An intermediate in the synthesis of cholesterol.
Antilipemic agent with high ophthalmic toxicity. According to Merck Index, 11th ed, the compound was withdrawn from the market in 1962 because of its association with the formation of irreversible cataracts.
Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)
A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on carbon-carbon bonds. This enzyme group includes all the enzymes that introduce double bonds into substrates by direct dehydrogenation of carbon-carbon single bonds.
A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized.
A triterpene that derives from the chair-boat-chair-boat folding of 2,3-oxidosqualene. It is metabolized to CHOLESTEROL and CUCURBITACINS.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Cholesterol derivatives having an additional double bond in any position. 24-Dehydrocholesterol is DESMOSTEROL. The other most prevalent dehydrocholesterol is the 7-isomer. This compound is a precursor of cholesterol and of vitamin D3.
Derivatives of the saturated steroid cholestane with methyl groups at C-18 and C-19 and an iso-octyl side chain at C-17.
The short, metacentric human chromosomes, called group F in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 19 and 20.
A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.
An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).
A person's concept of self as being male and masculine or female and feminine, or ambivalent, based in part on physical characteristics, parental responses, and psychological and social pressures. It is the internal experience of gender role.
Development of male secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS in the FEMALE. It is due to the effects of androgenic metabolites of precursors from endogenous or exogenous sources, such as ADRENAL GLANDS or therapeutic drugs.
Surgical treatments used to change the physiological sexual characteristics of an individual.
Severe gender dysphoria, coupled with a persistent desire for the physical characteristics and social roles that connote the opposite biological sex. (APA, DSM-IV, 1994)
A metabolite of 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPROGESTERONE, normally produced in small quantities by the GONADS and the ADRENAL GLANDS, found in URINE. An elevated urinary pregnanetriol is associated with CONGENITAL ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA with a deficiency of STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A degradation process whereby incorrectly folded proteins are selectively transported out of the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and into the CYTOSOL. The misfolded proteins are subsequently ubiquitinated and degraded by the PROTEASOME.
A disorder characterized by the onset of myoclonus in adolescence, a marked increase in the incidence of absence seizures (see EPILEPSY, ABSENCE), and generalized major motor seizures (see EPILEPSY, TONIC-CLONIC). The myoclonic episodes tend to occur shortly after awakening. Seizures tend to be aggravated by sleep deprivation and alcohol consumption. Hereditary and sporadic forms have been identified. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p323)
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
A clinically diverse group of epilepsy syndromes characterized either by myoclonic seizures or by myoclonus in association with other seizure types. Myoclonic epilepsy syndromes are divided into three subtypes based on etiology: familial, cryptogenic, and symptomatic (i.e., occurring secondary to known disease processes such as infections, hypoxic-ischemic injuries, trauma, etc.).
A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.
An ester of phthalic acid. It appears as a light-colored, odorless liquid and is used as a plasticizer for many resins and elastomers.
An autosomal recessive disorder of CHOLESTEROL metabolism. It is caused by a deficiency of 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase, the enzyme that converts 7-dehydrocholesterol to cholesterol, leading to an abnormally low plasma cholesterol. This syndrome is characterized by multiple CONGENITAL ABNORMALITIES, growth deficiency, and INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY.
An anticholesteremic agent that inhibits sterol biosynthesis in animals.
Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Days commemorating events. Holidays also include vacation periods.
Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).
Piperazines with two keto oxygens.
Small-arms weapons, including handguns, pistols, revolvers, rifles, shotguns, etc.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.
Medical care provided after the regular practice schedule of the physicians. Usually it is designed to deliver 24-hour-a-day and 365-day-a-year patient care coverage for emergencies, triage, pediatric care, or hospice care.
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
The sudden collapse and disappearance or diminution of a colony of organisms.
A family of MITES in the subclass ACARI. It includes the single genus Varroa.
A sweet viscous liquid food, produced in the honey sacs of various bees from nectar collected from flowers. The nectar is ripened into honey by inversion of its sucrose sugar into fructose and glucose. It is somewhat acidic and has mild antiseptic properties, being sometimes used in the treatment of burns and lacerations.
A genus of parasitic FUNGI in the family Nosematidae. Some species are pathogenic for invertebrates of economic importance while others are being researched for possible roles in controlling pest INSECTS. They are also pathogenic in humans.
The management and maintenance of colonies of honeybees.
A pesticide or chemical agent that kills mites and ticks. This is a large class that includes carbamates, formamides, organochlorines, organophosphates, etc, that act as antibiotics or growth regulators.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
The mechanical property of material that determines its resistance to force. HARDNESS TESTS measure this property.
A genus of velvety smooth SPONGES in the family Suberitidae, characterized by the ectosomal and choanosomal skeletons dominated by tylostyles (pin-like spicules with a pinched bulbous end).
An application that must be submitted to a regulatory agency (the FDA in the United States) before a drug can be studied in humans. This application includes results of previous experiments; how, where, and by whom the new studies will be conducted; the chemical structure of the compound; how it is thought to work in the body; any toxic effects found in animal studies; and how the compound is manufactured. (From the "New Medicines in Development" Series produced by the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association and published irregularly.)
A tough transparent membrane surrounding the OVUM. It is penetrated by the sperm during FERTILIZATION.

Cholesterol efflux-mediated signal transduction in mammalian sperm: cholesterol release signals an increase in protein tyrosine phosphorylation during mouse sperm capacitation. (1/88)

We previously demonstrated that mouse sperm capacitation is accompanied by a time-dependent increase in protein tyrosine phosphorylation that is dependent on the presence of BSA, Ca2+, and NaHCO(3), all three of which are also required for this maturational event. We also demonstrated that activation of protein kinase A (PK-A) is upstream of this capacitation-associated increase in protein tyrosine phosphorylation. BSA is hypothesized to modulate capacitation through the removal of cholesterol from the sperm plasma membrane. In this report, we demonstrate that incubation of mouse sperm medium containing BSA results in a release of cholesterol from the sperm plasma membrane to the medium; release of this sterol does not occur in medium devoid of BSA. We next determined whether cholesterol release leads to changes in protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Blocking the action of BSA by adding exogenous cholesterol-SO-(4) to the BSA-containing medium inhibits the increase in protein tyrosine phosphorylation as well as capacitation. This inhibitory effect is overcome by (1) the addition of increasing concentrations of BSA at a given concentration of cholesterol-SO-(4) and (2) the addition of dibutyryl cAMP plus IBMX. High-density lipoprotein (HDL), another cholesterol binding protein, also supports the capacitation-associated increase in protein tyrosine phosphorylation through a cAMP-dependent pathway, whereas proteins that do not interact with cholesterol have no effect. HDL also supports sperm capacitation, as assessed by fertilization in vitro. Finally, we previously demonstrated that HCO-(3) is necessary for the capacitation-associated increase in protein tyrosine phosphorylation and demonstrate here, by examining the effectiveness of HCO-(3) or BSA addition to sperm on protein tyrosine phosphorylation, that the HCO-(3) effect is downstream of the site of BSA action. Taken together, these data demonstrate that cholesterol release is associated with the activation of a transmembrane signal transduction pathway involving PK-A and protein tyrosine phosphorylation, leading to functional maturation of the sperm.  (+info)

Independent association of serum squalene and noncholesterol sterols with coronary artery disease in postmenopausal women. (2/88)

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to investigate whether cholesterol metabolism is associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) in postmenopausal women. BACKGROUND: Although hypercholesterolemia, a predominant risk factor of CAD, is related to cholesterol metabolism, the association between cholesterol metabolism and CAD is not well known. METHODS: In addition to conventional coronary risk factors, fasting serum squalene, delta8-cholestenol, desmosterol, lathosterol (indicators of cholesterol synthesis), cholestanol, campesterol and sitosterol (indicators of cholesterol absorption) were measured in 48 50- to 55-year-old consecutive women with angiographically verified CAD and in 61 age-matched healthy controls. RESULTS: The coronary patients had elevated ratios of squalene (p < 0.001), desmosterol (p = 0.005), campesterol (p = 0.028) and sitosterol (p = 0.022) to cholesterol, but had lower respective lathosterol value (p = 0.041) compared with the controls, despite similar serum cholesterol levels. Adjusted for age, body mass index, family history of CAD, smoking, hypertension, serum triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c% (GHbA1c), the ratios of squalene (odds ratio, 1.36; 95% confidence interval, 1.17 to 1.57), lathosterol (0.98; 0.97 to 0.99), campesterol (1.01; 1.00 to 1.01) and sitosterol (1.01; 1.00 to 1.03) were significantly associated with the risk of CAD. In addition, family history of CAD and GHbA1c% were also independently related to the presence of CAD. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that women with elevated ratios of serum squalene, campesterol and sitosterol to cholesterol and low respective lathosterol values have enhanced risk for CAD. Thus, enhanced absorption and reduced synthesis of cholesterol may be related to coronary atherosclerosis.  (+info)

Enhancement of zona binding using 2-hydroxypropyl- beta-cyclodextrin. (3/88)

Since membrane cholesterol depletion is known to play an important role in sperm capacitation, we have investigated the effect of 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin, a cyclic oligosaccharide that mediates cholesterol efflux, on sperm functions. Sperm treatment with cyclodextrin did not affect the motility patterns but induced an increase in sperm binding to zona pellucida (24 +/- 5 versus 13 +/- 4 in control, P < 0.01). Cyclodextrin treatment was associated with an increase in spontaneous acrosome reaction (32 +/- 8% versus 22 +/- 4% in controls after a 4 h incubation, P < 0.05; 61 +/- 10% versus 50 +/- 11% in controls after a 24 h incubation, NS) but with a decrease in acrosome response to ionophore challenge (44 +/- 5% versus 51 +/- 3% in controls, P < 0.05). Concerning cell sterols, cyclodextrin induced a rapid and dramatic fall in the cholesterol and desmosterol content of spermatozoa. We conclude that cyclodextrin is a powerful capacitating agent, but since it induces an increase in spontaneous acrosome loss, it needs to be further evaluated before routine use in assisted reproductive technology media.  (+info)

Noncholesterol sterols and cholesterol lowering by long-term simvastatin treatment in coronary patients: relation to basal serum cholestanol. (4/88)

Coronary patients with low baseline ratios of serum cholestanol and plant sterols to cholesterol (indicating low cholesterol absorption) but not those with high ratios (high absorption) experienced reduced recurrences of coronary events during simvastatin treatment in the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study. Thus, in the present study, serum cholesterol, its precursor sterols (reflecting cholesterol synthesis), plant sterols (campesterol and sitosterol), and cholestanol were measured before and during a 5-year period of placebo treatment (n=433) and simvastatin treatment (n=434) in patients from a subgroup of the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study to determine whether changes in cholesterol synthesis and serum levels were related to cholesterol absorption. Serum cholesterol level was unchanged, the ratios of cholesterol precursor sterols to cholesterol were decreased, and the ratios of plant sterols to cholesterol were increased in relation to increasing baseline ratios of cholestanol quartiles. The latter predicted 5-year ratios and simvastatin-induced reductions of the precursor sterols, with the lowering of the ratios (cholesterol synthesis reduction) being almost twice higher in the lowest versus the highest quartile. The ratios of plant sterols, especially campesterol, to cholesterol were markedly increased during simvastatin treatment, mostly in subjects with the highest baseline cholestanol quartiles. Simvastatin reduced serum cholesterol more (P=0.003) in the lowest versus the highest cholestanol quartile during the 5-year treatment period. The results show for the first time that baseline cholesterol metabolism, measured by serum noncholesterol sterols, predicts the effectiveness of simvastatin in reducing cholesterol synthesis and serum levels of cholesterol. The drug suppresses the synthesis of cholesterol markedly more effectively in subjects with high than with low baseline synthesis but reduces respective serum cholesterol levels less markedly than synthesis. Subjects with high cholesterol absorption and low synthesis may need a combination therapy to lower more effectively their serum cholesterol levels and prevent an increase in the levels of plant sterols.  (+info)

Retinal structure and function in an animal model that replicates the biochemical hallmarks of desmosterolosis. (5/88)

Desmosterolosis is a rare, autosomal recessive, human disease characterized by multiple congenital anomalies in conjunction with grossly elevated levels of desmosterol and markedly reduced levels of cholesterol in all bodily tissues. Herein, we evaluated retinal sterol composition, histology, and electrophysiological function in an animal model that exhibited the biochemical features of desmosterolosis, produced by treating pregnant rats and their progeny with U18666A, an inhibitor of desmosterol reductase. Treated rats had cataracts, were substantially smaller, and had markedly high levels of desmosterol and profoundly low levels of cholesterol in their retinas and other tissues compared to age-matched controls. However, their retinas were histologically normal and electrophysiologically functional. These results suggest that desmosterol may be able to replace cholesterol in the retina, both structurally and functionally. These findings are discussed in the context of "sterol synergism".  (+info)

Sphingomyelin modulates capacitation of human sperm in vitro. (6/88)

Ejaculated mammalian sperm must mature (capacitate) before they can undergo acrosomal exocytosis and fertilize an egg. Loss of sperm sterols is an early step in capacitation. Because sphingomyelin slows cholesterol efflux from other cells, the role of sphingomyelin in capacitation was tested. Human sperm were exposed to sphingomyelinase and then incubated for as long as 24 h. The ability of sperm to acrosome-react in response to progesterone was tested to measure capacitation. Sphingomyelinase-treated sperm became responsive to progesterone approximately 10 h earlier than control sperm. Sphingomyelinase also increased spontaneous acrosomal exocytosis. The effects of sphingomyelinase were accompanied by accelerated losses of the inhibitory sterols, cholesterol and desmosterol. To test whether sphingomyelinase-generated ceramide might promote capacitation, sperm were incubated for 8 h with the cell-permeable ceramide N:-hexanoylsphingosine (25 microM) or with solvent. Ceramide increased the incidence of progesterone-responsive sperm and, at later times, spontaneously reacted sperm. N:-Hexanoylsphinganine, an inactive control ceramide, had no effect. These results suggest that sphingomyelin in the sperm influences the rate of capacitation by slowing the loss of sterols, and that exogenous sphingomyelinase accelerates capacitation by speeding the loss of sterols and by generating ceramide.  (+info)

Comparative behavior of sterols in phosphatidylcholine-sterol monolayer films. (7/88)

The ability of sterols other than cholesterol (CHOL) to support membrane functions in membranes that normally contain CHOL as the primary, if not sole, sterol may be due, in part, to how well such sterols can mimic CHOL's behavior and physical properties in membranes. We compared the mixing properties of CHOL, 7-dehydrocholesterol (7DHC), and desmosterol (DES) in egg phosphatidylcholine-sterol monolayer films containing 10, 20, and 30 mol percent sterol, measuring pressure-area isotherms on a Langmuir-Blodgett trough with the aqueous, buffered subphase maintained at 37 degrees C. Under the conditions employed, the pressure-area isotherms for all three sterols were similar, with 7DHC exhibiting slightly larger molecular areas on the water surface at all compositions. These results are discussed in the context of the ability of sterols such as 7DHC and DES to substitute structurally and functionally for CHOL in biological membranes.  (+info)

Dietary plant sterols alter the serum plant sterol concentration but not the cholesterol precursor sterol concentrations in young children (the STRIP Study). Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project. (8/88)

Plant sterol supplementation reduces serum cholesterol concentration but may increase serum plant sterol concentrations, especially in children. We determined whether natural dietary plant sterols derived mainly from vegetable oil or margarine in early childhood affect serum concentrations of plant sterols (campesterol and sitosterol) and cholesterol precursor sterols (Delta-8 cholestenol, desmosterol, and lathosterol), reflecting endogenous cholesterol synthesis. We measured the serum sterol concentrations using gas liquid chromatography in 20 healthy 13-mo-old intervention children in a randomized, prospective study designed to decrease exposure of the children to known environmental atherosclerosis risk factors and in 20 control children. The diet of the intervention children was rich in plant sterols due to replacement of milk fat with vegetable fat, whereas the diet of the control children contained only small amounts of plant sterols. The intervention children consumed twice as much plant sterols as the control children (P < 0.001). Their serum concentrations of campesterol and sitosterol were 75% and 44% higher, respectively, than those in the control children (P < 0.001 for both), but serum cholesterol precursor sterol concentrations did not differ between the two groups. We conclude that doubling dietary plant sterol intake almost doubles serum plant sterol concentrations in 13-mo-old children, but has no effect on endogenous cholesterol synthesis. Relative intestinal absorption of natural plant sterols from the diet in early childhood is similar to that in adults.  (+info)

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Stereochemistry of Hydrogen Addition to C-25 of Desmosterol by Sterol-Δ,sup,24,/sup,-Reductase of Rat Liver Homogenate. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Results: We selected 127 patients (GT2 n = 50, GT3 n = 77), 50% cirrhotic patients, and 42% who experienced a virological relapse. At baseline, GT3 patients had lower level of serum lipids, apoB/E, 7-dehydrocholesterol, desmosterol, lathosterol, compared to GT2 (p ,0.006). Baseline lathosterol was lower in relapsers with cirrhosis compared to cirrhotic patients with SVR (p = 0.003). From baseline to treatment week 12, serum lipids, apoB/E, and key sterol pathway metabolites (7-dehydrocholesterol, desmosterol, lathosterol, lanosterol) increased in GT3. In contrast, in GT2 patients, apoB/E and dihydrolanosterol decreased with viral suppression (p ,0.025). At follow-up week 4, cirrhotic SVR patients showed substantially greater increases in apoB and total sterols compared to cirrhotic relapsers regardless of HCV genotype. After adjustment for genotype and gender, baseline lathosterol was independently associated with virologic response (p = 0.04 ...
Cholesterol is an apparently indispensable lipid for numerous processes required for cell proliferation. Levels of this molecule are primarily regulated at the transcriptional level by the SREBPs (sterol-regulatory-element-binding proteins) and LXR (liver X receptor). In this issue of the Biochemical Journal, Rodríguez-Acebes et al. show that a cholesterol precursor, desmosterol, can support cell proliferation in the absence of cholesterol in a murine macrophage-like model (J774-D cells). These cells are defective in DHCR24 (sterol-Δ24-reductase, or 3β-hydroxysterol Δ24-reductase), leading to desmosterol accumulation, and yet sterol homoeostasis appears to be normal with respect to SREBP processing and LXR activation. Other potentially cholesterol-dependent processes which were not the focus of this study are briefly discussed, such as lipid-raft-dependent cell signalling. ...
A cholesterol-esterifying enzyme which incorporates exogenous fatty acids into cholesterol esters in the presence of ATP and coenzyme A was demonstrated in 15-day-old rat brain. This enzyme was maximally active at pH 7.4 and distinct from the cholesterol-esterifying enzyme reported earlier (Eto and Suzuki, 1971), which has a pH optimum at 5.2 and does not require cofactors. Properties of the two enzymes have been compared. Both the enzymes showed negligible esterification with acetate and were maximally active with oleic acid. The pH 5.2 enzyme esterified desmosterol, lanosterol and cholesterol at about the same rate, while the pH 7.4 enzyme was only 50% as active ith lanosterol as it was with cholesterol and desmosterol. Phosphatidyl serine stimulated the pH 5.2 enzyme but not the pH 7.4 enzyme. Phosphatidyl choline and sodium taurocholate showed no effect on either of the enzymes. Both the enzymes were associated with particulate fractions, but the pH 7.4 enzyme was localized more in the ...
There is evidence that both environmental and genetic factors may play a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimers disease (AD). The amount of brain cholesterol, for instance, has been suggested to play a role in the development of the disease. Accordingly, the Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4 allele has been identified as a major risk factor for the occurrence of AD. The product of the DHCR24/seladin-1 gene has enzymatic activity, which converts desmosterol into cholesterol. The expression of this gene, which confers protection against β-amyloid toxicity and from oxidative stress, is downregulated in AD vulnerable brain regions and it has been proposed as possibly involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. In this study, we evaluated the possible genetic contribution of the DHCR24/seladin-1 gene to Italian familial cases of AD. The exons 1-9 of this gene from 100 patients were subjected to mutation screening analysis. We identified a new C to T transition in exon 1 (Leu60Leu) and a previously ...
Small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) of phospholipids are often used as a membrane model system for studying the interaction of molecules. When using NMR under the standard liquid-state conditions, SUV phospholipid proton spectra can be recorded, exhibiting sharp signals. This is not only because of the fast vesicular tumbling but also because of the combination of this tumbling with the individual motion of the lipids inside the bilayer. This appears evident because addition of cholesterol is responsible of broader resonances because of the slowing down of the lipid motion. On the other hand, no (1)H signal is detected for cholesterol in the bilayer. This lack of detection of the inserted molecules explains why generally SUVs are not considered as a good model for NMR studies under the standard liquid-state conditions. Here, we use two other sterols in order to demonstrate that an increase of the molecular mobility inside the bilayer could allow the detection of their proton resonances. For desmosterol
Oxysterols are metabolites produced in the first step of cholesterol metabolism, which is related to neurodegenerative disorder. They can be detected by testing blood, plasma, serum, or cerebrospinal fluid. In this study, some cholesterol precursors and oxysterols were determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The selected cholesterol-related compounds were desmosterol, lathosterol, lanosterol, 7 -hydroxycholesterol, 7 -hydroxycholesterol, 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol, 25-hydroxycholesterol, 7-ketocholesterol, and 27-hydroxycholesterol. A powerful method was developed and validated considering various analytical parameters, such as linearity index, detection and quantification limits, selectivity and matrix effect, precision (repeatability), and trueness (recovery factor) for each cholesterol-related compound. 7 -hydroxycholesterol, 7 -hydroxycholesterol, and desmosterol exhibited the lowest detection and quantification limits, with 0.01 and 0.03 g/mL, respectively, in the three ...
Depression is a mental disorder that affects 300 million people of all ages worldwide, but fewer than half of those with the condition receive adequate treatment. In addition, the high pharmacological refractoriness (affecting 30%-50% of patients) and toxicity of some classical antidepressants support the pursuit of new therapies. People with this condition show depressed mood, loss of pleasure, high levels of oxidative stress, and accelerated biological aging (decreased telomere length and expression of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), the enzyme responsible for telomere maintenance). Because of the close relationship between depression and oxidative stress, nutraceuticals with antioxidant properties are excellent candidates for therapy. This study represents the first investigation of the possible antidepressant and antiaging effects of commercial samples of clarified açaí (|i|Euterpe oleracea|/i|) juice (EO). This fruit is rich in antioxidants and widely
Heterotrophic protists are an important link between the microbial and the classical food web. However, little is known about their biochemical composition and nutritional quality as prey. In this thesis, I analysed (1) whether the biochemical composition of the protists depends on their dietary resources (bacterial or algal food) or trophic mode (autotrophy, mixotrophy or heterotrophy), and (2) whether the biochemical composition of protists determines their nutritional quality as prey for a rotifer species (Keratella quadrata). The fatty acid, sterol, and amino acid composition of four heterotrophic protists generally resembled the dietary composition, but the protists accumulated these compounds. Moreover, the trophic mode strongly affected the composition of a flagellate (Ochromonas sp.), especially that of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). When investigating the nutritional quality of four protist species for K. quadrata, several PUFAs, three sterols (desmosterol, ergosterol, ...
Lam MT, Cho H, Lesch HP, Gosselin D, Heinz S, Tanaka-Oishi Y, Benner C, Kaikkonen MU, Kim AS, Kosaka M, Lee CY, Watt A, Grossman TR, Rosenfeld MG, Evans RM, Glass CK Rev-Erbs repress macrophage gene expression by inhibiting enhancer-directed transcription. Nature. 2013 Jun 27;498(7455):511-5. doi: 10.1038/nature12209. Epub 2013 Jun 2. PubMed PMID: 23728303; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3839578.. Spann NJ, Garmire LX, McDonald JG, Myers DS, Milne SB, Shibata N, Reichart D, Fox JN, Shaked I, Heudobler D, Raetz CR, Wang EW, Kelly SL, Sullards MC, Murphy RC, Merrill AH Jr, Brown HA, Dennis EA, Li AC, Ley K, Tsimikas S, Fahy E, Subramaniam S, Quehenberger O, Russell DW, Glass CK. Regulated accumulation oF desmosterol integrates macrophage lipid metabolism and inflammatory responses. Cell. 2012 Sep 28;151(1):138-52. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2012.06.054. PubMed PMID: 23021221; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3464914.. Stender JD, Pascual G, Liu W, Kaikkonen MU, Do K, Spann NJ, Boutros M, Perrimon N, Rosenfeld MG, ...
n automated method for analyzing free non-cholesterol sterols in human serum using online solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry is proposed herein. The method allows the determination of three phytosterols (sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol) and two cholesterol precursors (desmosterol and lanosterol). The analysis of sterols in human serum is critical in the study of cholesterol-related disorders, such as inherited familial hypercholesterolemias. Special effort was made to isolate the analytes from the serum lipoproteins, their natural conveyance through the bloodstream. The sample treatment consisted of a Bligh-Dyer extraction followed by dilution of the extract. This treatment allowed the sample to be injected into the online system and ensured the correct detection of the analytes, while avoiding the matrix effects commonly related to serum samples. The analytical performance showed linear ranges that covered two orders of magnitude, with correlation coefficients
The Plant Profiler provides detailed information and bioactive compounds for numerous different plant species. The high quality, evidence-based information on each Plant Profiler page is gathered by Natural Standard, the authority on integrative medicine.
The Plant Profiler provides detailed information and bioactive compounds for numerous different plant species. The high quality, evidence-based information on each Plant Profiler page is gathered by Natural Standard, the authority on integrative medicine.
Organic Acai Fruit Powder. Sadowski-Krepa E, Klapcinska B, et al. Effects of supplementation with acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) berry-based juice blend on the blood antioxidant defence capacity and lipid profile in junior hurdlers. A pilot study. Biol Sport 2015; 32(2): 161-168.. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26060341. de Souza MO, Silva M, et al. Diet supplementation with acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp improves biomarkers of oxidative stress and the serum lipid profile in rats. Nutrition 2010; 26(7-8): 804-810.. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20022468. Guerra JF, Magalhaes CL, et al. Dietary açai modulates ROS production by neutrophils and gene expression of liver antioxidant enzymes in rats. J Clin Biochem Nutr 2011; 49(3): 188-194.. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22128218. Organic Peppermint Leaf Powder. Alam MS, Roy PK, et al. Efficacy of Peppermint oil in diarrhea predominant IBS - a double blind randomized placebo - controlled study. Mymensingh Med J 2013; 22(1): ...
Acai - 32 oz. SuperFruit Antioxidant Juice Euterpe oleracea Fruit High in Anthocyanins With Pomegranate, Blueberry, & Raspberry Vegetarian Product From Acai Palm Trees nestled deep within the lush Brazilian rainforests of the Amazon grows one of our planets most remarkable and nutritious fruits. Acai berries (Euterpe oleracea) have remained highly esteemed throughout history by Brazilian natives based on their generous nutrient content, pleasant taste and unmistakable ability to promote health and vitality. NOW Acai Juice has a refreshing berry taste, offering 6,500 mg of Acai concentrate per 1 oz. serving. Antioxidant Protection Acai berries contain Vitamin C, and are an excellent source of polyphenols, including rutin, anthocyanins, and catechins. Acai is naturally rich in ellagic acid. These and other antioxidant compounds protect delicate tissues from free radical attack, a key factor in healthy aging. Immunomodulatory Activity The nutrients and antioxidants in NOW Acai Juice
Fractional Distillation of Bio-Oil Produced by Pyrolysis of Açaí (Euterpe oleracea) Seeds. By Douglas Alberto Rocha de Castro, Haroldo Jorge da Silva Ribeiro, Caio Campos Ferreira, Márcio de Andrade Cordeiro, Lauro Henrique Hamoy Guerreiro, Anderson M. Pereira, W. G. dos Santos, Marcelo Costa Santos, Fernanda B. de Carvalho, Jose Otavio Carrera Silva Junior, R. Lopes e Oliveira, Sergio Duvoisin, Luiz Eduardo Pizarro Borges and Nélio Teixeira Machado. In this work, the seeds of açaí (Euterpe oleracea, Mart), a rich lignin-cellulose residue, has been submitted to pyrolysis to produce a bio-oil-like fossil fuels. The pyrolysis carried out in a reactor of 143 L, 450°C, and 1.0 atm. The morphology of Açaí seeds in nature and after pyrolysis is characterized by SEM, EDX, and XRD. The experiments show that bio-oil, gas, and coke yields were 4.38, 30.56, and 35.67% (wt.), respectively. The bio-oil characterized by AOCS, ASTM, and ABNT/NBR methods for density, kinematic viscosity, and acid ...
Euterpe oleracea MEDICINAL PROPERTIES OF ACAI The Acai fruit is one of the most powerful antioxidant foods The acai fruit has a characteristic dark purple color. This intense color is due to the high pigment content of the fruit, called anthocyanins. When you eat fruit pigments, your body uses the
There are also spines derived from roots, like the ones on the trunk of the Root Spine Palms (Cryosophila spp.). The trunk roots of Cryosophila guagara grow downwards to a length of 6-12 cm, then stop growing and transform into a spine.[5] The anatomy of crown roots on this species (roots among the bases of the living fronds) also alters during their life.[5] They initially grow upwards and then turn down and finally they, too, become spinous.[5] Lateral roots on these two types of roots, as well as those on the stilt roots on this species, also become spinous.[5] Some authors believe that some of these short spiny laterals have a ventilating function so they are pneumorhizae.[5] Short spiny laterals that may have a ventilating funcion may also be found on roots of Iriartea exorrhiza.[5] There are also spines that function as pneumorhizae on the palm Euterpe oleracea.[5] In Cryosophila nana (formerly Acanthorhiza aculeata) there are spine roots or root spines, some authors may prefer root ...
Complete information for DHCR24-DT gene (RNA Gene), DHCR24 Divergent Transcript, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
INTRODUCTION. Archontophoenix alexandrae, commonly known as king palm, is endemic to the tropical forests of eastern Australia. King palm has been shown as an alternative species in heart-of-palm production, due to the exhaustion of natural reserves of Euterpe edulis Mart. in the Atlantic forest, or due to the continuous extraction of Euterpe oleraceae Mart. from the Amazon forest (Ramos and Heck, 2003; Bovi and Spiering, 2004). A. alexandrae produces heart-of-palm (locally known as palmito) of the noblest type, with higher quality and superior flavour when compared to that of Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaí palm), which currently supplies more than 80% of the palmito traded in the international market (Bovi, 1998).. Residues from palmito processing, according to Ribeiro (1996), comprise 80-90 % of total palm weight, with some variations depending on the species. In spite of increasing interest in the utilization of industrial residues as well as in residue valorisation studies (Silva et al., ...
The polyprotein allergens/antigens of nematodes (NPAs) are the only lipid binding proteins known to be produced as polyproteins. Cleavage of the large polyprotein precursors at regularly spaced proteinase cleavage sites produces 10 or 11 individual protein units of similar to 15 kDa. The sequences of these units are highly diverse within and between species, but there are five absolutely or strongly conserved amino acid positions (Trp 15, Gln20, Leu42, Cys64, and Cys120). We have tested the role of these signature amino acids by mutational or chemical alteration of the ABA-1 protein of Ascaris, and examined the resulting modified proteins for perturbations of their lipid binding activities and structural integrity. Substitution of Trp15 and Gln20 both affect the stability of the protein in terms of resistance to thermal or chemical denaturation, but the ligand binding function is unaffected. Mutation of Leu42, however, disrupts both the proteins structural stability and functional integrity, as ...
Unfortunately, the interest generated led to unsubstantiated claims on the Internet broadcast to millions that açai and resveratrol caused weight loss, primarily designed to obtain credit card information from an unsuspecting public by unscrupulous entities that have become the subject of FDA and FTC investigations, ​he added. Argument for açai​. The palm Euterpe oleracea Martius​ (açai) has been claimed to have a wide range of health-promoting and therapeutic benefits, due to its reportedly high levels of antioxidants.. The authors noted that açai has a history of use as a medicinal plant, and is a staple food in many parts of Brazil, where traditionally it has been also used to treat fevers, skin complications, digestive disorders and parasitic infections.. In recent years açai has been marketed as a dietary food supplement; claiming to have superior health benefits including rapid weight loss, improving digestion, fighting cardiovascular disease and preventing the process of ...
A dye made from the açai fruit (Euterpe oleracea) is safe for use in human eyes and effective for identifying the posterior hyaloid and internal limiting membrane (ILM) during vitreoretinal surgery, according to phase I preliminary study results.
2.2] Now the Egyptians, before the reign of their king Psammetichus, believed themselves to be the most ancient of mankind. Since Psammetichus, however, made an attempt to discover who were actually the primitive race, they have been of opinion that while they surpass all other nations, the Phrygians surpass them in antiquity. This king, finding it impossible to make out by dint of inquiry what men were the most ancient, contrived the following method of discovery:- He took two children of the common sort, and gave them over to a herdsman to bring up at his folds, strictly charging him to let no one utter a word in their presence, but to keep them in a sequestered cottage, and from time to time introduce goats to their apartment, see that they got their fill of milk, and in all other respects look after them. His object herein was to know, after the indistinct babblings of infancy were over, what word they would first articulate. It happened as he had anticipated. The herdsman obeyed his orders ...
What is Air Pollution? Air is the ocean we breathe. Air supplies us with oxygen which is essential for our bodies to live. Air is 99 ...
Acai Tea is made from juicy and dark berries of the Acai Berry palm tree. This tree is known in Latin as â€ËÅEuterpe oleracea. The Acai palm tree is a native plant of South and&hellip. Read Post → ...
Acai Tea is made from juicy and dark berries of the Acai Berry palm tree. This tree is known in Latin as â€ËÅEuterpe oleracea. The Acai palm tree is a native plant of South and&hellip. Read Post → ...
Acai berries come from açaí palm trees which belong to the genus Euterpe, and is from the species Euterpe oleracea. Acai palms generally grow to a height of about eighty feet and have branches about 8 feet long that are full of pinnate leaves. As the acai berry has gained in popularity so has the cultivation of fruits of the tree. Acai berries are small purplish berries that look very similar to grapes. These berries are grown on stems that generally contain about 800 berries each. The trees produce two crops each year. The berries have a seed in the middle of the fruit surrounded by a pulpy flesh.. For many natives of brazil the acai berry makes up a large portion of their diet. It is an integral component of smoothies, juices, and sodas in the region. Additionally açaí can be served in cuias which are a type of gourd. When they make the drink it can be made as sweet as ones taste prefer. Others in brazil like to eat ice cream that has the flavor of the acai.. The acai berry is also the ...
Complete information for DHCR7 gene (Protein Coding), 7-Dehydrocholesterol Reductase, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Herein we report a one-pot protocol for the deracemisation of chiral benzylic amines employing a novel monoamine oxidase-ω-transaminase cascade, allowing access to enantiopure compounds in ,99 % ee. We also demonstrate that the same enzymatic cascade can be employed for the dealkylation of secondary amines with ,99 % conversion. ...
Catalyzes the first step in the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates; the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol. Has also a vitamin D3-25-hydroxylase activity.
Alkene reactivities toward a strongly electrophilic radical. First absolute rate constants for some reactions of perfluoro-n-alkyl radicals in solution
Mabola plum (Parinari curatellifolia) is another tradi- tional African multi-purpose plant with medicinal uses for its Baobab (Adandonia digitata) has a long history of bark, cosmetic uses for its oil, and beverage use for its traditional use in ancient Egypt as a treatment against yellow, plum-like fruit. The fruit pulp contains vitamin C, fevers, dysentery, and bleeding wounds, and it has a long sugar, and mineral ions, making it a valuable basis for soft history of nutritional and medical use in Africa. The pulp, rich in vitamin C,is used today to make drinks, The açai berry (Euterpe oleracea Mart), native to the because it is dissolved easily in water and has a pleasing Amazon rain forests and a traditional staple of Amazo- taste. Fermented milk drinks and iced drinks using the nian diets, has drawn attention to itself recently, pulp also are popular. The Baobabs anti-oxidant and particularly in the United States. This small black berry anti-inflammatory properties make it valuable for a ...
Free from artificial colors and preservatives. Free from the common allergens yeast, wheat, soy and milk.Supplement Facts:Serving Size 1 Extended-Release TabletAmount Per TabletAcai (Euterpe Oleracea fruit) (standardized 20% [120mg - polyphenols) 600mgOther Ingredients: Microcrystalline cellulose, di-calcium phosphate, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, stearic acid, magnesium stearate, silica, Activessence (a patented enzyme activation system - cellulase, pectinase, hemicellulase and xylanase) and pharmaceutical glaze.
Продвинутые пользователи покупают 100%natural 500g pygeum africanum extract 2 5% total sterols free shipping с помощью сайта Center-Broni! Тут все цены интернета и отзывы по 100%natural 500g pygeum africanum extract 2 5% total sterols free shipping и прочим товарам.
Acai Palm is a type of palm tree in the genus Euterpe, belonging to the family Arecaceae, native to the Amazon region in the South America. As the result of the claim of enormous health benefits of its fruit, the trees have been growth for commercial profits with great demands. Acai Researches and Studies A …. ...
MARINHO, Julia Fernanda Urbano; SILVA, Marluci Palazzolli da; MAZZOCATO, Marcella Chalella; TULINI, Fabrício Luiz; FÁVARO-TRINDADE, Carmen Silvia. Probiotic and synbiotic sorbets produced with jussara (Euterpe edulis) pulp: evaluation throughout the storage period and effect of the matrix on probiotics exposed to simulated gastrointestinal fluids. Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins, New York, v. 11, n. 1, p. 264-272, 2019. Disponível em: < https://doi.org/10.1007/s12602-017-9346-y > DOI: 10.1007/s12602-017-9346-y ...
The DHCR7 gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase. Learn about this gene and related health conditions.
Aldehydes have the double bond at the end of the molecule. That means the carbon at the end of the chain has a double bond to an oxygen atom. Ketones have the double bond anywhere in the molecule except for the end. That means you will see a double bond to oxygen from one of the carbon atoms in the middle of the chain.. ...
Bhat, P V. and Luca, L M., Enzymatic conversion of retinol to anhydroretinol in spontaneously transformed mouse fibroblasts (balb/c 3t12-3 cells). Abstr. (1979). Subject Strain Bibliography 1979. 1255 ...
Human DHCR7 full-length ORF ( NP_001351.1, 1 a.a. - 475 a.a.) recombinant protein with GST-tag at N-terminal. (H00001717-P01) - Products - Abnova
Background: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disorder that result in abnormally high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, markedly increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and tendon xanthomas (TX). However, the clinical expression is highly variable. TX are present in other metabolic diseases that associate increased sterol concentration. If non-cholesterol sterols are involved in the development of TX in FH has not been analyzed. Methods: Clinical and biochemical characteristics, non-cholesterol sterols concentrations and Aquilles tendon thickness were determined in subjects with genetic FH with (n = 63) and without (n = 40) TX. Student-t test o Mann-Whitney test were used accordingly. Categorical variables were compared using a Chi square test. ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests were performed to multiple independent variables comparison. Post hoc adjusted comparisons were performed with Bonferroni correction when applicable. Correlations of parameters in selected groups were
In this work, two methods based on microwave-assisted extraction techniques for the extraction of both anthocyanins and total phenolic compounds from acai have been developed. For that, a full factorial design (Box-Behnken design) has been used to optimize the following four variables: solvent composition (25-75% methanol in water), temperature (50-100 degrees C), pH (2-7), and sample/solvent ratio (0.5 g: 10 mL-0.5 g: 20 mL). The anthocyanins and total phenolic compounds content have been determined by ultra high-pressure liquid chromatography and Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively. The optimum conditions for the extraction of anthocyanins were 38% MeOH in water, 99.63 degrees C, pH 3.00, at 0.5 g: 10 mL of ratio, while for the extraction of total phenolic compounds they were 74.16% MeOH in water, 99.14 degrees C, pH 5.46, at 0.5 g: 20 mL of ratio. Both methods have shown a high repeatability and intermediate precision with a relative standard deviation lower than 5%. Furthermore, an ...
Whitening & Wrinkle improvement function Hydrogel eye patch filled with hydration and coconut oil barrier to prevent from drying out Coconut oil hydrogel eye patch delivers intense hydration around sagging eye area. Large size patch treats not only under eye wrinkles, but also around eyes and sagging cheek areas, referred as apple zone. Hippophae Rhamnoides Fruit Extract and Euterpe Oleracea Fruit Extract revitalize and brighten up under eye area.
Discussion. Jardim& Kageyama (1994) and Fisch et al. (2000) reported continuous fruiting in populations of the palms Euterpe oleracea and E. edulis, although with alternating fruiting among the separate individuals evaluated. These results are similar to those of the present study with A. vitrivir, which demonstrated continuous fruiting during 16 months, with fruiting alternating among different individuals. This pattern is not, however, standard among palm trees, as Storti (1993) described fruiting in the buriti palm (Mauritia flexuosa) to occur every two years and lasting for more than 12 months.. The fruiting phenophase is associated with plant-animal interactions of dispersal and seed predation (Jardim & Kageyama 1994). The continuous fruiting of A. vitrivir guarantees an abundance of available fruits on the ground during the entire year, which could explain the fact that insects oviposited only on post-dispersal fruits. The fact that most adult plants produce fruit bunches approximately 8 m ...
Minor aberrant pathways of cholesterol biosynthesis normally produce only trace levels of abnormal sterol metabolites but may assume major importance when an essential biosynthetic step is blocked. Cholesta-5,8-dien-3beta-ol, its Delta(5,7) isomer, and other noncholesterol sterols accumulate in subjects with the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS), a severe developmental disorder caused by a ...
Disclosed are methods for the dealkylation of phosphonate esters by use of trimethylchlorosilane as the dealkylating agent. In particular, this invention is directed to the discovery that high yields for the dealkylation of phosphonate esters can be achieved within relatively short reaction times by the use of trimethylchlorosilane provided that the dealkylation procedure occurs in a sealed vessel containing a compatible solvent.
A method for temperature control of the steam dealkylation of a C6+ hydrocarbon fraction and/or a C7+ hydrocarbon fraction in a catalyst-packed, externally-heated unit in a plant for the production of hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing feedstock, in which the inlet temperature (T1) of the feedstock is higher than the outlet temperature (T2) of the product mixture from steam dealkylation.
A屗 fruit (which is somewhat bigger than a blueberry) contains vitamins and minerals (many of the B vitamins, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, iron, potassium, phosphorus and calcium). This palm contains significant amounts of Essential Fatty Acids (EFAs, or Healthy Fats) but contains a very small amount of sugar, which is desirable since most fruits contain high levels of sugar. Also contains antioxidants, phytochemicals (anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, resveratrol ...
Let us go on to the ingredients of this wonderful, life saving, innovative, fully tested, pandemic flu vaccine. NOT. The next preferred ingredient is Squalene. Squalene is an essential lipid (oil). Squalene is a cholesterol precursor, which stimulates the immune system nonspecifically. We demonstrate that one intradermal injection of this adjuvant lipid can induce joint-specific inflammation in arthritis-prone DA rats. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses revealed erosion of bone and cartilage, and that development of polyarthritis coincided with infiltration of ß+ T cells. - Our demonstration that an autoadjuvant can trigger chronic, immune-mediated joint-specific inflammation may give clues to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis, and it raises new questions concerning the role of endogenous molecules with adjuvant properties in chronic inflammatory diseases. [7]. There is also a link between the health problems of Gulf-War veterans and possible presence of squalene in ...
Campesterol is a phytochemincal in the class of Phytosterols, belonging to the group of Lipids, found abundantly in banana, pomegranate, pepper, coffee, grapefruit, cucumber, onion, oat, potato, etc. Health benefits 1. Cardiovascular diseases In the review of the studies published between January 1950 and April 2010 that reported either risk ratios (RR) of CVD in …. ...
desmosterol path: Desmosterolosis. Steroids. Corticosteroid. (including CAH). *aldosterone: Glucocorticoid remediable ...
It results in an accumulation of desmosterol and a variety of associated symptoms. Only two cases have been reported as of 2007 ... and clomifene have been found to inhibit conversion of desmosterol into cholesterol and to induce desmosterolosis, for instance ...
... desmosterol + acetaldehyde Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, (24R,24'R)-fucosterol epoxide, and two products, desmosterol ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is (24R,24'R)-fucosterol-epoxide acetaldehyde-lyase (desmosterol-forming). This enzyme ...
... as well as the reduction of 7-dehydrodesmosterol to desmosterol. It requires NADPH as a cofactor for this reduction, and may ... DHCR7 is required for the reduction of 7-Dehydrodesmosterol to desmosterol. Regulation of cholesterol synthesis is complex and ...
... the conversion of desmosterol into cholesterol. This results in tissue accumulation of desmosterol, which in turn is ... statins can significantly lower cholesterol levels without resulting in accumulation of intermediates like desmosterol. The ...
... has demonstrated, in vitro, to participate in the efflux of desmosterol and amyloid-β peptide (Aβ). It is highly ...
Various oxysterols and in particular the cholesterol percursor desmosterol is claimed to be the endogenous activator of RORγ. ...
22 February - ISMCBBPR through their president, Isidro A. T. Savillo, announces the Molecule of the Year 2012 as Desmosterol. ...
Cholecalciferol 7-Dehydrocholesterol Desmosterol Previtamin D3 Zymosterol, a cholesterol intermediate This set index page lists ...
... inhibitors such as azacosterol and triparanol inhibit the production of cholesterol from desmosterol, one of the last steps in ... but were withdrawn from the market due to toxicity caused by accumulation of desmosterol in tissues. Cholesterol side-chain ...
... desmosterol MeSH D10.570.938.208.603 - hydroxycholesterols MeSH D10.570.938.208.650 - ketocholesterols MeSH D10.570.938.208.680 ...
... desmosterol MeSH D04.808.247.222.222.347.389 - fusidic acid MeSH D04.808.247.222.222.347.557 - lanosterol MeSH D04.808.247.222. ... desmosterol MeSH D04.808.247.808.197.561 - hydroxycholesterols MeSH D04.808.247.808.197.580 - 19-iodocholesterol MeSH D04.808. ...
... is a molecule similar to cholesterol. Desmosterol is the immediate precursor of cholesterol in the Bloch pathway of ... 24-dehydrocholesterol reductase catalyses the reduction of desmosterol to cholesterol. It is accumulated in desmosterolosis. In ... DESMOSTEROL CANNOT REPLACE CHOLESTEROL IN LIPID RAFTS". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 281 (1): 348-355. doi:10.1074/jbc. ...
... (acetyl coenzyme A) is a molecule that participates in many biochemical reactions in protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.[1] Its main function is to deliver the acetyl group to the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle) to be oxidized for energy production. Coenzyme A (CoASH or CoA) consists of a β-mercaptoethylamine group linked to the vitamin pantothenic acid through an amide linkage [2] and 3'-phosphorylated ADP. The acetyl group (indicated in blue in the structural diagram on the right) of acetyl-CoA is linked to the sulfhydryl substituent of the β-mercaptoethylamine group. This thioester linkage is a "high energy" bond, which is particularly reactive. Hydrolysis of the thioester bond is exergonic (−31.5 kJ/mol). CoA is acetylated to acetyl-CoA by the breakdown of carbohydrates through glycolysis and by the breakdown of fatty acids through β-oxidation. Acetyl-CoA then enters the citric acid cycle, where the acetyl group is oxidized to carbon dioxide and water, and the energy ...
ഒരു ജൈവസംയുക്തമാണ് അസെറ്റോൺ (Acetone) അഥവാ പ്രൊപനോൺ (propanone). ഇതിന്റെ രാസസൂത്രം (CH3)2CO ആണ്.[14] നിറമില്ലാത്ത, ബാഷ്പീകരണശേഷിയുള്ള, കത്തുന്ന ഈ ദ്രാവകം ഏറ്റവും ലളിതവും ചെറുതുമായ കീറ്റോൺ ആണ്. ജലത്തിൽ ലയിക്കുന്ന ഈ പദാർത്ഥം സ്വന്തം നിലയിലും നല്ലൊരു ലായകം ആണ്. 2010 -ൽ ഇതിന്റെ ഉൽപ്പാദനം 67 ലക്ഷം ടണ്ണോളം ആണ്. പ്രധാനമായും മീതൈൽ മെതാക്രിലേറ്റിന്റെയും ബൈസ്ഫിനോൾ ഏ യുടെയും നിർമ്മാണത്തിനാണ് അസെറ്റോൺ ...
... cholesterol biosynthetic process via desmosterol, cholesterol biosynthetic process via lathosterol, cholesterol homeostasis, ...
Desmosterol is a molecule similar to cholesterol. Desmosterol is the immediate precursor of cholesterol in the Bloch pathway of ... 24-dehydrocholesterol reductase catalyses the reduction of desmosterol to cholesterol. It is accumulated in desmosterolosis. In ... DESMOSTEROL CANNOT REPLACE CHOLESTEROL IN LIPID RAFTS". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 281 (1): 348-355. doi:10.1074/jbc. ...
This project is supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Canada Foundation for Innovation, and by The Metabolomics Innovation Centre (TMIC), a nationally-funded research and core facility that supports a wide range of cutting-edge metabolomic studies. TMIC is funded by Genome Canada, Genome Alberta, and Genome British Columbia, a not-for-profit organization that is leading Canadas national genomics strategy with $900 million in funding from the federal government ...
Two sterols were identified: cholesterol, 41%, and desmosterol, 59% of total sterols. Desmosterol was found only in the free ... Two sterols were identified: cholesterol, 41%, and desmosterol, 59% of total sterols. Desmosterol was found only in the free ... Two sterols were identified: cholesterol, 41%, and desmosterol, 59% of total sterols. Desmosterol was found only in the free ... Two sterols were identified: cholesterol, 41%, and desmosterol, 59% of total sterols. Desmosterol was found only in the free ...
desmosterol path: Desmosterolosis. Steroids. Corticosteroid. (including CAH). *aldosterone: Glucocorticoid remediable ...
Cholesterol, 7-dehydrocholesterol, coprostanol and desmosterol were all significantly reduced in the responders, while ... and desmosterol. 14. The method of claim 1, wherein: said lipid profile includes at least one lipid metabolite; a decrease in ... desmosterol, lanosterol, and lathosterol. 28. The method of claim 21, wherein: said lipid profile includes at least one lipid ... desmosterol, lanosterol, and lathosterol. 15. The method of claim 1, further comprising, when a positive response is correlated ...
Desmosterol and DHCR24: unexpected new directions for a terminal step in cholesterol synthesis. Prog Lipid Res. 2013 Oct;52(4): ... converting the fat desmosterol into cholesterol. In a different pathway, 24-dehydrocholesterol reductase converts the fat ...
Abstract: Desmosterol is a C27 sterol intermediate in cholesterol synthesis generated during the metabolic pathway that ... In AD, the proportion of desmosterol was found to be less than that of age-matched controls. The findings do not directly ... Keywords: Alzheimers disease, C27 sterol intermediates, 8-dehydrocholesterol, desmosterol, DHCR24, Seladin-1 ... which metabolizes desmosterol to cholesterol, is selectively reduced in the affected areas of the brain. Any change in the ...
esteroide (es); Стероидтар (kk-kz); Steroid (ms); ستەروىيدتار (kk-cn); Стероид (bg); Steroid (ro); 甾體 (zh-hk); Steroid (sk); Esteroïde (oc); 甾體 (zh-hant); 甾体 (zh-cn); 스테로이드 (ko); Стероидтар (kk); steroido (eo); steroidy (cs); Steroidogeneza (bs); স্টেরয়েড (bn); stéroïde (fr); Steroid (jv); steroid (hr); סטערויד (yi); Steroid (vi); ستەروىيدتار (kk-arab); Steroïdtar (kk-latn); Steroïed (af); Стероиди (sr); 甾体 (zh-sg); Стероидтар (kk-cyrl); steroid (nn); steroid (nb); Stéroid (su); steroid (en); ستيرويد (ar); 類固醇 (yue); Steroïdtar (kk-tr); Esteroide (eu); Esteroide (ast); esteroide (ca); Steroid (cy); Stéaróideach (ga); ստերոիդներ (hy); 甾體 (zh); steroid (da); ステロイド (ja); סטרואיד (he); स्टेरॉयड (hi); Steroidi (fi); steroide (it); Estewoyid (ht); Стэроіды (be-tarask); Στεροειδές (el); steroīds ...
Intestinal microbiota metabolism of choline and phosphatidylcholine produces trimethylamine (TMA), which is further metabolized to a proatherogenic species, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). We demonstrate here that metabolism by intestinal microbiota of dietary L-carnitine, a trimethylamine abundant i …
Desmosterol 3D ball.png 2,000 × 1,202; 392 KB. *. Desmosterol 3D skeletal.png 2,000 × 1,109; 177 KB. ...
Desmosterol in Brain Is Elevated because DHCR24 Needs REST for Robust Expression but REST Is Poorly Expressed ... Supplementary Material for: Desmosterol in Brain Is Elevated because ,b,,i,DHCR24,/i,,/b, Needs REST for Robust Expression but ... causing concentrations of the precursor desmosterol to increase temporarily to 15-25% of total sterols at birth. We demonstrate ... because suppressing metabolically active DHCR24 while providing abundant quantities of the multifunctional sterol desmosterol ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Stereochemistry of Hydrogen Addition to C-25 of Desmosterol by Sterol-Δ,sup,24,/ ... Stereochemistry of Hydrogen Addition to C-25 of Desmosterol by Sterol-Δ24-Reductase of Rat Liver Homogenate. ...
cholesterol; lanosterol; desmosterol; GC/MS; pravastatin. Issue Date. 2009-10. Publisher. 분석과학; Analytical Science & Technology ... Simultaneous quantitative determination of urinary cholesterol, desmosterol and lanosterol in pravastatin treated rats by gas ... Simultaneous quantitative determination of urinary cholesterol, desmosterol and lanosterol in pravastatin treated rats by gas ... A simultaneous determination method for cholesterol, lanosterol and desmosterol was developed using gas chromatography/mass ...
Regulated Accumulation of Desmosterol Integrates Macrophage Lipid Metabolism and Inflammatory Responses. Spann NJ, Garmire L, ...
Lathosterol and desmosterol are cholesterol precursors downstream of 14LDM. (D) Among the azole antifungals, itraconazole was ... Cholesterol, in ethanol solution, reversed the pathway inhibition due to lovastatin (D, E) Lathosterol, desmosterol, and ...
desmosterol increases stability. ISO. RGD:1343716. 6480464. Desmosterol results in increased stability of MARCHF6 protein. CTD ...
desmosterol cholesta-5,24-dien-3β-ol. 2,6-dichloroindophenol. 4-(2,6-dichloro-4-hydroxyphenylimino)cyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-one. ...
cholesterol biosynthesis III (via desmosterol). Steroid biosynthesis .57 cholesterol biosynthesis III (via desmosterol) ...
cholesterol biosynthesis III (via desmosterol). *superpathway of cholesterol biosynthesis. 7 Reactome pathways for DHCR7 Gene. ...
Desmosterol and DHCR24: unexpected new directions for a terminal step in cholesterol synthesis. Prog Lipid Res. 2013 Oct;52(4): ... converting the fat desmosterol into cholesterol. In a different pathway, 24-dehydrocholesterol reductase converts the fat ...
Cholesterol needs to be transferred from the outer mitochondrial membrane to the inner membrane where cytochrome P450scc enzyme is located to split off the cholesterol side chain, which is the first enzymatic step in all steroid synthesis. The aqueous phase between these two membranes cannot be crossed by the lipophilic cholesterol, unless certain proteins assist in this process. A number of proteins have historically been proposed to facilitate this transfer including: sterol carrier protein 2 (SCP2), steroidogenic activator polypeptide (SAP), peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), and StAR. It is now clear that this process is primarily mediated by the action of StAR.. The mechanism by which StAR causes cholesterol movement remains unclear as it appears to act from the outside of the mitochondria and its entry into the mitochondria ends its function. Various hypotheses have been advanced. Some involve StAR transferring cholesterol itself like a shuttle. [1][2] While StAR may bind ...
Desmosterol(Sterols). Lanosterol(Sterols). References. Kdo2-Lipid A of Escherichia coli, a defined endotoxin that activates ...
LanosterolTemplate:· ZymosterolTemplate:· 7-DehydrodesmosterolTemplate:· DesmosterolTemplate:· Cholesterol. Steroid. ...
Desmosterol(d6). cholest-5,24-dien-3beta-ol(d6). 26777. Spectrum. [M+NH4]+. Details. ...
I desmosterol; cerebral want to rush to wean my progesterone and centre event; clomid start any burning until around her tough ...
... desmosterol (F(11,24) = 5.988, p , 0.001), ergosterol (F(11,24) = 12.52, p , 0.001), sitostanol (F(11,24) = 5.507, p , 0.001) ... desmosterol-d6, sitosterol-d7 and cholesterol-d7. All three deuterated standards were added to each sterol standard mix as a ... desmosterol, 24-methylenecholesterol, sitostanol, campesterol, campestanol and brassicasterol. The other three sterols- ...
That molecule is desmosterol - the last forerunner in cholesterol production, which cells create and use as a structural ... Discovering desmosterols ability to cut macrophage cholesterol gives researchers and drug developers a new target to cut the ... Christopher Glass says a synthetic molecule much the same as desmosterol already exists, which offers an immediate test-case ... In atherosclerotic lesions, the ordinary function of desmosterol seems to be "crippled." ...
Frequency not reported: Elevated levels of desmosterol (for prolonged therapy). Postmarketing reports: Fever, tinnitus, ...
Ma, Y.-C., Blunden, G., Barwell, C.J. & Yang, M.-H. (1995). 7-oxo-desmosterol from Palmaria palmata. Botanica Marina 38: 133- ...
Desmosterol. Triacylglycerol. Cholesterol. 7-dehydrocholesterol. Stigma-and campesterol. 7-ketocholesterol. Sitosterol. β- ...
  • Lathosterol and desmosterol are cholesterol precursors downstream of 14LDM. (nih.gov)
  • Simvastatin treatment reduced serum cholesterol levels by 18% and retinal content of cholesterol and lathosterol (but not desmosterol) by 24% and 21%, respectively. (aspetjournals.org)
  • From among the noncholesterol sterols, ratios of cholestenol, desmosterol, and lathosterol to cholesterol reflect cholesterol synthesis ( 2 ), whereas those of cholestanol, campesterol, and sitosterol are markers of cholesterol absorption ( 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Scientists in the 1950s developed a drug called triparanol that reduces cholesterol production, effectively boosting desmosterol levels. (earthtimes.org)
  • In addition, scientists in the 1950s developed a drug called triparanol that inhibited cholesterol production, effectively boosting desmosterol levels. (ucsd.edu)
  • Seladin-1 (selective Alzheimer′s disease indicator-1) catalyzes the conversion of desmosterol to cholesterol. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • It was then reported that Diminuto catalyzes the last step of cholesterol biosynthesis, the conversion of desmosterol to cholesterol. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Cholesterol synthesis in the fetal brain is inhibited because activity of DHCR24 (24-dehydrocholesterol reductase) is insufficient, causing concentrations of the precursor desmosterol to increase temporarily to 15-25% of total sterols at birth. (figshare.com)
  • The main sterols in Lyprinol' were cholesterol and desmosterol/brassicasterol, while in flaxseed oil and tuna oil the main sterols were beta-sitosterol and cholesterol, respectively. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • A simultaneous determination method for cholesterol, lanosterol and desmosterol was developed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. (kist.re.kr)
  • 24-dehydrocholesterol reductase catalyses the reduction of desmosterol to cholesterol. (wikipedia.org)
  • In one pathway, 24-dehydrocholesterol reductase is involved in the final step of cholesterol production (synthesis), converting the fat desmosterol into cholesterol. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These cells are defective in DHCR24 (sterol-Δ 24 -reductase, or 3β-hydroxysterol Δ 24 -reductase), leading to desmosterol accumulation, and yet sterol homoeostasis appears to be normal with respect to SREBP processing and LXR activation. (biochemj.org)
  • Elevated levels of desmosterol, a substrate of delta(24)-sterol reductase (DHCR24), were also detected in R6/1 mice at the end time-point. (edu.au)
  • show that a cholesterol precursor, desmosterol, can support cell proliferation in the absence of cholesterol in a murine macrophage-like model (J774-D cells). (biochemj.org)
  • Rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by multiple congenital anomalies and elevated levels of the cholesterol precursor desmosterol in plasma, tissue, and cultured cells. (expasy.org)
  • Desmosterol is the immediate precursor of cholesterol in the Bloch pathway of cholesterol biosynthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Desmosterol and DHCR24: unexpected new directions for a terminal step in cholesterol synthesis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • expression by REST persisted in the mammalian genome either because it does no harm or because suppressing metabolically active DHCR24 while providing abundant quantities of the multifunctional sterol desmosterol during neural development proved useful. (figshare.com)
  • Desmosterol is a molecule similar to cholesterol. (wikipedia.org)
  • That molecule is desmosterol - the last forerunner in cholesterol production, which cells create and use as a structural component of their membranes. (earthtimes.org)
  • Christopher Glass says a synthetic molecule much the same as desmosterol already exists, which offers an immediate test-case for new studies. (earthtimes.org)
  • Glass noted that a synthetic molecule similar to desmosterol already exists, offering an immediate test-case for new studies. (ucsd.edu)
  • It results in an accumulation of desmosterol and a variety of associated symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipid Metabolite Profiling Identifies Desmosterol Metabolism as a New Antiviral Target for Hepatitis C Virus. (massgeneral.org)
  • Oxysterols are oxygenated derivatives of cholesterol or its sterol precursors, e.g. 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) or desmosterol. (wikipathways.org)
  • Certain anticholesterolemic and antiestrogenic drugs such as triparanol, ethamoxytriphetol, and clomifene have been found to inhibit conversion of desmosterol into cholesterol and to induce desmosterolosis, for instance cataracts. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3. The 3H label from the clionasterol substrate was retained in both the desmosterol and the cholesterol isolated from the larvae. (portlandpress.com)
  • The presence of the unusual sterol, desmosterol, a cholesterol precursor not found in measurable quantities in any other tissue suggests an important functional and structural role for desmosterol in spermatozoa. (elsevier.com)
  • decreases production of cholesterol from desmosterol. (expasy.org)
  • In atherosclerotic lesions, Glass said the normal function of desmosterol appears to be "crippled. (ucsd.edu)
  • Clomifeen behoort syndrome bum bbt months die de ovulation van de vrouwelijke parfumthe presence testis en drug melatonin. (covetshop.net)
  • Hachey, D. L. / Unique lipids of primate spermatozoa : Desmosterol and docosahexaenoic acid . (elsevier.com)
  • In atherosclerotic lesions, the ordinary function of desmosterol seems to be "crippled. (earthtimes.org)
  • I have effects and desmosterol but i' than that i search prettythe. (lojamartelo.com)