Wuchereria bancrofti: A white threadlike worm which causes elephantiasis, lymphangitis, and chyluria by interfering with the lymphatic circulation. The microfilaria are found in the circulating blood and are carried by mosquitoes.Wuchereria: A genus of filarial nematodes.Filariasis: Infections with nematodes of the superfamily FILARIOIDEA. The presence of living worms in the body is mainly asymptomatic but the death of adult worms leads to granulomatous inflammation and permanent fibrosis. Organisms of the genus Elaeophora infect wild elk and domestic sheep causing ischemic necrosis of the brain, blindness, and dermatosis of the face.Elephantiasis, Filarial: Parasitic infestation of the human lymphatic system by WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI or BRUGIA MALAYI. It is also called lymphatic filariasis.Diethylcarbamazine: An anthelmintic used primarily as the citrate in the treatment of filariasis, particularly infestations with Wucheria bancrofti or Loa loa.Filaricides: Pharmacological agents destructive to nematodes in the superfamily Filarioidea.Microfilaria: The prelarval stage of Filarioidea in the blood and other tissues of mammals and birds. They are removed from these hosts by blood-sucking insects in which they metamorphose into mature larvae.Ivermectin: A mixture of mostly avermectin H2B1a (RN 71827-03-7) with some avermectin H2B1b (RN 70209-81-3), which are macrolides from STREPTOMYCES avermitilis. It binds glutamate-gated chloride channel to cause increased permeability and hyperpolarization of nerve and muscle cells. It also interacts with other CHLORIDE CHANNELS. It is a broad spectrum antiparasitic that is active against microfilariae of ONCHOCERCA VOLVULUS but not the adult form.Culex: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Albendazole: A benzimidazole broad-spectrum anthelmintic structurally related to MEBENDAZOLE that is effective against many diseases. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p38)Mansonella: A genus of parasitic nematodes whose organisms are distributed in Central and South America. Characteristics include a smooth cuticle and an enlarged anterior end.Brugia malayi: A species of parasitic nematode causing Malayan filariasis and having a distribution centering roughly on the Malay peninsula. The life cycle of B. malayi is similar to that of WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI, except that in most areas the principal mosquito vectors belong to the genus Mansonia.Filarioidea: A superfamily of nematodes of the suborder SPIRURINA. Its organisms possess a filiform body and a mouth surrounded by papillae.Polynesia: The collective name for the islands of the central Pacific Ocean, including the Austral Islands, Cook Islands, Easter Island, HAWAII; NEW ZEALAND; Phoenix Islands, PITCAIRN ISLAND; SAMOA; TONGA; Tuamotu Archipelago, Wake Island, and Wallis and Futuna Islands. Polynesians are of the Caucasoid race, but many are of mixed origin. Polynesia is from the Greek poly, many + nesos, island, with reference to the many islands in the group. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p966 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p426)Brugia: A filarial worm of Southeast Asia, producing filariasis and elephantiasis in various mammals including man. It was formerly included in the genus WUCHERERIA.DNA, Helminth: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of helminths.Papua New Guinea: A country consisting of the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and adjacent islands, including New Britain, New Ireland, the Admiralty Islands, and New Hanover in the Bismarck Archipelago; Bougainville and Buka in the northern Solomon Islands; the D'Entrecasteaux and Trobriand Islands; Woodlark (Murua) Island; and the Louisiade Archipelago. It became independent on September 16, 1975. Formerly, the southern part was the Australian Territory of Papua, and the northern part was the UN Trust Territory of New Guinea, administered by Australia. They were administratively merged in 1949 and named Papua and New Guinea, and renamed Papua New Guinea in 1971.Testicular Hydrocele: Accumulation of serous fluid between the layers of membrane (tunica vaginalis) covering the TESTIS in the SCROTUM.Dirofilaria immitis: A filarial parasite primarily of dogs but occurring also in foxes, wolves, and humans. The parasite is transmitted by mosquitoes.Loa: A genus of parasitic nematodes found throughout the rain-forest areas of the Sudan and the basin of the Congo. L. loa inhabits the subcutaneous tissues, which it traverses freely.Antibodies, Helminth: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.Haiti: A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Port-au-Prince. With the Dominican Republic it forms the island of Hispaniola - Haiti occupying the western third and the Dominican Republic, the eastern two thirds. Haiti belonged to France from 1697 until its rule was challenged by slave insurrections from 1791. It became a republic in 1820. It was virtually an American protectorate from 1915 to 1934. It adopted its present constitution in 1964 and amended it in 1971. The name may represent either of two Caribbean words, haiti, mountain land, or jhaiti, nest. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p481 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p225)Anthelmintics: Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.American Samoa: A group of islands of SAMOA, in the southwest central Pacific. Its capital is Pago Pago. The islands were ruled by native chiefs until about 1869. An object of American interest beginning in 1839, Pago Pago and trading and extraterritorial rights were granted to the United States in 1878. The United States, Germany, and England administered the islands jointly 1889-99, but in 1899 they were granted to the United States by treaty. The Department of the Interior has administered American Samoa since 1951. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p44)Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Mansonelliasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus MANSONELLA. Symptoms include pruritus, headache, and articular swelling.Spermatic Cord: Either of a pair of tubular structures formed by DUCTUS DEFERENS; ARTERIES; VEINS; LYMPHATIC VESSELS; and nerves. The spermatic cord extends from the deep inguinal ring through the INGUINAL CANAL to the TESTIS in the SCROTUM.Mosquito Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.Independent State of Samoa: An island group and constitutional monarchy in the southwest central Pacific Ocean. The capital is Apia. The islands were jointly administered by England, the United States, and Germany 1889-99, with the chief islands of Savai'i and Upolu recognized as German until 1919. Western Samoa gained independence in 1962 and assumed its present formal name in 1997.Myanmar: A republic of southeast Asia, northwest of Thailand, long familiar as Burma. Its capital is Yangon, formerly Rangoon. Inhabited by people of Mongolian stock and probably of Tibetan origin, by the 3d century A.D. it was settled by Hindus. The modern Burmese state was founded in the 18th century but was in conflict with the British during the 19th century. Made a crown colony of Great Britain in 1937, it was granted independence in 1947. In 1989 it became Myanmar. The name comes from myanma, meaning the strong, as applied to the Burmese people themselves. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p192 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p367)Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)Wolbachia: A genus of bacteria comprised of a heterogenous group of gram-negative small rods and coccoid forms associated with arthropods. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 1, 1984)Togo: A republic in western Africa, lying between GHANA on its west and BENIN on its east. Its capital is Lome.Mali: A country in western Africa, east of MAURITANIA and south of ALGERIA. Its capital is Bamako. From 1904-1920 it was known as Upper Senegal-Niger; prior to 1958, as French Sudan; 1958-1960 as the Sudanese Republic and 1959-1960 it joined Senegal in the Mali Federation. It became an independent republic in 1960.Scrotum: A cutaneous pouch of skin containing the testicles and spermatic cords.Brugia pahangi: A species of parasitic nematode found in man and other mammals. It has been reported from Malaya and East Pakistan and may produce symptoms of tropical eosinophilia.Onchocerca: A genus of parasitic nematodes whose organisms live and breed in skin and subcutaneous tissues. Onchocercal microfilariae may also be found in the urine, blood, or sputum.Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Parasitemia: The presence of parasites (especially malarial parasites) in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)Antiparasitic Agents: Drugs used to treat or prevent parasitic infections.Sri LankaSensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Anopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Helminth Proteins: Proteins found in any species of helminth.Ghana: A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.IndiaPolymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Anopheles gambiae: A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
  • Although it damaged the highest proportion of mosquitoes as they passed through the trap fan, the CDC gravid trap also contained the highest number of living mosquitoes, when the traps were collected in the morning. (lymphedemapeople.com)
  • Of greater importance, this backpack PCR system also provides the proof-of-concept framework for the development of a parallel assay for the detection of W. bancrofti. (cdc.gov)
  • The disease is transmitted by the bite of an infected anopheline mosquito, through transfusions, by blood contamination as a result of needle abuse, or congenitally. (glowm.com)
  • The first part of their lifecycle occurs when an infected mosquito bites an innocent standby for a lovely meal. (blogspot.ca)
  • Xenomonitoring of different filarial nematodes using single and multiplex PCR in mosquitoes from Assiut Governorate, Egypt. (nih.gov)
  • Human and mosquito surveys were conducted in 40 randomly selected households in Hadibo (capital of Socotra) before and after application of EPBs. (who.int)
  • Dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) are closely related mosquito-borne flaviviruses that co-circulate in tropical regions and constitute major threats to global human health. (bvsalud.org)
  • Human beings serve as the definitive host and mosquitoes as their intermediate hosts. (wikipedia.org)
  • As previously stated, the Wuchereria bancrofti has two hosts: a mosquito and a human. (blogspot.ca)
  • Mosquitoes were collected simultaneously at all sites by human landing catches for 4 days per month over a six-month period. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Sensitive and Specific Identification of Neospora Caninum Infection of Cattle Based on Detection of Serum Antibodies to Recombinant Ncp29 Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology. (jove.com)
  • The detection potential of the assay in terms of sensitivity and specificity of the primer WbL3-1 was 85% and 100%, whereas the same for the primer WbL3-2 was 95% and 100% respectively based on the decoded results of the assessment of 20 coded samples and the variation in the sensitivity was insignificant. (journalcra.com)
  • Mosquito Eradication: The Story of Killing Campto , (pp. 245-256). (edu.au)