Wuchereria bancrofti: A white threadlike worm which causes elephantiasis, lymphangitis, and chyluria by interfering with the lymphatic circulation. The microfilaria are found in the circulating blood and are carried by mosquitoes.Wuchereria: A genus of filarial nematodes.Filariasis: Infections with nematodes of the superfamily FILARIOIDEA. The presence of living worms in the body is mainly asymptomatic but the death of adult worms leads to granulomatous inflammation and permanent fibrosis. Organisms of the genus Elaeophora infect wild elk and domestic sheep causing ischemic necrosis of the brain, blindness, and dermatosis of the face.Elephantiasis, Filarial: Parasitic infestation of the human lymphatic system by WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI or BRUGIA MALAYI. It is also called lymphatic filariasis.Diethylcarbamazine: An anthelmintic used primarily as the citrate in the treatment of filariasis, particularly infestations with Wucheria bancrofti or Loa loa.Filaricides: Pharmacological agents destructive to nematodes in the superfamily Filarioidea.Microfilaria: The prelarval stage of Filarioidea in the blood and other tissues of mammals and birds. They are removed from these hosts by blood-sucking insects in which they metamorphose into mature larvae.Ivermectin: A mixture of mostly avermectin H2B1a (RN 71827-03-7) with some avermectin H2B1b (RN 70209-81-3), which are macrolides from STREPTOMYCES avermitilis. It binds glutamate-gated chloride channel to cause increased permeability and hyperpolarization of nerve and muscle cells. It also interacts with other CHLORIDE CHANNELS. It is a broad spectrum antiparasitic that is active against microfilariae of ONCHOCERCA VOLVULUS but not the adult form.Culex: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Albendazole: A benzimidazole broad-spectrum anthelmintic structurally related to MEBENDAZOLE that is effective against many diseases. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p38)Mansonella: A genus of parasitic nematodes whose organisms are distributed in Central and South America. Characteristics include a smooth cuticle and an enlarged anterior end.Brugia malayi: A species of parasitic nematode causing Malayan filariasis and having a distribution centering roughly on the Malay peninsula. The life cycle of B. malayi is similar to that of WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI, except that in most areas the principal mosquito vectors belong to the genus Mansonia.Filarioidea: A superfamily of nematodes of the suborder SPIRURINA. Its organisms possess a filiform body and a mouth surrounded by papillae.Polynesia: The collective name for the islands of the central Pacific Ocean, including the Austral Islands, Cook Islands, Easter Island, HAWAII; NEW ZEALAND; Phoenix Islands, PITCAIRN ISLAND; SAMOA; TONGA; Tuamotu Archipelago, Wake Island, and Wallis and Futuna Islands. Polynesians are of the Caucasoid race, but many are of mixed origin. Polynesia is from the Greek poly, many + nesos, island, with reference to the many islands in the group. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p966 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p426)Brugia: A filarial worm of Southeast Asia, producing filariasis and elephantiasis in various mammals including man. It was formerly included in the genus WUCHERERIA.DNA, Helminth: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of helminths.Papua New Guinea: A country consisting of the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and adjacent islands, including New Britain, New Ireland, the Admiralty Islands, and New Hanover in the Bismarck Archipelago; Bougainville and Buka in the northern Solomon Islands; the D'Entrecasteaux and Trobriand Islands; Woodlark (Murua) Island; and the Louisiade Archipelago. It became independent on September 16, 1975. Formerly, the southern part was the Australian Territory of Papua, and the northern part was the UN Trust Territory of New Guinea, administered by Australia. They were administratively merged in 1949 and named Papua and New Guinea, and renamed Papua New Guinea in 1971.Testicular Hydrocele: Accumulation of serous fluid between the layers of membrane (tunica vaginalis) covering the TESTIS in the SCROTUM.Dirofilaria immitis: A filarial parasite primarily of dogs but occurring also in foxes, wolves, and humans. The parasite is transmitted by mosquitoes.Loa: A genus of parasitic nematodes found throughout the rain-forest areas of the Sudan and the basin of the Congo. L. loa inhabits the subcutaneous tissues, which it traverses freely.Antibodies, Helminth: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.Haiti: A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Port-au-Prince. With the Dominican Republic it forms the island of Hispaniola - Haiti occupying the western third and the Dominican Republic, the eastern two thirds. Haiti belonged to France from 1697 until its rule was challenged by slave insurrections from 1791. It became a republic in 1820. It was virtually an American protectorate from 1915 to 1934. It adopted its present constitution in 1964 and amended it in 1971. The name may represent either of two Caribbean words, haiti, mountain land, or jhaiti, nest. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p481 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p225)Anthelmintics: Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.American Samoa: A group of islands of SAMOA, in the southwest central Pacific. Its capital is Pago Pago. The islands were ruled by native chiefs until about 1869. An object of American interest beginning in 1839, Pago Pago and trading and extraterritorial rights were granted to the United States in 1878. The United States, Germany, and England administered the islands jointly 1889-99, but in 1899 they were granted to the United States by treaty. The Department of the Interior has administered American Samoa since 1951. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p44)Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Mansonelliasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus MANSONELLA. Symptoms include pruritus, headache, and articular swelling.Spermatic Cord: Either of a pair of tubular structures formed by DUCTUS DEFERENS; ARTERIES; VEINS; LYMPHATIC VESSELS; and nerves. The spermatic cord extends from the deep inguinal ring through the INGUINAL CANAL to the TESTIS in the SCROTUM.Mosquito Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.Independent State of Samoa: An island group and constitutional monarchy in the southwest central Pacific Ocean. The capital is Apia. The islands were jointly administered by England, the United States, and Germany 1889-99, with the chief islands of Savai'i and Upolu recognized as German until 1919. Western Samoa gained independence in 1962 and assumed its present formal name in 1997.Myanmar: A republic of southeast Asia, northwest of Thailand, long familiar as Burma. Its capital is Yangon, formerly Rangoon. Inhabited by people of Mongolian stock and probably of Tibetan origin, by the 3d century A.D. it was settled by Hindus. The modern Burmese state was founded in the 18th century but was in conflict with the British during the 19th century. Made a crown colony of Great Britain in 1937, it was granted independence in 1947. In 1989 it became Myanmar. The name comes from myanma, meaning the strong, as applied to the Burmese people themselves. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p192 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p367)Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)Wolbachia: A genus of bacteria comprised of a heterogenous group of gram-negative small rods and coccoid forms associated with arthropods. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 1, 1984)Togo: A republic in western Africa, lying between GHANA on its west and BENIN on its east. Its capital is Lome.Mali: A country in western Africa, east of MAURITANIA and south of ALGERIA. Its capital is Bamako. From 1904-1920 it was known as Upper Senegal-Niger; prior to 1958, as French Sudan; 1958-1960 as the Sudanese Republic and 1959-1960 it joined Senegal in the Mali Federation. It became an independent republic in 1960.Scrotum: A cutaneous pouch of skin containing the testicles and spermatic cords.Brugia pahangi: A species of parasitic nematode found in man and other mammals. It has been reported from Malaya and East Pakistan and may produce symptoms of tropical eosinophilia.Onchocerca: A genus of parasitic nematodes whose organisms live and breed in skin and subcutaneous tissues. Onchocercal microfilariae may also be found in the urine, blood, or sputum.Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Parasitemia: The presence of parasites (especially malarial parasites) in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)Antiparasitic Agents: Drugs used to treat or prevent parasitic infections.Sri LankaSensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Anopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Helminth Proteins: Proteins found in any species of helminth.Ghana: A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.IndiaPolymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Anopheles gambiae: A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Wuchereria and introduced a new Brugia after the original discoverer. Then Wuchereria contains only W. bancrofti, which so far ... B. malayi is transmitted by a mosquito vector. The principal mosquito vectors include Mansonia, Anopheles, and Aedes mosquitoes ... that is both specific and sensitive in the detection of IgG4 antibodies against B. malayi and B. timori in an enzyme-linked ... The two other filarial causes of lymphatic filariasis are Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia timori, which both differ from B. ...
"A polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of the parasite Wuchereria bancrofti in human blood samples". Am J Trop Med Hyg ... When the infected mosquito has its next blood meal, W. bancrofti larvae are deposited from the mouthparts on to the skin of the ... Wuchereria bancrofti is a human parasitic roundworm that is the major cause of lymphatic filariasis. It is one of the three ... W. bancrofti carry out their life cycle in two hosts. Human beings serve as the definitive host and mosquitoes as their ...
Detection of evolving resistance in mosquito populations is possible, so control programs are well advised to conduct ... the filariasis-causing species Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi, and viruses such as one that causes O'nyong'nyong fever ... kill the adult mosquitoes, do not allow adult mosquitoes into places of human dwelling, prevent mosquitoes from biting human ... Anopheles mosquitoes can be distinguished from other mosquitoes by the palps, which are as long as the proboscis, and by the ...
Loa loa filariasis
Wuchereria bancrofti/Brugia malayi/Brugia timori *Lymphatic filariasis. Thelazioidea. *Gnathostoma spinigerum/Gnathostoma ... Antigen detection using an immunoassay for circulating filarial antigens constitutes a useful diagnostic approach, because ... Because the vector is day-biting, mosquito (bed) nets do not increase protection against loiasis. ... rather than puncturing the skin like a mosquito does, the mango (and deer fly) make a laceration in the skin and subsequently ...
Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based Technique for the Detection of Wuchereria bancrofti in Human Blood Samples, Hydrocele Fluid,...
... a single third-stage larva in a pool of 20 uninfected mosquitoes, or 0.4 pg of W. bancrofti genomic DNA added to 100 µl of ... Detection of PCR products was carried out by agarose gel electrophoresis, followed by staining with ethidium bromide and ... The parasite DNA in human blood and hydrocele samples and in mosquitoes was isolated free of any PCR inhibitors using simple ... bancrofti DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A single microfilaria in 100 µl of blood or added to 1 ml of blood, ...
WHO EMRO | Impact of polystyrene beads as a mosquito control measure to supplement lymphatic filariasis elimination activities...
Human and mosquito surveys were conducted in 40 randomly selected households in Hadibo (capital of Socotra) before and after ... The EPBs intervention resulted in a reduction in mosquito density of 80% and a 64.3% reduction in microfilaria prevalence. The ... majority of interviewed households (98%) thought EPBs considerably reduced the mosquito population. After the intervention all ... Detection of Wuchereria bancrofti DNA. Genomic DNA was isolated from a total of 40 mosquito pools, 20 randomly selected before ...
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | A REAL-TIME PCR-BASED ASSAY FOR DETECTION OF WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI DNA...
An assay based on detection of the W. bancrofti ... assays for detecting Wuchereria bancrofti DNA in human blood ... assays for detecting Wuchereria bancrofti DNA in human blood and in mosquitoes. An assay based on detection of the W. bancrofti ... Detection of Wuchereria bancrofti larvae in pools of mosquitoes by the polymerase chain reaction. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 88 : ... f A REAL-TIME PCR-BASED ASSAY FOR DETECTION OF WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI DNA IN BLOOD AND MOSQUITOES * Authors: RAMAKRISHNA U. RAO1 ...
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases: Publishing science, accelerating research
CDC - Lymphatic Filariasis - Publications
Development and standardization of a rapid, PCR-based method for the detection of Wuchereria bancrofti in mosquitoes, for ... Dreyer G, Addiss D, Noroes J. Does longevity of adult Wuchereria bancrofti increase with decreasing intensity of parasite ... Community- and individual-level determinants of Wuchereria bancrofti infection in Leogane Commune, Haiti. Am J Trop Med Hyg. ... Macrofilaricidal effect of 4 weeks of treatment with doxycycline on Wuchereria bancrofti. Trop Med Int Health. 2007; 12(12): ...
Wuchereria bancrofti | MSDSonline
RESERVOIR: Humans are the only known reservoir for Wuchereria bancrofti(1). ZOONOSIS: Humans are infected by mosquitoes who act ... SURVEILLANCE: To monitor suspected cases of LF, laboratories use Giemsa-stained peripheral blood films, phosphatise detection ... including Wuchereria bancrofti(9). PHYSICAL INACTIVATION: The microfilaria of Wuchereria bancrofti has been observed to be ... Overall there are 6 genera and 70 species of mosquitoes responsible for the spread of Wuchereria bancrofti(1). ...
Mapping lymphatic filariasis in Loa loa endemic health districts naïve for ivermectin mass administration and situated in the...
Also, qPCR revealed that no W. bancrofti but L.loa DNA was found with dry bloodspot. Positive FTS results were strongly ... Using a combination of parasitological and molecular tools, we were unable to find evidence of W. bancrofti presence in the 31 ... FTS positive individuals were further subjected to night blood collection for detecting W. bancrofti. qPCR was used to detect ... bancrofti mf was found in the night blood of any individuals but L. loa mf were found in both day and night blood of ...
Federal Register :: Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing
The World Health Organization-recommended immunochromatographic test detects adult Wuchereria bancrofti (Wb) antigen in blood, ... Diagnostic Assays and Methods of Use for Detection of Filarial Infection. *A System and Method for Detecting Untoward Events in ... Description of Technology: The effort targeting the mosquito borne neglected tropical disease lymphatic filariasis for ... 1. Fink DL, et al. Rapid molecular assays for specific detection and quantitation of Loa loa microfilaremia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis ...
A comparison of Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein-based slot blot and ELISA immuno-assays for oocyst detection in...
Factors determining the true reservoir of infection of Plasmodium falciparum and Wuchereria bancrofti in a West African village ... Though CSP detection necessitates mosquito processing at day 8 PI or later [11, 27, 28], the fact of its detection may be a ... falciparum infections based on the detection of CSP in the mosquito carcass. The results suggest that when mosquitoes are ... ECL-SB and other immunological approaches to infection detection in whole mosquito homogenates is the method of mosquito ...
Community-based trial of annual versus biannual single-dose ivermectin plus albendazole against Wuchereria bancrofti infection...
A polymerase chain reaction-based assay for detection of Wuchereria bancrofti in human blood and Culex pipiens. Trans R Soc ... of annual versus biannual single-dose ivermectin plus albendazole against Wuchereria bancrofti infection in human and mosquito ... Laboratory and field evaluation of a new rapid test for detecting Wuchereria bancrofti antigen in human blood. Am J Trop Med ... Wuchereria bancrofti in Tanzania: microfilarial periodicity and effect of blood sampling time on microfilarial intensities. ...
Molecular detection of Setaria tundra (Nematoda: Filarioidea) and an unidentified filarial species in mosquitoes in Germany |...
However, minimum infection rates of up to 24 per 1000 mosquitoes were revealed, which could be attributed to mosquito infection ... Setaria tundra was found to be widespread in southern Germany in various mosquito species, except Culex spp. In contrast, the ... We conducted a molecular mass screening of mosquitoes for filarial parasites using mitochondrial 12S rRNA-based real-time PCR. ... were detected in about 83,000 mosquitoes tested, which had been collected in 2009 and 2010 in 16 locations throughout Germany. ...
Filariasis serosurvey, New Caledonia, South Pacific, 2013 | Parasites & Vectors | Full Text
LF antigenic detection was performed using the immunocromatographic BinaxNOW filariasis card test (ICT). Among the 1,035 ... A real-time PCR-based assay for detection of Wuchereria bancrofti DNA in blood and mosquitoes. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006;74:826- ... Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) is transmitted by mosquitoes and caused by three species of nematodes but only Wuchereria bancrofti ... an improved PCR-based pool screening method for high throughput Wuchereria bancrofti detection using dried blood spots. Parasit ...
Pesquisa | Portal Regional da BVS
Wuchereria bancrofti, Plasmodium falciparum and Mansonella perstans) in mosquito E/F, mosquito carcasses and human blood ... bancrofti which had a very low community prevalence (2.5-3.8%). Detection in the E/F samples was concordant with detection in ... Field evaluation of DNA detection of human filarial and malaria parasites using mosquito excreta/feces. ... We successfully detected the parasite DNA in mosquito E/F from indoor resting mosquitoes, including W. ...
Filariasis, Lymphatic - Chapter 3 - 2018 Yellow Book | Travelers' Health | CDC
Filarial nematodes Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and B. timori.. TRANSMISSION. Through the bite of infected Aedes, Culex ... Mosquito precautions (see Chapter 2, Protection against Mosquitoes, Ticks, & Other Arthropods).. CDC website: www.cdc.gov/ ... Microscopic detection of microfilariae on an appropriately timed thick blood film. Determination of serum antifilarial IgG is ... Macrofilaricidal activity after doxycycline treatment of Wuchereria bancrofti: a double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled ...
The long and winding road for methods in tropical medicine and parasitic research - Memórias
2014); (v) detection of Wuchereria bancrofti DNA in paired serum and urine samples using PCR-based systems (Ximenes et al. 2014 ... 2014); (iii) temporal abundance of Aedes aegypti measured by two trap types for adult mosquitoes (Degener et al. 2014); (iv) ... 2014) and (viii) the effectiveness of Mosquito Magnet® Independence in comparison with those of the CDC trap with CO2 and ... More in this category: « Humans, mosquitoes and bacteria: competition and survival through bednet holes, ATP-binding cassette ( ...
Multiplex PCR pattern on 2% ethidium bromide-stained ag | Open-i
Lane 1, W. bancrofti; lane 2, D. immitis; lane 3, D. repens. (A) Multiplex PCR confirmed the r ... Wuchereria bancrofti, Dirofilaria immitis, and Dirofilaria repens are filarial nematodes transmitted by mosquitoes belonging to ... Detection of W. bancrofti, D. immitis, and D. repens using single PCR was reached followed by multiplex PCR. Usefulness of ... Wuchereria bancrofti, Dirofilaria immitis, and Dirofilaria repens are filarial nematodes transmitted by mosquitoes belonging to ...
Filariasis, Lymphatic - Chapter 4 - 2020 Yellow Book | Travelers' Health | CDC
Filarial nematodes Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and B. timori.. TRANSMISSION. Through the bite of infected Aedes, Culex ... Mosquito precautions (see Chapter 3, Mosquitoes, Ticks & Other Arthropods).. CDC website: www.cdc.gov/parasites/ ... Microscopic detection of microfilariae on an appropriately timed thick blood film. Determination of serum antifilarial IgG is ... Anopheles, or Mansonia mosquitoes.. EPIDEMIOLOGY. Found in sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt, southern Asia, the western Pacific ...
FIL - Clinical: Filaria, Blood
W bancrofti is found in the tropics worldwide, while Brugia species are found in parts of Asia and Southeast Asia. Loa loa ... If microfilariae are taken up by a biting insect vector (mosquitos, blackflies, midges, and deer flies), they undergo further ... use of concentration methods such as the Knotts technique improves the detection sensitivity. Some microfilariae are released ... W bancrofti and the Brugia species cause a serious condition called lymphatic filariasis. The adults live in the lymphatics and ...
IMSEAR at SEARO: Monoclonal antibodies to microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti
... bancrofti. The infection rate in MfWb1 fed mosquitoes was lower when compared to controls. At lower dilutions of up to 1 : 6, ... However the dot blot assay was more sensitive than the inhibitory IFAT for the detection of microfilaraemic patients. ... A panel of mouse monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) against microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti were produced and designated as ... JAYAWARDANA, KH, Monoclonal antibodies to microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti, University of Colombo UC(MED), 1992: 138p. ...
Targeting a highly repeated germline DNA sequence for improved real-time PCR-based detection of Ascaris infection in human...
... genomic targets for improved real-time PCR-based detection of Wuchereria bancrofti and Plasmodium falciparum in mosquitoes. ... Detection and quantification of soil-transmitted helminths in environmental samples: A review of current state-of-the-art and ... Improved PCR-Based Detection of Soil Transmitted Helminth Infections Using a Next-Generation Sequencing Approach to Assay ... What does soil-transmitted helminth elimination look like? Results from a targeted molecular detection survey in Japan. ...
Finding Wolbachia in Filarial larvae and Culicidae Mosquitoes in Upper Egypt Governorate
A real-time PCR-based assay for detection of Wuchereria bancrofti and in blood and mosquitoes. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2006;74: 826- ... The simultaneous detection of Wolbachia and filarial parasites (Wuchereria bancrofti, Dirofilaria immitis, and Dirofilaria ... 1 (W. bancrofti). 0.25. 0.25. 75. 3. 1. 1 (W. bancrofti). 1.60. 1.60. 100. 4. 1. 1 (D. repens). 1.14. 1.14. ... Polymerase chain reaction-based technique for the detection of Wuchereria bancrofti in human blood samples, hydrocele fluid and ...
A comparison of Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein-based slot blot and ELISA immuno-assays for oocyst detection in...
When mosquitoes were analysed 48 h later (10 days PI) both assays performed as well as microscopy for infection detection. ... To compare the performance of the CSP ELISA and ECL-SB for the detection of mosquito infection, four groups of Anopheles ... At days 8 and 10 PI, the parasite status of separate mosquito samples was analysed by both CSP ELISA and ECL-SB. When mosquito ... The detection of circumsporozoite protein (CSP) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and enhanced chemiluminescent slot ...
Multiplex reverse transcriptase pcr assay for the detection of infective stage wuchereria bancrofti and its vector culex...
... if the detection potential of the assay would be evaluated on larger number of field caught mosquitoes. ... Multiplex reverse transcriptase pcr assay for the detection of infective stage wuchereria bancrofti and its vector culex ... assay for the simultaneous detection of infective stage (L3) Wuchereria bancrofti and the vector species Culex quinquefasciatus ... Plagiarism Detection. IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than ...
Review on global co-transmission of human Plasmodium species and Wuchereria bancrofti by Anopheles mosquitoes. Infection ... complete their sexual phases in insects (Diptera) other than mosquitoes; however genetic detection in the gut of mosquitoes has ... to produce infective sprozoites belong to four mosquito genera, namely Aedes, Coquillettidia, Culex and Mansonia (Njabo et al ... Invertebrate host: The sexual phase is initiated when a female anopheline mosquito ingests the gametocytes from the blood of a ...
Search | Global Index Medicus
Rapid Detection and Identification of Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, B. pahangi, and Dirofilaria immitis in Mosquito ... Wuchereria bancrofti, Dirofilaria immitis, and Dirofilaria repens are filarial nematodes transmitted by mosquitoes belonging to ... Wuchereria bancrofti, Dirofilaria immitis, and Dirofilaria repens are filarial nematodes transmitted by mosquitoes belonging to ... The simultaneous detection of Wolbachia and filarial parasites (Wuchereria bancrofti, Dirofilaria immitis, and Dirofilaria ...
Search | Global Index Medicus
Recombinant antigen-based antibody assays for the diagnosis and surveillance of lymphatic filariasis - a multicenter trial |...
Wamae CN, Gatika SM, Roberts JM, Lammie PJ: Wuchereria bancrofti in Kwale District, Coastal Kenya. I. Patterns of focal ... Antibody detection has served as the basis for diagnostic assays for filariasis for many decades. The best of these assays are ... Entomologic methods can be used to monitor filarial infection in mosquitoes and to provide point estimates of transmission ... Dissanayake S, Xu M, Piessens WF: A cloned antigen for serological diagnosis of Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaremia with ...
Pesquisa | Portal Regional da BVS
Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes have been implicated in transmitting Wuchereria bancrofti parasites. This paper presents ... INTRODUCTION: Molecular xenomonitoring (MX)-pathogen detection in the mosquito rather than human-is a promising tool for ... findings on the ideal mosquito collection method, mosquito dispersion, W. bancrofti infection in mosquitoes and W. bancrofti ... Lack of evidence for W. bancrofti infection in mosquitoes and antigen in humans in these fine-scale studies does not indicate ...
Bancroftian filariasis | Article about Bancroftian filariasis by The Free Dictionary
RT-PCR assay for the detection of infective ([L.sub.3]) larvae of lymphatic filarial parasite, Wuchereria bancrofti, in vector ... of the genera Wuchereria bancrofti or Brugia malayi that are introduced into the body by many species of mosquitoes. The adult ... Background & objectives: Bancroftian filariasis caused by Wuchereria bancrofti is endemic in many parts of India.. Kinetics of ... A parasitic disease of humans caused by the filarial nematode Wuchereria bancrofti; characterized by cutaneous and subcutaneous ...
CulexAedesMicrofilariaeAnophelesLarvaeParasitesMicrofilariaFilariasisElephantiasisEndemicNematodeMalariaGeneraMansoniaHumansQuinquefasciatusInfectiveWormPrevalenceIndiaInfectionsPeripheralPolymeraseAlbendazoleAntigen-detectionAssaysProportion of mosquitoesAssay for the detectionBite of an infectedInfected mosquito bitesTransmissionAntibodyPeriodicityBloodFilarial nematodesMicrofilaraemiaInsectHumanInfectiousSerumLife CycleSensitivity and specifiEradication
- Setaria tundra was found to be widespread in southern Germany in various mosquito species, except Culex spp. (biomedcentral.com)
- Through the bite of infected Aedes , Culex , Anopheles , and Mansonia mosquitoes. (cdc.gov)
- Wuchereria bancrofti, Dirofilaria immitis, and Dirofilaria repens are filarial nematodes transmitted by mosquitoes belonging to Culex, Aedes, and Anopheles genera. (nih.gov)
- Wolbachia is a confusing α-proteobacterium, first identified in the ovaries of Culex mosquitoes [ 1 ] and is probably the most common known endosymbiotic microbe in the biosphere [ 2 ]. (parasitol.kr)
- In this study, we have developed a multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for the simultaneous detection of infective stage (L3) Wuchereria bancrofti and the vector species Culex quinquefasciatus. (journalcra.com)
- The disease is caused by the nematode worm, either Wuchereria bancrofti or Brugia malayi and is transmitted by mosquito species Culex quinquefasciatus and Mansonia annulifera/M.uniformis respectively. (aimu.us)
- Culex, Aedes and Anopheles mosquitoes serve as vector for W.bancrofti in transmission of the disease. (aimu.us)
- Australian distribution, genetic status and seasonal abundance of the exotic mosquito Culex molestus (Forskal) (Diptera: Culicidae). (edu.au)
- The microfilariae infect biting Culex pipiens mosquitoes (less commonly Anopheles, Aedes, and Mansonella species). (medscape.com)
- The significance of low density microfilaraemia in the transmission of Wuchereria bancrofti by Culex (Culex) quinquefasciatus Say in Sri Lanka. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Although several studies have suggested that gravid traps might be useful for collection of mosquitoes, particularly Culex quinquefasciatus, to monitor transmission of the nematode Wuchereria bancrofti (xenomonitoring), there has not been a study to see which of the currently available gravid traps is most effective in endemic areas. (lymphedemapeople.com)
- The epidemiology of LF in the region is characterized by the prevalence of both nocturnally periodic and diurnally sub-periodic races of W. bancrofti and involvement of Aedes , Anopheles , and Culex vectors [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Once the vector insect bites (the vectors include mosquitoes from the genera Anopheles, Culex, Aedes and Mansonia ), third-stage larvae migrate through the skin into the cutaneous lymphatic vessels. (clinmedjournals.org)
- The functional significance of MfWb1 wa also assessed by performing feeding experiments using laboratory bred Aedes togoi and it was found that MfWb1 has an effect on the transmission of W. bancrofti. (who.int)
- 2006) Spatial analysis of spill-over effects of insecticide-treated materials in a cluster-randomized trial against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in Trujillo, Venezeula, American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene , 75 (5), 177-177. (plymouth.ac.uk)
- filariasis are mosquito species in the genera Mansonia and Aedes . (cdc.gov)
- The principal mosquito vectors include Mansonia, Anopheles, and Aedes mosquitoes. (wikipedia.org)
- Effects of cohabitation on the population performance and survivorship of the invasive mosquito Aedes albopictus and the resident mosquito Aedes notoscriptus (diptera: Culicidae) in Australia. (edu.au)
- Landing response of Aedes (Stegomyia) polynesiensis mosquitoes to coloured targets. (edu.au)
- Beyond Thursday Island: Expanding the current Asian Tiger Mosquito (Aedes albopictus) control program across the Torres Strait. (edu.au)
- Tonga was highly endemic for lymphatic filariasis (LF) caused by diurnally sub-periodic Wuchereria bancroft i transmitted by Aedes vector species. (biomedcentral.com)
- The most notable feature is a very high prevalence of Aedes -transmitted diurnally sub-periodic W. bancrofti in several countries including Tonga [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- The Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus , for example, is a prolific breeder in man-made environments and a vector for several diseases including dengue, West Nile fever and Japanese encephalitis. (rentokil.com.hk)
- Microscopic detection of microfilariae on an appropriately timed thick blood film. (cdc.gov)
- The microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, B timori, Loa loa, Mansonella perstans, and M ozzardi are found in the blood, while the microfilariae of Onchocerca volvulus and M streptocerca are found in the skin. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
- If microfilariae are taken up by a biting insect vector (mosquitos, blackflies, midges, and deer flies), they undergo further development in the insect and can then be transmitted to other humans. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
- However, microfilariae may be in low numbers and, therefore, use of concentration methods such as the Knott's technique improves the detection sensitivity. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
- Microfilariae may be seen in peripheral blood on routine thick and thin blood films, but concentration techniques such as the Knott's concentration and Nucleopore membrane filtration technique offer increased detection sensitivity. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
- A panel of mouse monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) against microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti were produced and designated as MfWb1. (who.int)
- MfWb1 was stage and species specific to microfilariae of W. bancrofti. (who.int)
- There was no reactivity in the IFAT against infective larvae of W. bancrofti, microfilariae of Brugia pahangi, microfilariae of Brugia malayi, adult Onchocerca gibsoni, adult O. gutturosa and Acanthocheilonema viteae. (who.int)
- MfWb1 reacted only with the surface antigens on the sheath of microfilariae of W. bancrofti and the location was determined by IFAT and immunocytochemistry. (who.int)
- At lower dilutions of up to 1 : 6, MfWb1 completely inhibited the development of microfilariae in infected mosquitoes. (who.int)
- A total of 67 dogs were sampled for blood microfilariae detection and for D. immitis DNA detection. (bvsalud.org)
- Definitive diagnosis of ongoing LF infection is achieved through identification of the microfilariae (juvenile worms) in blood samples or through the detection of antigens of W. bancrofti . (mectizan.org)
- Treating people in endemic districts eliminates microfilariae from the blood of infected individuals, thereby interrupting transmission of infection by mosquitoes. (mectizan.org)
- When an infected mosquito bites a healthy person, the larvae called microfilariae move into the lymphatics and lymph nodes. (aimu.us)
- These microfilariae circulate in the peripheral blood usually in the night, and are sucked by the mosquitoes during a bite. (aimu.us)
- Serologic techniques provide an alternative to microscopic detection of microfilariae for the diagnosis of lymphatic filariasis. (aimu.us)
- But the new species of human filaria in North Sumatra was both physiologically and morphologically distinct from the W. bancrofti microfilariae commonly found in Jakarta. (wikipedia.org)
- Nocturnal subperiodicity: microfilariae are present in the blood at all times, but appear at greatest density between noon and 8 PM. B. malayi is transmitted by a mosquito vector. (wikipedia.org)
- 4. The mosquito takes a human blood meal and ingests microfilariae (worm-like sheathed eggs) that circulate in the human blood stream. (wikipedia.org)
- 5-7 In the mosquito, the microfilariae shed sheaths, penetrate the midgut, and migrate to the thoracic muscles were the microfilariae increase in size, molt, and develop into infective larvae (L1 and L3) over a span of 7-21 days. (wikipedia.org)
- No multiplication or sexual reproduction of microfilariae occurs in the mosquito. (wikipedia.org)
- The cause of this periodicity remains unknown, but the advantages of the microfilariae being in the peripheral blood during these hours may ensure the vector, the nighttime mosquito, will have a higher chance of transmitting them elsewhere. (wikipedia.org)
- As stated previously, during the day, the microfilariae are found in the lungs and during the night, they sense a change in their hosts' body temperature and will migrate to the peripheral veins/arteries where they await to be found by a hungry mosquito . (blogspot.ca)
- The mosquito will unknowingly consume the microfilariae during their meal. (blogspot.ca)
- Once inside the mosquito, the microfilariae will then loose their sheaths where they will find their way to the mosquitos midgut and their thoracic muscles. (blogspot.ca)
- the microfilariae released by the female worms circulate in the peripheral blood and are not harmful, but can be ingested by mosquitoes, which transmit the infection from person to person. (biomedcentral.com)
- As the mosquito takes a blood meal from a human host, many microfilariae are ingested. (medicaljoyworks.com)
- They reported the occurrence of a species of human filariae in North Sumatra that was both physiologically and morphologically distinct from the W. bancrofti microfilariae commonly found in Jakarta and named the pathogen Filaria malayi . (meddic.jp)
- however, definitive diagnosis is based on the detection of microfilariae, primarily in the blood. (asmscience.org)
- The microfilariae differ from those of W. bancrofti by having two terminal nuclei that are distinctly separated from the other nuclei in the tail. (asmscience.org)
- When a mosquito bites a person who has lymphatic filariasis, microscopic worms called microfilariae (baby worms) circulating in the person's blood enter and infect the mosquito. (lymphedemapeople.com)
- While inside the mosquito, the microfilariae develop over a period of a week into an infectious stage, called larvae. (lymphedemapeople.com)
- Female worms produce millions of microfilariae that swarm in the blood at night when mosquitoes bite, continuing the cycle. (lymphedemapeople.com)
- The strategy for elimination is based on the use of mass community treatment to kill the microfilariae to stop transmission of the parasite by mosquitoes. (lymphedemapeople.com)
- Endemicity of lymphatic filariasis (LF) in Cambodia was proven in 1956 when microfilariae were detected in mosquitos in the Kratié province. (readbyqxmd.com)
- In 2001, an extensive study confirmed the presence of both Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti microfilariae. (readbyqxmd.com)
- Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia (TPE) is a neglected tropical disease of predominantly filarial endemic countries caused by a hypersensitivity response to antigens from microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi . (clinmedjournals.org)
- To compare the performance of the CSP ELISA and ECL-SB for the detection of mosquito infection, four groups of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes were infected with cultured Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
- as a primary vector for W. bancrofti to be replaced by Anopheles sp. (parasitol.kr)
- Malaria transmission in Africa is dominated by the Anopheles gambiae species complex and the Anopheles funestus group of mosquitoes. (biomedcentral.com)
- Another parasite called Brugia malayi also causes filariasis is transmitted by the vector Mansonia and Anopheles mosquitoes. (aimu.us)
- All Anopheles mosquitoes were dissected and examined for the larval stages of the parasite following which molecular identification of both vector and parasite was done. (beds.ac.uk)
- Previously, it has been shown that a hexane extract of the bark is toxic to adult females of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae, a malaria vector. (edenextdata.com)
- Anopheles / ə ˈ n ɒ f ᵻ l iː z / (Greek anofelís: "useless") is a genus of mosquito first described and named by J. W. Meigen in 1818. (wn.com)
- Anopheles mosquitoes kill about 440,000 people each year because of malaria. (wn.com)
- Some species of Anopheles also can serve as the vectors for canine heartworm Dirofilaria immitis , the filariasis -causing species Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi , and viruses such as one that causes O'nyong'nyong fever. (wn.com)
- molecules to the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. (wn.com)
- Several species of mosquitoes can transmit the disease, but in rural Africa the Anopheles mosquito is the primary carrier for both lymphatic filariasis and malaria. (lymphedemapeople.com)
- Most infections can only be transmitted by a particular, disease-specific vector, e.g., malaria by Anopheles mosquitoes. (fao.org)
- The worm larvae (microfilaria) may be injected by an infected mosquito directly into the blood . (lymphedemapeople.com)
- These third-stage larvae migrate towards the mosquito's head and proboscis and are transmitted to another human next time the mosquito takes a blood meal. (news-medical.net)
- This is because a competent mosquito usually transmits only a few infective L3 larvae (see Life cycle), and less than 10% of those larvae progress through all the necessary molting steps and develop into adult worms that can mate. (wikipedia.org)
- Worm larvae deposited by the bite of an infected mosquito enter the body and migrate to the lymphatic system, where they mature into adult worms. (healthcanal.com)
- The third stage larvae will enter into the human through the opened bite made by the mosquito. (blogspot.ca)
- These undergo several morphological changes within the mosquito, ultimately developing into L3 larvae, which are deposited onto human skin, when the mosquito bites. (medicaljoyworks.com)
- During subsequent bites by the mosquito, the larvae infect human hosts and migrate to the lymphatic tissues, where they develop into adult worms within a year. (medscape.com)
- The infected mosquito deposits microscopic larvae on the skin while biting a person and the larvae enter the bite wound migrating to the human lymph system, where they mature. (lymphedemapeople.com)
- The infectivity of Plasmodium gametocytes is typically determined by microscopically examining the midguts of mosquitoes that have taken a blood meal containing potentially infectious parasites. (biomedcentral.com)
- We conducted a molecular mass screening of mosquitoes for filarial parasites using mitochondrial 12S rRNA-based real-time PCR. (biomedcentral.com)
- Usefulness of multiplex PCR was evaluated by testing mosquito pools to know which genera and species are used by filarial parasites as a vector. (nih.gov)
- C) Distribution of filarial parasites among different mosquito genera using multiplex PCR. (nih.gov)
- Thus, we aimed to identify the possible concurrent presence of Wolbachia within different mosquitoes and filarial parasites, in Assiut Governorate, Egypt using multiplex PCR. (parasitol.kr)
- Wolbachia within filaria-infected mosquitoes in our locality gives a hope to use bacteria as a new control trend simultaneously targeting the vector and filarial parasites. (parasitol.kr)
- Backpack PCR: A point-of-collection diagnostic platform for the rapid detection of Brugia parasites in mosquitoes. (cdc.gov)
- Here we present a novel diagnostic approach for molecular xenomonitoring of filarial parasites in mosquitoes that uses a rapid, NaOH-based DNA extraction methodology coupled with a portable, battery powered PCR platform and a test strip-based DNA detection assay. (cdc.gov)
- While the research reported here serves as a proof-of-concept for the backpack PCR methodology for the detection of filarial parasites in mosquitoes, the platform should be easily adaptable to the detection of W. bancrofti and other mosquito-transmitted pathogens. (cdc.gov)
- These parasites penetrate the skin either their own or through the opening created by mosquito bites to reach the lymphatic system. (aimu.us)
- These parasites can be found in 80 countries: in the humid and tropical areas (where mosquito s are apparent) of Africa, Asia, isolate America areas, and the Pacific islands. (blogspot.ca)
- Tropical Pulmonary Eosinophilia (TPE) is the pulmonary manifestation of occult filariasis, where there is an immunological response to filarial parasites, Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi. (medicaljoyworks.com)
- In the year 2000, there were more than 120 million people infected with these mosquito-transmitted parasites and there are now more than 947 million people in 54 countries at risk requiring prophylactic treatment to stop the spread of the disease [ 2 ]. (clinmedjournals.org)
- A single microfilaria in 100 µl of blood or added to 1 ml of blood, a single third-stage larva in a pool of 20 uninfected mosquitoes, or 0.4 pg of W. bancrofti genomic DNA added to 100 µl of human blood or serum can be detected by this PCR method. (ajtmh.org)
- The EPBs intervention resulted in a reduction in mosquito density of 80% and a 64.3% reduction in microfilaria prevalence. (who.int)
- Mosquitoes, however, can be infected by humans if they ingest microfilaria during a blood meal of an infected individual(1). (msdsonline.com)
- It was similar to another filarial roundworm Wuchereria bancrofti (then called Filaria (Microfilaria) bancrfoti). (wikipedia.org)
- Wuchereria bancrofti can live as in the body as microfilaria for up to 12 months. (blogspot.ca)
- Microfilaria of Wuchereria bancrofti in a peripheral blood smear. (medscape.com)
- Development and standardization of a rapid PCR-based method for the detection of Wuchereria bancrofti in mosquitoes for xenomonitoring the human prevalence of bancroftian filariasis. (ajtmh.org)
- The control of lymphatic filariasis (LF) caused by Wuchereria bancrofti in the Central African Region has been hampered by the presence of Loa loa due to severe adverse events that arise in the treatment with ivermectin. (biomedcentral.com)
- Those of highest medical relevance are the causative agents of lymphatic filariasis ( Wuchereria bancrofti and others) and onchocerciasis ( Onchocerca volvulus ), both diseases with anthroponotic cycles. (biomedcentral.com)
- Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a debilitating, mosquito-borne, nematode infection that has been targeted for elimination as a public health problem by 2020. (biomedcentral.com)
- LF antigenic detection was performed using the immunocromatographic BinaxNOW filariasis card test (ICT). (biomedcentral.com)
- The technique showed 100% sensitivity and 98% specificity.Multiplex PCR offers a reliable procedure for molecular xenomonitoring of filariasis within their respective vectors in endemic areas.Therefore, it is recommended for evaluation of mosquito infection after lymphatic filariasis eradication programs. (nih.gov)
- Therefore, it is recommended for evaluation of mosquito infection after lymphatic filariasis eradication programs. (nih.gov)
- W bancrofti and the Brugia species cause a serious condition called lymphatic filariasis. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
- Development of various immunodiagnostic tests for the detection of infected patients with bancroftian filariasis was attempted by using MfWb1. (who.int)
- Antibody detection has served as the basis for diagnostic assays for filariasis for many decades. (biomedcentral.com)
- Lymphatic filariasis (LF), the major cause of elephantiasis, is spread by mosquitos and damages the lymphatic system, leading to serious disability, disfigurement, and low quality of life across Africa and some parts of Asia. (path.org)
- These tests will join the SD BIOLINE Onchocerciasis IgG4 rapid test , a monoplex antibody-detection test for onchocerciasis post-elimination surveillance, and the Alere Filariasis Test Strip, an antigen-detection test for use in LF disease mapping and to inform the MDA stopping decision, both marketed by SD/Alere to aid in the elimination of onchocerciasis and LF. (path.org)
- A primary cause of this increase is the rapid and unplanned growth of cities, which creates numerous breeding sites for the mosquitoes that transmit the disease.In its most obvious manifestations, lymphatic filariasis causes enlargement of the entire leg or arm, the genitals, vulva and breasts. (lymphedemapeople.com)
- The thread-like, parasitic filarial worms Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi that cause lymphatic filariasis live almost exclusively in humans. (lymphedemapeople.com)
- Elimination of lymphatic filariasis is possible by stopping the spread of infection with mass drug administration (MDA) and protection from mosquito bites and vector control measures. (aimu.us)
- Wuchereria bancrofti is a human parasitic roundworm that is the major cause of lymphatic filariasis. (wikipedia.org)
- Washington University School of Medicine Washington University's Kurt Curtis, in Liberia, readies a new diagnostic test for lymphatic filariasis, a mosquito-born infection that can lead to enormously swollen limbs and genitals. (healthcanal.com)
- Both tests detect the presence of worms that cause lymphatic filariasis, a devastating mosquito-borne illness also known as elephantiasis. (healthcanal.com)
- Wuchereria bancrofti is a thread-like nematode that is one of the three different nematodes that cause Lymphatic filariasis in humans. (blogspot.ca)
- Human infection with Wuchereria bancrofti causes a disabling parasitic disease known as lymphatic filariasis, which is a major public health and socio-economic problem in many parts of the world. (biomedcentral.com)
- Lymphatic filariasis is a mosquito-borne parasitic disease and an important cause of chronic morbidity in tropical countries. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Filariasis is a mosquito borne parasitic infection, affecting mainly the lymphatic system of humans. (medicaljoyworks.com)
- In 1900, Sir Ronald Ross, a scientist from the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, reported that lymphatic filariasis is transmitted through mosquito bites. (medscape.com)
- Loaisis or loa loa filariasis is caused by the parasitic worm Loa Loa versus either the Wuchereria bancrofti,or the Brugia malayi. (lymphedemapeople.com)
- Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a disabling and disfiguring disease resulting from a mosquito-borne parasitic infection. (lymphedemapeople.com)
- Lymphatic filariasis is a parasitic worm transmitted by the bites of mosquitoes in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. (lymphedemapeople.com)
- Commenting on the data Professor David Molyneux of the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine says "In this landmark publication, new data from the national program in Egypt show that we can, using the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended strategy of an annual drug distribution, end the cycle of transmission of lymphatic filariasis by mosquitoes. (news-medical.net)
- One-third of the cases of W. bancrofti filariasis have been reported in Africa, another third in India and the rest in South Asia, Pacific Rim and parts of Central and South America. (clinmedjournals.org)
- We also compared real-time PCR with conventional PCR (C-PCR) for detecting W. bancrofti DNA in mosquito samples collected in endemic areas in Egypt and Papua New Guinea. (ajtmh.org)
- EPIDEMIOLOGY: Wuchereria bancrofti is endemic in 78 countries and affects 128 million people worldwide(1). (msdsonline.com)
- In the northern zone (two regions), which were not endemic for loiasis, W. bancrofti microfilaremia was confirmed microscopically using night blood smears [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- The first test, an onchocerciasis and LF dual-detection, or "biplex," test, is designed to fill these gaps in surveillance data for both diseases' control programs in areas of Africa where the diseases are co-endemic. (path.org)
- Like W. bancrofti , control measures have reduced the occurrence and endemic range considerably. (cdc.gov)
- At present, 1.1 billion people (20% of the world's population) in some 80 endemic countries located in tropical areas of the world are at risk of infection by Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi . (biomedcentral.com)
- Hydrocele is the most common manifestation of chronic W bancrofti infection in males in endemic areas. (medscape.com)
- LF is also recognized as the second most disabling mosquito-borne disease next to malaria(1,4,5,6). (msdsonline.com)
- DISCUSIÓN: Los hallazgos en las diferentes regiones estudiadas permiten concluir que la diversidad genética, la multiplicidad de infección y la dinámica en el tiempo de las infecciones por P. falciparum se ven afectadas por el grado de endemicidad de la malaria en cada país. (bvsalud.org)
- hinesorum malaria mosquitoes from northern Queensland, Australia. (edu.au)
- In 1902, Sir Ross was awarded the Nobel Prize in medicine for his discovery that malaria is transmitted to humans through mosquito bites. (medscape.com)
- Risk of malaria infection was associated with socio-cultural and environmental factors exposing individuals to mosquito bites. (scielosp.org)
- Overall there are 6 genera and 70 species of mosquitoes responsible for the spread of Wuchereria bancrofti(1). (msdsonline.com)
- of the genera Wuchereria bancrofti or Brugia malayi that are introduced into the body by many species of mosquitoes. (thefreedictionary.com)
- W. bancrofti is transmitted by many different mosquito genera/species, depending on geographical distribution. (cdc.gov)
- Buckley proposed to divide the old genus Wuchereria, into two genera, Wuchereria and introduced a new Brugia after the original discoverer. (wikipedia.org)
- During a blood meal, an infected mosquito (typically Mansonia spp. (cdc.gov)
- B. malayi is transmitted by Mansonia mosquitoes and is restricted to South and Southeast Asia. (wikipedia.org)
- The nocturnal periodic form is transmitted by Mansonia and some anopheline mosquitoes in open swamps and rice growing areas. (wikipedia.org)
- The nocturnal subperiodic form is transmitted by Mansonia in forest swamps, where mosquitoes bite in the shade at any time. (wikipedia.org)
- Because of this stability and because very few sporozoites are egested during blood feeding [ 14 , 15 ] it is generally accepted that a mosquito with any number of salivary gland sporozoites is infective to humans. (biomedcentral.com)
- In Africa, LF is caused by the parasitic thread-like worm, Wuchereria bancrofti , and is transmitted to humans through the bites of mosquitoes. (mectizan.org)
- These mosquitoes tend to bite at night and appear to only infect humans. (wikipedia.org)
- The infection in humans is initiated after the inoculation of sporozoites from an infected mosquito. (glowm.com)
- In both locations, the CDC gravid trap collected the highest number of mosquitoes, the highest number of Cx quinquefasciatus, and the highest proportion of gravid mosquitoes. (lymphedemapeople.com)
- The effectiveness of all four gravid traps should encourage the sampling of Cx quinquefasciatus where it is an important disease vector or nuisance mosquito. (lymphedemapeople.com)
- An infective stage (L3) detection assay provides a more direct measure of transmission risk and may be useful as a sensitive and non-invasive method for monitoring GPELF programs. (journalcra.com)
- The accumulation of many infective mosquito bites - several hundreds to thousands - is required to establish infection. (wikipedia.org)
- The detection of circumsporozoite protein (CSP) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and enhanced chemiluminescent slot-blot (ECL-SB) may be used as objective, scalable alternatives to microscopy for the determination of infection prevalence. (biomedcentral.com)
- Epidemiological mapping was undertaken to determine the prevalence of infection by Wuchereria bancrofti in 37 districts of Nepal between July to December 2001. (biomedcentral.com)
- The sexual prevalence of filarial infection varies by region, possibly because of variable exposure in cultural or employment patterns that result in contact with vector species of mosquito. (medscape.com)
- Tolerance and efficacy of combined diethylcarbamazine and albendazole for treatment of Wuchereria bancrofti and intestinal helminth infections in Haitian children. (cdc.gov)
- The infections is spread through mosquito bites. (lymphedemapeople.com)
- W. bancrofti was named after physician Otto Wucherer and parasitologist Joseph Bancroft, both of whom extensively studied filarial infections. (wikipedia.org)
- More than 90% of the estimated 120 million infections are due to W bancrofti, of which 26.79 million cases are hydrocele. (medscape.com)
- Some medical and hygienic pest insects, such as tsetse flies and mosquitoes, which vector devastating human pathogens, often also carry Wolbachia infections. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- Oligonucleotide primers were designed to amplify a 490-basepair DNA fragment in the 5′ end of the pWb 12 repeated DNA sequence in Wuchereria bancrofti for specific amplification of W. bancrofti DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). (ajtmh.org)
- We developed and evaluated real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for detecting Wuchereria bancrofti DNA in human blood and in mosquitoes. (ajtmh.org)
- Evaluation of a polymerase chain reaction-based assay for diagnosis of Wuchereria bancrofti infection. (ajtmh.org)
- Development of a quantitative, competitive polymerase chain reaction-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of Wuchereria bancrofti DNA. (ajtmh.org)
- Detection of Wuchereria bancrofti DNA in patients sputum by the polymerase chain reaction. (ajtmh.org)
- When two populations of M. alternatus were subjected to diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of four Wolbachia genes, only the ftsZ gene was detected from one of the populations. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- A n antigen-detection test, known better as the ITC test can scan blood sample and will reveal the results within minutes. (blogspot.ca)
- Previously, national campaigns were asked to use immunochromatography test (ICT) for filarial antigen detection kit in schools or community-based samples. (springer.com)
- When mosquitoes were analysed 48 h later (10 days PI) both assays performed as well as microscopy for infection detection. (biomedcentral.com)
- Previously, through next generation sequencing (NGS)-based identification and targeting of non-coding, high copy-number repetitive DNA sequences, we described the development of a panel of improved quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR)-based assays for the detection of Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, Ancylostoma ceylanicum, Trichuris trichiura, and Strongyloides stercoralis. (cdc.gov)
- Wuchereria bancrofti can be detected via by circulating filarial antigen (CFA) assays. (medscape.com)
Proportion of mosquitoes1
Assay for the detection1
Bite of an infected1
Infected mosquito bites1
- MODE OF TRANSMISSION: The disease is usually transmitted through the bite of an infectious mosquito. (msdsonline.com)
- Knowledge of the potential vector role of Culicidae mosquitoes in Germany is very scanty, and until recently it was generally assumed that they are not involved in the transmission of anthroponotic or zoonotic pathogens in this country. (biomedcentral.com)
- In these areas, antibody-detection tests provide important information about recent transmission rates. (path.org)
- These nematodes usually begin transmission through a mosquito vector and transmission is completed when the mosquito bites a human. (blogspot.ca)
- The combination of two non-invasive surveys, the urine anti-filarial IgG4 levels of schoolchildren and MX of vector mosquitoes, would be a convenient package to monitor the ongoing transmission (hotspots) of LF in the surveillance. (springer.com)
- The impact of MDA was assessed through interim and post-MDA antigen (Ag) detection surveys among adults and transmission assessment surveys among children. (biomedcentral.com)
- W bancrofti and Brugia species are usually released between 10 p.m. and 2 a.m. (nocturnal periodicity), while L loa is released mostly from 10 a.m. and 2 p.m. (diurnal periodicity). (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
- in geographic areas where mosquitoes are not strictly night-biters (as in areas of Polynesia), the microfilarial periodicity is modified or absent. (thefreedictionary.com)
- FTS positive individuals were further subjected to night blood collection for detecting W. bancrofti . (biomedcentral.com)
- No W. bancrofti mf was found in the night blood of any individuals but L. loa mf were found in both day and night blood of participants who were FTS positive. (biomedcentral.com)
- It is therefore important to collect blood during these time periods for optimal detection sensitivity. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
- Dependent variables were Wuchereria bancrofti antigenaemia detected with filarial test strips (FTS) and microfilaraemia detected by night blood smears. (springer.com)
- These micofilariae are taken up by the mosquito or fly during a blood meal. (news-medical.net)
- Mf are ingested by mosquitoes from the blood of an infected individual, completing the cycle. (lymphedemapeople.com)
- Like mosquitos, they bite animals as blood is their main food. (lymphedemapeople.com)
- Human and mosquito surveys were conducted in 40 randomly selected households in Hadibo (capital of Socotra) before and after application of EPBs. (who.int)
- Dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) are closely related mosquito-borne flaviviruses that co-circulate in tropical regions and constitute major threats to global human health. (bvsalud.org)
- Human beings serve as the definitive host and mosquitoes as their intermediate hosts. (wikipedia.org)
- As previously stated, the Wuchereria bancrofti has two hosts: a mosquito and a human. (blogspot.ca)
- Mosquitoes were collected simultaneously at all sites by human landing catches for 4 days per month over a six-month period. (beds.ac.uk)
Sensitivity and specifi1
- The detection potential of the assay in terms of sensitivity and specificity of the primer WbL3-1 was 85% and 100%, whereas the same for the primer WbL3-2 was 95% and 100% respectively based on the decoded results of the assessment of 20 coded samples and the variation in the sensitivity was insignificant. (journalcra.com)