Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.
The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.
Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for drugs and BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS. These include those in ampule, capsule, tablet, solution or other forms. Packaging includes immediate-containers, secondary-containers, and cartons. In the United States, such packaging is controlled under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act which also stipulates requirements for tamper-resistance and child-resistance. Similar laws govern use elsewhere. (From Code of Federal Regulations, 21 CFR 1 Section 210, 1993) DRUG LABELING is also available.
The nonexpendable items used by the dentist or dental staff in the performance of professional duties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p106)
The prevention of access by infecting organisms to the locus of potential infection.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The room or rooms in which the dentist and dental staff provide care. Offices include all rooms in the dentist's office suite.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
A bacteriostatic antibacterial agent that interferes with folic acid synthesis in susceptible bacteria. Its broad spectrum of activity has been limited by the development of resistance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p208)
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Homogeneous liquid preparations that contain one or more chemical substances dissolved, i.e., molecularly dispersed, in a suitable solvent or mixture of mutually miscible solvents. For reasons of their ingredients, method of preparation, or use, they do not fall into another group of products.
Instruments used for injecting or withdrawing fluids. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A technique for analysis of the chemical composition of molecules. A substance is bombarded with monochromatic ELECTRONS. Some of the electrons passing through the specimen will lose energy when they ionize inner shell electrons of the atoms in the specimen. The energy loss is element dependent. Analysis of the energy loss spectrum reveals the elemental composition of a specimen. ENERGY-FILTERED TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY is a type of electron energy loss spectroscopy carried out in electron microscopes specially outfitted to analyze the spectrum of electron energy loss.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Tools used in dentistry that operate at high rotation speeds.
A pyrimidine inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase, it is an antibacterial related to PYRIMETHAMINE. It is potentiated by SULFONAMIDES and the TRIMETHOPRIM, SULFAMETHOXAZOLE DRUG COMBINATION is the form most often used. It is sometimes used alone as an antimalarial. TRIMETHOPRIM RESISTANCE has been reported.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Hospital department which manages and provides the required housekeeping functions in all areas of the hospital.
Systems that provide for the maintenance of life in an isolated living chamber through reutilization of the material available, in particular, by means of a cycle wherein exhaled carbon dioxide, urine, and other waste matter are converted chemically or by photosynthesis into oxygen, water, and food. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.
Any materials used in providing care specifically in the hospital.
Substances added to pharmaceutical preparations to protect them from chemical change or microbial action. They include ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS and antioxidants.
The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A membrane or barrier with micrometer sized pores used for separation purification processes.
Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.
The mechanical process of cooling.
The productive enterprises concerned with food processing.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.
Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Water that is intended to be ingested.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
The science dealing with the establishment and maintenance of health in the individual and the group. It includes the conditions and practices conducive to health. (Webster, 3d ed)
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.
Lenses designed to be worn on the front surface of the eyeball. (UMDNS, 1999)
Travel beyond the earth's atmosphere.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The presence of DNA from a source foreign to the sample being analysed.
Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.
Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.
Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
The destruction of germs causing disease.
Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.
Unstable isotopes of cesium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cs atoms with atomic weights of 123, 125-132, and 134-145 are radioactive cesium isotopes.
Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Pollutants, present in soil, which exhibit radioactivity.
Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The act of cleansing the hands with water or other liquid, with or without the inclusion of soap or other detergent, for the purpose of destroying infectious microorganisms.
The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.
Coverings for the hands, usually with separations for the fingers, made of various materials, for protection against infections, toxic substances, extremes of hot and cold, radiations, water immersion, etc. The gloves may be worn by patients, care givers, housewives, laboratory and industrial workers, police, etc.
Places where animals are slaughtered and dressed for market.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
Facilities equipped for performing surgery.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.
Furano-furano-benzopyrans that are produced by ASPERGILLUS from STERIGMATOCYSTIN. They are structurally related to COUMARINS and easily oxidized to an epoxide form to become ALKYLATING AGENTS. Members of the group include AFLATOXIN B1; aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2; AFLATOXIN M1; and aflatoxin M2.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
Liquid water present beneath the surface of the earth.
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
An acquired disorder characterized by recurrent symptoms, referable to multiple organ systems, occurring in response to demonstrable exposure to many chemically unrelated compounds at doses below those established in the general population to cause harmful effects. (Cullen MR. The worker with multiple chemical sensitivities: an overview. Occup Med 1987;2(4):655-61)
Aquatic invertebrates belonging to the phylum MOLLUSCA or the subphylum CRUSTACEA, and used as food.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
The observation, either continuously or at intervals, of the levels of radiation in a given area, generally for the purpose of assuring that they have not exceeded prescribed amounts or, in case of radiation already present in the area, assuring that the levels have returned to those meeting acceptable safety standards.
A rating of a body of water based on measurable physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.
Uncontrolled release of radioactive material from its containment. This either threatens to, or does, cause exposure to a radioactive hazard. Such an incident may occur accidentally or deliberately.
An isomer of 1-PROPANOL. It is a colorless liquid having disinfectant properties. It is used in the manufacture of acetone and its derivatives and as a solvent. Topically, it is used as an antiseptic.
Gloves, usually rubber, worn by surgeons, examining physicians, dentists, and other health personnel for the mutual protection of personnel and patient.
The taking of a blood sample to determine its character as a whole, to identify levels of its component cells, chemicals, gases, or other constituents, to perform pathological examination, etc.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The aggregate enterprise of technically producing packaged meat.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Rooms occupied by one or more individuals during a stay in a health facility. The concept includes aspects of environment, design, care, or economics.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Instruments intended to detect and study sound produced by the heart, lungs, or other parts of the body. (from UMDNS, 1999)
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Sodium or potassium salts of long chain fatty acids. These detergent substances are obtained by boiling natural oils or fats with caustic alkali. Sodium soaps are harder and are used as topical anti-infectives and vehicles in pills and liniments; potassium soaps are soft, used as vehicles for ointments and also as topical antimicrobials.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Animal reproductive bodies, or the contents thereof, used as food. The concept is differentiated from OVUM, the anatomic or physiologic entity.
Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.
A species of imperfect fungi which grows on peanuts and other plants and produces the carcinogenic substance aflatoxin. It is also used in the production of the antibiotic flavicin.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Radioactive substances which act as pollutants. They include chemicals whose radiation is released via radioactive waste, nuclear accidents, fallout from nuclear explosions, and the like.
Clothing designed to protect the individual against possible exposure to known hazards.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.
Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.
A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.
Inanimate objects that carry pathogenic microorganisms and thus can serve as the source of infection. Microorganisms typically survive on fomites for minutes or hours. Common fomites include CLOTHING, tissue paper, hairbrushes, and COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS.
The material that descends to the earth or water well beyond the site of a surface or subsurface nuclear explosion. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Facilities provided for human excretion, often with accompanying handwashing facilities.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
An iodinated polyvinyl polymer used as topical antiseptic in surgery and for skin and mucous membrane infections, also as aerosol. The iodine may be radiolabeled for research purposes.
Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.
Isocoumarins found in ASPERGILLUS OCHRACEUS and other FUNGI. Ochratoxin contaminated FOOD has been responsible for cases of FOODBORNE DISEASES.
This sensitive and rapid testing analyser has the ability to detect microbial contamination, as well as more than 2,700 ... The sensitivity of the reagent may become altered after the recommended time period. Microtox Osmotic Adjustment Solution (MOAS ... There are five major Microtox tests including the Basic Test, the 100% Test, the Solid Phase Test, the Comparison Test, and the ... Of these five tests, three are used for sediment and soil testing including the Basic Test, the 100% Test and the Solid-Phase ...
MALDI-TOF has been explored as a rapid antimicrobial sensitivity testing method; principles involve measuring microbial growth ... it is prone to contamination because it requires extensive manipulation of the sample. If growth is detected, a microbiologist ... If microbial growth is detected, a Gram stain is conducted from the culture bottle to confirm that organisms are present and ... To perform the test, blood is drawn into bottles containing a liquid formula that enhances microbial growth, called a culture ...
Some military testing grounds are contaminated with TNT. Wastewater from munitions programs including contamination of surface ... This includes wholly abiotic reactants, like photons, hydrogen sulfide, Fe2+, or microbial communities, both oxic and anoxic. ... Various methods can be used to detect TNT, including optical and electrochemical sensors and explosive-sniffing dogs. In 2013, ... Exudation of impurities leads to formation of pores and cracks (which in turn cause increased shock sensitivity). Migration of ...
A straightforward Mann-Whitney U test can detect modified portions of the E. coli sequence, as well as further split the ... According to the estimates, average sensitivity to detect exons across the 25 protocols is 80% for Caenorhabditis elegans genes ... Ease of carryover contamination when re-using the same flow cell (standard wash protocols don't work) is also a concern. Unique ... For example, in one study, it was demonstrated that de novo assembly of a microbial genome using PacBio sequencing alone ...
Anhydrous ammonia is currently used commercially to reduce or eliminate microbial contamination of beef. Lean finely textured ... Sulfur sticks are burnt to detect small leaks in industrial ammonia refrigeration systems. Larger quantities can be detected by ... Despite this, several tests have been done. In 1981, a Canadian company converted a 1981 Chevrolet Impala to operate using ... the type of detector is chosen according to the sensitivity required (e.g. semiconductor, catalytic, electrochemical). ...
The "doormat test" detects moisture from concrete slabs without a sub-slab vapor barrier.[9] Some materials, such as polished ... This method is often used to verify contamination and identify the source of contamination.[16] Dust samples can be collected ... Dry brushing or agitation device: Wire brushing or sanding is used when microbial growth can be seen on solid wood surfaces ... Mold exposure has a variety of health effects, and sensitivity to mold varies. Exposure to mold may cause throat irritation, ...
20 Test Method for Hydrophobic Contamination on Glass by Contact Angle Measurement C816 - 15(2020)e1 Test Method for Sulfur ... 13 Test Method for Ignition Sensitivity of Nonmetallic Materials and Components by Gaseous Fluid Impact G75 - 15 Test Method ... Includes the Jominy test and a method based on work by M. A. Grossman (the Grossman method).) A262 - 15 Practices for Detecting ... Practice for Evaluating Microbial Susceptibility of Nonmetallic Materials By Laboratory Soil Burial G161 - 00(2018) Guide for ...
Active methods are used to detect the presence of air pollutants by placing test plants of known response and genotype into the ... These stress proteins can be used as an early warning system to detect changes in levels of pollution. Microbial Prospecting ... Microalgae have gained attention in recent years due to several reasons including their greater sensitivity to pollutants than ... Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 32 (1): 80-93. doi:10.1007/s002449900158. PMID 9002438. S2CID 24315472 ...
... swipe tests for contamination and periodic proficiency testing. Further studies on unexpected or unusual results are always ... Nowadays to detect resistances of different microbes is used a technique called Antibiotic Sensitivity (AST), but several ... The reason is that RNAseq assays can detect active microbial gene expression and might enable the discrimination between ... Because of that, the sensitivity to detect microorganisms that are being targeted usually increases, but this comes with a ...
PCR was the first genetic test available and first published as a method of detecting antibiotic susceptibility in 2001.[19] ... If the antibiotic inhibits microbial growth, a clear ring, or zone of inhibition, is seen around the disc. The bacteria are ... and have a chance of cross-contamination.[19] ... Manual testing:. biochemical and immunologic tests. *ALA test. ... Antibiotic sensitivity testing or antibiotic susceptibility testing is the measurement of the susceptibility of bacteria to ...
... glucose is oxidised in oxidation/fermentation test using Hugh and Leifson O/F test, beta hemolytic (on blood agar), indole ... Sensitivity to galliumEdit. Although gallium has no natural function in biology, gallium ions interact with cellular processes ... Contamination results in health hazards from toxic compound production as well as unpleasant odours and flavours.[39] ... Electronic nose technology can thus be applied to detect traces of Pseudomonas milk spoilage and isolate the responsible ...
In the last test, 90 percent of samples of natural cork stopper shipments showed values of under 1.0 ppt and only 7 percent had ... It is notable that this systemic TCA will often impart a trace (1-2 ng/L or ppt) to the wine, which itself is not detected by ... Another possible means of TCA contamination is through the use of bentonite, a swelling clay preparation (smectite) used in ... an anti-microbial agent used in processing wood. Molds (and some suspect bacteria such as Streptomyces) are able to de-toxify ...
In one application, microbial cultures have been transferred onto the chip and allowed to grow with the use of sterile ... In one example the use of a custom DMF system for urine drug testing enabled the creation of an instrument weighing only 25 kg ... The interface between digital microfluidics and NMR relaxometry has led to the creation of systems such as those used to detect ... This approach takes advantage of DMF for the sample preparation step but also introduces opportunities for contamination as ...
The stool guaiac test (or guaiac fecal occult blood test) is conducted to detect the presence of blood in stool that is not ... A quick test for fecal contamination of water sources or soil is a check for the presence of E. coli bacteria performed with ... or to detect disease-spreading bacteria. A stool culture-the controlled growth of microbial organisms in culture media under ... Excessive sugar consumption or a sensitivity to anise oil may cause loose, green stools. It can also result from consuming ...
A Draft Test Protocol for Detecting Possible Biohazards in Martian Samples Returned to Earth Archived 2006-02-22 at the Wayback ... The main focus is on microbial life and on potentially invasive species. Non-biological forms of contamination have also been ... It is designed with much higher levels of sensitivity for biosignatures than any previous instruments[70][79][80] ... A Draft Test Protocol for Detecting Possible Biohazards in Martian Samples Returned to Earth was published in October 2002 [7 ...
... and tested with an assay that detects Shiga toxins to detect non-O157 STEC". Bacterial infections are usually treated with ... Heaton JC, Jones K (March 2008). "Microbial contamination of fruit and vegetables and the behaviour of enteropathogens in the ... However, the antibiotic sensitivities of different strains of E. coli vary widely. As gram-negative organisms, E. coli are ... which makes them ideal indicator organisms to test environmental samples for fecal contamination. The bacterium can also be ...
Testing of stool samples by real-time polymerase chain reaction is able to detect C. difficile about 93% of the time and when ... Assessment of the A and B toxins by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for toxin A or B (or both) has a sensitivity of ... Installing lidded toilets and closing the lid prior to flushing also reduces the risk of contamination. Those who have CDIs ... According to the CDC, "C. difficile has become the most common microbial cause of healthcare-associated infections in U.S. ...
... and have a high likelihood of detecting a finding when there is one to detect. However, whether resistance genes are detected ... If the antibiotic inhibits microbial growth, a clear ring, or zone of inhibition, is seen around the disc. The bacteria are ... and have a chance of cross-contamination. As of 2017, point-of-care resistance diagnostics were available for methicillin- ... Antibiotic sensitivity testing or antibiotic susceptibility testing is the measurement of the susceptibility of bacteria to ...
When RRBS is applied to bulk samples, majority of the CpG sites in gene promoters are detected, but site in gene promoters only ... However, RCA has not been tested with RNA-seq, which typically employs next-generation sequencing. Single-cell RNA-seq for ... Single-cell genomics is a powerful way to obtain microbial genome sequences without cultivation. This approach has been widely ... The minimal amount of starting materials from a single cell make degradation, sample loss and contamination exert pronounced ...
For example, the sensitivity of the Duke criteria for detecting infective endocarditis decreases when prosthetic heart valves ... Early prosthetic valve endocarditis is usually due to intraoperative contamination or a postoperative bacterial contamination ... The blood tests C reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin have not been found to be particularly useful in helping make or ... It was not until 1878 that Theodor Klebs first suggested that infective endocarditis had a microbial infectious origin. In 1909 ...
... making the life hard to detect. Indeed, these sites are used for testing sensitivity of future life detection instruments for ... in a test of its capabilities, was able to find a new "microbial oasis" for life two meters below the surface of the Atacama ... Q. Choi, Charles (May 17, 2010). "Mars Contamination Dust-Up". Astrobiology Magazine. Archived from the original on August 20, ... "Mars rover tests driving, drilling and detecting life in Chile's high desert". Nasa Astrobiology Magazine. Mar 17, 2017. "NASA ...
This is used as a water purity test, as the presence of bacteria introduces organic carbon. A non-profit research and testing ... detecting influent slug loads from industries and to potentially use online TOC analyzers to detect and monitor volatiles of ... This pressurization of the sample gas stream in the NDIR, a patented technique, allows for increased sensitivity and precision ... To make sure there is no cross-contamination between product runs of different drugs, various cleaning procedures are performed ...
... to ensure that total particulate and microbial aerosol burden are maintained at suitable levels to reduce risk of contamination ... Typical detection sensitivity of the light scattering method is 0.05 micrometre or larger. However, employment of the ... If light blocking (obscuration) is used the loss of light is detected. The amplitude of the light scattered or light blocked is ... Aerosol particle counters are used to test and classify a cleanroom to ensure its performance is up to a specific cleanroom ...
Competition among EcM fungi is a well-documented case of soil microbial interactions. In many experimental cases, the timing of ... Seven of the aforementioned ectomycorrhizins were detected, as well as a polypeptide cleansing event as several plant and ... Ectomycorrhizal fungi are susceptible to heavy metal contamination. However, there seems to be widespread heavy metal tolerance ... 2008). "Acclimation to temperature and temperature sensitivity of metabolism by ectomycorrhizal fungi". Global Change Biology. ...
... it could detect and therefore prevent contamination of other patients or equipment by many highly contagious pathogens. The ... Studies of airflow around canine noses, and tests on lifesize models have indicated that a cyclic 'sniffing action' similar to ... The two main objectives of this dataset are multiclass beef classification and microbial population prediction by regression. ... a bio-electronic nose that mimics the signaling systems used by the human nose to perceive odors at a very high sensitivity: ...
PCR tests have been developed that can detect as little as one viral genome among the DNA of over 50,000 host cells. Infections ... In practice, PCR can fail for various reasons, in part due to its sensitivity to contamination causing amplification of ... PCR Detection of Microbial Pathogens. Methods in Molecular Biology. Totowa, New Jersey: Humana Press. 216: 3-29. doi:10.1385/1- ... PCR is an important testing tool that can detect sequences within the gene for the pertussis toxin. Because PCR has a high ...
PCR tests have been developed that can detect as little as one viral genome among the DNA of over 50,000 host cells.[32] ... In practice, PCR can fail for various reasons, in part due to its sensitivity to contamination causing amplification of ... "Miniprimer PCR, a New Lens for Viewing the Microbial World". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 74 (3): 840-9. doi ... PCR assays can be performed directly on genomic DNA samples to detect translocation-specific malignant cells at a sensitivity ...
Tests with cell cultures and mice show that although it has some protective effect, it is toxic to cells in higher doses. A new ... Several microbial pathogens can damage the fruit bodies, and have had an effect on populations in China, including soft rot ... Several indole compounds have been detected in fruit bodies. Unprocessed mushrooms contain tryptophan (0.68 mg per 100 g dry ... "Assessment of the chlorinated hydrocarbons residues contamination in edible mushrooms from the North-Eastern part of Poland". ...
... was detected in martian soil at the level of ~0.6% by weight. It is conjectured to exist as a mixture of 48% Ca( ... Perchlorate contamination in food, water, and other parts of the environment has been studied in the U.S. because of harmful ... After undergoing multiple tests, workers exposed to perchlorate were found to have a significant systolic blood pressure rise ... PMID 19921177.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) John D. Coates; Laurie A. Achenbach (2004). "Microbial perchlorate ...
Agglutination is primarily used when the sample is obtained from a vaginal mucous wash, and the test may reach a sensitivity of ... Agglutination can detect the binding of antibodies and antigens, resulting in clumped bacterial cells. Since antibodies to the ... Likewise, cross-contamination due to improper food safety has resulted in similar infections. Symptoms of acute gastroenteritis ... Veterinary Microbiology and Microbial Disease. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-118-25116-4. "Campylobacter Fetus - an overview , ...
This protocol describes how to perform culture-based microbial sterility testing using the Water-Glo™ Kit and GloMax® ... Such tests require several days of incubation for the microbial contamination to be detected. Therefore, management is seldom ... In addition, culturing conditions may impact sensitivity, accuracy and reproducibility. To overcome these challenges, culture- ... Monitoring of microbial testing for sterile and non-sterile products, as well as sterility testing, requires microbial ...
... are determinations of sensitivity and specificity to be made with a method that can detect potentially all manner of microbial ... VALIDATION, QUALITY CONTROL, AND CONTAMINATION CONCERNS. Any laboratory test should be properly validated, and microbial HTS is ... Human genetic testing has already set a precedent by combining multiple genetic tests into a single test using HTS technology ( ... in comparison with a test of benchmark sensitivity such as amplification-based methods. Where the sensitivity of HTS ...
... where appropriate dye ingress continues to provide container closure integrity testing ... The methods sensitivity (breach size) is appropriate for routine use; e.g., a 20-µm pinhole can be detected reliably in widely ... Such movement would be indicative of a sufficient loss of integrity and of potential microbial contamination and/or loss of ... Dye ingress testing represents a "limit test" (Table 3).. Sensitivity ("Detectable Leak Size"): The product-quality risk posed ...
To ensure product quality, regulatory agencies recommend that all products produced in cell culture be tested for the presence ... Externally validated to demonstrate sensitivity of a PCR-based test for Mycoplasma that is not biased toward the success of PCR ... Detection Systems easy workflow delivers actionable results in less than 4 hours-enabling you to detect contamination as early ... Seamless integration from detection to identification using the MicroSEQ® Microbial Identification System. ...
... were applied to detect sulfate metabolites in post-administration samples. Sixteen sulfate metabolites were detected, five of ... To perform the test, 1 g sample was extracted with 2.5 mL of methanol-water (80:20, v/v) and diluted by 4-fold running buffer ... The sensitivity is sufficient for analysis of the equivalent to ,5 μL of blood and the overall method was accurate and precise ... The analysis of veterinary drugs in organic fertilizers is crucial for an assessment of potential risks to soil microbial ...
Hides were the major source of microbial contamination in beef processing plants; however, hide contamination with some major ... E. coli of the targeted eight serogroups, but not STEC, was detected in houseflies from an urban environment. Detection of E. ... Enrichment broth and agar media for detection of non-O157 STEC were evaluated, and improvements in the sensitivity and ... USDA to Begin Testing for African Swine Fever .ui-widget{ font-size:1em; } .ui-tabs, .ui-tabs-panel{ padding:1em 0; } .ui- ...
... that may increase the sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests to accurately detect polymicrobial infections/ ... Microbial pathogens may include but are not limited to bacteria and related microbes, virus, fungus, parasites (such as ... The requirements to maintain these models as pathogen-free can become overwhelming, because of latent potential contamination ... Microbial infections in biomedical laboratory animal models have become an increasingly important topic, because the constant ...
Microbial Quality Concerns for Biopharmaceuticals , IntechOpen, Published on: 2012-12-12. Authors: Farzaneh Lotfipour and ... Various tests for detecting cross-contaminations can be applied; however, a product-specific identity test will be the best ... sensitivity for cell culture and PCR tests and also due to the fact that cell culture or in vivo tests are not able to detect ... In addition, viruses can be detected via a number of methods such as co-cultivation assays (specific in vitro tests), in vivo ...
The ability to routinely perform rapid and simple tests to detect mycoplasma contamination in cell cultures facilitates the ... In sensitivity tests for the detection of defined mycoplasmas, the PromoKine Mycoplasma Test Kits I & II were found to be the ... Products , Microbial Detection, Elimination & Prevention , Mycoplasma Test Kits , PCR Mycoplama Test Kit II ... PCR Mycoplasma Test Kit II. PromoKines PCR Mycoplasma Test Kit II has also been designed to detect sensitively and ...
Detection of Microbial Contamination in Biological/ Sterile Products: Many tests can be used to detect microbial contamination ... in order to improve the sensitivity of detecting microbial contamination.Issue 1. regulations concerning the permissible level ... Microbial contamination; source of contamination; control of microbial contamination; FDA concern; USP concern; microbial limit ... Microbial limit test. Microbial contamination of sterile and nonsterile articles.technol.January 2010 124-131 . Microbiology ...
The new PCR testing services are affordable and will help clients with time-sensitive projects ... EMLab P&K launches additional analytical services using real-time PCR technology to detect pathogens in food and environmental ... Rapid and accurate microbial tests are becoming increasingly important to quickly detect contamination and identify the source ... sensitivity, and throughput - benefits of the real-time PCR technology - that can be applied to broad range of samples. When a ...
... sensitive and reliable detection of a wide range of mycoplasmas responsible for contamination of cell cultures. ... Microbial Detection, Elimination & Prevention*Mycoplasma Test Kits*PCR Mycoplasma Test Kit I/C ... user friendly - one protocol using standard lab equipment detects all relevant species. Allows for direct testing of culture ... for amplifying sensitivity and specificity. PCR testing techniques are all based on amplification of a distinct DNA fragment ...
Fisher exact test, p=0.022). Blood bottles also detected contamination within 8 hours in 40% of cases (12/30), corresponding to ... Colorimetric indicators of microbial contamination in corneal preservation medium. Cornea 2000;19:517-20. ... Sensitivity and rapidity of the three methods in detecting contamination. In the visual method, changes in colour (to orange or ... Sensitivity and rapidity of the three methods in detecting residual contamination (Table 2). Detection of residual ...
Microbial contamination was detected in 120 Umbilical Cord Blood Units (2.31%) in the period from 2003 to 2013. The most ... tests of antimicrobial resistance/sensitivity and phenotypic activities that may play an important role in microbial infection ... Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Typing , Phylogeny , Retrospective Studies ... ABSTRACT Disposal of Umbilical Cord Blood Units due to microbial contamination is a major problem in Cord Blood Banks worldwide ...
Sensitive methods are needed to detect viruses in environmental samples. Recent reports on the applicability and sensitivity of ... the contamination may be short-lived and may have vanished by the time the outbreak is detected. A "rolling sample" system ... When these test results were positive for a virus, the water sample was analyzed. Virus concentration was based on positively ... Microbial risks from water are recognized, with much emphasis on risk assessment (33). Assessment of water, however, depends on ...
... from sample collection to screening of indicator organisms to specific microbial characterisation. Click to read more... ... Hygiena now covers the entire spectrum of reliable contamination detection, ... With the extension of its testing product range to include polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based systems, ... Designed to detect harmful bacteria and other microbes in food and environmental samples, the award-winning BAX® System ...
Even though enumerating microbial cells by counting colonies on an agar filled Petri dish is still a common technique, a ... The system detects microbial contamination based on measurements of oxygen depletion upon time of incubation in a pharmacopoeia ... Preliminary validation results show that SurCapt has good sensitivity and LOD parameters. The TTR is always under 24 hours. ... The SurCapt Kit uses GreenLight® Technology and detects microbial contamination based on measurements of oxygen depletion over ...
Microbial contamination was detected in 120 Umbilical Cord Blood Units (2.31%) in the period from 2003 to 2013. The most ... tests of antimicrobial resistance/sensitivity and phenotypic activities that may play an important role in microbial infection ... Microbial contamination was detected in 120 Umbilical Cord Blood Units (2.31%) in the period from 2003 to 2013. The most ... tests of antimicrobial resistance/sensitivity and phenotypic activities that may play an important role in microbial infection ...
The presence of other microbial groups in animals killed after 32 days may indicate not only contamination during removal of ... Antimicrobials were tested in concentrations that ranged from 0.06 µg/ml to 256 µg/ml. The tests were carried out by agar ... The culture sensitivity for detection of microorganisms in clinical samples should also be considered. The strain of ... detected in bacteriological specimens. They might also be organized on the inner bone surfaces and irregularities of the bone ...
Perhaps the strongest argument against a toxic chemical or pathogenic microbial contamination is the apparent PNS incidence in ... sulfite sensitivity, aspartame sensitivity, and sensitivity to a range of other foods and food additives. A key concept is that ... or bacterial contamination in pine nuts related to PNS cases. There have been some similar tests performed by organizations in ... noting that no analysis in their regulatory food safety screening has detected evidence of chemical, mold, ...
... microbial growth was detected in 56 samples (i.e. 44.8%). Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was detected in 28 eyes, and ... Each case was treated with topical antibiotics based on the results of antibiotic sensitivity tests. After culturing of cotton ... No patient required dacryocystorhinostomy to eliminate bacterial contamination in the conjunctiva following topical antibiotic ... In the current case series, bacteria were not detected in conjunctival swabs obtained consecutively three times for 3 weeks ...
... and Accurate Way to Measure Non-Microbial ATP,/b,,/span,,/p, ,p,AquaSnap Free me ... Sensitivity:. *Extremely sensitive- detects down to 0.1 femtomoles ATP with EnSURE or Pi-102 luminometer ... non-microbial and microbial ATP). The difference between Total and Free provides an indication of microbial contamination in ... Easy, Fast, and Accurate Way to Measure Non-Microbial ATP. AquaSnap Free measures dissolved ATP that is free in solution (non- ...
R825689C061 Field Test of In-Situ Vapor Stripping for Removal of VOCS from Groundwater. R825689C062 System Design for Enhanced ... R825689C055 Microbial Degradation of Toluene Under Sulfate-Reducing Conditions--The Role of Iron. R825689C056 Transformation of ... R825689C058 Radon-222 Method for Locating and Quantifying Contamination by Residual Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids in the Subsurface ... R825689C092 Gene probes for detecting anaerobic alkylbenzene-degrading bacteria. R825689C093 Investigation of Palladium ...
A paper describing the use of LuminUltra Technologies Ltds QGO-M test for measuring cellular adenosine triphosphate (cATP) in ... Additionally, because QGO-M XL can be run in the lab or in the field, the test can be used to identify microbial contamination ... The QGO-M XL test detected ≥100 cells mL-1 (»0.1 CFU mL-1), while the SPC protocol detected ≥10 CFU mL-1). Consequently, QGO-M ... The investigation demonstrated that QGO-M XLs sensitivity was substantially greater than that of the SPC method. ...
This sensitive and rapid testing analyser has the ability to detect microbial contamination, as well as more than 2,700 ... The sensitivity of the reagent may become altered after the recommended time period. Microtox Osmotic Adjustment Solution (MOAS ... There are five major Microtox tests including the Basic Test, the 100% Test, the Solid Phase Test, the Comparison Test, and the ... Of these five tests, three are used for sediment and soil testing including the Basic Test, the 100% Test and the Solid-Phase ...
The MilliProbe system uses real-time transcription-mediated amplification technology to detect targeted microbial contamination ... The need for self-administered surveillance testing finally has a few candidates, thanks to labs and test developers across the ... sample prep methodologies with Gen-Probes nucleic acid technologies to deliver both speed and sensitivity in one microbial ... FDA eyes self-administered testing for COVID-19 antigen tests. BioWorld MedTech ...
In the in-line monitoring applications, out technology allows us to detect microbial contamination levels as low as 100 CFU/ml. ... Our competitive advantage is the high sensitivity and accuracy of the test, with a relatively quick response time (within ... is a visual limit test designed for use in the field to determine the waters level of microbial contamination. Aquavial ... is a visual limit test designed for use in the field to determine the waters level of microbial contamination. Aquavial ...
Emtekair explains the difference between air samplers that can be major factor in appropriate testing and control of ... concentration of those microbial particles, and the ability to detect high or low levels of microbial contamination. Also to be ... sensitivity of those microbial organisms to the testing parameters, ... Microbial Air Samplers: Appropriateness of Device. August 30, 2013. by Erik Swenson Leave a Comment ...
The phage-based test did not identify reference S. aureus strain ATCC 27664, and Pastorex failed to detect type strain S. ... This is quite contrary to the results obtained with the test used here, since we observed perfect sensitivity but moderate ... Rapid identification of microbial pathogens improves patient management by providing an earlier basis for the choice of an ... of related species may co-occur in diagnostic specimens because of colonization of the same habitats or contamination during ...
  • These antibodies are currently undergoing comprehensive specificity testing. (
  • Enrichment broth and agar media for detection of non-O157 STEC were evaluated, and improvements in the sensitivity and specificity were made through adjustments in the concentrations of antimicrobial selective agents. (
  • The new PCR analytical services offered by EMLab P&K are affordable and introduce clients to the accuracy, specificity, sensitivity, and throughput - benefits of the real-time PCR technology - that can be applied to broad range of samples. (
  • In recent years, the disadvantages of these methods have been acknowledged (such as sensitivity, specificity and long and complex procedures), and use of PCR for the detection of contaminations in cell cultures has become increasingly widespread. (
  • The literature describes several PCR methods for the detection of mycoplasmas, such as using a number of primers to obtain detection of specific mycoplasma species or nested PCR (two consecutive PCR cycles using different primers) for amplifying sensitivity and specificity. (
  • Designed to detect harmful bacteria and other microbes in food and environmental samples, the award-winning BAX® System analyses samples at the genetic level to provide excellent sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. (
  • Speed, excellent detection limit, selectivity, specificity, sensitivity and potential for automation are among the most important advantages of qPCR ( Rodríguez-Lázaro and Hernández, 2013 ). (
  • These isotopic techniques that included the use of 75 Se, 32 P, 125 I, and 35 S isotopes enabled a level of sensitivity and specificity that was hitherto unrealized, and it is prescient to remind ourselves of just how successful these technologies were, in spite of their infrequent use nowadays. (
  • Bacteroides species are promising indicators for differentiating livestock and human fecal contamination in water because of their high concentration in feces and potential host specificity. (
  • Although the presence of fever reflected the highest specificity (99.0%), its sensitivity was very low (6.9%) for UTI. (
  • The results of investigations into the sensitivity and specificity of dipstick tests in predicting UTI in patient populations other than SCI have been mixed. (
  • The sensitivity and specificity of 18S rRNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the detection of fungal aetiology of microbial keratitis was determined in thirty patients with clinical diagnosis of microbial keratitis. (
  • Main outcome measures were sensitivity and specificity of PCR in the detection of fungus in corneal keratitis. (
  • Statistical analysis revealed that the PCR to have a sensitivity of 90.9% and specificity of 94.7% in the detection of a fungal aetiology in microbial keratitis. (
  • Currently, the market players are engaged in developing PCR systems with enhanced capabilities such as broad menu of tests, higher sensitivity and specificity. (
  • Compared to qPCR, colorimetric LAMP had a sensitivity of 93.75% (CI, 69.77-99.84%) and specificity of 100% (CI, 97.20-100%), with a positive (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of 100 and 99.24%, respectively. (
  • Hence, intrahost sequence variation of pathogens and previously undescribed microbes can be detected. (
  • San Bruno, CA, United States, 2010/03/01 - EMLab P&K launches additional analytical services using real-time PCR technology to detect pathogens in food and environmental samples. (
  • EMLab P&K announces the launch of new analytical services to detect pathogens in food and environmental samples using real-time PCR technology. (
  • As EMLab P&K expands its portfolio of client services, new PCR tests for detection of pathogens such as Giardia and Clostridium will also be added in the near future. (
  • This last use of testing finished products for pathogens has emerged in light of recent outbreaks as a condition of sale to protect against product liability for some customers. (
  • F&B industries are using a century old method to detect pathogens. (
  • At BIOPSIN, we empower industries to detect pathogens almost in real-time. (
  • In addition, our device can detect multiple pathogens in a single test with the same gold standard sensitivity as the conventional lab tests. (
  • In this study, the genes of common pathogens were analyzed to screen and identify genes associated with intracellular survival through sequence similarity, phylogenetic tree analysis and the λ-Red recombination system test method. (
  • Testing often includes food product testing and environmental monitoring for pathogens, indicators and/or spoilage organisms. (
  • Blood cultures are used to detect bloodstream infections in febrile neutropenia, a common complication of chemotherapy in which fever occurs alongside a severely low count of neutrophils (white blood cells that defend against bacterial and fungal pathogens). (
  • Thus, the availability of reliable, rapid and accepted test systems to detect the presence or absence, or even the degree of contamination of pathogens, becomes increasingly important for the agricultural and food industry. (
  • These advantages compared to traditional detection methods might well encourage end-users to adopt amplification techniques in routine testing for foodborne pathogens. (
  • Irradiation of antigens or serum samples also has its uses in diagnosis, especially when the samples need to be transported across international boundaries, or when handling the pathogens in question when carrying out a test presents serious health hazards to laboratory personnel. (
  • Quafety researchers, including a team from Cardiff University s School of Biosciences, will also explore rapid and non-destructive methods for quality evaluation and prediction in order to quantify and manage microbial spoilage and pathogens, with the aim of minimising food safety risks to consumers. (
  • Minimally processed, ready-to-eat fruits and vegetables may contain human pathogens among their microflora owing to contamination at some point in the process from cultivation to consumption. (
  • Testing for pathogens in groundwater is complicated and expensive. (
  • When evaluating how well an FIO works, researchers often resort to characterizing its co-occurrence with one or more pathogens using simple tests of correlation. (
  • The work on sanitation aims to develop microbial risk assessment models to gain a better understanding of how pathogens are transmitted to humans through their contact with water, feces, and contaminated surfaces. (
  • Because of the high sensitivity of this technology to the charges into the bacteria cellular wall, our initial focus is microorganisms detection. (
  • For the sake of discussion here, microbial detection will be defined as the ability to recover and discover or determine the existence or presence of microorganisms. (
  • A means has been developed for the rapid detection, identification and antibiotic sensitivity testing of microorganisms which involves radiorespirometry. (
  • LANSING, Mich., Feb. 8, 2011 - Neogen has expanded its comprehensive line of food safety and quality testing products to include a rapid assay to detect the growth of heterotrophic bacterial microorganisms (e.g. (
  • The optical assay measures microbial growth in test vials by monitoring biochemical reactions that generate a color change as microorganisms grow and metabolize. (
  • 5.4.5 Measure the mortality rate of microorganisms in toxicity tests in entrainment studies, and in other situations where populations or assemblages of microorganisms are placed under stress. (
  • 1.1 This test method covers a protocol for capturing, extracting and quantifying the cellular adenosine triphosphate (cATP) content associated with microorganisms normally found in laboratory cultures, waters, wastewaters, and in plankton and periphyton samples from waters. (
  • A system that is sensitive to low-level contamination of a surface by microorganisms and/or food residues allows sanitarians to more accurately understand the status of a test point. (
  • Clinical microbiology focuses on all aspects of patient infections from testing samples to identifying bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic agents that are contributing to the infectious process, to determining the susceptibility of microorganisms to various antimicrobial agents, and reporting the results to healthcare providers. (
  • Stanford Health Care's Microbiology Laboratory tests for microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, and parasites to diagnose and guide antimicrobial therapy in patients with infectious diseases. (
  • Microbiology Identification Tests - Disks and strips are used in the identification and confirmation of microorganisms in research. (
  • 11. Test strains must be inoculated individually using a number of micro-organisms equivalent to not more than 100 CFU, could you clarify if this means that only the specific micro-organism under detection in the test method is inoculated into the growth medium or if each of the 4 microorganisms are added individually to the growth medium for each of the specific test methods? (
  • Just the same micro-organisms as used for testing the growth promoting properties of the respective media, or also the microorganisms used for testing inhibitory properties of the media? (
  • Allivibrio fischeri have demonstrated high sensitivity across a wide variety of toxic substances. (
  • Our competitive advantage is the high sensitivity and accuracy of the test, with a relatively quick response time (within minutes), which makes this technology ideal for field application as well as real time inline water monitoring and control. (
  • AllerGiene is a simple 20-second swab test with sufficient high sensitivity to allergenic food residues to achieve detection comparable to specific allergen methods - 0.1 to 25 ppm for most of the eight allergen food groups: Peanut butter, wheat, soybeans, crustacean (shrimp), milk, tree nuts, egg, and sesame. (
  • The world's leading manufacturer of helium-based, high sensitivity leak detection systems for the pharmaceutical and biologic industries. (
  • The group showed that this is not an issue for reaching high sensitivity performance. (
  • The test detects endotoxins and non-endotoxins, such as fungal spores, Gram-positive bacteria and their lipoteichoic acid moiety and pyrogenic dust particles with high sensitivity, thus reflecting the total inflammatory capacity of a sample. (
  • The system detects microbial contamination based on measurements of oxygen depletion upon time of incubation in a pharmacopoeia-recommended liquid broth, such as TSB. (
  • Some surface contamination monitoring methods detect microbial contamination from sources such as surfaces, garments, gloves and equipment based on measurements of oxygen depletion from incubation. (
  • The era of high-throughput genomic methods has the potential to replace this model for the first time with what could be referred to as "hypothesis-free testing. (
  • Within the pharmaceutical industry, the CCIT technology landscape is changing rapidly, and new technologies are emerging to create a wide range of testing methods and applications. (
  • This article also describes the source, methods of detection, and methods of elimination of microbial contamination. (
  • Incoming raw materials from pharmaceutical ingredients, chemical compounds, vitamins, minerals, herbs and even food ingredients are tested for the presence of undesirable microbes according to the current USP (United States Pharmacopeias) methods. (
  • To test the bactericidal activity of standard organ culture medium, and to compare the sensitivity and rapidity of blood culture bottles with conventional microbiological methods for detection of bacteria and fungi inoculated in a standard cornea organ culture medium. (
  • The sensitivity and rapidity of detection of contamination were compared between the three methods: blood bottle, conventional, and visual. (
  • [email protected]#The changes of metabolitcs in 10 U WBC-depleted RBC suspension at 3-different storage period (D 0, D 14 and D 35) were detected by using the UPLC-MS/MS, the charaeteristic ions and metabolic markers of RBC stored in preservation sblution for 0 d, 14 d and 35 days were analyzed by using the principal component analysis(PCA). (
  • [email protected]#Exosome (EXO) from LRA-Plt were acquired by ExoQuick, and its' morphology, immunological marker and particle size distribution were detected by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Western blotting and dynamic light scattering (DLS), respectively. (
  • Even though enumerating microbial cells by counting colonies on an agar filled Petri dish is still a common technique, a variety of more sophisticated and rapid methods are making their way into the quality control microbiology laboratory. (
  • Microbial testing has evolved over the last several years from "traditional" microbial testing that is slow and laborious to newer immune-assay techniques, DNA-based methods using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology and ultimately whole genome sequencing. (
  • When selecting test methods, be sure that the test has been validated to find the target organism in the commodity you produce. (
  • Rapid microbial methods can detect microbial contamination faster than traditional testing methods. (
  • Rapid microbial methods also require lower sample volumes for testing because of increased assay sensitivity. (
  • The laboratory methods used in food microbiology include qualitative presence/absence tests often used for pathogen detection or indicators of the presence of end products or byproducts of chemical or biochemical reactions, and quantitative tests used for enumeration of viable cells. (
  • Because it is essential that bloodstream infections are diagnosed and treated quickly, rapid testing methods have been developed using technologies like polymerase chain reaction and MALDI-TOF MS. Procedures for culturing the blood were published as early as the mid-19th century, but these techniques were labour-intensive and bore little resemblance to contemporary methods. (
  • Another disadvantage of traditional methods is that cells which are viable but otherwise non-culturable cannot be detected, e.g. some stressed Campylobacter spp. (
  • Thus, introduction of amplification techniques in microbial diagnostics has been established in research laboratories as a valuable alternative to traditional detection methods. (
  • However, a number of limitations are associated with traditional methods of microbial detection. (
  • Although for the most part such tests using radioisotope labels have been replaced, the tests that have been developed rely in their inception on the radiolabeling methods that preceded them, so they are still very much nuclear-related. (
  • Methods for measuring toxicity or respiratory activity of microbial cultures can be used as tools for assessing the presence of chemicals and their impact on the streams. (
  • The dynamism of the company can be seen from their constant challenging of the status quo to see if new and improved methods of water testing are possible. (
  • Considerable attention has been focused in recent years on prospects for automating these microbial methods. (
  • The rapidity of the tests and the economy in materials and labor will result in considerable savings over presently available methods. (
  • Exhibitors of laboratory instruments and services showcased advances in food testing, quality control methods, and product development tools. (
  • IFT's 2006 Food Expo ® showcased many suppliers of analytical instruments and testing services, offering the latest evolution in food measurement and testing, quality control methods, and product development tools. (
  • Neogen's new Soleris® NF-TVC (total viable count) can produce accurate results in as little as 24 hours - which represents a 24-hour improvement over traditional testing methods that can require up to 48 hours. (
  • The new Soleris assay delivers speed and the increased sensitivity over alternative methods that comes with using up to a full 5 mL sample with the Soleris system. (
  • The new assay is a new option for use with Neogen's Soleris technology, which is now used by hundreds of the world's largest food and nutraceutical manufacturers to detect indicator microbes in a fraction of the time needed for traditional methods. (
  • IMD-A systems set a standard for speed in rapid microbial detection, delivering continuous real-time data about one's environment empowering the user to detect, react to, and prevent contamination with a sensitivity not previously achievable with traditional methods. (
  • As BioVigilant's flagship product, IMD-A systems underwent rigorous testing against the USP Validation of Alternative Microbiological Methods guideline conducted in one of the world's most advanced aerosol test chambers, custom built for bacterial challenge testing. (
  • Because the draft guidance recommends the use of rapid microbiological methods (RMM) for in-process and finished product sterility testing, it is important to understand FDA's position in this regard. (
  • ASTM Test Methods and FDA standards. (
  • PTI's test methods for vials, ampoules & syringes include HVLD mc and vacuum decay technology. (
  • Airborne ultrasound technology is one of the most effective non-destructive testing methods for flexible packages. (
  • PTI's technologies use deterministic test methods that conform to ASTM and other regulatory standards. (
  • A common way to assess the effectiveness of cleaning and sanitation programs in food manufacturing facilities is through the use of methods that detect adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (
  • However, single indicators are only marginally associated with viruses detected by molecular methods, and all microbial indicators have low sensitivity and positive predictive values for virus occurrence, whether by culturable or molecular assays, i.e., indicators are often absent when viruses are present and the indicators have a high false-positive rate. (
  • Aseptic methods shall be employed to minimize the risk of microbial contamination of blood and blood components. (
  • The blood bank or transfusion service shall have methods to limit and to detect or inactivate bacteria in all platelet components. (
  • Detection methods shall either be approved by the FDA or be validated to provide sensitivity equivalent to FDA-approved methods. (
  • was detection of bacterial contamination in apheresis platelets by culture-based methods. (
  • Historically, detection of bacteria and viruses requires two different capture methods to detect both types of organisms in a given water sample. (
  • The test uses the same principles as standard laboratory colony count methods and can detect very low levels of contamination (right down to 1 CFU/ml). (
  • Oxygen depletion can be used in rapid microbiology assays to test surface microbial contamination in cleanroom environments and is an integrated component of certain rapid microbiological methods (RMMs). (
  • sensitivity of lysate (gel-clot method), linearity of standard curve (quantitative methods), and absence of interfering factors. (
  • Although user friendly these methods can be altered by testing blood, plasma, albumin, serum and similar materials. (
  • In this paper we describe an oxygen, depletion-based method as a rapid microbiology assay to test surface microbial contamination in cleanrooms environments. (
  • The assay involves the following steps: (1) differentiation of THP1 cells to non-dividing macrophages, (2) infection of macrophages with L. donovani metacyclic promastigotes, (3) treatment of infected cells with test drugs, (4) controlled lysis of infected macrophages, (5) release/rescue of amastigotes and (6) transformation of live amastigotes to promastigotes. (
  • In the 50 years since the discovery of Limulus amebocyte lysate and LAL testing, approximately 70 million bacterial endotoxin tests have been performed each year, and there have been no FDA-confirmed pyrogenic outbreaks due to LAL assay false-negative results. (
  • Charles River has evolved the exquisitely specific endotoxin testing in vitro assay by developing new technologies and innovative products to improve the quality and speed of the LAL test. (
  • Our second-generation reagent, KTA 2 , releases one of the fastest turbidimetric LAL reaction times in the industry, and our enhanced LAL reagent water formulations deliver an unrivaled combination of sensitivity, linearity, and interference resistance properties with minimal assay times. (
  • Direct PCR amplification (without DNA extraction) using the AllBac assay was tested on feces diluted in water. (
  • Fecal concentrations and threshold cycle were linearly correlated, indicating that the AllBac assay can be used to estimate the total amount of fecal contamination in water. (
  • Unlike testing alternatives, Neogen's new assay can be used to test large sample sizes. (
  • The sensitivity of this assay was found to be very comparable to the quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay, which could detect three copies of the gene, which corresponds to a single cell of C. burnetii . (
  • To the best of our understanding, it is the very first study describing the use of colorimetric LAMP assay that detects C. burnetii in vaginal swab samples with minimal sample processing for DNA extraction. (
  • Testing was carried out to evaluate the feasibility of using an oxygen depletion-based method as a rapid microbiology assay. (
  • When a PCR test is not readily available for the client's pathogen of interest, EMLab P&K can develop rigorous and scientifically sound tests to assist clients in a wide variety of testing needs. (
  • This approach enables faster pathogen screening results than conventional culture-based testing. (
  • Escherichia coli has been used as an indicator microorganism for fecal source tracking because it is easily cultured and is used as the primary regulatory indicator for pathogen contamination in recreational waters ( 38 , 42 ). (
  • It is defined as recurrent episodes of bacteremia due to the same microorganism intermittently detected in blood because of cyclical clearance and recurrence of the pathogen at the primary site of infection. (
  • The microbiological indicators traditionally used to assess fecal contamination are insufficient to identify the source. (
  • The aim of this study was to detect microbial markers to identify the source of fecal pollution in the Bogotá River (Colombia). (
  • Human fecal contamination is considered more significant than animal fecal pollution in terms of human health risk. (
  • However, in some instances, fecal contaminants of animal origin can also have a significant impact on microbial water quality and the risk for human health ( WHO 2003 ). (
  • A particular need is the ability to differentiate fecal microbial contamination of water resulting from animal operations versus that from human sources, such as leaking septic tanks, sewer overflows, or illegal discharges, and wildlife ( 13 , 38 ). (
  • The use of fecal bacteria to determine the host animal source of fecal contamination is based on the assumption that certain strains of fecal bacteria are associated with specific host animals and that strains from different host animals can be differentiated based on phenotypic or genotypic markers ( 38 , 43 ). (
  • Instead, public health officials have relied on more easily tested non-pathogenic microbes, known as the fecal indicator organisms (FIOs), to indicate the sanitary quality of water. (
  • A general microbial source tracking (MST) marker, GenBac3, was detected in all samples from all three events, indicating continuing fecal pollution in the area, mostly from human sewage contamination. (
  • Microbial monitoring combined with a QMRA could provide better insights into fecal pollution patterns and the associated risks, facilitating effective water quality management and appropriate prior treatments for water reuse. (
  • When considering a new piece of air sampling equipment, you should think about the following: Type and size of microbial particles being sampled, sensitivity of those microbial organisms to the testing parameters, concentration of those microbial particles, and the ability to detect high or low levels of microbial contamination. (
  • The Spa pools and fountains had higher than anticipated levels of microbial contamination. (
  • The Soleris system is a rapid optical method for the detection of microbial contamination based on an innovative application of classic microbiology. (
  • Ultimately, diagnostic microbiology will require the sensitive detection, identification, and quantification of nonhuman sequences in a background of human DNA, as well as the detection of genotype-identifying alleles of those microbial sequences. (
  • HTS-based diagnostic microbial detection offers at least five advantages over the classic microbiology paradigm. (
  • The results of this study show that this rapid microbiology technology is reliable, sensitive, and equivalent to standard compendia tests. (
  • He has conducted research and provided consulting services to industrial and governmental clients on a broad range of microbial damage control issues including: oilfield microbiology, heat exchange system biofilm control, microbiologically influenced corrosion control, and fuel, lubricant, hydraulic fluid and metalworking fluid deterioration. (
  • The field is concerned with the structure, function, and classification of such organisms and with ways of … The Gram staining test for bacteria is one of the most important tests in microbiology and is often one of the first tests performed in the identification of bacteria. (
  • Microbiology Culture Tests. (
  • The oxidase test is a test used in microbiology to determine if a bacterium produces certain cytochrome c oxidases. (
  • The PocketSwab Plus ATP swab is relied on for cleaning verification and validation of sanitation and hygiene practices to help prevent cross-contamination and microbial challenges due to ineffective sanitation procedures. (
  • The system can also include a device for heating, humidifying and mixing materials of the sensing units, as well as preventing cross-contamination of the sensing units. (
  • Also, historically speaking, FDA was more concerned about the contamination of nonpenicillin drug products with penicillins or the cross-contamination of drug products with potent steroids or hormones. (
  • A number of products have been recalled over the past decade due to actual or potential penicillin cross-contamination. (
  • One event which increased FDA awareness of the potential for cross contamination due to inadequate procedures was the 1988 recall of a finished drug product, Cholestyramine Resin USP. (
  • The cross-contamination in that case is believed to have been due to the reuse of recovered solvents. (
  • This in turn led to cross contamination of lots produced at that site, a site where no pesticides were normally produced. (
  • FDA considered the potential for cross-contamination to be significant and to pose a serious health risk to the public. (
  • To help prevent contamination regulatory guidelines have been established to evaluate viral safety in biologics manufacturing. (
  • The unknown microorganism was sub cultured before any experiments were performed every time in order to prevent contamination of the culture. (
  • Of course, the main rationale for requiring clean equipment is to prevent contamination or adulteration of drug products. (
  • This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) seeks projects for rapid and sensitive detection of infectious agents as a key requirement for microbial identification in laboratory animal models. (
  • Microbial infections in biomedical laboratory animal models have become an increasingly important topic, because the constant possibility of outbreaks that may threaten the survival or utility of biomedical animal models available for current and future research needs. (
  • Extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBL) was detected according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and real time-PCR. (
  • Successful detection and quantification of microbial contamination in laboratory samples set the stage for the second phase of the research effort. (
  • The laboratory shall maintain proficiency and competence by undertaking sufficient testing to maintain the knowledge, experience and expertise of staff. (
  • If samples are referred to another laboratory for testing, it is the responsibility of the referring laboratory to ensure that the sample conditions outlined above have been met, and to inform that receiving laboratory if they have not been met. (
  • A variety of studies conducted worldwide have found that mycoplasma contamination in laboratory cultures varies from 15-80% (1). (
  • During a recent visit to a small processor, the owner of the company asked several questions about a laboratory report they had just received from their third-party testing laboratory. (
  • A blood culture is a medical laboratory test used to detect bacteria or fungi in a person's blood. (
  • Other applications could be in monitoring sequestered microbial culture (e.g., rinderpest virus) where in the case of accidental or deliberate release of infective culture it would be possible to identify the laboratory from which the isolate originated. (
  • Laboratory Testing: Before pesticides are registered by the U.S. EPA, they must undergo laboratory testing for short-term (acute) and long-term (chronic) health effects. (
  • 6 See the text box on Laboratory Testing . (
  • However once an UTI is detected, laboratory investigation using microbiological analysis of urine cultures is important for confirming UTI and also for guiding treatment. (
  • The latest testing of LaRa took place in ESA's Mechanical Systems Laboratory (MSL) at the Agency's ESTEC technical heart in Noordwijk, the Netherlands. (
  • Due to the unique thixotropic gel formulation MicrobMonitor® AQUA™ provides a level of sensitivity previously only available in laboratory TVC tests. (
  • Each case was treated with topical antibiotics based on the results of antibiotic sensitivity tests. (
  • No patient required dacryocystorhinostomy to eliminate bacterial contamination in the conjunctiva following topical antibiotic therapy. (
  • However, there is still a need to improve sensitivity of most molecular techniques to enhance their accuracy and allow exact and on time antibiotic therapy treatment. (
  • This also results in the identification of the antibiotic(s) for which the bacteria species may be susceptible (i.e., sensitivity). (
  • Antibiotic sensitivity tests are then conducted to determine if these bacteria are susceptible to specific antibiotics. (
  • E-TEST ( Epsilometer test): Principle, purpose, procedure, results and interpretations January 9, 2015 Acharya Tankeshwar Antibiotic Resistance , Bacteriology 6 Epsilometer test (E- test ) is an 'exponential gradient' method of determination of antimicrobial resistance. (
  • With the extension of its testing product range to include polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based systems, Hygiena now covers the entire spectrum of reliable contamination detection, from sample collection to screening of indicator organisms to specific microbial characterisation. (
  • PARIS - Novacyt SA has obtained CE marking approval for its polymerase chain reaction (PCR) respiratory virus test panel, Winterplex. (
  • The highly sensitive and specific PCR tests can rapidly detect pathogenic contamination and results can be available in a matter of hours. (
  • It can be concluded that the two disinfection systems allow providers to obtain a reduction of the saprophytic and pathogenic microbial load. (
  • The contamination and persistence of pathogenic bacteria in certain fresh produce, including ready-to-eat products, have become an emerging concern in recent years. (
  • The market is witnessing significant advances in the design of PCR platforms shifting from conventional standard PCR to real time and digital PCR systems to efficiently detect pathogenic microbes such as mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria and influenza viruses. (
  • The procedure reported in the IBB paper reduces the time delay for microbiological contamination testing from the typical three to five days required for culture testing to less than 10 minutes. (
  • In the Bogotá River, phages infecting strain GA17 were detected in all samples downstream of Bogotá, whereas they should be concentrated from 1 l samples in upstream samples containing less than 10 3 E. coli /100 ml to be detected. (
  • The zNose portable analyzer from Electronic Sensor Technology ( ) can analyze and identify a chemical, vapor, or toxin in less than 10 sec with part-per-trillion sensitivity. (
  • By employing real-time PCR, EMLab P&K can detect and quantify specific microbial organisms such as Dehalococcoides involved in bioremediation process. (
  • For industrial applications we developed Aquassay, a quantitative version of the test that offers the ability to quantify bacteria and fungi between 500 and 20,000 CFU/ml, and is particularly useful in optimizing and monitoring water treatment systems when response time is critical. (
  • An E-nosesystem is developed using embedded PIC micro controller to detect and quantify the microbial contaminants. (
  • This project will assess the cleanliness of existing endoscopes and the efficacy of current decontamination procedures, using a new highly sensitive microscopy imaging method to identify and quantify residual contamination from a range of flexible endoscopes, and new cell assays to assess potential prion infectivity. (
  • In the current case series, bacteria were not detected in conjunctival swabs obtained consecutively three times for 3 weeks after starting topical antibiotics in 118 eyes from 125 eyes (94.4%), and later in the remaining patients. (
  • Rest assured that AquaSnap Free ATP Water Test Swabs are stable enough to withstand warmer temperatures during transit time. (
  • Through extensive testing, Hygiena determined that the swabs can withstand temperatures up to 98°F (36.6°C) for 3 days without significantly compromising performance. (
  • In addition, organ culture media contain phenol red, an indicator whose colour varies with pH, most often denoting contamination. (
  • They areconsidered to be the most sensitive indicator bacteria for demonstrating excremental contamination. (
  • The MR test is conducted in a broth which methyl red indicator dye is added. (
  • Consequently, the presence of cellular-ATP is an indicator of total metabolically active microbial contamination in water. (
  • Focus was on testing the value of indicator organisms for identifying virus-contaminated wells. (
  • This simple test kit for bacteria contamination is the ideal water quality test indicator for field validation of water disinfection systems. (
  • MicrobMonitor® AQUA™ provides a Total Viable Count (TVC) (also known as Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC) or Aerobic Colony Count (ACC)) of bacteria, the industry standard indicator of the overall microbial contamination in a water sample. (
  • This fully automatic analyser has a broad detection range that can identify several thousand contaminants simultaneously whether or not there is knowledge of the source of contamination. (
  • • Millipore (Billerica, Massachusetts) and Gen-Probe (San Diego) reported the launch of the first product from their collaboration to create faster, more sensitive tests for detecting contaminants in pharma and biotech manufacturing processes. (
  • The same technology however can be customized for detecting heavy metals, pesticides, viruses, water born parasites, chemicals such as ammonia, and various other contaminants. (
  • This work is intended to detect biological water contaminants like coliform group of bacteria in drinkingwater. (
  • Pharmaceutical microbiologists are tasked with the detection, enumeration and identification of microbial contaminants found in drug products and the manufacturing environment. (
  • Despite all the possible problems stemming from contamination in genomic resources, most studies addressing this issue so far have focused on one particular genome ( e.g. , tardigrades) and/or one particular source of contaminants ( e.g. , humans). (
  • Colonies of endogenous normal bacterial flora are the main source of bacterial contamination in the anterior chamber of the eye. (
  • Furthermore, these studies indicated that nasolacrimal duct obstruction might cause lacrimal sac and conjunctival bacterial contamination even in the absence of dacryocystitis. (
  • The susceptibilities of the bacteria isolated from the conjunctival swab samples of patients with occluded nasolacrimal duct, to antibiotics, were determined to eliminate conjunctival bacterial contamination. (
  • In the current retrospective study, none of the patients received surgical treatment i.e. tubing or dacryocystorhinostomy, for nasolacrimal duct obstruction at our institution to eliminate bacterial contamination in conjunctiva. (
  • We also wish to thank the Food and Drug Administration for addressing the issue of bacterial contamination of platelet components in a public venue. (
  • AABB has addressed this issue on several fronts during the past decade and we appreciate the opportunity to provide a record for this meeting of the actions AABB has required member facilities to take to limit and detect bacterial contamination in platelet components and of education provided to the membership to support implementation of the various requirements and recommendations. (
  • AABB strategies have been developed using the expertise of members of its Bacterial Contamination Task Force, Transfusion Transmitted Diseases Committee, and Blood Bank and Transfusion Service Standards Program Unit. (
  • The venipuncture site shall be prepared so as to minimize risk of bacterial contamination. (
  • Association Bulletin #04-07 issued October 14, 2004 - Actions Following an Initial Positive Test for Possible Bacterial Contamination of a Platelet Unit - is still an active bulletin. (
  • The primers have been designed to detect those mycoplasma species responsible for most contaminations in cell cultures (including Acholeplasma) and were tested to be specific for mycoplasma DNA only, not reacting with animal or bacterial DNA. (
  • This test is complicated, time consuming (about 5 weeks), and some mycoplasma species are difficult to detect with this method. (
  • Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was detected in 28 eyes, and Corynebacterium species was detected in 17 eyes. (
  • Aquavial detects common bacteria such as E.coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, species of Shigella, Enterobacter. (
  • and fungal species were detected in any sample. (
  • The DeltaTox II is a portable instrument that can be used to conduct acute toxicity and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) testing. (
  • The PocketSwab Plus rapid ATP (adenosine triphosphate) swab is room-temperature stable, self-contained, single service test that enables total surface hygiene verification in only 5 seconds, allowing real-time corrective action. (
  • Like the PocketSwab Plus ATP swab, the FieldSwab rapidly detects ATP (adenosine triphosphate) as a measure of surface cleanliness. (
  • It utilizes a technologically advanced photomultiplier tube (PMT) that amplifies ATP (adenosine triphosphate) allowing detection of lower levels of microbial and organic contamination. (
  • There are several factors that must be considered when selecting a reliable and accurate system for detecting adenosine triphosphate. (
  • All finished products have to be tested for the presence of undesirable microbes as well. (
  • By culturing the blood, microbes can be identified and tested for resistance to antimicrobial drugs, which allows clinicians to provide an effective treatment. (
  • The device contains a detergent to release ATP that is bound to microbial or organic matter and inside microbes. (
  • Q: What types of microbes can BioVigilant's IMD-A systems detect? (
  • Both systems will detect spores and count them as microbes. (
  • Q: How do IMD systems detect microbes? (
  • BioVigilant's IMD systems detect the presence of microbes by simultaneously measuring the size and intrinsic fluorescence of every particle in an aerosol/liquid sample as it is drawn through the instrument and interrogated by a laser. (
  • Blood bottles detect more efficiently and more rapidly a wider range of bacteria and fungi than the conventional microbiological method and the visual inspection of organ culture media. (
  • In these studies, cATP concentrations were compared with culture test results. (
  • Regarding the research test we performed, four persons had detectable concentrations of Stachylysin in their serum. (
  • A Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) was then conducted to estimate the annual infection risks of HAdV40/41 for non-potable water reuse purposes using predicted concentrations from crAssphage and HPyVs. (
  • Extensive data on chemical distribution and packaging systems proves that the Chem 20 chemical particle counter, with 20 nm sensitivity, detects larger concentrations of particles with better statistics than competitive products. (
  • 5 USDA's E. coli Testing Program. (
  • In this work, we detect E-coli in drinking water using CO2 sensor. (
  • Since E.coli and other coliform organisms arepresent in large numbers in faeces and sewage, they can be detected in numbers as small as 1 in 100 ml of water. (
  • 2000 Nov Attachment of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to the Surfaces and Internal Structures of Apples as Detected by Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy. (
  • For example if you test the suitability of the method for E. coli, you should use only E. coli as test micro-organism for growth promotion. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: The evidences highlight the importance of the epidemiological surveillance of Extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBL) strains, as well as the need for molecular epidemiological studies to identify the routes of transmission and the contamination sources within health personnel. (
  • Sensitivity of planktonic cells to chlorine.Viability of test strains was not affected by treatment with water. (
  • were first compared in terms of sensitivity using (1) 41 different type strains of Enterococcus spp. (
  • 10. Does it mean that for each test strain, individual suitability tests have to be performed, or is it possible to use a mixed inoculum of all 4 strains? (
  • One requirement of cGMP regulations is the monitoring of microbiological contamination. (
  • The QGO-M XL method described in this paper essentially eliminates quarantine inventory time and increases the reliability of microbiological contamination testing. (
  • The traditional upper control limit for microbiological contamination in APE is ≤1,000 CFU mL -1 . (
  • Charles River has developed and optimized a range of quantitative and qualitative LAL reagent water formulations that provides increased sensitivity, greater linearity, and superior interference resistance. (
  • A fully quantitative and uniquely stable kinetic chromogenic LAL reagent, Endochrome-K™ includes an enhanced KCA formulation that delivers an unrivaled combination of sensitivity, linearity, and interference resistance. (
  • Our lysate features a firm gel over a wide range of sensitivities as the buffered reagent provides improved interference resistance for routine LAL tests. (
  • showed 100% resistance to Ampicillin and 80% sensitivity to Ciprofloxacin. (
  • Haake rotational viscometers from Cole-Parmer Instruments ( ) measure the resistance of a test substance against a preset speed. (
  • In this study, microbial quality and antimicrobial resistance of faecal bacteria from a Portuguese river were assessed. (
  • It is evaluated and stressed throughout the manufacturing lifecycle of a sterile drug product (e.g., during primary package development, line qualifications, product manufacturing qualifications, stability testing, change-control process, and shipping studies) and tested when required. (
  • Engineers approached the instrument wearing mouth masks, gowns and sterile gloves - resembling a hospital surgical team - then proceeded to remove the sensors and cabling fitted for the testing before placing the instrument and its antennas into sterile bags. (
  • Make at least four serial dilutions of a microbial culture and a food product in a sterile phosphate buffer solution. (
  • Therefore Bacterial Endotoxin Test (BET) is performed on sterile products (officially in the Pharmacopoeia) and medical devices to be implanted or injected into the body to avoid antagonists effects. (
  • Microtox Acute Reagent is a freeze-dried culture of Allivibrio fischeri that is reconstituted prior to testing. (
  • The sensitivity of the reagent may become altered after the recommended time period. (
  • Our Endochrome-K™ LAL test reagent offers quantitative endotoxin values in roughly an hour, depending on the user's desired sensitivity, and the stability of the reconstituted LAL allows for extended bench time and reuse, making it a highly economical solution. (
  • Only the addition of reagent differs, and both tests are carried out consecutively. (
  • While the urine is being centrifuged, examine the remainder of the specimen by inspection and reagent strip (dipstick) testing. (
  • Reagent strips cannot be relied on to detect some proteins (eg, globulins, light chains) or reducing sugars (other than glucose). (
  • Substances that cause abnormal urine color may affect the readability of test pads on reagent strips (eg, visible levels of blood or bilirubinuria and drugs containing dyes, nitrofurantoin, rifampin or rifabutin). (
  • Air sampling equipment is designed with a specific purpose in mind, but many purchasers do not realize that the differences between different air samplers can be major factors in the appropriate testing and control of their environments. (
  • When air from different surroundings such as working environments and animal housing was assayed, the method yielded reproducible data which correlated with other parameters of microbial burden tested. (
  • We have been successfully controlling microbial and particulate contamination in critical regulated manufacturing environments worldwide for over 45 years. (
  • Groundwater quality is often evaluated using microbial indicators. (
  • Coastal groundwater has been implicated as a source of microbial pollution to recreational beaches. (
  • Comprised of proteins, LAL is used to detect the presence of endotoxins, a cell wall component of Gram-negative bacteria that causes a pyrogenic response (fever) and symptoms of septic shock. (
  • The generation of valid results for bacterial endotoxins testing (BET) necessitates robust test procedures, well-maintained equipment, and properly trained personnel, but too often it is cost, not quality, that is the driving force in the BET decision-making process. (
  • These endotoxins excreted by gram-negative bacteria are a major cause of pharmaceutical products contamination. (
  • Sterility tests do not accurately identify endotoxins due to their chemical nature and because they are only produced by gram-negative bacteria. (
  • In addition, AquaVial can also detect fungi such as Trichopyton and Microsporum, known to cause Athlete's food disease and nail infections, as well as Candida albicans. (
  • Water samples were taken from pools and fountains throughout the Spa and tested for bacteria, fungi, mycobacteria, and endotoxin. (
  • Microbial sampling identified a variety of fungi including Stachybotrys chartarum. (
  • All the patients receiving cataract day surgery underwent the operation after the elimination of conjunctival microorganism contamination in association with nasolacrimal duct obstruction by using appropriate topical antibiotics. (
  • However, on some occasions, blood cultures have intrinsic limitations in terms of sensitivity and rapidity, and it is not expected that these drawbacks will be overcome by significant improvements in the near future. (
  • This light can be measured quantitatively by a luminometer (light-detecting instrument), with results available in 10-40 seconds. (
  • Used to detect light coming from the ATP/luciferin/luciferase reaction, the optical component is the defining factor related to luminometer reliability, sensitivity and repeatability. (
  • Many other products, especially liquid preparations and creams for topical application to severely injured skin, large open wounds or mucus membrane which are liable to bacterial, mould and fungal contamination from the atmosphere ( or less frequently from the contaminated equipments during manufacture) should be controlled for microbial contamination. (
  • NIOSH investigators found localized areas of fungal contamination in building materials in the Spa. (
  • The overall goal of the STEC CAP is to reduce the occurrence and public health risks from seven serogroups of STEC (O157 and six non-O157) regulated in beef by the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service using a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) platform while preserving an economically viable and sustainable beef industry. (
  • Where small-volume testing is necessary, appropriate training, assessment and ongoing education procedures should be implemented to maintain and document the proficiency of staff in conducting these tests, and the number of quality assurance samples should be increased. (
  • Mars Sample Return backward contamination - Strategic advice and requirements ) and a similar one by the NRC of the USA ( Assessment of Planetary Protection Requirements for Mars Sample Return Missions ). (
  • Other specialized applications include personnel training, compressed gas testing, process simulations (e.g. water and media fills), root-cause investigations (e.g. sourcing of building mold contamination), engineering validation (e.g. determining optimum HVAC settings) and risk assessment/process improvement (the synchronized IMD-A webcam works great for this application). (
  • MicrobMonitor® AQUA™ provides a reliable assessment of the overall level of microbial cleanliness of potable, hot or recreational water systems. (
  • There is obviously a need for further assessment of the problem of contamination in publicly available genomic data. (
  • E-nose contains array of sensors resulting in multiple measurements which havebeen analyzed using pattern recognition techniques, An e-nose could be a universal vapor sensor , in practice however allexisting e-nose detects only a family of related chemicals due to the difficulty of producing a variety of sensing materialsrequired for universal sensing [4]. (
  • The Endosafe ® cartridge technology is our advanced solution to our customers' need for higher sensitivity in the LAL test and faster quantitative results. (
  • No strict requirement was deliberately given in this chapter because the test is qualitative, not quantitative. (
  • 1 Its advantages include the possibility of doing one or more microbiological tests that minimise the risk of transmitting a bacterial or fungal infection to the recipient. (
  • To minimise the risk of contamination, nucleic acid amplification techniques have some special sample collection and preparation needs, in addition to the usual requirements for pathology testing. (
  • When these test results were positive for a virus, the water sample was analyzed. (
  • 5 ). Several waterborne outbreaks have been detected on the basis of epidemiologic evidence ( 6 , 7 ), and only in 1997 did the first report of noroviruses in well water appear ( 8 ). (
  • Other applications of this technology include testing microbial bioburden in raw materials, excipients, drug products, pharmaceutical water, and environmental monitoring applications in the pharmaceutical industry. (
  • Microtox is an in vitro testing system which uses bioluminescent bacteria (Allivibrio fischeri, formerly known as Vibrio fischeri) to detect toxic substances in different substrates such as water, air, soils and sediments. (
  • Prior to Microtox, the majority of toxicity tests available for water specifically focused on fish and daphnids. (
  • Since its inception, Microtox has become a standard method for testing the toxicity of water as well as other substrates such as soils and sediments. (
  • Also known as the portable version of the Microtox Model 500, this device provides simple testing, uses small sample sizes, and is a cost-effective approach to analyzing water samples. (
  • We are developing simple, inexpensive, and fast water testing products and services for microbiological testing, with applications in food, pharmaceutical, travel and other industries. (
  • Genemis is a 2016 Techcellence Innovation Awards Finalist for its AquaVial water testing technology. (
  • The aim of this study was to assess the bacteriological quality of water sources in the two rural areas of Uganda using the compartment bag test (CBT). (
  • Microbial testing is currently employed to verify environmental and equipment sanitation practices, determine microbial quality of inputs like irrigation water or compost, monitor wash water quality, screen raw products prior to harvest and test finished products prior to shipment. (
  • NIOSH investigators recommend remediating the mold found in treatment rooms, monitoring moisture levels in treatment room walls, and adjusting the water disinfection program to reduce microbial levels in pools and fountains. (
  • The ability to rapidly monitor the quality of U.S. source water for contamination has never been more important than it is in today's security-sensitive environment. (
  • Recently, we developed the LEADQuick field test kit for the detection of lead in water with 3 #22;g/L sensitivity. (
  • The US-based company Industrial Test Systems (ITS) is a relatively young start-up company but is already making a big name for itself in the field of sensitive yet simple-to-use kits for water testing. (
  • The assays were tested using creek water samples from three different watersheds. (
  • Charm WaterGiene is used to test the sanitation of water, including CIP water, rinse waters, and cooling water. (
  • There are multiple application scenarios within a typical Purified Water or Water for Injection production facility, including pretreatment and RO effectiveness testing, storage tank sampling, point-of-use sampling, and other routine water sampling points. (
  • As a newer product, the IMD-W system has undergone an initial battery of tests in accordance with recommendations set forth by the Online Water Bioburden Analyzer (OWBA) industry work group. (
  • Infrastructural problems force South African households to supplement their drinking water consumption from water resources of inadequate microbial quality. (
  • Microbial water quality monitoring is currently based on the Colilert ® 18 system which leads to rapidly available results. (
  • The current system allows for understanding of long-term trends of microbial surface water quality and the related public health risks. (
  • The firm had evidence, from TLC tests on the rinse water, of the presence of residues of reaction byproducts and degradants from the previous process. (
  • Anyone can easily use the kit, by adding a measured amount of water to the plastic bottle of specially formulated testing gel. (
  • This technology is widely recognized as a trusted, reliable method of detection, and the levels of sensitivity it can provide allow for accurate water sample testing of a wide range of samples. (
  • The MicrobMonitor AQUA test provides assurance about water quality. (
  • A proper detection system for microbial and total air particulate in cleanrooms. (
  • ABZOX was detected and identified by mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (ESI) in positive ion and multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. (
  • Both the USA and the European Union GMPs require microbial surface monitoring in pharmaceutical cleanrooms. (
  • In the in-line monitoring applications, out technology allows us to detect microbial contamination levels as low as 100 CFU/ml. (
  • As the food industry increases the demand for more and more testing, whether it is for customers, regulators or for self-monitoring, the concept of detection becomes more and more important. (
  • During the test phase, the researchers will focus on monitoring volatiles released by melons, rocket, and fresh-cut fruit salads. (
  • When an ATP hygiene monitoring system has poor sensitivity or repeatability, there is substantial risk that the test result does not truly represent the hygienic status of the location tested. (
  • Particle Measuring Systems (PMS) has the application expertise and particle monitoring instruments with the industry leading sensitivity you need to reduce yield loss. (
  • Trust your contamination control monitoring and prevention to Particle Measuring Systems. (
  • Both the US and European Union good manufacturing practices (GMPs) require microbial surface monitoring in pharmaceutical cleanrooms. (
  • can be applied to any common CCI testing (CCIT) method to achieve a method suited for its intended use within a drug product lifecycle. (
  • Because many technologies can be applied to CCI testing, it is important to understand that no single, universal test method is appropriate or practical for all leak test applications within a CCI lifecycle and for all products and presentations ( 2 ). (
  • Dye ingress (liquid tracer test) is still the most widely used CCIT method across the biopharmaceutical industry ( 3 ). (
  • In 2007, the European Pharmacopeia accepted nucleic acid tests, such as real-time PCR, as an alternative method for traditional Mycoplasma detection after validation. (
  • PCR has been shown to be a highly sensitive, specific and rapid method for the detection of mycoplasmas contamination in cell cultures. (
  • The investigation demonstrated that QGO-M XL's sensitivity was substantially greater than that of the SPC method. (
  • Achieving and maintaining standards of practice and expertise requires an adequate number of samples to be tested with a given method (McGovern et al 1999). (
  • The performance of only a small number of tests with any given nucleic acid based method is discouraged. (
  • The current gold standard method of bloodstream microbial detection and identification is the blood culture (BC). (
  • This sampling method was the least effective method means of detecting bacteria on a surface. (
  • The concerns this processor expressed all lead back to the products (matrix) being tested, how much product was in the sample (10, 25 or 375 g), how many organisms were present in the sample, as well as what detection method was used, what was it detecting and how much could it detect? (
  • Whatever you're testing, whichever testing method you choose, Charles River's Endosafe ® reagents have you covered. (
  • The gel-clot LAL test is a basic qualitative method best used for low-volume laboratories. (
  • PCR detected 10 of 11 samples that were positive by conventional method. (
  • PCR is a rapid, sensitive and useful method to detect fungal aetiology in microbial keratitis. (
  • The aim of this study is to evaluate a PCR method based on a new set of primers targeted to 18S rRNA gene for rapid detection of pan-fungal aetiology in microbial keratitis. (
  • 5.2 This test method measures the concentration of cellular-ATP present in the sample. (
  • 5.3 The ATP (luciferin-luciferase) method is a rapid, sensitive determination of viable microbial biomass. (
  • PTI revolutionized the traditional HVLD test method and pioneered the Microcurrent HVLD technology. (
  • ASTM Test Method F3004 and FDA standard. (
  • We have previously described and validated a new method for the detection of pyrogenic (fever-inducing) microbial contaminations in injectable drugs, based on the inflammatory reaction of human blood to pyrogens. (
  • The method offers a test to measure the integral inflammatory capacity of air-borne microbial contaminations relevant to humans. (
  • 2. When are you actually supposed to do the negative control: when testing the suitability of the method, or when testing the product, or in both situations? (
  • 4. Does it have to be done every time the product is tested or during the method validation or is it possible to do it periodically? (
  • You do not have to use an inhibitory strain in order to test the suitability of the method. (
  • Samples that have been used for other tests before nucleic acid detection testing are at increased risk of contamination. (
  • No prior preparations are required for PCR, other than the sample to be tested. (
  • The difference between Total and Free provides an indication of microbial contamination in the sample. (
  • It combines Millipore's sample prep methodologies with Gen-Probe's nucleic acid technologies to deliver both speed and sensitivity in one microbial screening tool. (
  • Problems such as material shedding by the device, sample volumes exhausted at test locations, unfiltered exhaust, and airflow disruption can arise when using the wrong air sampling equipment. (
  • Where patient-collected samples are used for diagnosis, clear instruction shall be provided to the patient to reduce the likelihood of sample contamination. (
  • Specimens are to be collected according to principles outlined below, as sample contamination can occur at any stage of specimen collection and processing. (
  • This knowledge is critical to avoid testing samples and getting a positive sample and making a decision to discard the product or re-sanitize a facility only to find that the result was a "false"-positive and the extra expense was not necessary. (
  • Similarly, it is also important to avoid the opposite scenario where a sample tests "negative" but might be later found to have really been "positive" and affected products are in the market and might impact public health. (
  • These low level contaminations make it difficult to isolate DNA so most tests have an enrichment step where the sample is placed in a liquid solution high in nutrients and incubated at ideal temperatures to help it recover and grow. (
  • The quick turnaround time and lower sample volume requirements also permit close to real time in-process testing, thereby enabling process analytics and quality by design initiatives. (
  • Q: What do BioVigilant's Instantaneous Microbial Detection systems sample? (
  • Consequently, a proportion of the active or inactive microbial population present in a sample may be viable but not detected by any one culture test. (
  • If the sample has microbial contamination, the time that it takes the phosphorescent signal to cross a predetermined threshold is the time-to- result (TTR). (
  • The blood is then subcultured, meaning it is streaked onto an agar plate to isolate microbial colonies for full identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. (
  • Third, changes in strain sequence will not affect the diagnostic outcome as dramatically as they do with some current tests. (
  • Mycoplasma contamination is a recurring problem that can cause non-reproducible, questionable results in research and productivity losses of up to 50% in industry - but can be avoided by routine diagnostic testing. (
  • The diagnostic accuracy of this bacteriophage-based test was compared with that of a conventional LAT, Pastorex Staph-Plus, by investigating a clinical collection of 86 S. aureus isolates and 128 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) from deep tissue infections. (
  • Diagnosis of HIV in resource-limited settings relies on rapid diagnostic tests used together in an algorithm. (
  • The company's Food Safety Division markets diagnostic test kits to detect foodborne bacteria, natural toxins, genetic modifications, food allergens, drug residues, plant diseases, and sanitation concerns, and dehydrated culture media. (
  • For instance, introduction of QX200 Droplet Digital PCR System by Bio-Rad provides a broad menu of molecular diagnostic tests and enhanced workflow to enable overall cost reduction and eliminate the need for multiple systems. (
  • PROVIDER-PERFORMED MICROSCOPY PROCEDURES is a topic covered in the Guide to Diagnostic Tests . (
  • Emergency Central is a collection of disease, drug, and test information including 5-Minute Emergency Medicine Consult, Davis's Drug, McGraw-Hill Medical's Diagnosaurus®, Pocket Guide to Diagnostic Tests, and MEDLINE Journals created for emergency medicine professionals. (
  • AquaSnap Free measures dissolved ATP that is free in solution (non-microbial ATP). (
  • Q Laboratories ( ) provides analytical chemistry services, including fatty acid profiles, mycotoxin testing, preservative assays, vitamin testing, and shelf life/stability studies. (
  • This sensitive and rapid testing analyser has the ability to detect microbial contamination, as well as more than 2,700 different chemicals. (
  • The final experiment conducted during the first week of biochemical testing was the oxidase test. (
  • It is important to understand the selectivity and sensitivity of any microbial test that might be employed, i.e. how effective is the test in identifying only the specific target organism and not close genetic relatives and at what concentration or level will it find that target? (
  • The test takes approximately five hours to obtain clear results and detects all mycoplasma commonly found in cell cultures. (
  • The ability to routinely perform rapid and simple tests to detect mycoplasma contamination in cell cultures facilitates the eradication or treatment of contaminated cells. (
  • PCR-based mycoplasma test kits greatly simplify testing and detection of mycoplasma contamination in cell cultures. (
  • However, only one of ten scientists regularly check their cell cultures for mycoplasma contamination. (
  • Screening of cell cultures at regular intervals for mycoplasma contamination is critical for reliable and reproducible results. (
  • PromoKine's PCR Mycoplasma Test Kit I utilizes highly-sensitive PCR technology for fast, convenient and reliable in situ detection of contaminating mycoplasmas in various biological materials including cell cultures and virus stocks. (
  • Minor damage to the skin or mucous membranes, which can occur in situations like toothbrushing or defecation, can introduce bacteria into the bloodstream, but this bacteremia is normally transient and is rarely detected in cultures because the immune system and reticuloendothelial system quickly sequester and destroy the organisms. (
  • People who are hospitalized and have a fever, a low body temperature, a high white blood cell count or a low count of granulocytes (a category of white blood cells) commonly have cultures drawn to detect a possible bloodstream infection. (
  • 5.4.1 Estimate viable microbial biomass in cultures, waters, and wastewaters. (
  • The TTR for a large number of bacterial, yeast and mould cultures tested was less than 24 hours. (
  • Black silicon provides a unique platform for a non-reflecting, all-direction-absorbing surface, which can be used for sensing and fingerprinting of molecular and microbial contamination. (
  • The MycoSEQ® Mycoplasma Detection System's easy workflow delivers actionable results in less than 4 hours-enabling you to detect contamination as early as possible in process development, equipment, raw materials, and finished product. (
  • Some tests can take up to seven days to obtain complete results. (
  • With PCR testing, reliable results are obtained within a few hours, since the presence of contaminant mycoplasmas can be easily and sensitively detected by simply verifying the bands of amplified DNA fragments after gel electrophoresis. (
  • [email protected]#The number of characteristic ions in RBC and supernatant extracts detected during the initial, middle and final storage could be clearly distinguiseed. (
  • Highly reliable results dramatically decrease false positives, minimise re-testing and optimise speed of time-to-result with minimum hands-on time. (
  • RESULTS: A cluster of six resistant isolates of K. pneumoniae blaNDM-1 was detected in intensive care unit (ICU), internal medicine (IM) and orthopedics (OT). (
  • RESULTS: Heterogeneous distribution of ESKAPE and non-ESKAPE bacteria was detected in various medical devices, patients, and medical personnel. (
  • After culturing of cotton swab samples from the conjunctiva, and using direct micrography of bacteria every 2 or 3 days after starting treatment, and once the results were negative (consecutively tested three times), the patients received cataract surgery. (
  • This test is easy to use, economical, and gives results in just 15 seconds! (
  • The MilliProbe system uses real-time transcription-mediated amplification technology to detect targeted microbial contamination within hours compared to the days or weeks usually required to generate results using traditional culture-based technology. (
  • While tempting to shorten enrichment steps to meet demands for quick results so that decisions can be made, failure to employ sufficient enrichment can result in loss of sensitivity. (
  • Mycoplasma contamination is a very real concern for research labs, largely due to the fact that contamination can impact cells' behavior and thus compromise the validity of experimental results and study data. (
  • The quicker turnaround time from sampling to results also supports final release testing closer to actual final product release, thus enhancing the product's safety profile. (
  • The obvious benefit of a full microbial investigation (i.e. accuracy) is offset by potentially adverse effects due to the time delay for the bacterial sensitivity results and the cost of a full investigation. (
  • The presence of "cloudy urine" had the highest accuracy (83.1%) and a positive dipstick test for the presence of leukocytes had the highest sensitivity (82.8%, highest true positive results). (
  • Soleris is the only rapid microbiological system that is capable of consistently delivering reliable results on difficult product matrixes, while at the same time being an effective, economical choice for common safety and quality testing. (
  • The test results and protocol were reviewed with the FDA and have been submitted with BioVigilant's Drug Master Files. (
  • Results from the use of this technology demonstrate that this particular RMM is reliable, sensitive and equivalent to standard compendia tests. (
  • Consequently, primers can be designed for these areas, which are specific to the contaminating mycoplasmas only and will not detect bacterial or animal DNA sequences. (
  • PCR testing techniques are all based on amplification of a distinct DNA fragment using specific primers prepared in advance, and fragment identification is usually achieved by gel electrophoresis or real-time PCR. (
  • Regulatory guidance requires that all products derived from mammalian cell culture be tested for the presence of Mycoplasma. (
  • Microbial Contamination-A Regulatory Perspective. (
  • The testing required by the regulatory authorities is seeding in culture (agar and liquid media). (
  • Product recalls, illness outbreaks, regulatory requirements to validate and verify process control measures and customer requirements have placed the question of how to best deploy microbial testing strategies to improve product safety. (
  • Regulatory bodies have made it clear that testing alone is not a sufficient risk management strategy and this video walks through a risk management approach. (