Melanocytes: Mammalian pigment cells that produce MELANINS, pigments found mainly in the EPIDERMIS, but also in the eyes and the hair, by a process called melanogenesis. Coloration can be altered by the number of melanocytes or the amount of pigment produced and stored in the organelles called MELANOSOMES. The large non-mammalian melanin-containing cells are called MELANOPHORES.Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Dermis: A layer of vascularized connective tissue underneath the EPIDERMIS. The surface of the dermis contains innervated papillae. Embedded in or beneath the dermis are SWEAT GLANDS; HAIR FOLLICLES; and SEBACEOUS GLANDS.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Melanins: Insoluble polymers of TYROSINE derivatives found in and causing darkness in skin (SKIN PIGMENTATION), hair, and feathers providing protection against SUNBURN induced by SUNLIGHT. CAROTENES contribute yellow and red coloration.Vitiligo: A disorder consisting of areas of macular depigmentation, commonly on extensor aspects of extremities, on the face or neck, and in skin folds. Age of onset is often in young adulthood and the condition tends to progress gradually with lesions enlarging and extending until a quiescent state is reached.Keratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.Skin Pigmentation: Coloration of the skin.Monophenol Monooxygenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction between L-tyrosine, L-dopa, and oxygen to yield L-dopa, dopaquinone, and water. It is a copper protein that acts also on catechols, catalyzing some of the same reactions as CATECHOL OXIDASE. EC 220.127.116.11.Melanosomes: Melanin-containing organelles found in melanocytes and melanophores.Plant Epidermis: A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor: A basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates the CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development of a variety of cell types including MELANOCYTES; OSTEOCLASTS; and RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. Mutations in MITF protein have been associated with OSTEOPETROSIS and WAARDENBURG SYNDROME.Hair Follicle: A tube-like invagination of the EPIDERMIS from which the hair shaft develops and into which SEBACEOUS GLANDS open. The hair follicle is lined by a cellular inner and outer root sheath of epidermal origin and is invested with a fibrous sheath derived from the dermis. (Stedman, 26th ed) Follicles of very long hairs extend into the subcutaneous layer of tissue under the SKIN.Pigmentation: Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Hair Color: Color of hair or fur.Nevus: A circumscribed stable malformation of the skin and occasionally of the oral mucosa, which is not due to external causes and therefore presumed to be of hereditary origin.Acellular Dermis: Remaining tissue from normal DERMIS tissue after the cells are removed.Skin Physiological Phenomena: The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.Mice, Hairless: Mutant strains of mice that produce little or no hair.Feathers: Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.Hyperpigmentation: Excessive pigmentation of the skin, usually as a result of increased epidermal or dermal melanin pigmentation, hypermelanosis. Hyperpigmentation can be localized or generalized. The condition may arise from exposure to light, chemicals or other substances, or from a primary metabolic imbalance.Hypopigmentation: A condition caused by a deficiency or a loss of melanin pigmentation in the epidermis, also known as hypomelanosis. Hypopigmentation can be localized or generalized, and may result from genetic defects, trauma, inflammation, or infections.alpha-MSH: A 13-amino acid peptide derived from proteolytic cleavage of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE, the N-terminal segment of ACTH. ACTH (1-13) is amidated at the C-terminal to form ACTH (1-13)NH2 which in turn is acetylated to form alpha-MSH in the secretory granules. Alpha-MSH stimulates the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Endothelin-3: A 21-amino acid peptide that circulates in the plasma, but its source is not known. Endothelin-3 has been found in high concentrations in the brain and may regulate important functions in neurons and astrocytes, such as proliferation and development. It also is found throughout the gastrointestinal tract and in the lung and kidney. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Pigmentation DisordersSkin, Artificial: Synthetic material used for the treatment of burns and other conditions involving large-scale loss of skin. It often consists of an outer (epidermal) layer of silicone and an inner (dermal) layer of collagen and chondroitin 6-sulfate. The dermal layer elicits new growth and vascular invasion and the outer layer is later removed and replaced by a graft.Langerhans Cells: Recirculating, dendritic, antigen-presenting cells containing characteristic racket-shaped granules (Birbeck granules). They are found principally in the stratum spinosum of the EPIDERMIS and are rich in Class II MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX molecules. Langerhans cells were the first dendritic cell to be described and have been a model of study for other dendritic cells (DCs), especially other migrating DCs such as dermal DCs and INTERSTITIAL DENDRITIC CELLS.Nevus, Pigmented: A nevus containing melanin. The term is usually restricted to nevocytic nevi (round or oval collections of melanin-containing nevus cells occurring at the dermoepidermal junction of the skin or in the dermis proper) or moles, but may be applied to other pigmented nevi.Hair: A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.Skin DiseasesDermatitis: Any inflammation of the skin.Intramolecular Oxidoreductases: Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the oxidation of one part of a molecule with a corresponding reduction of another part of the same molecule. They include enzymes converting aldoses to ketoses (ALDOSE-KETOSE ISOMERASES), enzymes shifting a carbon-carbon double bond (CARBON-CARBON DOUBLE BOND ISOMERASES), and enzymes transposing S-S bonds (SULFUR-SULFUR BOND ISOMERASES). (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.3.Neural Crest: The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.Skin Aging: The process of aging due to changes in the structure and elasticity of the skin over time. It may be a part of physiological aging or it may be due to the effects of ultraviolet radiation, usually through exposure to sunlight.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Keratin-10: A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-1 in terminally differentiated epidermal cells such as those that form the stratum corneum. Mutations in the genes that encode keratin-10 have been associated with HYPERKERATOSIS, EPIDERMOLYTIC.Skin Transplantation: The grafting of skin in humans or animals from one site to another to replace a lost portion of the body surface skin.Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormones: Peptides with the ability to stimulate pigmented cells MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates. By stimulating the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in these pigmented cells, they increase coloration of skin and other tissue. MSHs, derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), are produced by MELANOTROPHS in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY; CORTICOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY, and the hypothalamic neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Melanosis: Disorders of increased melanin pigmentation that develop without preceding inflammatory disease.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for STEM CELL FACTOR. This interaction is crucial for the development of hematopoietic, gonadal, and pigment stem cells. Genetic mutations that disrupt the expression of PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT are associated with PIEBALDISM, while overexpression or constitutive activation of the c-kit protein-tyrosine kinase is associated with tumorigenesis.Agouti Signaling Protein: A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids (depending on species) that regulates the synthesis of eumelanin (brown/black) pigments in MELANOCYTES. Agouti protein antagonizes the signaling of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTORS and has wide distribution including ADIPOSE TISSUE; GONADS; and HEART. Its overexpression in agouti mice results in uniform yellow coat color, OBESITY, and metabolic defects similar to type II diabetes in humans.Uvea: The pigmented vascular coat of the eyeball, consisting of the CHOROID; CILIARY BODY; and IRIS, which are continuous with each other. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 1: A melanocortin receptor subtype found primarily in MELANOCYTES. It shows specificity for ALPHA-MSH and ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. Loss of function mutations of the type 1 melanocortin receptor account for the majority of red hair and fair skin recessive traits in human.Sebaceous Glands: Small, sacculated organs found within the DERMIS. Each gland has a single duct that emerges from a cluster of oval alveoli. Each alveolus consists of a transparent BASEMENT MEMBRANE enclosing epithelial cells. The ducts from most sebaceous glands open into a HAIR FOLLICLE, but some open on the general surface of the SKIN. Sebaceous glands secrete SEBUM.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Hermanski-Pudlak Syndrome: Syndrome characterized by the triad of oculocutaneous albinism (ALBINISM, OCULOCUTANEOUS); PLATELET STORAGE POOL DEFICIENCY; and lysosomal accumulation of ceroid lipofuscin.Chromatophores: The large pigment cells of fish, amphibia, reptiles and many invertebrates which actively disperse and aggregate their pigment granules. These cells include MELANOPHORES, erythrophores, xanthophores, leucophores and iridiophores. (In algae, chromatophores refer to CHLOROPLASTS. In phototrophic bacteria chromatophores refer to membranous organelles (BACTERIAL CHROMATOPHORES).)Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Stem Cell Factor: A hematopoietic growth factor and the ligand of the cell surface c-kit protein (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT). It is expressed during embryogenesis and is a growth factor for a number of cell types including the MAST CELLS and the MELANOCYTES in addition to the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.PhenylthioureaSOXE Transcription Factors: A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. Members of this subfamily have been implicated in regulating the differentiation of OLIGODENDROCYTES during neural crest formation and in CHONDROGENESIS.Mice, Inbred C57BLKeratin-14: A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-5 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Mutations in the gene for keratin-14 are associated with EPIDERMOLYSIS BULLOSA SIMPLEX.Blister: Visible accumulations of fluid within or beneath the epidermis.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Skin Abnormalities: Congenital structural abnormalities of the skin.Catechol Oxidase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction between catechol and oxygen to yield benzoquinone and water. It is a complex of copper-containing proteins that acts also on a variety of substituted catechols. EC 18.104.22.168.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Skin Absorption: Uptake of substances through the SKIN.Piebaldism: Autosomal dominant, congenital disorder characterized by localized hypomelanosis of the skin and hair. The most familiar feature is a white forelock presenting in 80 to 90 percent of the patients. The underlying defect is possibly related to the differentiation and migration of melanoblasts, as well as to defective development of the neural crest (neurocristopathy). Piebaldism may be closely related to WAARDENBURG SYNDROME.Melanoma, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Keratosis: Any horny growth such as a wart or callus.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Quail: Common name for two distinct groups of BIRDS in the order GALLIFORMES: the New World or American quails of the family Odontophoridae and the Old World quails in the genus COTURNIX, family Phasianidae.Receptors, Melanocortin: A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that have specificity for MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES and ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. There are several subtypes of melanocortin receptors, each having a distinct ligand specificity profile and tissue localization.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Papilloma: A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Foreskin: The double-layered skin fold that covers the GLANS PENIS, the head of the penis.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Receptors, Corticotropin: Cell surface receptors that bind CORTICOTROPIN; (ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. Pharmacology suggests there may be multiple ACTH receptors. An ACTH receptor has been cloned and belongs to a subfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors. In addition to the adrenal cortex, ACTH receptors are found in the brain and immune systems.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Albinism, Oculocutaneous: Heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders comprising at least four recognized types, all having in common varying degrees of hypopigmentation of the skin, hair, and eyes. The two most common are the tyrosinase-positive and tyrosinase-negative types.Desmosomes: A type of junction that attaches one cell to its neighbor. One of a number of differentiated regions which occur, for example, where the cytoplasmic membranes of adjacent epithelial cells are closely apposed. It consists of a circular region of each membrane together with associated intracellular microfilaments and an intercellular material which may include, for example, mucopolysaccharides. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Intermediate Filament Proteins: Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Cicatrix, Hypertrophic: An elevated scar, resembling a KELOID, but which does not spread into surrounding tissues. It is formed by enlargement and overgrowth of cicatricial tissue and regresses spontaneously.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Myosin Type V: A subclass of myosin involved in organelle transport and membrane targeting. It is abundantly found in nervous tissue and neurosecretory cells. The heavy chains of myosin V contain unusually long neck domains that are believed to aid in translocating molecules over large distances.Melanoma, Amelanotic: An unpigmented malignant melanoma. It is an anaplastic melanoma consisting of cells derived from melanoblasts but not forming melanin. (Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)Melanoma-Specific Antigens: Cellular antigens that are specific for MELANOMA cells.Erythema: Redness of the skin produced by congestion of the capillaries. This condition may result from a variety of causes.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Alopecia: Absence of hair from areas where it is normally present.Dihydroxyphenylalanine: A beta-hydroxylated derivative of phenylalanine. The D-form of dihydroxyphenylalanine has less physiologic activity than the L-form and is commonly used experimentally to determine whether the pharmacological effects of LEVODOPA are stereospecific.Keloid: A sharply elevated, irregularly shaped, progressively enlarging scar resulting from formation of excessive amounts of collagen in the dermis during connective tissue repair. It is differentiated from a hypertrophic scar (CICATRIX, HYPERTROPHIC) in that the former does not spread to surrounding tissues.Sweat Glands: Sweat-producing structures that are embedded in the DERMIS. Each gland consists of a single tube, a coiled body, and a superficial duct.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene: 7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in tobacco smoke that is a potent carcinogen.
The dermis of a snake resides beneath the epidermis. The dermis of snakes is generally fibrous in nature, and not very ... Dark snakes (dark brown or black in color) appear as such due to melanocytes that are active in the epidermis. When melanin is ... Chromatophores in the dermis yield coloration when light shines through the corneal layer of the epidermis. There are many ... possess extensive keratinization of the epidermis in the form of epidermal scales. A snake's epidermis is composed of four ...
... melanocytes are situated on the basal layer which separates dermis and epidermis. One melanocyte is surrounded by approximately ... melanocytes are present in the basal layer of the epidermis; from these melanocytes originate dendrites that reach ... In epidermis, PAR-2 is expressed in keratinocytes [references omitted], but not melanocytes [references omitted]. A central ... MC1R ligands: alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), beta-melanocyte stimulating hormone (β-MSH) and adrenocorticotropic ...
Skin is composed of three primary layers: the epidermis, the dermis and the hypodermis. Epidermis, "epi" coming from the Greek ... melanocytes, Langerhans cells and Merkel cells. The epidermis helps the skin to regulate body temperature. Epidermis is divided ... The epidermis contains no blood vessels, and is nourished by diffusion from the dermis. The main type of cells which make up ... The dermis is the layer of skin beneath the epidermis that consists of connective tissue and cushions the body from stress and ...
The epidermis is the outer layer of the three layers that make up the skin, the inner layers being the dermis and hypodermis. ... Melanocytes are present, connected to numerous keratinocytes in this and other strata through dendrites. Merkel cells are also ... The epidermis is separated from the dermis, its underlying tissue, by a basement membrane. The stratified squamous epithelium ... Epidermis comes from Ancient Greek epi, meaning '"over" or "upon"'. The epidermis has no blood supply and is nourished almost ...
... while epidermis was mimicked by keratinocytes and Muse cell-derived melanocytes. Furthermore, Muse cell-derived melanocytes ... A three-dimensional culture model was used to assess Muse cell-derived melanocytes. In that model, the dermis was mimicked by ... In the human dermis, Muse cells are located in the connective tissues distributed in the dermis and hypodermis. Their location ... Subcutaneously injected human Muse cells integrate into the epidermis and dermis and differentiate into keratinocytes, vascular ...
It results from the entrapment of melanocytes in the dermis during their migration from the neural crest to the epidermis ... The blue colour is caused by melanocytes, melanin-containing cells, that are deep under the skin. Usually, as multiple spots or ... Birthmarks are caused by overgrowth of blood vessels, melanocytes, smooth muscle, fat, fibroblasts, or keratinocytes. ...
The dermis is the layer of skin between the epidermis and subcutaneous tissue, and comprises two sections, the papillary dermis ... since the epidermis is without direct blood supply. The epidermis contains four cell types: keratinocytes, melanocytes, ... The superficial papillary dermis interdigitates with the overlying rete ridges of the epidermis, between which the two layers ... Ulcer: An ulcer is a discontinuity of the skin exhibiting complete loss of the epidermis and often portions of the dermis and ...
List of cutaneous conditions
The dermis is the layer of skin between the epidermis and subcutaneous tissue, and comprises two sections, the papillary dermis ... since the epidermis is without direct blood supply. The epidermis contains four cell types: keratinocytes, melanocytes, ... The superficial papillary dermis interdigitates with the overlying rete ridges of the epidermis, between which the two layers ... the epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissue. The two main types of human skin are: glabrous skin, the hairless skin on the ...
The epidermis is the outermost of the three layers that make up the skin, the inner layers being the dermis and hypodermis. ... Melanocytes are present, connected to numerous keratinocytes in this and other strata through dendrites. Merkel cells are also ... The word epidermis is derived through Latin from Ancient Greek epidermis, itself from Ancient Greek epi 'over, upon' and from ... The epidermis is separated from the dermis, its underlying tissue, by a basement membrane. ...
The nevus cells are spindle shaped and scattered in deep layers of the dermis. The covering epidermis is normal.[citation ... The defect is thought to cause a proliferation of melanocytes. This means melanocytes, the cells in the body in charge of ... Conversely, a junctional nevus, which develops at the junction of the dermis and epidermis, is potentially cancerous. A basic ... the nevus cells are located along the junction of the epidermis and the underlying dermis. A junctional nevus is flat and brown ...
The epidermis and dermis are separated by a thin sheet of fibers called the basement membrane, and is made through the action ... Keratinocytes are the major cells, constituting 95% of the epidermis, while Merkel cells, melanocytes and Langerhans cells are ... The dermis is the layer of skin beneath the epidermis that consists of connective tissue and cushions the body from stress and ... The dermis is tightly connected to the epidermis through a basement membrane and is structurally divided into two areas: a ...
Melanin is produced in specialized cells called melanocytes, which are found in the lowest level of the epidermis. Melanin is ... For people with very light skin, the skin gets most of its colour from the bluish-white connective tissue in the dermis and ... People with very light skin (types I and II) make very little melanin in their melanocytes, and have very little or no ability ... Melanocytes from light skin cells cocultured with keratinocytes give rise to a distribution pattern characteristic of light ...
Epidermis and dermis of human skin Section of epidermis List of keratins expressed in the human integumentary system McGrath, J ... Other types of cells found within the stratum basale are melanocytes (pigment-producing cells), Langerhans cells (immune cells ... is the deepest layer of the five layers of the epidermis, the outer covering of skin in mammals. The stratum basale is a ... and hyperproliferative epidermis (from a skin disease). The stratum basale is primarily made up of basal keratinocyte stem ...
The surface ectoderm develops into: epidermis, hair, nails, lens of the eye, sebaceous glands, cornea, tooth enamel, the ... The paraxial mesoderm develops into cartilage, skeletal muscle, and dermis. The lateral plate mesoderm develops into the ... The neural crest of the ectoderm develops into: peripheral nervous system, adrenal medulla, melanocytes, facial cartilage, ... Gilbert, Scott F (2003). "The Central Nervous System and The Epidermis". Developmental Biology. Sinauer Associates. Hall BK ( ...
Superficial spreading melanoma
Dermis. Main article: Dermis. The dermis is the layer of skin between the epidermis and subcutaneous tissue, and ... since the epidermis is without direct blood supply. The epidermis contains four cell types: keratinocytes, melanocytes, ... Epidermis. Main article: Epidermis (skin). The epidermis is the most superficial layer of skin, a squamous epithelium ... the papillary dermis and the reticular dermis. The superficial papillary dermis interdigitates with the overlying rete ...
Melanocytes are found between the outer layer of the skin (the epidermis) and the next layer (the dermis). This early stage of ... When the tumor cells start to move in a different direction - vertically up into the epidermis and into the papillary dermis - ... and against fetal melanocytes but not normal adult melanocytes. ... The earliest stage of melanoma starts when melanocytes begin ... The tumor thickness is usually more than 1 mm (0.04 in), and the tumor involves the deeper parts of the dermis. ...
... the epidermis and dermis. (The hypodermis or subcutaneous layer is not part of the skin.) The epidermis is the ... melanocytes, Merkel cells, and Langerhans' cells. The major cell of the epidermis is the keratinocyte, which produces keratin. ... Also, the stratum corneum is the top part of the epidermis. The dermis is the middle layer of skin, composed of dense irregular ... The epidermis is the top layer of skin made up of epithelial cells. It does not contain blood vessels. Its main functions are ...
... epidermis Intradermal: dermis Compound: epidermis and dermis Atypical (dysplastic) nevus: This type of nevus must be diagnosed ... The term nevus is applied to a number of conditions caused by neoplasias and hyperplasias of melanocytes, as well as a number ... Benign Neoplasias and Hyperplasias of Melanocytes". Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine. The McGraw-Hill Companies, ...
... excess melanin in the epidermis can be distinguished from that of the dermis. Post inflammatory hyperpigmentation Actinic ... Melasma is thought to be the stimulation of melanocytes (cells in the epidermal layer of skin that produce a pigment called ... It is thought that the overproduction of melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) brought on by stress can cause outbreaks of this ... Azelaic acid (20%), thought to decrease the activity of melanocytes. Tranexamic acid by mouth has shown to provide rapid and ...
However, with constant UVA exposure, the size of the dermis layer will be reduced, thereby causing the epidermis to start ... The epidermal layer does not contain any blood vessels or nerve endings but melanocytes and basal cells are embedded in this ... The dermis is the second major layer of the skin and it comprises collagen, elastin, and extrafibrillar matrix which provides ... Due to the presence of blood vessels in the dermis, UVA rays can lead to dilated or broken blood vessels which are most ...
... whereas others serve to anchor the epidermis glabrous skin (hairless), and hyper-proliferative epidermis (from a skin disease). ... Other types of cells found within the stratum basale are melanocytes (pigment-producing cells), Langerhans cells (immune cells ... Histologic image showing a section of epidermis. Stratum basale labeled near bottom. ... is the deepest layer of the five layers of the epidermis, the outer covering of skin in mammals. ...
Wallace H. Clark Jr.
The blade, which is attached to a pencil-like handle, is rotated down through the epidermis and dermis, and into the ... excisions do not penetrate the dermis or subcutanous fat enough to include the entire melanocytic lesion. Residual melanocytes ... As the deep shave excision either completely removes the full thickness of the dermis or greatly diminishes the dermal ... In an incisional biopsy a cut is made through the entire dermis down to the subcutanous fat. A punch biopsy is essentially an ...
"UV irradiation and topical vitamin A modulate retinol esterification in hairless mouse epidermis". Acta Derm. Venereol. 68 (4 ... "Photosensitization of the Sunscreen Octyl p-Dimethylaminobenzoate b UVA in Human Melanocytes but not in Keratinocytes". ... doi:10.4161/derm.24494. ISSN 1938-1972. PMC 3897598 . PMID 24494042.. *^ Lynch, David K.; Livingston, William Charles (2001). ... doi:10.4161/derm.20013.. *^ "Health effects of ultraviolet radiation" Archived 8 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine.. ...
... scars are caused by inflammation within the dermis and are estimated to affect 95% of people with acne vulgaris. ... known as melanocytes) to produce more melanin pigment, which leads to the skin's darkened appearance. PIH occurs more ... By interfering with the production of melanin in the epidermis, hydroquinone leads to less hyperpigmentation as darkened skin ... Hydroquinone is ineffective for hyperpigmentation affecting deeper layers of skin such as the dermis. The use of a ...
"UV irradiation and topical vitamin A modulate retinol esterification in hairless mouse epidermis". Acta Derm. Venereol. 68 (4 ... "Photosensitization of the Sunscreen Octyl p-Dimethylaminobenzoate b UVA in Human Melanocytes but not in Keratinocytes". ... doi:10.4161/derm.24494. ISSN 1938-1972. PMC 3897598. PMID 24494042.. *^ M A Mainster (2006). "Violet and blue light blocking ... doi:10.4161/derm.20013. PMC 3427189. PMID 22928066.. *^ "Health effects of ultraviolet radiation" Archived 8 October 2016 at ...
The pain and temperature receptors in the dermis of the skin are examples of neurons that have free nerve endings (1). Also ... Opsins and direct DNA damage in melanocytes and keratinocytes can sense ultraviolet radiation, which plays a role in ... Merkel cells are located in the stratum basale of the epidermis. Deep pressure and vibration is transduced by lamellated ( ... Pacinian) corpuscles, which are receptors with encapsulated endings found deep in the dermis, or subcutaneous tissue. Light ...
If a shave biopsy is performed, it should extend through to the level of the dermis in order to provide sufficient tissue for ... Melanin is a pigment in the epidermis that functions to protect keratinocytes from the damage caused by UV radiation; it is ... Afamelanotide is a drug that induces the production of melanin by melanocytes to act as a protective factor against UVB ... The process involves using a hand-held instrument to "sand" the skin, removing the stratum corneum layer of the epidermis. ...
Compound: epidermis and dermis. *Atypical (dysplastic) nevus: This type of nevus must be diagnosed based on histological ... The term nevus is applied to a number of conditions caused by neoplasias and hyperplasias of melanocytes, as well as a ... Benign Neoplasias and Hyperplasias of Melanocytes". Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine. The McGraw-Hill Companies, ... These nevi represent abnormalities of collagen in the dermis, the deep layer of the skin. ...
ಟೆಂಪ್ಲೇಟು:Connective tissue - ವಿಕಿಪೀಡಿಯ
... has a wide variety of functions that depend on the types of cells and the different classes of fibers involved. Loose and dense irregular connective tissue, formed mainly by fibroblasts and collagen fibers, have an important role in providing a medium for oxygen and nutrients to diffuse from capillaries to cells, and carbon dioxide and waste substances to diffuse from cells back into circulation. They also allow organs to resist stretching and tearing forces. Dense regular connective tissue, which forms organized structures, is a major functional component of tendons, ligaments and aponeuroses, and is also found in highly specialized organs such as the cornea.:161 Elastic fibers, made from elastin and fibrillin, also provide resistance to stretch forces.:171 They are found in the walls of large blood vessels and in certain ligaments, particularly in the ligamenta flava.:173 In hematopoietic and lymphatic tissues, reticular fibers made by reticular cells provide the ...
Congenital melanocytic nevus | definition of Congenital melanocytic nevus by Medical dictionary
The most common nevus, characterized by melanocytes in the dermis or epidermis Melanocytic nevi ... blue nevus a dark blue nodular lesion composed of closely grouped melanocytes and melanophages in the mid-dermis. ... A mole that owes its deep blue colour to spindle-shaped melanocytes deep in the dermis, caused by the so-called Tyndall effect ... A nevus in which the melanocytes are confined to the dermis. They are raised and often non-pigmented, and invariably benign.. ...
Skin Concerns - Hyperpigmentation - Page 1 - BeautifiedYou.com
Snakeskin - Wikipedia
The dermis of a snake resides beneath the epidermis. The dermis of snakes is generally fibrous in nature, and not very ... Dark snakes (dark brown or black in color) appear as such due to melanocytes that are active in the epidermis. When melanin is ... Chromatophores in the dermis yield coloration when light shines through the corneal layer of the epidermis. There are many ... possess extensive keratinization of the epidermis in the form of epidermal scales. A snakes epidermis is composed of four ...
Pigmented Lesions of the Eyelid: Background, History of the Procedure, Problem
Nevus cells are incompletely differentiated melanocytes that are found in clumps in the epidermis or the dermis. Nevus cells ... The dermis contains a collagen matrix with vascular channels and dermal appendages. The epidermis contains a basal cell layer ... These cells are destined to reside in the basal cell layer of the epidermis. Melanocytes are melanin-producing cells found in ... Congenital nevi acquire pigmentation at puberty, at which time they slowly migrate from the epidermis to the dermis. Coincident ...
Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer: Introduction | Johns Hopkins Medicine Health Library
The lower part of the epidermis has pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. These cells darken the skin when exposed to the ... The dermis has blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, hair follicles, and glands. Some of these glands make sweat, which helps keep ... It begins in basal cells in the deepest part of the epidermis. It often starts in areas of skin exposed to the sun, such as the ... The epidermis is made of flat cells called squamous cells. Round basal cells are under the squamous cells. ...
Patent US7267675 - RF device with thermo-electric cooler - Google Patentsuche
The human skin is composed of two elements: the epidermis and the underlying dermis. The epidermis with the stratum corneum ... In the basilar layer of the epidermis, pigment-forming cells called melanocytes are present. They are the main determinants of ... be desirable to cool both the epidermis and the superficial layers of the dermis of the skin that lies beneath the epidermis, ... The underlying dermis provides the main structural support of the skin. It is composed mainly of an extra-cellular protein ...
Phytophototoxin Poisoning: Practice Essentials, Pathophysiology, Etiology
Burns and Wounds | Johns Hopkins Medicine
Second-degree burns involve the epidermis and part of the dermis layer of skin. The burn site appears red, blistered, and may ... The epidermis also contains melanocytes, which are cells that produce melanin (skin pigment). ... Third-degree burns destroy the epidermis and dermis. Third-degree burns may also damage the underlying bones, muscles, and ... The epidermis is the thin, outer layer of the skin with many layers including:. * Stratum corneum (horny layer). This layer is ...
Granulysin peptides and methods of use thereof - Patent # 8357365 - PatentGenius
... both normal and malignant melanocytes are confined to the epidermis; when malignant melanocytes invade the dermis, the lesion ... Histologically, atypical melanocytes characteristically invade dermis and epidermis.. Nodular melanoma constitutes 10 to 15% of ... This loss is constantly replenished with cells from lower layers of the epidermis. Thus, the layers of the epidermis are ... To exfoliate the epidermis, compositions containing granulysin peptides are applied to the skin in a topical manner, and for a ...
Skin whitening - Wikipedia
... melanocytes are situated on the basal layer which separates dermis and epidermis. One melanocyte is surrounded by approximately ... melanocytes are present in the basal layer of the epidermis; from these melanocytes originate dendrites that reach ... In epidermis, PAR-2 is expressed in keratinocytes [references omitted], but not melanocytes [references omitted]. A central ... MC1R ligands: alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), beta-melanocyte stimulating hormone (β-MSH) and adrenocorticotropic ...
Pigmented nevus, nevus pigmentosus | definition of pigmented nevus, nevus pigmentosus by Medical dictionary
A cluster of melanocytes found in both the epidermis and the dermis. ... blue nevus a dark blue nodular lesion composed of closely grouped melanocytes and melanophages in the mid-dermis. ... A nevus in which the melanocytes are found in nests in the dermis and have no connection with the deeper layers from which they ... A nevus in the basal cell zone at the junction of the epidermis and dermis. It is slightly raised, pigmented, and does not ...
Free Anatomy Flashcards about skin diseases 06
Pharmaceuticals | Free Full-Text | Stem Cell Therapy: A New Treatment for Burns? | HTML
EPIDERMIS. Ectoderm. Avascular. Keratinized stratified epithelium. Melanocytes Keratinocytes. DERMIS. Mesoderm. Vascular. ... The main cell types that make up the epidermis are keratinocytes, melanocytes, Langerhans cells and Merkels cells. The dermis ... Table 1. Main differences between epidermis and dermis skin layers.. SKIN LAYERS. ORIGIN. VASCULARITY. CHARACTERISTICS. MAIN ... The epidermis contains no blood vessels, and is nourished by diffusion from the dermis. ...
Path Flashcards by Danielle Strauss | Brainscape
Melanoma: Introduction - AHealthyMe - Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts
It starts in skin cells called melanocytes. Melanocytes are what give skin its color. ... The lower part of the epidermis also has pigment-making cells called melanocytes. These cells darken the skin when exposed to ... The dermis has blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, hair follicles, and glands. Some of these glands make sweat. This helps keep ... Sometimes groups of melanocytes make moles, also called nevi. Most people have some moles on their bodies. These moles are ...
Melanoma: The Negative Impact
The skin has two main layers: the epidermis and the dermis. Deep in the epidermis are cells called melanocytes. Melanocytes ... When skin is exposed to the sun, the melanocytes make more melanin and cause the skin to tan or darken. Sometimes melanocytes ... It can start in other places in the body where melanocytes are found, such as the eyes, the mouth or under the fingernails, ...
Specimen Collection for Translational Studies in Hidradenitis Suppurativa | Scientific Reports
Forceps should be used to place the tissue section in an orientation such that the epidermis and dermis can be visualized on a ... and epidermis (keratinocytes and melanocytes) as previously described58. Confluent cultured HS fibroblasts, keratinocytes, and ... For fibroblast and keratinocyte isolation specifically, tissue can be separated into the dermis (fibroblasts) ... keratinocytes and melanocytes- (second panel) were cultured. Peripheral blood was collected from HS patients and monocytes/ ...
JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols
K14-Scf transgenic mice retain melanocytes in the epidermis and therefore have the ability to deposit melanin in the epidermis ... The reconstructs consist of a "dermis" with fibroblasts embedded in a collagen I matrix, an "epidermis", which is comprised of ... The mechanisms underlying melanocyte differentiation and the defining characteristics of melanocyte stem cells in humans are, ... We identified a novel population of melanocyte-like cells (also known as cardiac melanocytes) in the hearts of mice and humans ...
Anatomy of the Skin | University Hospitals
Melanocytes. Melanocytes are also found at the base of the epidermis and make melanin. This gives the skin its color. ... The dermis is held together by a protein called collagen. This layer gives skin flexibility and strength. The dermis also ... Epidermis The epidermis is the thin outer layer of the skin. It consists of 3 types of cells:. * Squamous cells. The outermost ... Basal cells. Basal cells are found just under the squamous cells, at the base of the epidermis. ...
JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols
K14-Scf transgenic mice retain melanocytes in the epidermis and therefore have the ability to deposit melanin in the epidermis ... The reconstructs consist of a "dermis" with fibroblasts embedded in a collagen I matrix, an "epidermis", which is comprised of ... which separates epidermis from dermis. Collagen provides scaffolding, nutrient delivery, and potential for cell-to-cell ... These multi-potent stem cells can migrate to the epidermis and differentiate to melanocytes. ...
Leucojum aestivum Bulb Extract for Antiaging Benefits
... slowing the proliferation of melanocytes and keratinocytes potentially to reduce age spots and slow cellular aging; reducing ... Skin is composed primarily of the epidermis and the dermis. The outermost epidermis is made up of stratified squamous ... The epidermis is composed mainly of keratinocytes with melanocytes as well as langerhans cells. This layer of skin functions as ... The dermis lies below the epidermis and contains a number of structures including blood vessels, nerves, hair follicles, smooth ...
Integument - Reptiles | Britannica.com
The colours of reptiles are produced by both melanocytes in the epidermis and three types of chromatophores in the dermis: ... The dermis, also thin, consists mostly of a network of connective tissue fibres and muscle fibres that help to adjust the ... The avian epidermis is thin, delicate, and clothed in feathers, except on the obviously naked areas of the legs, feet, beak, ... The cornified part of the epidermis is strengthened by a stiff material, beta keratin, which is present in place of or in ...
Free Surgery Flashcards about SRGT Ch4 Terminology
Epidermis: Melanocytes. Melanin (pigment produced to protect from uv light). Dermis composed of.... vascular connective tissue ... First - epidermis (superficial thickness) Second- epidermis and part of dermis (partial thickness) Third- epidermis, dermis and ... strata) -Epidermis (outer layer-avascular) -Dermis/corium (inner layer) -Hypodermis/subcutaneous layer (layer of connective ... free skin graft in which full portions of both the epidermis and the dermis are used. ...
Functional Groups Flashcards & Quizzes | Brainscape
Adipose-Derived Stem Cells (ADSCs) and Growth Differentiation Factor 11 (GDF11): Regenerative and Antiaging Capacity for the...
... stability of the dermis and participated to epidermis cell functions including those of keratinocytes and melanocytes. ADSCs ... Indeed, expression of P16INK4a positive cells increased with chronological aging in human dermis and epidermis while P63 ... Skin is comprised of three layers: non-vascularized and stratified epidermis, underlying the dermis composed of a connective ... 5.3 Melanocytes regulation. ADSCs also interplay with the activation loop of melanocytes by modulating enzyme-producing melanin ...
Patent EP3175840A1 - Dermal filler compositions - Google Patents
The dermis is the layer of skin beneath the epidermis that consists of connective tissue and cushions the body from stress and ... The main type of cells which make up the epidermis are keratinocytes, melanocytes, Langerhans cells and Merkels cells. ... The dermis is tightly connected to the epidermis by a basement membrane. It also harbors many Mechanoreceptor/nerve endings ... The dermis is structurally divided into two areas: a superficial area adjacent to the epidermis, called the papillary region, ...
On occasion, melanocytes can proliferate forming benign lesions (nevi) in the epidermis and also into the dermis (2). It has ... A normal growth pattern of a melanocyte involves controlled proliferation in the epidermis. ... Boehm N, Samama B, Cribier B, Rochette-Egly C. Retinoic-acid receptor β expression in melanocytes. Eur J Dermatol 2004;14:19-23 ... When present, intraepidermal melanocytes were also considered. The individual values of the two cores per lesion were averaged ...
Normal human keratinocytes and melanocytes were isolated from the epidermis, and fibroblasts were isolated from the dermis of ... epidermis. After 2 weeks, melanoma cell clusters were found in the epidermis and upper dermis in both groups; however, much ... Melanoma cells, melanocytes, and fibroblasts were plated in six-well plates at 1.5 × 105 cells/well in their culture medium for ... Melanocytes were cultured in MCDB153 (Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO) supplemented with 2% FBS, 10% chelated FBS, 2 mm ...
NewYork-Presbyterian Queens - Burns
Second-degree burns involve the epidermis and part of the dermis layer of skin. The burn site appears red, blistered, and may ... The epidermis also contains melanocytes, which are cells that produce melanin (skin pigment). ... Epidermis. The epidermis is the thin outer layer of the skin which consists of the following three parts: *Stratum corneum ( ... Third-degree burns destroy the epidermis and dermis. Third-degree burns may also damage the underlying bones, muscles, and ...
Research Articles On Congenital Nevi|omicsgroup|journal Of Clinical And Experimental Dermatology Research
Protect Your Lips From the Sun With Lysine Lip Balm
Melanocytes are located in the epidermis, and they produce melanin, which is a natural protection from harmful UV damage. ... Beneath the epidermis is the dermis, where your nerve endings, hair follicles and sweat glands are. Finally, there is the ... The epidermis layer of your lips contains no melanocytes, which means no melanin to protect from the sun. ... The epidermiss outermost layer is called the stratum corneum - the layer that you can see. It and the rest of the epidermis ...
Skin Cancer | Blausen Medical
The epidermis is the outer layer of skin and contains basal and squamous cells. Melanocytes are also found in the epidermis; ... The dermis, which lies below the epidermis, contains blood vessels, connective tissue, hair follicles, and sweat glands. The ... Abnormal growths of melanocytes, called malignant melanomas, are the most aggressive form of skin cancer. Melanomas can spread ... Squamous cell carcinomas develop in the middle layer of the epidermis. This type of cancer can spread and can be life ...
CellsMelanomaBlood vesselsEpidermalConnectiveSquamous cellsDermalProduce melaninCollagenBenignMolesNeviStratum corneumBase of the epidermisGlandsSkin pigmentationKeratinMake melaninReside in the basal cellConsistsCells in the epidermisNervesThickerPapillary dermisFibroblastsAppendagesMelanosomesProtectivePrimarilyDeepest part of the epidermisPigment the skinSkin'sLesionsOuter layer of the skinLayer of the skinDarkenMelanophagesAbnormalMelanin to protectSubcutaneous tissuesFound
- Once this lesion penetrates into the dermis, it is classified as a lentigo maligna melanoma. (medscape.com)
- Melanoma comes from the skin's pigment cells (melanocytes). (ahealthyme.com)
- Melanoma starts when normal melanocytes become cancer. (ahealthyme.com)
- and melanoma starts in the melanocytes. (skininc.com)
- It can start in other places in the body where melanocytes are found, such as the eyes, the mouth or under the fingernails, although these types of melanoma are rare. (skininc.com)
- This in vitro differentiation system should prove useful for understanding human melanocyte biology and revealing the mechanism of various pigment cell disorders, including melanoma. (jove.com)
- It has been proposed that melanocytes, whether from normal intraepidermal melanocytes or from the cells in melanocytic nevi, may develop malignant transformation into melanoma, which then usually progresses from a radial to a vertical growth phase and finally to regional and distant metastases. (aacrjournals.org)
- Slowly growing premalignant disease due to proliferation of atypical melanocytes within the epidermis, which can progress to lentigo maligna melanoma. (dermis.net)
- It is a form of melanoma in which the malignant cells tend to stay within the tissue of origin, the epidermis , in an 'i n-situ ' phase for a prolonged period (months to decades). (dermnetnz.org)
- Superficial spreading melanoma is due to the development of malignant pigment cells (melanocytes) along the basal layer of the epidermis. (dermnetnz.org)
- Melanoma, which forms in the melanocytes, is a less common type of skin cancer that grows and spreads quickly. (uwhealth.org)
- Melanoma is skin cancer of the melanocytes, the cells that produce skin color and give moles their dark color. (doctors-hospital.net)
- Cancer that forms in melanocytes is called melanoma . (cancer.gov)
- Melanoma is easier to cure if the tumor is found before it spreads to the dermis (inner layer of skin). (cancer.gov)
- Melanoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in melanocytes (cells that color the skin). (oncolink.org)
- Melanoma can spread to (invade) the lower part of the skin, called the dermis, to reach nearby tissues and other parts of the body. (nccn.org)
- The majority of melanomas develop from uncontrolled melanocyte proliferation within the epidermis * (melanoma in situ ), which can then spread to the dermis (invasive melanoma) and in some cases to regional lymph nodes and other tissues (metastatic melanoma). (bpac.org.nz)
- Not only do melanocytes produce a tan, they are also responsible for the form of cancer called melanoma . (howstuffworks.com)
- Melanoma is caused by UV radiation damage to melanocytes. (howstuffworks.com)
- Melanoma develops when melanocytes undergo malignant transformation. (cancer.gov)
- We tested the effects of activated NRas(Q61K) on the proliferation, motility, and invasiveness of melanoblasts and melanocytes in the developing mouse and ex vivo explant culture as well as in a melanoma transplant model. (nih.gov)
- Melanoma develops in melanocytes. (cancervic.org.au)
- It contains no blood vessels and is nourished by diffusion from the dermis. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
- The dermis lies below the epidermis and contains a number of structures including blood vessels, nerves, hair follicles, smooth muscle, glands and lymphatic tissue. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
- The purpose of the hypodermis, which lies below the dermis, is to attach the skin to underlying bone and muscle as well as supply it with blood vessels and nerves. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
- It consists of an outer ectodermal epidermis that is more or less cornified and penetrated by the openings of sweat and sebaceous glands and an inner mesodermal dermis that is composed largely of connective tissue and is richly supplied with [[blood vessels]] and nerves. (lymphedemapeople.com)
- Beneath the epidermis, the dermis layer contains the blood vessels that help regulate temperature and the nerves that allow you to feel heat and touch. (giantmicrobes.com)
- Histological examination demonstrates a normal epidermis and melanocytes in the basal layer as well as a normal-appearing dermis, dermal appendages, and blood vessels. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
- A sparse mononuclear cell infiltrate around superficial blood vessels in the dermis can be seen. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
- There are no blood vessels or nerves directly in the epidermis. (doctors-hospital.net)
- In the dermis the cancer has access to lymph nodes and blood vessels, which then carry cancer cells to other parts of the body. (doctors-hospital.net)
- The thicker, denser dermis is tougher than the epidermis and contains most of the skin's plumbing and wiring, including blood vessels, sweat glands, sensory receptors, and hair follicles. (ucpress.edu)
- Answer: True False Diff: 1 Page Ref: 152 13) The dermis is rich in blood vessels and nerve fibers. (bartleby.com)
- Unlike the non-vascular epidermis, the dermis has an intricate network of nerves, blood vessels, lymph glands and nervous system receptors that regulate pain and other sensations. (dogsnaturallymagazine.com)
- Blood vessels responsible for thermoregulation, nerve plexuses associated with cutaneous sensation, and both myelinated and unmyelinated nerves are present in the dermis. (merckvetmanual.com)
- These scale patterns are unique to species, and the scales themselves help in locomoting by providing a friction buffer between the snake and the ground Reptiles, including snakes, possess extensive keratinization of the epidermis in the form of epidermal scales. (wikipedia.org)
- Melanomas arise from epidermal melanocytes and represent less than 1% of all eyelid tumors. (medscape.com)
- Pigmented lesions of the eyelids arise from 1 of 3 types of melanocytes, as follows: (1) epidermal or dendritic melanocytes, (2) nevus cells or nevocytes, and (3) dermal or fusiform melanocytes. (medscape.com)
- Epidermal melanocytes play an important role in protecting the skin from UV rays, and their functional impairment results in pigment disorders. (jove.com)
- In snakes and lizards the germinal layer forms a complete new epidermal surface before the whole of the old cornified epidermis is sloughed, either in a single sheet or in portions. (britannica.com)
- They have phagocytosed melanin (melanin cells which have engulfed bacteria and other microorganisms) that enter the dermis due to leakage from or destruction of epidermal or follicular melanocytes. (wearethecure.org)
- These methods use full-thickness punch grafts, roof of epidermal blisters, and shave biopsy samples, respectively, as the source of melanocytes. (springer.com)
- Mutalik S. Transplantation of melanocytes by epidermal grafting- an Indian experience. (springer.com)
- For example, sensory denervation of skin results in alterations in skin anatomy, including thinning of the epidermis, decreases in epidermal proliferation, and changes in the gene expression of Langerhans cells (Huang et al. (google.com)
- The cutaneous nervous system is an integral part of skin anatomy, and free nerve endings of sensory cutaneous nerve fibers reach up into the epidermis getting in close contact with epidermal cells and mediators from epidermal cells released into the intercellular space. (frontiersin.org)
- Most biopsies at the late stage showed slight atrophy and some scattered apoptotic cells in the epidermis, epidermal hypopigmentation and reduced melanocyte number. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
- Something related to or part of the epidermis is termed epidermal. (wikipedia.org)
- The epidermis of these two areas is known as "thick skin" because with this extra layer, the skin has 5 epidermal layers instead of 4. (wikipedia.org)
- Melanocytes may be completely absent from skin called VITILIGO.More than 5% of epidermal cells. (scribd.com)
- This area serves as a site for attachment of basal epidermal cells and as a protective barrier between the epidermis and dermis. (merckvetmanual.com)
- The dermis , also thin, consists mostly of a network of connective tissue fibres and muscle fibres that help to adjust the feathers. (britannica.com)
- Dermis-The dermis is a layer of connective tissue under the epidermis. (doctors-hospital.net)
- In lightly pigmented people, the skin gets most of its color from blood and from the bluish-white connective tissues of the dermis. (ucpress.edu)
- Attached by basil cells and a layer of protein called collagen, the dermis provides a strong foundation for hair growth and connective tissue. (dogsnaturallymagazine.com)
- Meanwhile, the dermis consists mainly of connective tissue containing collagen, elastic fibres and hyaluronic acid, which combine to give skin its strength and elasticity. (pocketmags.com)
- The epidermis is made of flat cells called squamous cells. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- It begins in flat cells called squamous cells in the upper part of the epidermis. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Basal cells are found just under the squamous cells, at the base of the epidermis. (uhhospitals.org)
- The epidermis is the outer layer of skin and contains basal and squamous cells. (blausen.com)
- Squamous cells are the thin, flat cells that make up most of the epidermis. (uwhealth.org)
- Squamous cells: Thin, flat cells that form the top layer of the epidermis. (adventisthealthcare.com)
- As they age, they move up within the epidermis and flatten out to form squamous cells. (cancervic.org.au)
- We find an important role for Rac1 downstream of NRas(Q61K) in mediating dermal melanocyte survival in vivo in mouse, but surprisingly NRas(Q61K) does not appear to affect melanoblast motility or proliferation during mouse embryogenesis. (nih.gov)
- Typical cluster of dermal melanocytes in NRas Ctr mouse is shown with an arrow. (nih.gov)
- Melanocytes produce melanin and are derived from neural crest cells. (medscape.com)
- The epidermis also contains melanocytes, which are cells that produce melanin (skin pigment). (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Melanocytes are located in the epidermis, and they produce melanin , which is a natural protection from harmful UV damage. (quantumhealth.com)
- Melanocytes use the amino acid tyrosine to produce melanin . (tanningtraining.com)
- Your epidermis houses cells called melanocytes that produce melanin, which provides some protection against ultraviolet rays, and also partly determines the color of your skin. (drbenkim.com)
- When sunlight shines on the skin, it activates melanocytes and stimulates them to produce melanin. (progressivehealth.com)
- As melanocytes die out, the skin loses the ability to produce melanin. (progressivehealth.com)
- Melanocytes produce melanin , which is a pigment that is the source of tanning. (howstuffworks.com)
- Cells that produce melanin (melanocytes) are mostly concentrated in the basal (deepest) layer of the epidermis. (medicalj-center.info)
- The dermis of snakes is generally fibrous in nature, and not very prominent.The dermis houses pigment cells, nerves, and collagen fibers. (wikipedia.org)
- The subcutis and the lowest part of the dermis form a network of collagen and fat cells. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- The dermis is held together by a protein called collagen , made by fibroblasts. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- The dermis is held together by a protein called collagen. (uhhospitals.org)
- Collagen is a protein found in the dermis layer of skin, and it provides your skin and lips with structure and shape. (quantumhealth.com)
- On occasion, melanocytes can proliferate forming benign lesions (nevi) in the epidermis and also into the dermis ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Melanocytoma- This is a benign tumor arising from the melanocytes in the epidermis, dermis, or adnexa (appendages of an organ), but primarily originates from the external root sheath of the hair follicle. (wearethecure.org)
- They are caused by benign melanocyte growth. (pediatriceducation.org)
- Congenial mole is caused by the production of benign melanocytes in dermis or epidermis (or both). (drnumb.com)
- They are caused by the spread of benign melanocytes in dermis or epidermis or in both. (drnumb.com)
- Melanocytoma is a melanocyte benign neoplasm, most frequently found in the epidermis, dermis, hair follicle, and eyeball ( Goldschmidt and Goldschmidt, 2017 ). (scielo.br)
- Sometimes groups of melanocytes make moles, also called nevi. (ahealthyme.com)
- Sometimes melanocytes cluster together and form moles, called nevi. (skininc.com)
- Melanocytes appear on the surface of the skin as moles. (doctors-hospital.net)
- Melanocytes are also in non-cancerous spots on the skin called moles or naevi. (cancervic.org.au)
- Congenital nevi acquire pigmentation at puberty, at which time they slowly migrate from the epidermis to the dermis. (medscape.com)
- As nevi descend further into the dermis (compound and intradermal nevi), they become relatively inactive and, thus, incapable of malignant transformation. (medscape.com)
- Congenital nevi occur during childbirth and result from a multiplication of considerate melanocytes in the dermis, epidermis, or both. (omicsonline.org)
- These nevi reside in the epidermis or dermis, whereas regular melanocytes that produce general skin pigmentation reside in the basal layer. (pediatriceducation.org)
- Junctional melanocytic nevi are caused by the accumulation of melanocytes at the meeting points of dermis and epidermis. (drnumb.com)
- Dysplastisk nevussyndrom er en medfødt tendens til å utvikle vekstforstyrrede føflekker (dysplastiske nevi). (helsebiblioteket.no)
Base of the epidermis2
- Beneath the epidermis is the dermis, where your nerve endings, hair follicles and sweat glands are. (quantumhealth.com)
- The dermis contains hair follicles, the glands producing sebum, and blood capillaries. (medindia.net)
- The dermis contains blood and lymph vessels, hair follicles, and glands. (uwhealth.org)
- These glands are located in the dermis, usually next to hair follicles. (enchantedlearning.com)
- The dermis appeared thickened and homogeneous and revealed a complete absence of hair follicles and sweat glands. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
- Melanocytes are located in the basal cell layer, outer root sheath, and ducts of sebaceous and sweat glands. (merckvetmanual.com)
- These structures grow out of (and are continuous with) the epidermis and consist of hair follicles, sebaceous and sweat glands, and specialized structures (eg, claw, hoof). (merckvetmanual.com)
- It is primarily the result of the destruction of the melanocytes (the cells responsible for the skin pigmentation ). (progressivehealth.com)
- When it functions normally, the melanocyte provides basic skin pigmentation and protects against UV radiation damage [ 11 - 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
- The epidermis also contains the cells (melanocytes), which are responsible for skin pigmentation. (coastalskincenter.com)
- The cornified part of the epidermis is strengthened by a stiff material, beta keratin , which is present in place of or in addition to pliable alpha keratin. (britannica.com)
- The process by which cells in this layer are formed from cells in deeper layer of epidermis and then filled with keratin and moved to the surface is called as KERATINIZATION. (scribd.com)
- Melanocytes make melanin, which gives color to the skin. (skininc.com)
- Found in the lower part of the epidermis, these cells make melanin , the pigment that gives skin its natural color. (cancer.gov)
- Cells that make melanin and are found in the lower part of the epidermis. (oncolink.org)
- Melanocytes: Cells that make melanin and are found in the lower part of the epidermis. (webmd.com)
Reside in the basal cell1
Cells in the epidermis1
- A larger number of melanocytes and melanosomes are distributed in the epidermis. (medscape.com)
- Melanin in synthesized in melanosomes which are organelles produced in melanocytes. (wikipedia.org)
- L-tyrosine is taken by the melanocytes from the intercellular medium, then transported to the melanosomes. (wikipedia.org)
- Melanosomes were identified in these pigmented cells by electron microscopy, and global gene expression profiling of the pigmented cells showed a high similarity to that of human primary foreskin-derived melanocytes, suggesting the successful generation of melanocytes from iPS cells. (jove.com)
- It and the rest of the epidermis provide a protective barrier from the environment, such as the sun and wind. (quantumhealth.com)
- The epidermis has major protective function such as protecting the underlying wet tissues of water loss in excessive way, and against mechanical injury (p. 119). (bartleby.com)
- Since melanocytes in mouse skin are mostly localized in hair follicles, they have distinct biological properties from those of humans, which locate primarily at the basal layer of the epidermis. (jove.com)
- Skin is composed primarily of the epidermis and the dermis. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
- The top layer, or epidermis, is made primarily of tough keratinocyte cells that ward off everything from pathogens to blunt objects. (giantmicrobes.com)
- The cells involved primarily in the tanning process are called melanocytes . (tanningtraining.com)
Deepest part of the epidermis3
Pigment the skin1
- circumscribed, elevated skin lesions resulting from hypertrophy of the epidermis. (studystack.com)
- Description - Lesions of the melanocytes and melanoblasts are relatively common skin tumors in the dog. (wearethecure.org)
- Lentigines are impalpable hyperpigmented lesions that display an increased number of melanocytes in the basal layer of the epidermis. (dermis.net)
- Surgical methods complement medical therapies by providing melanocytes to these refractory lesions and are indicated for unilateral segmental and clinically stable bilateral vitiligo, refractory to medical treatment. (springer.com)
Outer layer of the skin2
Layer of the skin9
- The dermis is the middle layer of the skin. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- They are not dark as they outburst in the dermis and middle layer of the skin. (drnumb.com)
- dermis - (also called the cutis) the layer of the skin just beneath the epidermis. (enchantedlearning.com)
- Amirlak) The outermost layer of the skin is the epidermis. (bartleby.com)
- The epidermis is the external layer of the skin and is comprised of epithelial cells. (bartleby.com)
- Melanocytes are pigment cells found at the bottom of the epidermis and just before the dermis layer of the skin. (progressivehealth.com)
- Melanocytes are found in the lower part of the top layer of the skin called the epidermis. (nccn.org)
- This layer of the skin sits below the epidermis. (cancervic.org.au)
- Squamous cell carcinoma in situ, or Bowen disease, is an early form of skin cancer that begins in the top layer of the skin (epidermis). (cancervic.org.au)
- Abnormal growths of melanocytes, called malignant melanomas, are the most aggressive form of skin cancer. (blausen.com)
- The hyperactive (abnormal, highly metabolic, and easily triggered) melanocytes are located in the epidermis and/or dermis. (jcadonline.com)
- It is due to a functional defect of melanocytes demonstrating abnormal melanization with a normal number of melanocytes. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
Melanin to protect2
- Melanocytes are melanin-producing cells found in the basal cell layer of the epidermis. (medscape.com)
- Fairness of skin, UV sensitivity and skin cancer risk all correlate with the physiologic function of the melanocortin 1 receptor, a G s -coupled signaling protein found on the surface of melanocytes. (jove.com)
- Melanocytes are found throughout the lower part of the epidermis. (uwhealth.org)
- Melanocytes can be found in the deepest layer of the epidermis all over the body. (doctors-hospital.net)
- Melanocytes can be found in the deepest layer of our epidermis-the basal layer (Stratum basale), as well as in the deeper dermis. (evolvingwellness.com)
- In the main, however, it is determined by melanin, a pigment manufactured by dendritic cells called melanocytes, found among the basal cells of the epidermis. (howstuffworks.com)
- Blood capillaries are found beneath the epidermis, and are linked to an arteriole and a venule . (wikipedia.org)