details about complex protein systems. (asbmb.org)
  • After deuterium labelling, one sorts the cell population of interest, isolates the DNA from the cells, and uses mass spectrometry to determine the enrichment of deuterium in the DNA [ 12 - 15 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Hydrogen deuterium exchange (HDX) mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful tool for studying the dynamics of higher order structure of protein-based therapeutics. (thermofisher.com)
  • Direct evidence for a two-state protein unfolding transition from hydrogen-deuterium exchange, mass spectrometry, and NMR. (nih.gov)
  • We use mass spectrometry in conjunction with hydrogen-deuterium exchange and NMR to characterize the conformational dynamics of the 62-residue IgG binding domain of protein L under conditions in which the native state is marginally stable. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we present the basic principles of hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass-spectrometry (HDX-MS) and recent advancements in its use to study membrane transporters. (medworm.com)
  • Noisy and overlapped mass spectrometry data hinders the sequence coverage that can be obtained from Hydrogen Deuterium exchange analysis, and places a limit on the complexity of the samples that can be studied by this technique. (ku.edu)
  • The samples are subsequently annealed at temperatures ranging from 1040 to 1135 °C. Secondary ion mass spectrometry is used to obtain the concentration versus depth profiles of the atomic deuterium in the samples. (diva-portal.org)
  • Nuclear fusion involves reacting light atomic such as hydrogen, or its isotopes deuterium or tritium together to form heavier elements. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Based on the different feedback we received to this plan, the MAC suggests that the project remain focused on the normal step-by-step assembly strategy, but that it evaluate options to reduce risks and the time required for the assembly and the transport of components in order to provide more confidence in the dates for First Plasma and Deuterium-Tritium operation," Sharan said. (acronymfinder.com)
  • The primary OFES program focus is still on deuterium-tritium (DT) fusion in toroidal (donut-shaped) plasma confinement systems. (acronymfinder.com)
  • Each successful deuterium-tritium fusion would produce an alpha particle (an atom of helium-4), an energetic neutron and a good deal of energy. (acronymfinder.com)
  • However, in the jargon of the DOE, these substances are called "advanced' fuels, because the confinement and temperature conditions necessary for them go beyond those for deuterium-tritium . (acronymfinder.com)
  • The plan is thus to begin operations with a tungsten divertor from the start, instead of a carbon-fiber divertor for the beginning of operations and a tungsten divertor for deuterium-tritium operation in 2027. (acronymfinder.com)
  • Deuterium-tritium fusion, which most controlled fusion experiments today are trying to achieve, produces energetic neutrons, from which energy can easily be harvested and converted to useful things like steam or electric power. (acronymfinder.com)
  • Developing materials resistant enough to withstand the high-power impact of the neutrons from deuterium-tritium (DT) reactions is of utmost importance for the future of fusion. (acronymfinder.com)
  • He proposed to use lithium-6 deuteride, which would make tritium and facilitate deuterium-tritium fusion reactions. (acronymfinder.com)
  • Recent scientific and technical progress in magnetic fusion experiments has resulted in the achievement of plasma parameters (density and temperature) which enabled the production of significant bursts of fusion power from deuterium-tritium fuels and the first studies of the physics of burning plasmas. (unt.edu)
  • A review of the technical and scientific results from the deuterium-tritium experiments on the Joint European Torus (JET) and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is given with particular emphasis on alpha-particle physics issues. (unt.edu)
  • In the wiki article about fusion power I read that Deuterium-Deuterium fusion produce Tritium so I wonder if this can be used as a way to produce tritium for Deuterium-Tritium fusion power plants in case there is a problem with lithium resources. (physicsforums.com)
  • If we can use D-D fusion we can just leave the tritium in the plasma or put it back in (if it is kicked out), it will easily fuse with another deuterium nucleus. (physicsforums.com)
  • Cylindrical pellets are cut from the different species of ice ribbons (hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, impurities or their mixture) by the sharp edge of thin wall tubes. (iter.org)
  • We determine the dependence of key Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) hot spot simulation properties on the deuterium-tritium fuel adiabat, here modified by addition of energy to the cold shell. (osti.gov)
  • The interpretation of tritium migration in surface and/or underground waters at the former nuclear test site at Semipalatinsk (STS) can greatly benefit from the analysis of other chemical or isotopic tracers, such as deuterium and 18O. (irsn.fr)
  • Particular attention was paid at establishing whether or not evaporation processes in salt lakes lead to a significant increase in the content of heavy hydrogen isotopes (deuterium and tritium) in the brines. (irsn.fr)
  • The recently proposed super-Marx generator pure deuterium microdetonation ignition concept is compared to the Lawrence Livermore National Ignition Facility (NIF) Laser deuterium-tritium fusion-fission hybrid concept (LIFE). (osti.gov)
  • This paper uses neutron emission spectrometry (NES), with the spectrometer TOFOR, to estimate the deuterium-tritium (DT) equivalent fusion yields of deuterium-only (DD) pulses at the tokamak JET. (diva-portal.org)
  • Nearly all deuterium found in nature was produced in the Big Bang 13.8 billion years ago, as the basic or primordial ratio of hydrogen-1 to deuterium (about 26 atoms of deuterium per million hydrogen atoms) has its origin from that time. (wikipedia.org)
  • The analysis of deuterium/protium ratios in comets found results very similar to the mean ratio in Earth's oceans (156 atoms of deuterium per million hydrogen atoms). (wikipedia.org)
  • Using the single-crystal diffractometer TOPAZ, Oak Ridge National Laboratory confirmed the exact position of deuterium atoms from selective deuteration of benzene molecules. (ornl.gov)
  • Wang successfully verified the exact position of deuterium atoms that resulted from the selective deuteration of benzene molecules using single crystal neutron diffraction. (ornl.gov)
  • Because the high sensitivity of neutrons to hydrogen and its deuterium isotope, we were able to quantitatively assign not only the positions of the deuterium atoms at the atomic level, but also determine precisely how many were added on each side of the benzene molecule," Wang said. (ornl.gov)
  • However researchers in Gothenburg, Sweden have been splitting deuterium molecules up using a catalyst and an electrical field, and studying what is produced by firing a laser into the products which will rip electrons off a pair of atoms. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Two deuterium atoms combined with an oxygen atom is sometimes called "heavy water. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the labelling period, some fraction of the hydrogen atoms in the body will be replaced by deuterium, and dividing cells will incorporate both deuterium and hydrogen in newly synthesized DNA molecules. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The quantity of deuterium in contemporary nature is approximately small and measured as no more than 0.015% (from the whole number of hydrogen atoms) and depends strongly on both the uniformity of substance and the total amount of matter formed in course of early evolution. (o8ode.ru)
  • For the production of heavy water, the concentration of deuterium can be augmented by means of distillation, electrolysis or by means of the so-called Girdler sulfide process, an isotopic exchange process of hydrogen atoms between H 2 S and H 2 O over several temperature steps. (anton-paar.com)
  • Computer simulations using this model, in which the damage profile is taken from Monte Carlo simulations and the surface is treated as a perfect sink for the diffusing deuterium atoms, are performed with good results compared to the experimental data. (diva-portal.org)
  • The nucleus of a deuterium atom, called a deuteron , contains one proton and one neutron , whereas the far more common protium has no neutron in the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deuterium is also known as "heavy hydrogen" because of the extra neutron in the atomic nucleus. (stsci.edu)
  • Deuterium has one proton and one neutron . (wikipedia.org)
  • This is because it is like water (H 2 O), but heavier because deuterium has one more neutron in its nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deuterium is an isotope of hydrogen with an added neutron. (esa.int)
  • The deuterium nucleus is twice as heavy as the hydrogen nucleus because it contains a neutron as well as a proton. (wikibooks.org)
  • The difference between D 2 O and 'regular' water H 2 O lies in the core of the hydrogen atom: hydrogen 1 H, also called protium, has only one proton, whereas deuterium D, also written as 2 H, has a proton and a neutron in its nucleus. (anton-paar.com)
  • PerformancePLUS Long-Life Deuterium Detector Lamps are specifically designed for use with Waters 2487 and 996/2996 Detectors to ensure long-life, cost-effective performance. (waters.com)
  • Kinesis is world-renowned for chromatography deuterium lamps (D2) and hollow cathode lamps. (coleparmer.com)
  • Kinesis Deuterium (D2) lamps are made to fit almost all detectors. (coleparmer.com)
  • Deuterium lamps are an ideal light source for UV spectroscopy. (newport.com)
  • Oriel Instruments offers UV safety equipment to protect the eyes, face and hands from the intense UV radiation emitted by deuterium lamps. (newport.com)
  • Deuterium lamps has been saved to your wishlist successfully. (hamamatsu.com)
  • Deuterium lamps are the preferred light source for ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy. (newport.com)
  • However, the unique output spectrum of deuterium lamps begin in the Vacuum UV (VUV) region at 160 nm and extends into the UVA region at 400 nm. (newport.com)
  • Many popular applications such as High Performance Liquid Chromatography and environmental analysis utilize deuterium lamps for their intense UV light output. (newport.com)
  • The 68942 power supply is designed for safe and optimum operation of Oriel's deuterium lamps. (newport.com)
  • The H2D2, Hamamatsu's brightest deuterium lamp to date, is 6X brighter than our conventional L2D2 lamps. (coatingsworld.com)
  • The deuterium lamps exhibit a maximum fluctuation value of 0.05% peak-to-peak (short-term stability) and maximum drift value of ±0.3%/h (long-term stability). (coatingsworld.com)
  • The differences are much more pronounced in vibrational spectroscopy such as infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, and in rotational spectra such as microwave spectroscopy because the reduced mass of the deuterium is markedly higher than that of protium. (wikipedia.org)
  • In nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, deuterium has a very different NMR frequency (e.g. 61 MHz when protium is at 400 MHz) and is much less sensitive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mass spectroscopy based measurement of the rate and/or extent of the hydrogen/deuterium exchange. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The μd value is also 3.5σ smaller than the rd value from electronic deuterium spectroscopy. (bionity.com)
  • Deuterium NMR is NMR spectroscopy of deuterium ( 2 D), an isotope of hydrogen. (wikibooks.org)
  • Hamamatsu's L11798 and L11799 deuterium light source units offer ultrahigh brightness and ease of use for a wide variety of UV applications such as semiconductor inspection, film thickness measurement, UV-visible spectroscopy, and environmental analysis. (coatingsworld.com)
  • Deuterium bromide is hydrogen bromide with the hydrogen being the heavier isotope deuterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • By comparing the ratio of "heavy water" (in which one hydrogen atom is replaced by its heavier isotope deuterium) to "normal water" in the atmosphere of Mars, scientists at NASA and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) have come to the conclusion that the Red Planet was once home to a large ocean that covered a greater portion of the planet's surface than the Atlantic Ocean does on Earth. (iter.org)
  • However, isotopic labeling with deuterium ((2)H) in higher plants at the level of 40% and higher is complicated by both physiological responses, particularly water exchange through transpiration, and inhibitory effects of D2O on germination, rooting, and growth. (nih.gov)
  • Also, its large mass difference with protium ( 1 H) (deuterium has a mass of 2.014 102 u , compared to the mean hydrogen atomic weight of 1.007 947 u , and protium's mass of 1.007 825 u ) confers non-negligible chemical dissimilarities with protium-containing compounds, whereas the isotope weight ratios within other chemical elements are largely insignificant in this regard. (wikipedia.org)
  • 13. A deuterium-enriched compound of claim 1, wherein the compound is selected from compounds 1-12 of Table 1. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • It is another object of the present invention to provide pharmaceutical compositions comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier and a therapeutically effective amount of at least one of the deuterium-enriched compounds of the presentinvention or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. (patentgenius.com)
  • It is another object of the present invention to provide a method for treating a disease selected from prophylaxis, Influenzavirus A, and Influenzavirus B, comprising administering to a host in need of such treatment a therapeutically effectiveamount of at least one of the deuterium-enriched compounds of the present invention or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. (patentgenius.com)
  • As a source of deuterium, it is utilized for preparing specifically labeled isotopologs of organic compounds. (alfa.com)
  • Concert will also provide GSK with deuterium-modified versions of three GSK pipeline compounds for GSK to develop. (gsk.com)
  • More interestingly, selective incorporation of deuterium from D2O has been discovered, which offers an attractive one-step method to access deuterated compounds. (diva-portal.org)
  • The novel deuterium-containing chalcone derivatives may have interesting biological effects and improved metabolic properties as compared with the parent compounds. (mdpi.com)
  • Deuterium (or hydrogen-2, symbol 2 H or D , also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen (the other being protium, or hydrogen-1). (wikipedia.org)
  • We explore a dual isotope approach akin to the concept of deuterium-excess (d), to estimate past relative humidity influences while accounting for variation caused by isotopes in precipitation. (epa.gov)
  • This publication provides information on the theoretical background as well as on the practical application of state of the art methodology to monitor changes in body composition, based on the analysis of deuterium in saliva by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. (iaea.org)
  • The accumulation of deuterium in body is one of the main mechanisms that causes aging, he continued. (coasttocoastam.com)
  • The processes accompanying accumulation of deuterium in the hydrosphere are solar radiation, volcanic geothermal processes and electric discharges in the atmosphere. (o8ode.ru)
  • The continuous spectrum of the deuterium lamp extends from 200 nm - 400 nm. (thorlabs.com)
  • The 63165 is a 30 Watt deuterium lamp which produces high intensity ultraviolet (UV) radiation over the full spectrum from 185 to 400 nm. (newport.com)
  • With no cooling fan, the housing quietly and efficiently maintains a safe operating temperature for the 30 W deuterium lamp. (newport.com)
  • A heater circuit warms up the deuterium lamp for a pre-determined warm up time prior to sending an ignition pulse to the lamp. (newport.com)
  • These light sources consist of an air-cooled H2D2 deuterium lamp head unit attached to a power supply unit via cable. (coatingsworld.com)
  • THE primordial ratio of deuterium to hydrogen nuclei (D/H), created as a result of the Big Bang, provides the most sensitive measure of the cosmological density of baryons 1-5 . (nature.com)
  • Hydrogen and deuterium nuclei are grossly different in their magnetic properties. (wikibooks.org)
  • Deuterium NMR spectra are especially informative in the solid state because of its relatively small quadrupole moment in comparison with those of bigger quadrupolar nuclei such as chlorine-35, for example. (wikibooks.org)
  • Deuterium is frequently represented by the chemical symbol D. Since it is an isotope of hydrogen with mass number 2, it is also represented by 2 H . IUPAC allows both D and 2 H , although 2 H is preferred. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deuterium is an isotope of hydrogen , the first element . (wikipedia.org)
  • Deuterium (D) or heavy hydrogen is a natural isotope of hydrogen. (mpg.de)
  • Soon after the discovery of deuterium, efforts to utilize this stable isotope of hydrogen for labeling of plants began and have proven successful for natural abundance to 20% enrichment. (nih.gov)
  • Flow chemistry-based syntheses of deuterium-labeled analogs of important antidiabetic chalcones were achieved via highly controlled partial C≡C bond deuteration of the corresponding 1,3-diphenylalkynones. (mdpi.com)
  • Ötvös SB, Hsieh C-T, Wu Y-C, Li J-H, Chang F-R, Fülöp F. Continuous-Flow Synthesis of Deuterium-Labeled Antidiabetic Chalcones: Studies towards the Selective Deuteration of the Alkynone Core. (mdpi.com)
  • It may be used to verify the effectiveness of deuteration: a deuterated compound will show a peak in deuterium NMR but not proton NMR. (wikibooks.org)
  • Like the water cycle in Earth's weather, such heating processes may enrich deuterium with respect to protium. (wikipedia.org)
  • [3] [4] The deuterium/protium ratio of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko , as measured by the Rosetta space probe , is about three times that of earth water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deuterium/protium ratios thus continue to be an active topic of research in both astronomy and climatology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deuterated solvents are usually used in protium NMR to prevent the solvent from overlapping with the signal, although deuterium NMR on its own right is also possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drinking DDW at a concentration of 10 ppm deuterium/protium (D/H) ad libitum for 3 weeks restored the BWI, glucose (serum), tryptophan (brain), and serotonin (brain) levels and concentration of Zn in the liver in the DIO animals to those of the controls. (mdpi.com)
  • Deuterium has a natural abundance in Earth's oceans of about one atom in 6420 of hydrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The abundance of deuterium changes slightly from one kind of natural water to another (see Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Such material has lower deuterium and higher heavy element abundance fractions. (stsci.edu)
  • The blue regions indicate the spectral fingerprint of deuterium (marked "D I"). The depth and shape of these fingerprints compared to others such as oxygen and regular hydrogen, tells astronomers the relative abundance of deuterium in the gas being sampled on the sight line to the star. (stsci.edu)
  • Measurements of the D/H ratio in the interstellar medium of our Galaxy place a strict lower limit on the primordial ratio 6 , because processing of gas by stars reduces the abundance of deuterium relative to hydrogen. (nature.com)
  • Accordingly, one object of the present invention is to provide deuterium-enriched oseltamivir or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. (patentgenius.com)
  • It is another object of the present invention to provide a novel deuterium-enriched oseltamivir or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof for use in therapy. (patentgenius.com)
  • It is another object of the present invention to provide the use of a novel deuterium-enriched oseltamivir or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof for the manufacture of a medicament (e.g., for the treatment of prophylaxis, InfluenzavirusA, and Influenzavirus B). (patentgenius.com)
  • Hydrogen deuterium exchange (also called H-D or H/D exchange) is a chemical reaction in which a covalently bonded hydrogen atom is replaced by a deuterium atom, or vice versa. (wikibooks.org)
  • Deuterium in vivo labelling of cytokinins in Arabidopsis thaliana analysed by capillary liquid chromatography/frit-fast atom bombardment mass spect. (nih.gov)
  • Normally, deuterium gas used in nuclear experiments is delivered via compressed gas cylinders. (fusor.net)
  • The generated deuterium gas is "wet" (100% humidity) which will inhibit nuclear fusion. (fusor.net)
  • 2. A nuclear fusion reactor as defined in claim 1 in which said lithium deuterotritide is normally solid adjacent the side and ends of the chamber and liquid in the central region of the chamber where it is subject to heating during operation,the volume of lithium deuterotritide being such that an open space exists at the surface of the liquid, said space containing deuterium. (patentgenius.com)
  • 3. A nuclear fusion reactor as defined in claim 2 including a plurality of nozzles in one of said electrodes, and duct means for withdrawing deuterium from said space and recirculating it to said nozzles, the nozzles being positioned to injectsaid deuterium into the liquid at a plurality of points to form a curtain of bubbles in the liquid. (patentgenius.com)
  • INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Introduction to Body Composition Assessment Using the Deuterium Dilution Technique with Analysis of Saliva Samples by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry, Human Health Series No. 12, IAEA, Vienna (2011). (iaea.org)
  • Robert Slovak , who has devoted himself to the science of water after a life-altering experience, along with Victor Sagalovsky , a polymath scientist and author of "Gold: Catalyst of Radiant Health," joined guest host Lisa Garr ( email ) to discuss the hydrogen isotope deuterium in heavy water and the health benefits of deuterium-depleted water. (coasttocoastam.com)
  • Debris fields only contain Metal and Crystal, increasing the probability of a raid from those in search of Deuterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, by observing numerous stars in the region directly around the sun (within 100 parsecs or about 325 light years), FUSE observations have very strongly confirmed that the ratio of deuterium to hydrogen (D/H) is constant, at a value of about 15 parts per million (ppm) of D relative to H. Researchers have been working toward confirming this idea and quantifying the local value of D/H for decades! (stsci.edu)
  • The different values of the deuterium-to-hydrogen ratio (D/H) in water observed in various bodies in the Solar System. (esa.int)
  • The ratio of deuterium to hydrogen in water is a key diagnostic to determining where in the Solar System an object originated and in what proportion asteroids and/or comets contributed to Earth's oceans. (esa.int)
  • Is there a ratio of total volume to deuterium volume? (fusor.net)
  • Hydrogen bromide Heavy water (Water with deuterium in place of normal hydrogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Determination of the structure of phase II of deuterium is a clear illustration of the special status of the solid hydrogens. (esrf.eu)
  • Proteins can be thought of as breathing: They exchange their hydrogens for deuteriums when bathed in D 2 O. The hydrogens that get switched for deuteriums help researchers figure out details of protein structure, folding and interactions. (asbmb.org)
  • The deuterium isotope's name is formed from the Greek deuteros , meaning "second", to denote the two particles composing the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soon after deuterium's discovery, Urey and others produced samples of " heavy water " in which the deuterium content had been highly concentrated. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to both researchers, deuterium-depleted water creates a net energy benefit for the body, which provides more energy to respond to stressors, such as radiation and disease. (coasttocoastam.com)
  • The median survival time of patients in the deuterium depleted water consuming group was 2-4 times longer than it is generally observed in lung cancer patients. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Deuterium depleted water is a promising new anticancer agent with potential for future clinical application. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Deuterium-depleted water as adjuvant therapeutic agent for treatment of diet-induced obesity. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Deuterium-depleted water decreased total cholesterol and triglyceride levels along with increased plasma insulin in Wistar-Kyoto rats. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Deuterium-depleted water has stimulating effects on long-term memory in rats. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Furthermore, you mentioned that the cost decreases when doing electrolysis, but don't you have to buy a litre of heavy water to obtain a little less than a litre of deuterium? (fusor.net)
  • Scientists in China reported a less expensive, more eco-friendly method for making large quantities of deuterium depleted drinking water. (medindia.net)
  • Deuterium-depleted water may be more healthier form of water. (medindia.net)
  • Deuterium-depleted water usually contains about 125 ppm. (medindia.net)
  • They cite accumulating evidence that water with high levels of deuterium may have adverse health effects on animals and plants, while deuterium-depleted water may be useful in treatment of certain diseases. (medindia.net)
  • Existing ways of removing deuterium from water tend to be expensive, inefficient, or environmentally harmful. (medindia.net)
  • They describe a new method that helps overcome these problems, and could be the basis for the first industrial-scale production of deuterium-depleted water. (medindia.net)
  • It involves a platinum catalyst that quickly and efficiently removes deuterium from water using a combination of cold and hot temperatures. (medindia.net)
  • Replacement of the daily fluid intake of patients with deuterium-depleted water (DDW) results in a shortage of deuterium (D) in the body, and might exert an anticancer effect. (positivehealth.com)
  • After publication of the previous article, Molecular and Clinical Effects of Deuterium Depleted Water in Treatment and Prevention of Cancer in Positive Health Online a demand emerged for the explanation of the use of DDW in daily practice addressing the correlation between the application of deuterium depletion, life skills and diet. (positivehealth.com)
  • The content of deuterium in hot mineral water may be increased due to the physical chemical processes of the deuterium accumulation. (o8ode.ru)
  • It can be presumed that primary water might contain more deuterium at early stages of evolution of first living structures, and deuterium was distributed non-uniformly in the hydrosphere and atmosphere (Ignatov & Mosin, 2012). (o8ode.ru)
  • In cases where evaporation processes were found to be significant, the evaporation rate of the remaining water was estimated with the aid of the deuterium measurements. (irsn.fr)
  • This hydration water is shown to retain its original deuterium concentration through time, and because the deuterium content of precipitation has been used for climate characterization, the hydration water, which is related to ancient precipitation, can be used to investigate ancient climates. (usgs.gov)
  • In this study, we present the potential application of deuterium-depleted water (DDW) for the prevention and adjuvant treatment of obesity in rats. (mdpi.com)
  • Reconstructing relative humidity from plant δ18O and δD as deuterium deviations from the global meteoric water line. (epa.gov)
  • We use paired δ18O and δD to establish deuterium deviations from the global meteoric water line in leaf water (Δdl). (epa.gov)
  • We then use a mechanistic model of cellulose δ18O and δD to back-predict deuterium deviations from the global meteoric water line (Δdc) in Quercus macrocarpa, Q. robur and Pseudotsuga menziesii. (epa.gov)
  • In other words, water contains 150 ppm of deuterium. (anton-paar.com)
  • High temperatures enhance the migration to H 2 S, low temperatures preferably to H 2 O. Deuterium enriched water with a deuterium content of above 99 % can be produced. (anton-paar.com)
  • What remains is deuterium depleted water. (anton-paar.com)
  • Cultivation in 50% D2O of annual ryegrass and switchgrass following establishment of roots by growth in H2O produces samples with normal morphology and 30-40% deuterium incorporation in the biomass. (nih.gov)
  • These natural processes could lead to the enrichment of the hydrosphere by deuterium in the form of HDO which evaporates more slowly then H 2 O, and condenses faster. (o8ode.ru)
  • Here we describe the use of binomial distribution fitting with asymmetric linear squares regression for calculating the accurate deuterium content for mass envelopes of low signal or that contain significant overlap. (ku.edu)
  • The fundamental regions of deuterium sulfide have been studied in the infrared using a small commercial grating instrument and a large vacuum-grating spectrometer. (osu.edu)
  • The energies of spectroscopic lines for deuterium and light hydrogen (hydrogen-1) therefore differ by the ratios of these two numbers, which is 1.000272. (wikipedia.org)
  • The wavelengths of all deuterium spectroscopic lines are shorter than the corresponding lines of light hydrogen, by a factor of 1.000272. (wikipedia.org)
  • A kinetic study of the hydrogen-deuterium exchange reaction of cyclohexanone in aqueous solution, as catalyzed by proline derivatives, has revealed valuable structure-activity relationships. (mit.edu)
  • FUSE has the right combination to tackle deuterium measurements in the local universe. (stsci.edu)
  • At the same time, the precision of deuterium uptake measurements was improved for nearly every peptide examined. (ku.edu)
  • Jones G. (1978) The production of pions by polarized protons incident on hydrogen and deuterium. (springer.com)
  • The spectral fingerprints of deuterium are very prevalent in the FUSE spectral range, especially for objects in and near our galaxy (low redshift). (stsci.edu)
  • We observe no change in the deuterium concentration of surface waters, and hence climate, in that region post-8500 BP. (usgs.gov)
  • It is found that the concentration of implanted deuterium decreases rapidly in the samples as a function of anneal time. (diva-portal.org)
  • Comparison of the differences in deuterium uptake for peptic peptides produced in the absence and presence of ligand revealed regions of the proteins that are protected against deuterium exchange upon ligand binding. (springer.com)
  • A valence force field for furan and pyrrole and their deuterium and methyl derivatives. (cdc.gov)
  • A molecular vibrational analysis was carried out for furan and pyrrole and their deuterium and methyl derivatives to establish vibrational assignments for use in statistical thermodynamic calculations. (cdc.gov)
  • [2] Deuterium was discovered and named in 1931 by Harold Urey . (wikipedia.org)
  • November 26 - Deuterium is discovered by Harold Urey. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1, which increases during the labelling phase, and which decreases after deuterium has been withdrawn. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Thorlabs' SLS204 Deuterium Light Source provides stable illumination from 200 nm to 700 nm. (thorlabs.com)
  • Examples of labels are the fluorescent dye carboxy-fluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE), the base analogue 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and the stable isotype deuterium. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Where does the estimate of deuterium lifetime come from and what is the mechanism of the decay? (physicsforums.com)
  • The rate of hydrogen-to-deuterium exchange within the amide hydrogen on the backbone of biotherapeutics provides solvent accessibility information and thus protein structure and conformation can be inferred. (thermofisher.com)
  • Chemisorption on Size Selected Metal Clusters: Activation Barriers and Chemical Reactions for Deuterium on Aluminum Cluster Ions. (bell-labs.com)
  • The experimental data are explained by a model where the deuterium migrates rapidly and becomes trapped and de-trapped at implantation-induced defects which exhibit a slightly shallower depth distribution than the implanted deuterium ions. (diva-portal.org)
  • The chemical symbol for Deuterium is 2 H but D is also used often. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deuterium isotope effects on 13 C-NMR chemical shifts are investigated in a series of 10-hydroxybenzo[ h ]quinolines (HBQ's) The OH proton is deuteriated. (mdpi.com)
  • Two-bond deuterium isotope effects on 13 C chemical shifts are correlated with calculated OH stretching frequencies. (mdpi.com)
  • The role of deuterium in molecular evolution is most interesting question of nowdays science comprises two points mainly: the evolution of deuterium itself as well as the chemical processes going with participation of deuterium. (o8ode.ru)
  • If this is true, this is a significant fact regarding thermal stability of deuterated macromolecules in the preservation of life under thermal conditions, because chemical bonds with participation of deuterium are stronger than those ones formed of hydrogen. (o8ode.ru)
  • Deuterium NMR has a range of chemical shift similar to proton NMR but with poor resolution. (wikibooks.org)
  • By monitoring the effect of deuterium decoupling on the decay of transverse N-15 magnetization in D-N-15 spin pairs during multiple-refocusing echo sequences, we have determined fast D-D exchange rates k(D) and compared them with fast H-H exchange rates k(H) in tryptophan to determine the kinetic isotope effect as a function of pH and temperature. (epfl.ch)
  • When applied to the active ingredient of drugs to incorporate deuterium, it could dramatically improve the drugs' efficacy and safety and even introduce new medicines. (ornl.gov)
  • Autoradiographic experiments support the suggestion, for whereas normal sea urchin eggs incorporate H 3 -thymidine into deoxyribonucleic acid from almost the beginning of development, cells immersed in deuterium-enriched media do not. (sciencemag.org)
  • Winter grain rye (Secale cereale) was found to efficiently incorporate deuterium by photosynthetic fixation from 50% D2O but did not incorporate deuterated phenylalanine-d8 from the growth medium. (nih.gov)
  • Within the bulb, an electric arc is generated that excites the gaseous deuterium causing molecular emission of a continuous UV spectrum. (thorlabs.com)
  • The "D" is deuterium, an isotope or variant form of hydrogen often termed "heavy hydrogen. (medindia.net)
  • The present application describes deuterium-enriched fulvestrant, pharmaceutically acceptable salt forms thereof, and methods of treating using the same. (freepatentsonline.com)