Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared: A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.Infrared Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum usually sensed as heat. Infrared wavelengths are longer than those of visible light, extending into the microwave frequencies. They are used therapeutically as heat, and also to warm food in restaurants.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Oxyhemoglobins: A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.Optical Imaging: The use of light interaction (scattering, absorption, and fluorescence) with biological tissue to obtain morphologically based information. It includes measuring inherent tissue optical properties such as scattering, absorption, and autofluorescence; or optical properties of exogenous targeted fluorescent molecular probes such as those used in optical MOLECULAR IMAGING, or nontargeted optical CONTRAST AGENTS.Calycanthaceae: A plant family of the order Laurales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida.Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Ytterbium: Ytterbium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Yb, atomic number 70, and atomic weight 173. Ytterbium has been used in lasers and as a portable x-ray source.Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Thulium: Thulium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Tm, atomic number 69, and atomic weight 168.93.Tympanic Membrane Perforation: A temporary or persistent opening in the eardrum (TYMPANIC MEMBRANE). Clinical signs depend on the size, location, and associated pathological condition.Indocyanine Green: A tricarbocyanine dye that is used diagnostically in liver function tests and to determine blood volume and cardiac output.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Spectrum Analysis, Raman: Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Phototherapy: Treatment of disease by exposure to light, especially by variously concentrated light rays or specific wavelengths.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Oximetry: The determination of oxygen-hemoglobin saturation of blood either by withdrawing a sample and passing it through a classical photoelectric oximeter or by electrodes attached to some translucent part of the body like finger, earlobe, or skin fold. It includes non-invasive oxygen monitoring by pulse oximetry.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Caloric Tests: Elicitation of a rotatory nystagmus by stimulating the semicircular canals with water or air which is above or below body temperature. In warm caloric stimulation a rotatory nystagmus is developed toward the side of the stimulated ear; in cold, away from the stimulated side. Absence of nystagmus indicates the labyrinth is not functioning.Metals, Rare Earth: A group of elements that include SCANDIUM; YTTRIUM; and the LANTHANOID SERIES ELEMENTS. Historically, the rare earth metals got their name from the fact that they were never found in their pure elemental form, but as an oxide. In addition they were very difficult to purify. They are not truly rare and comprise about 25% of the metals in the earth's crust.Lecithins: A complex mixture of PHOSPHOLIPIDS; GLYCOLIPIDS; and TRIGLYCERIDES; with substantial amounts of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES; PHOSPHATIDYLETHANOLAMINES; and PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS, which are sometimes loosely termed as 1,2-diacyl-3-phosphocholines. Lecithin is a component of the CELL MEMBRANE and commercially extracted from SOYBEANS and EGG YOLK. The emulsifying and surfactant properties are useful in FOOD ADDITIVES and for forming organogels (GELS).Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Tomography, Optical: Projection of near-IR light (INFRARED RAYS), in the 700-1000 nm region, across an object in parallel beams to an array of sensitive photodetectors. This is repeated at various angles and a mathematical reconstruction provides three dimensional MEDICAL IMAGING of tissues. Based on the relative transparency of tissues to this spectra, it has been used to monitor local oxygenation, brain and joints.Lasers: An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.Carbocyanines: Compounds that contain three methine groups. They are frequently used as cationic dyes used for differential staining of biological materials.Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular: NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.Nanoshells: Nanometer range spherical cores of particular semiconductor compounds surrounded by an ultrathin metal shell that is commonly made of gold or silver. This configuration gives the nanoshells highly tunable optical properties. They have potential in biomedicine for diagnosis and therapy.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nanocomposites: Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)Least-Squares Analysis: A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.Fluorescence: The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Diagnostic Imaging: Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Sex Determination Processes: The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.Blood Volume Determination: Method for determining the circulating blood volume by introducing a known quantity of foreign substance into the blood and determining its concentration some minutes later when thorough mixing has occurred. From these two values the blood volume can be calculated by dividing the quantity of injected material by its concentration in the blood at the time of uniform mixing. Generally expressed as cubic centimeters or liters per kilogram of body weight.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Radiation, Nonionizing: ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION or sonic radiation (SOUND WAVES) which does not produce IONS in matter through which it passes. The wavelengths of non-ionizing electromagentic radiation are generally longer than those of far ultraviolet radiation and range through the longest RADIO WAVES.Gold: A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Semiconductors: Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.Scattering, Radiation: The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Optics and Photonics: A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.Nystagmus, Physiologic: Involuntary rhythmical movements of the eyes in the normal person. These can be naturally occurring as in end-position (end-point, end-stage, or deviational) nystagmus or induced by the optokinetic drum (NYSTAGMUS, OPTOKINETIC), caloric test, or a rotating chair.Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Molecular Imaging: The use of molecularly targeted imaging probes to localize and/or monitor biochemical and cellular processes via various imaging modalities that include RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; ULTRASONOGRAPHY; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; FLUORESCENCE IMAGING; and MICROSCOPY.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Photoelectron Spectroscopy: The study of the energy of electrons ejected from matter by the photoelectric effect, i.e., as a direct result of absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation. As the energies of the electrons are characteristic of a specific element, the measurement of the energy of these electrons is a technique used to determine the chemical composition of surfaces.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy: Analysis of the energy absorbed across a spectrum of x-ray energies/wavelengths to determine the chemical structure and electronic states of the absorbing medium.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Thermography: Imaging the temperatures in a material, or in the body or an organ. Imaging is based on self-emanating infrared radiation (HEAT WAVES), or on changes in properties of the material or tissue that vary with temperature, such as ELASTICITY; MAGNETIC FIELD; or LUMINESCENCE.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Creatine: An amino acid that occurs in vertebrate tissues and in urine. In muscle tissue, creatine generally occurs as phosphocreatine. Creatine is excreted as CREATININE in the urine.Metal Nanoparticles: Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.Blood Gas Monitoring, Transcutaneous: The noninvasive measurement or determination of the partial pressure (tension) of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide locally in the capillaries of a tissue by the application to the skin of a special set of electrodes. These electrodes contain photoelectric sensors capable of picking up the specific wavelengths of radiation emitted by oxygenated versus reduced hemoglobin.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Molecular Probe Techniques: The use of devices which use detector molecules to detect, investigate, or analyze other molecules, macromolecules, molecular aggregates, or organisms.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Quantum Dots: Nanometer sized fragments of semiconductor crystalline material which emit PHOTONS. The wavelength is based on the quantum confinement size of the dot. They can be embedded in MICROBEADS for high throughput ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Fourier Analysis: Analysis based on the mathematical function first formulated by Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier in 1807. The function, known as the Fourier transform, describes the sinusoidal pattern of any fluctuating pattern in the physical world in terms of its amplitude and its phase. It has broad applications in biomedicine, e.g., analysis of the x-ray crystallography data pivotal in identifying the double helical nature of DNA and in analysis of other molecules, including viruses, and the modified back-projection algorithm universally used in computerized tomography imaging, etc. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Spectroscopy, Mossbauer: A spectroscopic technique which uses the Mossbauer effect (inelastic scattering of gamma radiation resulting from interaction with heavy nuclei) to monitor the small variations in the interaction between an atomic nucleus and its environment. Such variations may be induced by changes in temperature, pressure, chemical state, molecular conformation, molecular interaction, or physical site. It is particularly useful for studies of structure-activity relationship in metalloproteins, mobility of heavy metals, and the state of whole tissue and cell membranes.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Coloring Agents: Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.Sex Determination Analysis: Validation of the SEX of an individual by inspection of the GONADS and/or by genetic tests.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Microscopy, Fluorescence, Multiphoton: Fluorescence microscopy utilizing multiple low-energy photons to produce the excitation event of the fluorophore. Multiphoton microscopes have a simplified optical path in the emission side due to the lack of an emission pinhole, which is necessary with normal confocal microscopes. Ultimately this allows spatial isolation of the excitation event, enabling deeper imaging into optically thick tissue, while restricting photobleaching and phototoxicity to the area being imaged.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Calorimetry, Differential Scanning: Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission: The spectrometric analysis of fluorescent X-RAYS, i.e. X-rays emitted after bombarding matter with high energy particles such as PROTONS; ELECTRONS; or higher energy X-rays. Identification of ELEMENTS by this technique is based on the specific type of X-rays that are emitted which are characteristic of the specific elements in the material being analyzed. The characteristic X-rays are distinguished and/or quantified by either wavelength dispersive or energy dispersive methods.Choline: A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Spectrophotometry, Atomic: Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.Electron Transport Complex IV: A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Whole Body Imaging: The creation of a visual display of the inside of the entire body of a human or animal for the purposes of diagnostic evaluation. This is most commonly achieved by using MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; or POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY.Monitoring, Intraoperative: The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Ophthalmoscopy: Examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Deuterium Oxide: The isotopic compound of hydrogen of mass 2 (deuterium) with oxygen. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed) It is used to study mechanisms and rates of chemical or nuclear reactions, as well as biological processes.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Phantoms, Imaging: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Flow Injection Analysis: The analysis of a chemical substance by inserting a sample into a carrier stream of reagent using a sample injection valve that propels the sample downstream where mixing occurs in a coiled tube, then passes into a flow-through detector and a recorder or other data handling device.Lactose: A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Microscopy, Atomic Force: A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Vibration: A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Limit of Detection: Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.Biophysical Phenomena: The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Phosphocreatine: An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Myoglobin: A conjugated protein which is the oxygen-transporting pigment of muscle. It is made up of one globin polypeptide chain and one heme group.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Thermogravimetry: Technique whereby the weight of a sample can be followed over a period of time while its temperature is being changed (usually increased at a constant rate).Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.PhotochemistryCrystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Electrons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.Bacteriorhodopsins: Rhodopsins found in the PURPLE MEMBRANE of halophilic archaea such as HALOBACTERIUM HALOBIUM. Bacteriorhodopsins function as an energy transducers, converting light energy into electrochemical energy via PROTON PUMPS.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Chemistry Techniques, Analytical: Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Photons: Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Protein Denaturation: Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Heme: The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Spin Labels: Molecules which contain an atom or a group of atoms exhibiting an unpaired electron spin that can be detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and can be bonded to another molecule. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial: A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Deuterium: Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Microchemistry: The development and use of techniques and equipment to study or perform chemical reactions, with small quantities of materials, frequently less than a milligram or a milliliter.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine: A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Nitrogen Isotopes: Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.Colorimetry: Any technique by which an unknown color is evaluated in terms of standard colors. The technique may be visual, photoelectric, or indirect by means of spectrophotometry. It is used in chemistry and physics. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Copper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Optical Fibers: Thin strands of transparent material, usually glass, that are used for transmitting light waves over long distances.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Phosphorus Isotopes: Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.Lasers, Semiconductor: Lasers with a semiconductor diode as the active medium. Diode lasers transform electric energy to light using the same principle as a light-emitting diode (LED), but with internal reflection capability, thus forming a resonator where a stimulated light can reflect back and forth, allowing only a certain wavelength to be emitted. The emission of a given device is determined by the active compound used (e.g., gallium arsenide crystals doped with aluminum or indium). Typical wavelengths are 810, 1,060 and 1,300 nm. (From UMDNS, 2005)Synchrotrons: Devices for accelerating protons or electrons in closed orbits where the accelerating voltage and magnetic field strength varies (the accelerating voltage is held constant for electrons) in order to keep the orbit radius constant.
More advanced methods include DNA quantification, infrared spectroscopy. and for buried individuals changes in soils such as ... Survey of Biological Factors Affecting the Determination of the Postmortem Interval. Bautista, Richard. Spring 2012. Blood, ... Huang, P; Tuo, Y; Wang, ZY (2010). "Review on estimation of postmortem interval using FTIR spectroscopy". Fa yi xue za zhi. 26 ...
"Infrared Diode-Laser Spectroscopy of Phosphoryl Bromide (BrPO)." Journal of molecular spectroscopy 195.2 (1999): 340-344. Okuda ... "An electron diffraction determination of the molecular structures of phosphoryl bromide and thiophosphoryl bromide." Journal of ...
access-date= requires ,url= (help) C.Stevenson and S.W.Novak (July 2011). "Obsidian hydration dating by infrared spectroscopy: ... Meighan, Clement (1976). ""Empirical Determination of Obsidian Hydration Rates from Archaeological Evidence"". In R.E. Taylor. ... infra red photoacoustic spectroscopy). In order to use obsidian hydration for absolute dating, the conditions that the sample ... whereas the age determination is reached via equations describing the diffusion process, while topographical effects have been ...
"Structure determination of isolated metal clusters via far-infrared spectroscopy". Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 (2): 023401. Bibcode: ... Their electronic structures can be interrogated by techniques such as photoelectron spectroscopy, while infrared multiphoton ... with photoelectron spectroscopy. With an internal diameter of 6.1 Ångstrom, it is of comparable size to fullerene and should be ... dissociation spectroscopy is more probing the clusters geometry. Their properties (Reactivity, Ionization potential, HOMO-LUMO- ...
... infrared spectroscopy and crystal structure determination of a new decavanadate". J Chem Crystallogr. 40: 897-901. doi:10.1007/ ... H+ The structure of the various protonation states of the decavanadate ion has been examined by 51V NMR spectroscopy. Each ...
Near-infrared and Raman spectroscopy are used as secondary analysis techniques. For primary analysis, one of the above- ... in particular atomic spectroscopy and voltammetry, are better suited for their determination. Titrators serve the automatic ... This classic wet-chemical technique remains the method of choice for, among others, the determination of water hardness and the ... The use of chemometrics for data analysis is an essential part of NIR spectroscopy. Wolf, Marco (2009). "Modeling a measurement ...
His research was in infrared and Raman spectroscopy and the determination of molecular and crystal structure. In 1946 and 1948 ... In 1956 with Michael Falk, he obtained the infrared spectrum of the hydronium ion, previously believed to be too short-lived to ... Fellowship in chemistry for the investigation of the molecular structure of hydrogen peroxide by infrared spectroscopy, which ...
"Research on Determination of Total Acid Number of Petroleum Using Mid-infrared Attenuated Total Reflection Spectroscopy". ... Mid and near infrared spectroscopy are most commonly used for this purpose. Spectroscopic methods are valuable as they can also ... Spectroscopic methods: as with many chemical parameters, spectroscopy can be used to make fast, accurate measurements once ...
"Determination of the Dispersion Characteristics of Miniaturized Coiled Reactors with Fiber-Optic Fourier Transform Mid-infrared ... "Combining reaction calorimetry and ATR-IR spectroscopy for the operando monitoring of ionic liquids synthesis". Catalysis Today ... Spectroscopy". Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 49 (12): 5530-5535. doi:10.1021/ie901094q. ...
Infrared (IR) spectroscopy by ATR is applicable to the same chemical or biological systems as the transmission method. One ... "Determination of the Dispersion Characteristics of Miniaturized Coiled Reactors with Fiber-Optic Fourier Transform Mid-infrared ... Attenuated total reflection (ATR) is a sampling technique used in conjunction with infrared spectroscopy which enables samples ... F. M. Mirabella, Jr., Practical Spectroscopy Series; Internal reflection spectroscopy: Theory and applications, Marcel Dekker, ...
His work also involved the exhaustive use of the then newly developed techniques of infrared spectroscopy and later, nuclear ... Notable among these structure determinations were santonic acid, strychnine, magnamycin and terramycin. About terramycin, ... Woodward also applied the technique of infrared spectroscopy and chemical degradation to determine the structures of ... In the early 1940s Wooward was using ultraviolet spectroscopy to discover the structure of natural products. Woodward collected ...
His work also involved the exhaustive use of the then newly developed techniques of infrared spectroscopy and later, nuclear ... Notable among these structure determinations were santonic acid, strychnine, magnamycin and terramycin. About terramycin, ... Woodward also applied the technique of infrared spectroscopy and chemical degradation to determine the structures of ... especially in the synthesis of complex natural products and the determination of their molecular structure. He also worked ...
Infrared spectroscopy: Chiefly used to determine the presence (or absence) of certain functional groups. ... Crystallography has seen especially extensive use in biochemistry (for protein structure determination) and in the ... UV/VIS spectroscopy: Used to determine degree of conjugation in the system. While still sometimes used to characterize ... Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy identifies different nuclei based on their chemical environment. This is the most ...
... the Cornell Mid-Infrared Asteroid Spectroscopy (MIDAS) Survey". Icarus. 173 (2): 385. Bibcode:2005Icar..173..385L. doi:10.1016/ ... Jim Baer (2010). "Recent Asteroid Mass Determinations". Personal Website. Retrieved 2011-09-02. L.F. Lim; McConnochie, T; ... Barucci, M (2002). "10 Hygiea: ISO Infrared Observations". Icarus. 156 (1): 202. Bibcode:2002Icar..156..202B. doi:10.1006/icar. ... Belliii, J; Hayward, T (2005). "Thermal infrared (8-13 µm) spectra of 29 asteroids: ...
Today fully automated systems based on thermal conductivity or infrared spectroscopy detection of the combustion gases, or ... For organic chemists, elemental analysis or "EA" almost always refers to CHNX analysis-the determination of the mass fractions ... X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Auger electron spectroscopy. Chemical methods Sodium fusion test Schöniger oxidation The ... Other spectroscopy which probes the inner electronic structure of atoms such as X-ray fluorescence, particle-induced X-ray ...
DMF can be utilized as a standard in proton NMR spectroscopy allowing for a quantitative determination of an unknown compound. ... Haddon, R.; Itkis, M. (March 2008). "3. Near-Infrared (NIR) Spectroscopy". In Freiman, S.; Hooker, S.; Migler; K.; Arepalli, S ... and is recommended by the NIST for use in near infrared spectroscopy of such. ... Thus, the infrared spectrum shows a C=O stretching frequency at only 1675 cm−1, whereas a ketone would absorb near 1700 cm−1. ...
... albumin and total protein in human plasma by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: Direct clinical biochemistry without ... "Prenatal determination of lung maturity and prevention of RDS". In 1972 Verder began his associated professorship at Copenhagen ... concentrating on prenatal determination of lung maturity and prevention of RDS (Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome). In 1980 ... "Simultaneous determination of glucose, triglycerides, urea, cholesterol, ...
in 1948, was on infrared spectroscopy and was supervised by Harold Warris Thompson. Richards was elected a Fellow of the Royal ... and was the first to apply it to the determination of unknown molecular structures. During recent years he has stimulated other ... Earlier, he has done work of high quality in infrared spectroscopy, thermo-chemistry and magnetochemistry and has discovered ...
... albumin and total protein in human plasma by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: Direct clinical biochemistry without ... "Simultaneous determination of glucose, triglycerides, urea, cholesterol, ...
"Near-infrared Spectroscopy of Low-mass X-ray Binaries: Accretion Disk Contamination and Compact Object Mass Determination in ...
... and activity of specific regions of the brain by continuously monitoring blood hemoglobin levels through the determination of ... Astronomical spectroscopy[edit]. Near-infrared spectroscopy is in astronomy for studying the atmospheres of cool stars where ... Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a spectroscopic method that uses the near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum ... "Wireless near-infrared spectroscopy of skeletal muscle oxygenation and hemodynamics during exercise and ischemia". Spectroscopy ...
... and nitrogen-containing functional groups and analyzed by infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. However, ... determination of structures of graphene with oxygen- and nitrogen- functional groups requires the structures to be well ... "Analysis of heat-treated graphite oxide by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy". Journal of Material Science. 48 (23): 8171-8198. ... "Nitrogen-containing graphene analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy". Carbon. 70: 59-74. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2013.12.061 ...
... infrared, and NMR. Modifications have also been done to further improve the accuracy in the determination of K and ε based on ... Although initially used in conjunction with UV/Vis spectroscopy, many modifications have been made that allow the B-H method to ... Seal B, Mukherjee A, Mukherjee D (1979). "An Alternative Method of Solving the Rose-Drago Equation for the Determination of ... I. An Absolute Method for the Spectroscopic Determination of Equilibrium Constants" J. Am. Chem. Soc. 81: 6138-6141. Drago R, ...
Much of this research was carried out before techniques such as Infrared spectroscopy or Mass spectrometry were developed: for ... He soon moved into polymer chemistry, again working on synthesis methods and structure determination. Using techniques such as ... determinations of elemental analysis, average molecular weight, end-group analysis, and examination of products, Marvel ...
... infra red photoacoustic spectroscopy). The determination of absolute age from the thickness of an obsidian hydration band is ... Stevenson, C, and SW Novak (2011) Obsidian hydration dating by infrared spectroscopy: method and calibration. Journal of ... ISBN 0-415-32738-5 Wagner, GA (1998) Age Determination of Young Rocks and Artifacts: Physical and Chemical Clocks in Quaternary ...
... biomedical applications of infrared and Raman spectroscopy". The Analyst 131. Páxs. 875-885.. ... "Sequential Resonance Assignments as a Basis for Determination of Spatial Protein Structures by High Resolution Proton Nuclear ...
... R. Nagarajan. ,1 Parul Singh. ,1 and Ranjana ... C. Reh, S. N. Bhat, and S. Berrut, "Determination of water content in powdered milk," Food Chemistry, vol. 86, no. 3, pp. 457- ... H.-D. Isengard and P. Heinze, "Determination of the water content in different sugar syrups by halogen drying," Food Control, ... I. Ben-Gera and K. H. Norris, "Influence of fat concentration on the absorbtion spectrum of milk in the near infrared region," ...
Reagentless Determination of Human Serum Components Using Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy Sang-Joon Hahn, Gil-Won Yoon, Gun- ... G. Budinova, J. Salva, and K. Volka, "Application of Molecular Spectroscopy in the Mid-Infrared Region to the Determination of ... G. Budinova, J. Salva, and K. Volka, "Application of Molecular Spectroscopy in the Mid-Infrared Region to the Determination of ... G. Budinova, J. Salva, and K. Volka, "Application of Molecular Spectroscopy in the Mid-Infrared Region to the Determination of ...
Comparison between transmittance and reflectance measurements in glucose determination using near infrared spectroscopy Author( ... Glucose determination based on near-IR spectroscopy is investigated for reflectance and transmittance measurement. A wavelength ...
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, a new method for rapid determination of total organic and inorganic carbon and ... Carbon, Paleolimnology, IR spectroscopy, Biogenic silica, Biogeochemistry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, FTIRS. in ... Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, a new method for rapid determination of total organic and inorganic carbon and ... IR spectroscopy,Biogenic silica,Biogeochemistry,Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,FTIRS}, language = {eng}, number = {2 ...
Fast and straightforward determination by near-infrared spectroscopy. Metrohm offers a turnkey solution for quality control of ... Fast and straightforward determination by near-infrared spectroscopy» ... Fast and straightforward determination by near-infrared spectroscopy (english) ... Near-infrared spectroscopy analyzers for routine analysis of chemical and physical properties ...
Determination of glomalin in agriculture and forest soils by near-infrared spectroscopy , Jiří Zbíral, David Čižmár, Stanislav ... Determination of glomalin in agriculture and forest soils by near-infrared spectroscopy ... Determination of glomalin in agriculture and forest soils by near-infrared spectroscopy. Plant Soil Environ., 63: 226-230.. ... Heinze Stefanie, Vohland Michael, Joergensen Rainer Georg, Ludwig Bernard (2013): Usefulness of near-infrared spectroscopy for ...
... Poster Mar 03, 2014 ... Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a rapid, non-destructive method for analysis of routinely measured products. NIR can ... Raman Spectroscopy Aids Advancement of Spintronic Devices News Jan 17, 2018 Read more ... NIR spectroscopy provides a quick and damage-free solution. Four sets of soft contact lenses with known moisture levels were ...
Determination of Organic Contaminants in Aqueous Samples by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Qing Ding, Brian L. Boyd, and Gary W. ... "Determination of Organic Contaminants in Aqueous Samples by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy," Appl. Spectrosc. 54, 1047-1054 (2000) ... OSA Publishing > Applied Spectroscopy > Volume 54 > Issue 7 > Page 1047 * Applied Spectroscopy. Michael W. Blades, Editor-in- ... The feasibility of determining low levels of organic solvents in water by near-infrared (near-IR) spectroscopy is investigated ...
The coefficient of determination for validation (R(2)(v)) were 0.589, 0.910 and 0.697 for tannin, total starch andamylose ... The developed model result showed the determined tannin, starch, and amylose with coefficient for determination being 0.815, ... Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for tannin, starch and amylose determination in sorghum breeding programs. ... Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy NIRS for tannin starch and amylose determination in sorghum breeding programs ...
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The biosurfactant extract was also characterized by Fourier transform infrared ... Determination of Fatty Acid Composition. For determination of the fatty acid profile, the biosurfactant was submitted to the ... The gravimetric method was used for the determination of the fixed mineral residue (ash) based on the determination of the ... Figure 1. Infrared spectrum of biosurfactant produced by S. cerevisiae in medium supplemented with 1.0% waste soybean oil and ...
Physical chemistry and infrared analyses showed 130 kDa heteroxylan containing mainly xylose:arabinose: galactose:glucose (5.0: ... Fourier Transformed Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy Analysis. Xylan (5 mg) was mixed thoroughly with dry potassium bromide. A ... 3.5.1. Determination of Total Antioxidant Capacity. The assay for total antioxidant capacity is based on the reduction of Mo+6 ... Figure 1. Infrared spectrum of the region between 4000-500 cm−1 of polysaccharides from corn cobs. The peaks highlighted with ...
... Here, we demonstrate Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy as a rapid, high-throughput and quantitative method for ... HomeResearchResearch ExplorerPublicationsRapid, high-throughput, and quantitative determination of or... ... Results from these chemometric analyses showed that infrared spectra contained information allowing for the discrimination and ...
Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has the potential to replace numerous methods for the investigation of a wide range of ... "Determination of particle size of pharmaceutical raw materials using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy", Spectroscopy 1, ... "Progress in silica chemistry-determination of physico-chemical parameters via near-infrared diffuse reflection spectroscopy", ... "When size matters-near infrared reflection spectroscopy of nanostructured materials", J. Near Infrared Spectrosc. 16, 211 (2008 ...
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a valuable tool for pharmaceutical analysis, as it requires minimal labor resources and ... high-accuracy drug analysis is essential for regular QC purposes and for determination of counterfeit medicines that are ... Near-Infrared Assay for Rapid and Accurate Determination of Content Uniformity of Tablets. ... Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Helps Improve Quality and Efficiency of Pharmaceutical Production Lines. *Download PDF Copy ...
L. Minati et al., "Intra- and extra-cranial effects of transient blood pressure changes on brain near-infrared spectroscopy ( ... 3.2.1 Determination of one-way model versus two-way model. *3.2.2 Determination of two-way random-effect model versus mixed- ... Her current expertise lies in the field of near-infrared spectroscopy of tissues, optical sensing for cancer detection, and ... applied ICC(1,1) and ICC(1,2) in quantification of test-retest reliability in functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) ...
... Repozitář DSpace/Manakin. Přihlásit ... Determination of fatty acid content in sheep milk by means of near infrared spectroscopy. Acta Veterinaria Brno [online]. 2014 ... Determination of fatty acid content in sheep milk by means of near infrared spectroscopy. ... The study focused on the use of the Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy in determining the content of selected fatty ...
Determination of lignin and ash contents of corn stover by near infrared spectroscopy. ... The main objective of this study was to evaluate near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy method for rapid determination of lignin and ... Home // Current Students // Determination of lignin and ash contents of corn stover by near infrared spectroscopy ... Determination of lignin and ash contents of corn stover is important for improving the conversion processes. The current wet ...
"Determination of resin and moisture content in melamine-formaldehyde paper using near infrared spectroscopy," J. Near Infrared ... Determination of resin and moisture content in melamine-formaldehyde paper using near infrared spectroscopy Ana Henriques, ... This paper describes the use of near infrared spectroscopy as a tool for the determination of moisture and resin content on ... OSA Publishing > Journal of Near Infrared Spectroscopy > Volume 25 > Issue 5 > Page 311 ...
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Analysis. The determination of active functional groups present on the L. lactis ... Determination of Lactococcus lactis cells viability before and after the CE analysis was performed by using fluorescence ... L. lactis Cells Size Determination. The size of non-modified and modified Lactococcus lactis cells was determined using the ... Furthermore, the size distribution, spectrometric in infrared range measurements and viability assay of L. lactis before and ...
Journal of Spectroscopy is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles as well as review ... articles on the theory and application of spectroscopy across all disciplines. Articles may contribute to fundamental research ... S. Kawano, H. Watanabe, and M. Iwamoto, "Determination of sugar content in intact peaches by near infrared spectroscopy," ... Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy can obtain a signal of relatively high energy, relative to far-infrared radiation and ...
The purpose of this paper is to quantify the \(^{1}\textit {O}_{2}\) generated by the PS by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). ... and lipidated protoporphyrin IX using near-infrared luminescence spectroscopy. *Takahiro Nishimura. 1. , ... and lipidated protoporphyrin IX using near-infrared luminescence spectroscopy. Lasers Med Sci (2019) doi:10.1007/s10103-019- ... Nishimura, T., Hara, K., Honda, N. et al. Determination and analysis of singlet oxygen quantum yields of talaporfin sodium, ...
Determination of carotenoid and tocopherol content in maize flour and oil samples using near-infrared spectroscopy ... There is an increasing interest in the detection of secondary metabolites with near-infrared spectroscopy. However, the number ... especially for tocopherols in corn flour or oil samples by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy is rather limited. This study ... SPECTROSCOPY LETTERS, cilt.52, ss.473-481, 2019 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) ...
Determination of efficiency of application of near infrared spectroscopy technology in military healthcare. ... Determination of efficiency of application of near infrared spectroscopy technology in military healthcare // Pharmacoeconomics ...
Chamberain, J.; Gibbs, J.E.; Gebbie, H.E. (1969). "The determination of refractive index spectra by fourier spectrometry". ... Near-infrared[edit]. Main article: Near-infrared spectroscopy. The near-infrared region spans the wavelength range between the ... Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)[1] is a technique used to obtain an infrared spectrum of absorption or emission ... why and how substances absorb and emit infrared light, see the article: Infrared spectroscopy. ...
Determination of resin and moisture content in melamine formaldehyde paper using near infrared spectroscopy. *Henriques A ...
  • Having the capability to perform in- and on-line real-time monitoring of processes, NIR spectroscopy has become one of the key methods for the process analytical technology initiative of the US Food and Drug Administration, the aim of which is to monitor and optimise a product throughout the production process and "design" the quality of a product instead of exclusively enacting quality control of a final product in a laboratory. (spectroscopyeurope.com)
  • The Spectroscopy Laboratory publishes a semi-annual newsletter entitled The Spectrograph . (mit.edu)
  • The most straightforward way to do this, the "dispersive spectroscopy" technique, is to shine a monochromatic light beam at a sample, measure how much of the light is absorbed, and repeat for each different wavelength. (wikipedia.org)
  • S. Rückold, K. H. Grobecker, and H.-D. Isengard, "Determination of the contents of water and moisture in milk powder," Fresenius' Journal of Analytical Chemistry , vol. 368, no. 5, pp. 522-527, 2000. (hindawi.com)
  • Physical chemistry and infrared analyses showed 130 kDa heteroxylan containing mainly xylose:arabinose: galactose:glucose (5.0:1.5:2.0:1.2). (mdpi.com)
  • Since 1997, the Applied Spectroscopy Lab (ASL) is the dynamic interface between fundamental research activities in Materials Physical Chemistry at TPCI and a broad range of industrial R&D or QC needs. (eie.gr)
  • The coefficient of determination for validation (R(2)(v)) were 0.589, 0.910 and 0.697 for tannin, total starch andamylose respectively. (ommegaonline.org)
  • root-mean-squares error of cross-validation (RMSECV), coefficient of determination ² and regression point displacement (RPD) of salvianolic acid B were 1.72 mg·g⁻¹, 91.05% and 7.93 mg·g⁻¹, respectively. (bvsalud.org)
  • The developed NIR models predicted acid-soluble lignin, acid-insoluble lignin and ash contents of corn stover with coefficients of determination (R2) of 0.87, 0.64 and 0.89, respectively. (ohio-state.edu)