A layer of vascularized connective tissue underneath the EPIDERMIS. The surface of the dermis contains innervated papillae. Embedded in or beneath the dermis are SWEAT GLANDS; HAIR FOLLICLES; and SEBACEOUS GLANDS.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Remaining tissue from normal DERMIS tissue after the cells are removed.
The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).
Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.
Synthetic material used for the treatment of burns and other conditions involving large-scale loss of skin. It often consists of an outer (epidermal) layer of silicone and an inner (dermal) layer of collagen and chondroitin 6-sulfate. The dermal layer elicits new growth and vascular invasion and the outer layer is later removed and replaced by a graft.
The process of aging due to changes in the structure and elasticity of the skin over time. It may be a part of physiological aging or it may be due to the effects of ultraviolet radiation, usually through exposure to sunlight.
'Skin diseases' is a broad term for various conditions affecting the skin, including inflammatory disorders, infections, benign and malignant tumors, congenital abnormalities, and degenerative diseases, which can cause symptoms such as rashes, discoloration, eruptions, lesions, itching, or pain.
Any inflammation of the skin.
Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.
The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.
Recirculating, dendritic, antigen-presenting cells containing characteristic racket-shaped granules (Birbeck granules). They are found principally in the stratum spinosum of the EPIDERMIS and are rich in Class II MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX molecules. Langerhans cells were the first dendritic cell to be described and have been a model of study for other dendritic cells (DCs), especially other migrating DCs such as dermal DCs and INTERSTITIAL DENDRITIC CELLS.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
A tube-like invagination of the EPIDERMIS from which the hair shaft develops and into which SEBACEOUS GLANDS open. The hair follicle is lined by a cellular inner and outer root sheath of epidermal origin and is invested with a fibrous sheath derived from the dermis. (Stedman, 26th ed) Follicles of very long hairs extend into the subcutaneous layer of tissue under the SKIN.
An elevated scar, resembling a KELOID, but which does not spread into surrounding tissues. It is formed by enlargement and overgrowth of cicatricial tissue and regresses spontaneously.
The grafting of skin in humans or animals from one site to another to replace a lost portion of the body surface skin.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
A sharply elevated, irregularly shaped, progressively enlarging scar resulting from formation of excessive amounts of collagen in the dermis during connective tissue repair. It is differentiated from a hypertrophic scar (CICATRIX, HYPERTROPHIC) in that the former does not spread to surrounding tissues.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Mutant strains of mice that produce little or no hair.
A class of Echinodermata characterized by long, slender bodies.
Mammalian pigment cells that produce MELANINS, pigments found mainly in the EPIDERMIS, but also in the eyes and the hair, by a process called melanogenesis. Coloration can be altered by the number of melanocytes or the amount of pigment produced and stored in the organelles called MELANOSOMES. The large non-mammalian melanin-containing cells are called MELANOPHORES.
Operative procedures performed on the SKIN.
Uptake of substances through the SKIN.
A common genetically determined, chronic, inflammatory skin disease characterized by rounded erythematous, dry, scaling patches. The lesions have a predilection for nails, scalp, genitalia, extensor surfaces, and the lumbosacral region. Accelerated epidermopoiesis is considered to be the fundamental pathologic feature in psoriasis.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Congenital structural abnormalities of the skin.
The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.
The outer part of the hearing system of the body. It includes the shell-like EAR AURICLE which collects sound, and the EXTERNAL EAR CANAL, the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE, and the EXTERNAL EAR CARTILAGES.
Connective tissue comprised chiefly of elastic fibers. Elastic fibers have two components: ELASTIN and MICROFIBRILS.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Paired, segmented masses of MESENCHYME located on either side of the developing spinal cord (neural tube). Somites derive from PARAXIAL MESODERM and continue to increase in number during ORGANOGENESIS. Somites give rise to SKELETON (sclerotome); MUSCLES (myotome); and DERMIS (dermatome).
Small, sacculated organs found within the DERMIS. Each gland has a single duct that emerges from a cluster of oval alveoli. Each alveolus consists of a transparent BASEMENT MEMBRANE enclosing epithelial cells. The ducts from most sebaceous glands open into a HAIR FOLLICLE, but some open on the general surface of the SKIN. Sebaceous glands secrete SEBUM.
Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.
Mutant strains of rats that produce little or no hair. Several different homozygous recessive mutations can cause hairlessness in rats including rnu/rnu (Rowett nude), fz/fz (fuzzy), shn/shn (shorn), and nznu/nznu (New Zealand nude). Note that while NUDE RATS are often hairless, they are most characteristically athymic.
Excessive pigmentation of the skin, usually as a result of increased epidermal or dermal melanin pigmentation, hypermelanosis. Hyperpigmentation can be localized or generalized. The condition may arise from exposure to light, chemicals or other substances, or from a primary metabolic imbalance.
Material, usually gauze or absorbent cotton, used to cover and protect wounds, to seal them from contact with air or bacteria. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Visible accumulations of fluid within or beneath the epidermis.
Disorders of increased melanin pigmentation that develop without preceding inflammatory disease.
Common name for two distinct groups of BIRDS in the order GALLIFORMES: the New World or American quails of the family Odontophoridae and the Old World quails in the genus COTURNIX, family Phasianidae.
Devices intended to replace non-functioning organs. They may be temporary or permanent. Since they are intended always to function as the natural organs they are replacing, they should be differentiated from PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS and specific types of prostheses which, though also replacements for body parts, are frequently cosmetic (EYE, ARTIFICIAL) as well as functional (ARTIFICIAL LIMBS).
A genus of large SEA CUCUMBERS in the family Holothuriidae possessing thick body walls, a warty body surface, and microscopic ossicles.
Coloration of the skin.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Redness of the skin produced by congestion of the capillaries. This condition may result from a variety of causes.
The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.
Components of the extracellular matrix consisting primarily of fibrillin. They are essential for the integrity of elastic fibers.
A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.
Mucoid states characterized by the elevated deposition and accumulation of mucin (mucopolysaccharides) in dermal tissue. The fibroblasts are responsible for the production of acid mucopolysaccharides (GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS) in the ground substance of the connective tissue system. When fibroblasts produce abnormally large quantities of mucopolysaccharides as hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, or heparin, they accumulate in large amounts in the dermis.
Loose connective tissue lying under the DERMIS, which binds SKIN loosely to subjacent tissues. It may contain a pad of ADIPOCYTES, which vary in number according to the area of the body and vary in size according to the nutritional state.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Facial dermatoses refers to various skin conditions that affect the face, causing symptoms such as redness, inflammation, papules, pustules, scaling, or pigmentation changes, which can be caused by a range of factors including genetics, infections, allergies, and environmental factors.
The hearing and equilibrium system of the body. It consists of three parts: the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR. Sound waves are transmitted through this organ where vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the ACOUSTIC NERVE to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The inner ear also contains the vestibular organ that maintains equilibrium by transducing signals to the VESTIBULAR NERVE.
A vascular connective tissue formed on the surface of a healing wound, ulcer, or inflamed tissue. It consists of new capillaries and an infiltrate containing lymphoid cells, macrophages, and plasma cells.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Facial neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the facial region, which can be benign or malignant, originating from various cell types including epithelial, glandular, connective tissue, and neural crest cells.
A term used to describe a variety of localized asymmetrical SKIN thickening that is similar to those of SYSTEMIC SCLERODERMA but without the disease features in the multiple internal organs and BLOOD VESSELS. Lesions may be characterized as patches or plaques (morphea), bands (linear), or nodules.
The surgical removal of the inner contents of the eye, leaving the sclera intact. It should be differentiated from ORBIT EVISCERATION which removes the entire contents of the orbit, including eyeball, blood vessels, muscles, fat, nerve supply, and periosteum.
A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.
The fibrous tissue that replaces normal tissue during the process of WOUND HEALING.
A nonspecific term used to denote any cutaneous lesion or group of lesions, or eruptions of any type on the leg. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Skin diseases caused by ARTHROPODS; HELMINTHS; or other parasites.
Any horny growth such as a wart or callus.
A skin ulcer is a breakdown of the skin's surface and underlying tissues, often caused by prolonged pressure, infection, or poor circulation, leading to a loss of continuity in the epidermis and dermis, potentially extending into deeper layers such as subcutaneous tissue, muscle, and bone.
HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of a variety of tissues and organs. Several versican isoforms exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the versican MESSENGER RNA.
A nevus containing melanin. The term is usually restricted to nevocytic nevi (round or oval collections of melanin-containing nevus cells occurring at the dermoepidermal junction of the skin or in the dermis proper) or moles, but may be applied to other pigmented nevi.
A ready-made or custom-made prosthesis of glass or plastic shaped and colored to resemble the anterior portion of a normal eye and used for cosmetic reasons. It is attached to the anterior portion of an orbital implant (ORBITAL IMPLANTS) which is placed in the socket of an enucleated or eviscerated eye. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.
A chronic, malignant T-cell lymphoma of the skin. In the late stages, the LYMPH NODES and viscera are affected.
A chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease usually affecting the female genitalia (VULVAR LICHEN SCLEROSUS) and BALANITIS XEROTICA OBLITERANS in males. It is also called white spot disease and Csillag's disease.
Highly keratinized processes that are sharp and curved, or flat with pointed margins. They are found especially at the end of the limbs in certain animals.
A heterogeneous group of autosomally inherited COLLAGEN DISEASES caused by defects in the synthesis or structure of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are numerous subtypes: classical, hypermobility, vascular, and others. Common clinical features include hyperextensible skin and joints, skin fragility and reduced wound healing capability.
A contact dermatitis due to allergic sensitization to various substances. These substances subsequently produce inflammatory reactions in the skin of those who have acquired hypersensitivity to them as a result of prior exposure.
A type of acute or chronic skin reaction in which sensitivity is manifested by reactivity to materials or substances coming in contact with the skin. It may involve allergic or non-allergic mechanisms.
Methods of preparing tissue for examination and study of the origin, structure, function, or pathology.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An inherited disorder of connective tissue with extensive degeneration and calcification of ELASTIC TISSUE primarily in the skin, eye, and vasculature. At least two forms exist, autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant. This disorder is caused by mutations of one of the ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. Patients are predisposed to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION and GASTROINTESTINAL HEMORRHAGE.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
Polymers of silicone that are formed by crosslinking and treatment with amorphous silica to increase strength. They have properties similar to vulcanized natural rubber, in that they stretch under tension, retract rapidly, and fully recover to their original dimensions upon release. They are used in the encapsulation of surgical membranes and implants.
A group of dermatoses with distinct morphologic features. The primary lesion is most commonly a papule, usually erythematous, with a variable degree of scaling on the surface. Plaques form through the coalescing of primary lesions.
A small leucine-rich proteoglycan that interacts with FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and modifies the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX structure of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. Decorin has also been shown to play additional roles in the regulation of cellular responses to GROWTH FACTORS. The protein contains a single glycosaminoglycan chain and is similar in structure to BIGLYCAN.
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
A diffuse, non-pitting induration of the skin of unknown etiology that occurs most commonly in association with diabetes mellitus, predominantly in females. It typically begins on the face or head and spreads to other areas of the body, sometimes involving noncutaneous tissues. Often it is preceded by any of various infections, notably staphylococcal infections. The condition resolves spontaneously, usually within two years of onset. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Sweat-producing structures that are embedded in the DERMIS. Each gland consists of a single tube, a coiled body, and a superficial duct.
The outer covering of the calvaria. It is composed of several layers: SKIN; subcutaneous connective tissue; the occipitofrontal muscle which includes the tendinous galea aponeurotica; loose connective tissue; and the pericranium (the PERIOSTEUM of the SKULL).
Diseases of the skin with a genetic component, usually the result of various inborn errors of metabolism.
Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals (BURNS, CHEMICAL), electricity (BURNS, ELECTRIC), or the like.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.
The prevention of access by infecting organisms to the locus of potential infection.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.
The rear surface of an upright primate from the shoulders to the hip, or the dorsal surface of tetrapods.
Agents that soften, separate, and cause desquamation of the cornified epithelium or horny layer of skin. They are used to expose mycelia of infecting fungi or to treat corns, warts, and certain other skin diseases.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
A vascular, horny neoplasm of the skin characterized by TELANGIECTASIS and secondary epithelial changes including acanthosis and hyperkeratosis.
A chronic multi-system disorder of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. It is characterized by SCLEROSIS in the SKIN, the LUNGS, the HEART, the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, the KIDNEYS, and the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM. Other important features include diseased small BLOOD VESSELS and AUTOANTIBODIES. The disorder is named for its most prominent feature (hard skin), and classified into subsets by the extent of skin thickening: LIMITED SCLERODERMA and DIFFUSE SCLERODERMA.
Pigmentation disorders are conditions that affect the production or distribution of melanin, the pigment responsible for skin, hair, and eye color, leading to changes in the color of these bodily features.
An endemic disease that is characterized by the development of single or multiple localized lesions on exposed areas of skin that typically ulcerate. The disease has been divided into Old and New World forms. Old World leishmaniasis is separated into three distinct types according to epidemiology and clinical manifestations and is caused by species of the L. tropica and L. aethiopica complexes as well as by species of the L. major genus. New World leishmaniasis, also called American leishmaniasis, occurs in South and Central America and is caused by species of the L. mexicana or L. braziliensis complexes.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
A chronic and relatively benign subepidermal blistering disease usually of the elderly and without histopathologic acantholysis.
The mechanical planing of the SKIN with sand paper, emery paper, or wire brushes, to promote reepithelialization and smoothing of skin disfigured by ACNE scars or dermal NEVI.

Interferon-alpha does not improve outcome at one year in patients with diffuse cutaneous scleroderma: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. (1/1009)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether interferon-alpha (IFNalpha) reduces the severity of skin involvement in early (<3 years) diffuse scleroderma. METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial, 35 patients with early scleroderma received subcutaneous injections of either IFNalpha (13.5 x 10(6) units per week in divided doses) or indistinguishable placebo. Outcomes assessed were the modified Rodnan skin score, as determined by a single observer at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months, as well as data on renal, cardiac, and lung function. Pre- and posttreatment skin biopsy samples were analyzed and blood was obtained for assessment of procollagen peptide levels. RESULTS: There were 11 withdrawals from the IFNalpha group and 3 from the placebo group due to either toxicity, lack of efficacy, or death. In the intent-to-treat analysis, there was a greater improvement in the skin score in the placebo group between 0 and 12 months (mean change IFNalpha -4.7 versus placebo -7.5; P = 0.36). There was also a greater deterioration in lung function in patients receiving active therapy, as assessed by either the forced vital capacity (mean change IFNalpha -8.2 versus placebo +1.3; P = 0.01) or the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (mean change IFNalpha -9.3 versus placebo +4.7; P = 0.002). Skin biopsy showed no significant decrease in collagen synthesis in the IFNalpha group, and no significant differences in the levels of procollagen peptides were seen between the 2 groups. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that IFNalpha is of no value in the treatment of scleroderma, and that it may in fact be deleterious.  (+info)

Skin morphology and its role in thermoregulation in mole-rats, Heterocephalus glaber and Cryptomys hottentotus. (2/1009)

The skin structure of 2 Bathyergid rodents, the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) and the common mole-rat (Cryptomys hottentotus) is compared, to investigate whether thermoregulatory differences may be attributed to different skin features. Histological and ultrastructural studies of the dorsal skin of these closely related species show morphological and structural similarities but differences in the degree of skin folding, thickness of the integument and dermal infrastructure were evident. The skin of the common mole-rat conforms with expected morphological/histological arrangements that are commonly found in mammalian skin. Many features of the skin of the naked mole-rat, such as the lack of an insulating layer and the loosely folded morphological arrangement contribute to poikilothermic responses to changing temperatures of this mammal. Further evidence for poikilothermy in the naked mole-rat is indicated by the presence of pigment containing cells in the dermis, rather than the epidermis, as commonly occurs in homeotherms. Lack of fur is compensated by a thicker epidermal layer and a marked reduction in sweat glands. Differences in skin morphology thus contribute substantially to the different thermoregulatory abilities of the 2 Bathyergids. The skin morphology is related to the poor thermoinsulatory ability of the animals while simultaneously facilitating heat transfer from the environment to the animal by thigmothermy and/or other behavioural means.  (+info)

Multiple mechanisms contribute to the avoidance of avian epidermis by sensory axons. (3/1009)

In birds, sensory innervation of skin is restricted to dermis, with few axons penetrating into the epidermis. This pattern of innervation is maintained in vitro, where sensory neurites avoid explants of epidermis but grow readily on dermis. We have used this coculture paradigm to investigate the mechanisms that impede innervation of avian epidermis. The lack of epidermal innervation in birds has been attributed to diffusible chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) secreted by the epidermis, although direct experimental evidence is weak. We found that elimination of CSPG function with either chondroitinase or neutralizing antibodies did not promote growth of DRG neurites onto epidermis in vitro, indicating that CSPGs alone are not responsible for preventing epidermal innervation. Moreover, the failure of sensory neurites to invade epidermis is not due exclusively to soluble chemorepulsive factors, since sensory neurites also avoid dead epidermis. This inhibition can be overridden, however, by coating epidermis with the growth-promoting molecule laminin, but only if the tissue is killed first. Epidermal innervation of laminin-coated epidermis is even more robust when CSPGs are also eliminated. Thus, the absence of growth-promoting or permissive molecules, such as laminin, may contribute to the failure of sensory neurites to invade avian epidermis. Together these results show that the inhibitory character of avian epidermis is complex. Cell- or matrix-associated CSPGs clearly contribute to the inhibition, but are not solely responsible.  (+info)

Fibrillin-rich microfibrils are reduced in photoaged skin. Distribution at the dermal-epidermal junction. (4/1009)

Chronic sun exposure results in photoaged skin with deep coarse wrinkles and loss of elasticity. We have examined the distribution and abundance of fibrillin-rich microfibrils, key structural components of the elastic fiber network, in photoaged and photoprotected skin. Punch biopsies taken from photoaged forearm and from photoprotected hip and upper inner arm of 16 subjects with a clinical range of photoaging were examined for fibrillin-1 and fibrillin-2 expression and microfibril distribution. In situ hybridization revealed decreased fibrillin-1 mRNA but unchanged fibrillin-2 mRNA levels in severely photoaged forearm biopsies relative to photoprotected dermal sites. An immunohistochemical approach demonstrated that microfibrils at the dermal-epidermal junction were significantly reduced in moderate to severely photoaged forearm skin. Confocal microscopy revealed that the papillary dermal microfibrillar network was truncated and depleted in photoaged skin. These studies highlight that the fibrillin-rich microfibrillar network associated with the upper dermis undergoes extensive remodeling following solar irradiation. These changes may contribute to the clinical features of photoaging, such as wrinkle formation and loss of elasticity.  (+info)

Roles for PDGF-A and sonic hedgehog in development of mesenchymal components of the hair follicle. (5/1009)

Skin appendages, such as hair, develop as a result of complex reciprocal signaling between epithelial and mesenchymal cells. These interactions are not well understood at the molecular level. Platelet-derived growth factor-A (PDGF-A) is expressed in the developing epidermis and hair follicle epithelium, and its receptor PDGF-Ralpha is expressed in associated mesenchymal structures. Here we have characterized the skin and hair phenotypes of mice carrying a null mutation in the PDGF-A gene. Postnatal PDGF-A-/- mice developed thinner dermis, misshapen hair follicles, smaller dermal papillae, abnormal dermal sheaths and thinner hair, compared with wild-type siblings. BrdU labeling showed reduced cell proliferation in the dermis and in the dermal sheaths of PDGF-A-/- skin. PDGF-A-/- skin transplantation to nude mice led to abnormal hair formation, reproducing some of the features of the skin phenotype of PDGF-A-/- mice. Taken together, expression patterns and mutant phenotypes suggest that epidermal PDGF-A has a role in stimulating the proliferation of dermal mesenchymal cells that may contribute to the formation of dermal papillae, mesenchymal sheaths and dermal fibroblasts. Finally, we show that sonic hedgehog (shh)-/- mouse embryos have disrupted formation of dermal papillae. Such embryos fail to form pre-papilla aggregates of postmitotic PDGF-Ralpha-positive cells, suggesting that shh has a critical role in the assembly of the dermal papilla.  (+info)

Propionyl-L-carnitine dilates human subcutaneous arteries through an endothelium-dependent mechanism. (6/1009)

PURPOSE: The vasoactive effects of propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC) on human arteries, including endothelial and smooth muscle cell influences, were studied. METHODS: Small (less than 200 microm) subcutaneous fat arteries (n = 19), obtained from human patients undergoing vascular surgery, were dissected and mounted in an arteriograph system that allowed measurement of lumen diameter and control of transmural pressure. To investigate the role of the endothelium, arteries were compared intact, intact and in the presence of either 0.3 mmol/L nitro-L-arginine (an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis) or 10 micromol/L indomethacin (an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis), or denuded of endothelium. After a 1-hour equilibration at a pressure of 50 mm Hg, arteries were precontracted 50% with an intermediate concentration of norepinephrine, and clinically relevant concentrations of PLC (0.1 to 100 micromol/L) were cumulatively added to the bath while the lumen diameter was continually measured. RESULTS: Intact arteries dose-dependently dilated to PLC, with the half maximal dilation occurring at 2.9 +/- 1.2 micromol/L, increasing diameter 91% +/- 5% at 100 micromol/L. In contrast, PLC had significantly less effect on deendothelialized arteries, increasing diameter only 24% +/- 11% at 100 micromol/L (P <.01 vs. intact). This indicates the endothelial dependency of this compound. Blockade of nitric oxide did not inhibit this vasodilation, with the half-maximal response occurring at 8.6 +/- 7 micromol/L, increasing diameter 85% +/- 8% at 100 micromol/L ( P >.05 vs. intact). However, this vasodilation was significantly diminished in the presence of indomethacin, which dilated arteries only 53% +/- 18% at 100 micromol/L (P <.01 vs. intact; P >.05 vs. denuded). CONCLUSION: PLC is an endothelium-dependent vasodilator, the mechanism of which is partially mediated by prostaglandin synthesis, not nitric oxide. The beneficial effects of this compound may, in part, be related to vasodilation and enhanced blood flow.  (+info)

Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1, -2 and -3 in squamous cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis. (7/1009)

Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) plays an important role in extracellular matrix degradation associated with cancer invasion. An expression of MMP-1 (interstitial collagenase), MMP-2 (72-kDa type IV collagenase) and MMP-3 (stromelysin-1) was investigated in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and its precancerous condition, actinic keratosis (AK), using in situ hybridization techniques. MMP-1 mRNA was detected in tumour cells and/or in stromal cells in all cases of SCC, four of six AKs adjacent to SCC and four of 16 AKs. MMP-2 and MMP-3 mRNAs were detected in SCC but not in AK. The expression of MMP-3 correlated to that of MMP-1 (P = 0.03) localized at the tumour mass and stroma of the invasive area, while MMP-2 mRNA was detected widely throughout the stroma independent of MMP-1 expression. Our results indicated that the expression of MMP-1, -2 and -3 showed different localization patterns, suggesting a unique role of each MMP in tumour progression. Moreover, MMP-1 expression could be an early event in the development of SCC, and AK demonstrating MMP-1 mRNA, might be in a more advanced dysplastic state, progressing to SCC.  (+info)

IP-10 inhibits epidermal growth factor-induced motility by decreasing epidermal growth factor receptor-mediated calpain activity. (8/1009)

During wound healing, fibroblasts are recruited from the surrounding tissue to accomplish repair. The requisite migration and proliferation of the fibroblasts is promoted by growth factors including those that activate the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Counterstimulatory factors in wound fluid are postulated to limit this response; among these factors is the ELR-negative CXC chemokine, interferon inducible protein-10 (IP-10). We report here that IP-10 inhibited EGF- and heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor-induced Hs68 human dermal fibroblast motility in a dose-dependent manner (to 52% and 44%, respectively, at 50 ng/ml IP-10), whereas IP-10 had no effect on either basal or EGFR-mediated mitogenesis (96 +/- 15% at 50 ng/ml). These data demonstrate for the first time a counterstimulatory effect of IP-10 on a specific induced fibroblast response, EGFR-mediated motility. To define the molecular basis of this negative transmodulation of EGFR signaling, we found that IP-10 did not adversely impact receptor or immediate postreceptor signaling as determined by tyrosyl phosphorylation of EGFR and two major downstream effectors phospholipase C-gamma and erk mitogen-activated protein kinases. Morphological studies suggested which biophysical steps may be affected by demonstrating that IP-10 treatment resulted in an elongated cell morphology reminiscent of failure to detach the uropod; in support of this, IP-10 pretreatment inhibited EGF-induced cell detachment. These data suggested that calpain activity may be involved. The cell permeant agent, calpain inhibitor I, limited EGF-induced motility and de-adhesion similarly to IP-10. IP-10 also prevented EGF- induced calpain activation (reduced by 71 +/- 7%). That this inhibition of EGF-induced calpain activity was secondary to IP-10 initiating a cAMP-protein kinase A-calpain cascade is supported by the following evidence: (a) the cell permeant analogue 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-cAMP (CPT-cAMP) prevented EGF-induced calpain activity and motility; (b) other ELR-negative CXC chemokines, monokine induced by IFN-gamma and platelet factor 4 that also generate cAMP, inhibited EGF-induced cell migration and calpain activation; and (c) the protein kinase A inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cAMPS abrogated IP-10 inhibition of cell migration, cell detachment, and calpain activation. Our findings provide a model by which IP-10 suppresses EGF-induced cell motility by inhibiting EGF-induced detachment of the trailing edges of motile cells.  (+info)

The dermis is the layer of skin located beneath the epidermis, which is the outermost layer of the skin. It is composed of connective tissue and provides structure and support to the skin. The dermis contains blood vessels, nerves, hair follicles, sweat glands, and oil glands. It is also responsible for the production of collagen and elastin, which give the skin its strength and flexibility. The dermis can be further divided into two layers: the papillary dermis, which is the upper layer and contains finger-like projections called papillae that extend upwards into the epidermis, and the reticular dermis, which is the lower layer and contains thicker collagen bundles. Together, the epidermis and dermis make up the true skin.

In medical terms, the skin is the largest organ of the human body. It consists of two main layers: the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (inner layer), as well as accessory structures like hair follicles, sweat glands, and oil glands. The skin plays a crucial role in protecting us from external factors such as bacteria, viruses, and environmental hazards, while also regulating body temperature and enabling the sense of touch.

Acellular dermis is a type of processed connective tissue graft used in surgical procedures, particularly in reconstructive surgery. It is derived from human or animal skin, but has had the epidermis and cells of the dermis removed, leaving behind the intact extracellular matrix (ECM). This ECM includes proteins such as collagen and elastin, which provide structural support, and growth factors, which can help to stimulate tissue regeneration.

The acellular nature of the graft means that it is less likely to be rejected by the recipient's immune system, making it a useful option for patients who may not be good candidates for autografts (tissue transplanted from another part of their own body) or allografts (tissue transplanted from another person). Acellular dermis can be used to repair and rebuild damaged skin, as well as to augment soft tissue in areas such as the face and breast.

There are several different brands and types of acellular dermis available, each with its own specific composition and indications for use. Some common examples include AlloDerm, FlexHD, and Integra Dermal Regeneration Template. The choice of graft may depend on factors such as the size and location of the defect being treated, as well as the patient's individual needs and medical history.

The epidermis is the outermost layer of the skin, composed mainly of stratified squamous epithelium. It forms a protective barrier that prevents water loss and inhibits the entry of microorganisms. The epidermis contains no blood vessels, and its cells are nourished by diffusion from the underlying dermis. The bottom-most layer of the epidermis, called the stratum basale, is responsible for generating new skin cells that eventually move up to replace dead cells on the surface. This process of cell turnover takes about 28 days in adults.

The most superficial part of the epidermis consists of dead cells called squames, which are constantly shed and replaced. The exact rate at which this happens varies depending on location; for example, it's faster on the palms and soles than elsewhere. Melanocytes, the pigment-producing cells, are also located in the epidermis, specifically within the stratum basale layer.

In summary, the epidermis is a vital part of our integumentary system, providing not only physical protection but also playing a crucial role in immunity and sensory perception through touch receptors called Pacinian corpuscles.

Feathers are not a medical term, but they are a feature found in birds and some extinct theropod dinosaurs. Feathers are keratinous structures that grow from the skin and are used for various functions such as insulation, flight, waterproofing, and display. They have a complex structure consisting of a central shaft with barbs branching off on either side, which further divide into smaller barbules. The arrangement and modification of these feather structures vary widely among bird species to serve different purposes.

Artificial Skin is a synthetic substitute or equivalent that is used to replace, support, or enhance the function of damaged or absent skin. It can be made from various materials such as biopolymers, composites, or biosynthetic materials. The main purpose of artificial skin is to provide a temporary or permanent covering for wounds, burns, or ulcers that cannot be healed with conventional treatments. Additionally, it may serve as a platform for the delivery of medications or as a matrix for the growth of cells and tissues during skin grafting procedures. Artificial skin must possess properties such as biocompatibility, durability, flexibility, and permeability to air and water vapor in order to promote optimal healing and minimize scarring.

Skin aging, also known as cutaneous aging, is a complex and multifactorial process characterized by various visible changes in the skin's appearance and function. It can be divided into two main types: intrinsic (chronological or natural) aging and extrinsic (environmental) aging.

Intrinsic aging is a genetically determined and time-dependent process that results from internal factors such as cellular metabolism, hormonal changes, and genetic predisposition. The primary features of intrinsic aging include gradual thinning of the epidermis and dermis, decreased collagen and elastin production, reduced skin cell turnover, and impaired wound healing. Clinically, these changes present as fine wrinkles, dryness, loss of elasticity, and increased fragility of the skin.

Extrinsic aging, on the other hand, is caused by external factors such as ultraviolet (UV) radiation, pollution, smoking, alcohol consumption, and poor nutrition. Exposure to these environmental elements leads to oxidative stress, inflammation, and DNA damage, which accelerate the aging process. The main features of extrinsic aging are coarse wrinkles, pigmentary changes (e.g., age spots, melasma), irregular texture, skin laxity, and increased risk of developing skin cancers.

It is important to note that intrinsic and extrinsic aging processes often interact and contribute to the overall appearance of aged skin. A comprehensive approach to skincare should address both types of aging to maintain healthy and youthful-looking skin.

Skin diseases, also known as dermatological conditions, refer to any medical condition that affects the skin, which is the largest organ of the human body. These diseases can affect the skin's function, appearance, or overall health. They can be caused by various factors, including genetics, infections, allergies, environmental factors, and aging.

Skin diseases can present in many different forms, such as rashes, blisters, sores, discolorations, growths, or changes in texture. Some common examples of skin diseases include acne, eczema, psoriasis, dermatitis, fungal infections, viral infections, bacterial infections, and skin cancer.

The symptoms and severity of skin diseases can vary widely depending on the specific condition and individual factors. Some skin diseases are mild and can be treated with over-the-counter medications or topical creams, while others may require more intensive treatments such as prescription medications, light therapy, or even surgery.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any unusual or persistent changes in your skin, as some skin diseases can be serious or indicative of other underlying health conditions. A dermatologist is a medical doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of skin diseases.

Dermatitis is a general term that describes inflammation of the skin. It is often characterized by redness, swelling, itching, and tenderness. There are many different types of dermatitis, including atopic dermatitis (eczema), contact dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, and nummular dermatitis.

Atopic dermatitis is a chronic skin condition that often affects people with a family history of allergies, such as asthma or hay fever. It typically causes dry, scaly patches on the skin that can be extremely itchy.

Contact dermatitis occurs when the skin comes into contact with an irritant or allergen, such as poison ivy or certain chemicals. This type of dermatitis can cause redness, swelling, and blistering.

Seborrheic dermatitis is a common condition that causes a red, itchy rash, often on the scalp, face, or other areas of the body where oil glands are located. It is thought to be related to an overproduction of oil by the skin's sebaceous glands.

Nummular dermatitis is a type of eczema that causes round, coin-shaped patches of dry, scaly skin. It is more common in older adults and often occurs during the winter months.

Treatment for dermatitis depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, over-the-counter creams or lotions may be sufficient to relieve symptoms. Prescription medications, such as corticosteroids or immunosuppressants, may be necessary in more severe cases. Avoiding triggers and irritants can also help prevent flare-ups of dermatitis.

Keratinocytes are the predominant type of cells found in the epidermis, which is the outermost layer of the skin. These cells are responsible for producing keratin, a tough protein that provides structural support and protection to the skin. Keratinocytes undergo constant turnover, with new cells produced in the basal layer of the epidermis and older cells moving upward and eventually becoming flattened and filled with keratin as they reach the surface of the skin, where they are then shed. They also play a role in the immune response and can release cytokines and other signaling molecules to help protect the body from infection and injury.

"Skin physiological phenomena" is not a standard medical term with a specific definition. However, I can provide some information about the general concepts that might be encompassed by this term.

Physiological phenomena refer to the functions and processes that occur in living organisms. When it comes to the skin, there are many different physiological phenomena that take place, including:

1. Barrier function: The skin acts as a barrier to protect the body from external elements such as bacteria, viruses, chemicals, and UV radiation.
2. Temperature regulation: The skin helps regulate body temperature through sweat production and blood flow.
3. Sensation: The skin contains nerve endings that allow us to feel touch, pressure, pain, and temperature.
4. Vitamin D synthesis: The skin can produce vitamin D when exposed to sunlight.
5. Moisture regulation: The skin helps maintain the body's moisture balance by producing sweat and preventing water loss.
6. Immunological function: The skin plays a role in the immune system by providing a physical barrier and containing immune cells that help fight off infections.
7. Excretion: The skin eliminates waste products through sweat.
8. Wound healing: The skin has the ability to repair itself after injury, through a complex process involving inflammation, tissue regeneration, and remodeling.

Therefore, "skin physiological phenomena" could refer to any or all of these functions and processes that take place in the skin.

Langerhans cells are specialized dendritic cells that are found in the epithelium, including the skin (where they are named after Paul Langerhans who first described them in 1868) and mucous membranes. They play a crucial role in the immune system as antigen-presenting cells, contributing to the initiation of immune responses.

These cells contain Birbeck granules, unique organelles that are involved in the transportation of antigens from the cell surface to the lysosomes for processing and presentation to T-cells. Langerhans cells also produce cytokines, which help regulate immune responses and attract other immune cells to the site of infection or injury.

It is important to note that although Langerhans cells are a part of the immune system, they can sometimes contribute to the development of certain skin disorders, such as allergic contact dermatitis and some forms of cancer, like Langerhans cell histiocytosis.

Skin neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the skin that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). They result from uncontrolled multiplication of skin cells, which can form various types of lesions. These growths may appear as lumps, bumps, sores, patches, or discolored areas on the skin.

Benign skin neoplasms include conditions such as moles, warts, and seborrheic keratoses, while malignant skin neoplasms are primarily classified into melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma. These three types of cancerous skin growths are collectively known as non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs). Melanoma is the most aggressive and dangerous form of skin cancer, while NMSCs tend to be less invasive but more common.

It's essential to monitor any changes in existing skin lesions or the appearance of new growths and consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and treatment if needed.

A hair follicle is a part of the human skin from which hair grows. It is a complex organ that consists of several layers, including an outer root sheath, inner root sheath, and matrix. The hair follicle is located in the dermis, the second layer of the skin, and is surrounded by sebaceous glands and erector pili muscles.

The hair growth cycle includes three phases: anagen (growth phase), catagen (transitional phase), and telogen (resting phase). During the anagen phase, cells in the matrix divide rapidly to produce new hair fibers that grow out of the follicle. The hair fiber is made up of a protein called keratin, which also makes up the outer layers of the skin and nails.

Hair follicles are important for various biological functions, including thermoregulation, sensory perception, and social communication. They also play a role in wound healing and can serve as a source of stem cells that can differentiate into other cell types.

A hypertrophic cicatrix is a type of scar that forms when the body overproduces collagen during the healing process. Collagen is a protein that helps to repair and strengthen tissues in the body. However, when too much collagen is produced, it can cause the scar to become thickened, raised, and firm.

Hypertrophic scars are usually red or pink in color and may be itchy or painful. They typically develop within a few weeks of an injury or surgery and can continue to grow for several months before eventually stabilizing. Unlike keloids, which are a more severe type of scar that can grow beyond the boundaries of the original wound, hypertrophic scars do not extend beyond the site of the injury.

While hypertrophic scars can be unsightly and cause discomfort, they are generally not harmful to one's health. Treatment options may include corticosteroid injections, silicone gel sheeting, pressure therapy, or laser surgery to help reduce the size and appearance of the scar. It is important to seek medical advice if you are concerned about a hypertrophic scar or if it is causing significant discomfort or distress.

Skin transplantation, also known as skin grafting, is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of healthy skin from one part of the body (donor site) and its transfer to another site (recipient site) that has been damaged or lost due to various reasons such as burns, injuries, infections, or diseases. The transplanted skin can help in healing wounds, restoring functionality, and improving the cosmetic appearance of the affected area. There are different types of skin grafts, including split-thickness grafts, full-thickness grafts, and composite grafts, which vary in the depth and size of the skin removed and transplanted. The success of skin transplantation depends on various factors, including the size and location of the wound, the patient's overall health, and the availability of suitable donor sites.

Wound healing is a complex and dynamic process that occurs after tissue injury, aiming to restore the integrity and functionality of the damaged tissue. It involves a series of overlapping phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling.

1. Hemostasis: This initial phase begins immediately after injury and involves the activation of the coagulation cascade to form a clot, which stabilizes the wound and prevents excessive blood loss.
2. Inflammation: Activated inflammatory cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages, infiltrate the wound site to eliminate pathogens, remove debris, and release growth factors that promote healing. This phase typically lasts for 2-5 days post-injury.
3. Proliferation: In this phase, various cell types, including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and keratinocytes, proliferate and migrate to the wound site to synthesize extracellular matrix (ECM) components, form new blood vessels (angiogenesis), and re-epithelialize the wounded area. This phase can last up to several weeks depending on the size and severity of the wound.
4. Remodeling: The final phase of wound healing involves the maturation and realignment of collagen fibers, leading to the restoration of tensile strength in the healed tissue. This process can continue for months to years after injury, although the tissue may never fully regain its original structure and function.

It is important to note that wound healing can be compromised by several factors, including age, nutrition, comorbidities (e.g., diabetes, vascular disease), and infection, which can result in delayed healing or non-healing chronic wounds.

A keloid is a type of scar that results from an overgrowth of granulation tissue (collagen) at the site of a healed skin injury. Unlike normal scars, keloids extend beyond the borders of the original wound, invading surrounding tissues and forming smooth, hard, benign growths. They can be pink, red, or purple in color, and may become darker over time. Keloids can occur anywhere on the body, but they are most common on the earlobes, chest, shoulders, and back. They can cause itching, pain, and discomfort, and can sometimes interfere with movement. The exact cause of keloid formation is not fully understood, but it is thought to involve a combination of genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors. Treatment options for keloids include surgery, radiation therapy, corticosteroid injections, and silicone gel sheeting, although they can be difficult to eliminate completely.

Collagen is the most abundant protein in the human body, and it is a major component of connective tissues such as tendons, ligaments, skin, and bones. Collagen provides structure and strength to these tissues and helps them to withstand stretching and tension. It is made up of long chains of amino acids, primarily glycine, proline, and hydroxyproline, which are arranged in a triple helix structure. There are at least 16 different types of collagen found in the body, each with slightly different structures and functions. Collagen is important for maintaining the integrity and health of tissues throughout the body, and it has been studied for its potential therapeutic uses in various medical conditions.

"Hairless mice" is a term used to describe strains of laboratory mice that lack a functional fur coat. This condition is also known as "nude mice." The hairlessness in these mice is caused by a genetic mutation that results in the absence or underdevelopment of hair follicles and a weakened immune system.

Hairless mice are often used in scientific research because their impaired immune systems make them more susceptible to certain diseases, allowing researchers to study the progression and treatment of those conditions in a controlled environment. Additionally, their lack of fur makes it easier to observe and monitor skin conditions and wounds. These mice are also used as models for human diseases such as cancer, AIDS, and autoimmune disorders.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Sea Cucumbers" is not typically used in medical definitions. It is a common name given to marine animals belonging to the class Holothuroidea in the phylum Echinodermata. These are sausage-shaped, bottom-dwelling creatures found on the sea floor worldwide. They have a leathery skin and a set of tube feet used for locomotion. While they have some cultural and commercial importance in parts of the world, they do not have direct relevance to medical definitions.

Melanocytes are specialized cells that produce, store, and transport melanin, the pigment responsible for coloring of the skin, hair, and eyes. They are located in the bottom layer of the epidermis (the outermost layer of the skin) and can also be found in the inner ear and the eye's retina. Melanocytes contain organelles called melanosomes, which produce and store melanin.

Melanin comes in two types: eumelanin (black or brown) and pheomelanin (red or yellow). The amount and type of melanin produced by melanocytes determine the color of a person's skin, hair, and eyes. Exposure to UV radiation from sunlight increases melanin production as a protective response, leading to skin tanning.

Melanocyte dysfunction or abnormalities can lead to various medical conditions, such as albinism (lack of melanin production), melasma (excessive pigmentation), and melanoma (cancerous growth of melanocytes).

Dermatologic surgical procedures refer to various types of surgeries performed by dermatologists, which are aimed at treating and managing conditions related to the skin, hair, nails, and mucous membranes. These procedures can be divided into several categories, including:

1. Excisional surgery: This involves removing a lesion or growth by cutting it out with a scalpel. The resulting wound is then closed with stitches, sutures, or left to heal on its own.
2. Incisional biopsy: This is a type of excisional surgery where only a portion of the lesion is removed for diagnostic purposes.
3. Cryosurgery: This involves using extreme cold (usually liquid nitrogen) to destroy abnormal tissue, such as warts or precancerous growths.
4. Electrosurgical procedures: These use heat generated by an electric current to remove or destroy skin lesions. Examples include electrodessication and curettage (ED&C), which involves scraping away the affected tissue with a sharp instrument and then applying heat to seal the wound.
5. Laser surgery: Dermatologic surgeons use various types of lasers to treat a wide range of conditions, such as removing tattoos, reducing wrinkles, or treating vascular lesions.
6. Mohs micrographic surgery: This is a specialized surgical technique used to treat certain types of skin cancer, particularly basal cell carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas. It involves removing the tumor in thin layers and examining each layer under a microscope until no cancer cells remain.
7. Scar revision surgery: Dermatologic surgeons can perform procedures to improve the appearance of scars, such as excising the scar and reclosing the wound or using laser therapy to minimize redness and thickness.
8. Hair transplantation: This involves removing hair follicles from one area of the body (usually the back of the head) and transplanting them to another area where hair is thinning or absent, such as the scalp or eyebrows.
9. Flap surgery: In this procedure, a piece of tissue with its own blood supply is moved from one part of the body to another and then reattached. This can be used for reconstructive purposes after skin cancer removal or trauma.
10. Liposuction: Dermatologic surgeons may perform liposuction to remove excess fat from various areas of the body, such as the abdomen, thighs, or chin.

Skin absorption, also known as percutaneous absorption, refers to the process by which substances are taken up by the skin and pass into the systemic circulation. This occurs when a substance is applied topically to the skin and penetrates through the various layers of the epidermis and dermis until it reaches the capillaries, where it can be transported to other parts of the body.

The rate and extent of skin absorption depend on several factors, including the physicochemical properties of the substance (such as its molecular weight, lipophilicity, and charge), the concentration and formulation of the product, the site of application, and the integrity and condition of the skin.

Skin absorption is an important route of exposure for many chemicals, drugs, and cosmetic ingredients, and it can have both therapeutic and toxicological consequences. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms and factors that influence skin absorption is crucial for assessing the safety and efficacy of topical products and for developing strategies to enhance or reduce their absorption as needed.

Psoriasis is a chronic skin disorder that is characterized by recurrent episodes of red, scaly patches on the skin. The scales are typically silvery-white and often occur on the elbows, knees, scalp, and lower back, but they can appear anywhere on the body. The exact cause of psoriasis is unknown, but it is believed to be related to an immune system issue that causes skin cells to grow too quickly.

There are several types of psoriasis, including plaque psoriasis (the most common form), guttate psoriasis, inverse psoriasis, pustular psoriasis, and erythrodermic psoriasis. The symptoms and severity of the condition can vary widely from person to person, ranging from mild to severe.

While there is no cure for psoriasis, various treatments are available that can help manage the symptoms and improve quality of life. These may include topical medications, light therapy, and systemic medications such as biologics. Lifestyle measures such as stress reduction, quitting smoking, and avoiding triggers (such as certain foods or alcohol) may also be helpful in managing psoriasis.

Fibroblasts are specialized cells that play a critical role in the body's immune response and wound healing process. They are responsible for producing and maintaining the extracellular matrix (ECM), which is the non-cellular component present within all tissues and organs, providing structural support and biochemical signals for surrounding cells.

Fibroblasts produce various ECM proteins such as collagens, elastin, fibronectin, and laminins, forming a complex network of fibers that give tissues their strength and flexibility. They also help in the regulation of tissue homeostasis by controlling the turnover of ECM components through the process of remodeling.

In response to injury or infection, fibroblasts become activated and start to proliferate rapidly, migrating towards the site of damage. Here, they participate in the inflammatory response, releasing cytokines and chemokines that attract immune cells to the area. Additionally, they deposit new ECM components to help repair the damaged tissue and restore its functionality.

Dysregulation of fibroblast activity has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including fibrosis (excessive scarring), cancer (where they can contribute to tumor growth and progression), and autoimmune diseases (such as rheumatoid arthritis).

Skin abnormalities refer to any changes in the skin that deviate from its normal structure, function, or color. These can manifest as various conditions such as lesions, growths, discolorations, or textural alterations. Examples include moles, freckles, birthmarks, rashes, hives, acne, eczema, psoriasis, rosacea, skin cancer, and many others. Some skin abnormalities may be harmless and require no treatment, while others might indicate an underlying medical condition that requires further evaluation and management.

An "injection, intradermal" refers to a type of injection where a small quantity of a substance is introduced into the layer of skin between the epidermis and dermis, using a thin gauge needle. This technique is often used for diagnostic or research purposes, such as conducting allergy tests or administering immunizations in a way that stimulates a strong immune response. The injection site typically produces a small, raised bump (wheal) that disappears within a few hours. It's important to note that intradermal injections should be performed by trained medical professionals to minimize the risk of complications.

The external ear is the visible portion of the ear that resides outside of the head. It consists of two main structures: the pinna or auricle, which is the cartilaginous structure that people commonly refer to as the "ear," and the external auditory canal, which is the tubular passageway that leads to the eardrum (tympanic membrane).

The primary function of the external ear is to collect and direct sound waves into the middle and inner ear, where they can be converted into neural signals and transmitted to the brain for processing. The external ear also helps protect the middle and inner ear from damage by foreign objects and excessive noise.

Elastic tissue is a type of connective tissue found in the body that is capable of returning to its original shape after being stretched or deformed. It is composed mainly of elastin fibers, which are protein molecules with a unique structure that allows them to stretch and recoil. Elastic tissue is found in many areas of the body, including the lungs, blood vessels, and skin, where it provides flexibility and resilience.

The elastin fibers in elastic tissue are intertwined with other types of connective tissue fibers, such as collagen, which provide strength and support. The combination of these fibers allows elastic tissue to stretch and recoil efficiently, enabling organs and tissues to function properly. For example, the elasticity of lung tissue allows the lungs to expand and contract during breathing, while the elasticity of blood vessels helps maintain blood flow and pressure.

Elastic tissue can become less flexible and resilient with age or due to certain medical conditions, such as emphysema or Marfan syndrome. This can lead to a variety of health problems, including respiratory difficulties, cardiovascular disease, and skin sagging.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Somites are transient, segmentally repeated embryonic structures that form along the anterior-posterior body axis during vertebrate development. They are derived from the paraxial mesoderm and give rise to various tissues, including the sclerotome (which forms the vertebrae and ribs), myotome (which forms the skeletal muscles of the back and limbs), and dermatome (which forms the dermis of the skin).

Each somite is a block-like structure that is arranged in a repeating pattern along the notochord, which is a flexible rod-like structure that provides mechanical support to the developing embryo. The formation of somites is a critical step in the development of the vertebrate body plan, as they help to establish the segmental organization of the musculoskeletal system and contribute to the formation of other important structures such as the dermis and the circulatory system.

The process of somitogenesis, or the formation of somites, is a highly regulated and coordinated event that involves the interaction of various signaling molecules and genetic pathways. Defects in somite formation can lead to a range of developmental abnormalities, including spinal deformities, muscle weakness, and skin defects.

Sebaceous glands are microscopic, exocrine glands that are found in the dermis of mammalian skin. They are attached to hair follicles and produce an oily substance called sebum, which is composed of triglycerides, wax esters, squalene, and metabolites of fat-producing cells (fatty acids, cholesterol). Sebum is released through a duct onto the surface of the skin, where it forms a protective barrier that helps to prevent water loss, keeps the skin and hair moisturized, and has antibacterial properties.

Sebaceous glands are distributed throughout the body, but they are most numerous on the face, scalp, and upper trunk. They can also be found in other areas of the body such as the eyelids (where they are known as meibomian glands), the external ear canal, and the genital area.

Abnormalities in sebaceous gland function can lead to various skin conditions, including acne, seborrheic dermatitis, and certain types of skin cancer.

Connective tissue is a type of biological tissue that provides support, strength, and protection to various structures in the body. It is composed of cells called fibroblasts, which produce extracellular matrix components such as collagen, elastin, and proteoglycans. These components give connective tissue its unique properties, including tensile strength, elasticity, and resistance to compression.

There are several types of connective tissue in the body, each with its own specific functions and characteristics. Some examples include:

1. Loose or Areolar Connective Tissue: This type of connective tissue is found throughout the body and provides cushioning and support to organs and other structures. It contains a large amount of ground substance, which allows for the movement and gliding of adjacent tissues.
2. Dense Connective Tissue: This type of connective tissue has a higher concentration of collagen fibers than loose connective tissue, making it stronger and less flexible. Dense connective tissue can be further divided into two categories: regular (or parallel) and irregular. Regular dense connective tissue, such as tendons and ligaments, has collagen fibers that run parallel to each other, providing great tensile strength. Irregular dense connective tissue, such as the dermis of the skin, has collagen fibers arranged in a more haphazard pattern, providing support and flexibility.
3. Adipose Tissue: This type of connective tissue is primarily composed of fat cells called adipocytes. Adipose tissue serves as an energy storage reservoir and provides insulation and cushioning to the body.
4. Cartilage: A firm, flexible type of connective tissue that contains chondrocytes within a matrix of collagen and proteoglycans. Cartilage is found in various parts of the body, including the joints, nose, ears, and trachea.
5. Bone: A specialized form of connective tissue that consists of an organic matrix (mainly collagen) and an inorganic mineral component (hydroxyapatite). Bone provides structural support to the body and serves as a reservoir for calcium and phosphate ions.
6. Blood: Although not traditionally considered connective tissue, blood does contain elements of connective tissue, such as plasma proteins and leukocytes (white blood cells). Blood transports nutrients, oxygen, hormones, and waste products throughout the body.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Rats, Hairless" is not a recognized medical term or condition. The term "hairless rat" typically refers to a specific breed of domesticated rats, also known as "Smooth-haired Rats" or "Naked Rats," which have a genetic mutation that results in the absence of fur. They are often kept as pets and are used in laboratory research. If you're looking for information on a specific medical condition or term, please provide it, and I would be happy to help.

Hyperpigmentation is a medical term that refers to the darkening of skin areas due to an increase in melanin, the pigment that provides color to our skin. This condition can affect people of all races and ethnicities, but it's more noticeable in those with lighter skin tones.

Hyperpigmentation can be caused by various factors, including excessive sun exposure, hormonal changes (such as during pregnancy), inflammation, certain medications, and underlying medical conditions like Addison's disease or hemochromatosis. It can also result from skin injuries, such as cuts, burns, or acne, which leave dark spots known as post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation.

There are several types of hyperpigmentation, including:

1. Melasma: This is a common form of hyperpigmentation that typically appears as symmetrical, blotchy patches on the face, particularly the forehead, cheeks, and upper lip. It's often triggered by hormonal changes, such as those experienced during pregnancy or while taking birth control pills.
2. Solar lentigos (age spots or liver spots): These are small, darkened areas of skin that appear due to prolonged sun exposure over time. They typically occur on the face, hands, arms, and decolletage.
3. Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation: This type of hyperpigmentation occurs when an injury or inflammation heals, leaving behind a darkened area of skin. It's more common in people with darker skin tones.

Treatment for hyperpigmentation depends on the underlying cause and may include topical creams, chemical peels, laser therapy, or microdermabrasion. Preventing further sun damage is crucial to managing hyperpigmentation, so wearing sunscreen with a high SPF and protective clothing is recommended.

Occlusive dressings are specialized bandages or coverings that form a barrier over the skin, preventing air and moisture from passing through. They are designed to create a moist environment that promotes healing by increasing local blood flow, reducing wound desiccation, and encouraging the growth of new tissue. Occlusive dressings can also help to minimize pain, scarring, and the risk of infection in wounds. These dressings are often used for dry, necrotic, or hard-to-heal wounds, such as pressure ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers, and burns. It is important to monitor the wound closely while using occlusive dressings, as they can sometimes lead to skin irritation or maceration if left in place for too long.

A chick embryo refers to the developing organism that arises from a fertilized chicken egg. It is often used as a model system in biological research, particularly during the stages of development when many of its organs and systems are forming and can be easily observed and manipulated. The study of chick embryos has contributed significantly to our understanding of various aspects of developmental biology, including gastrulation, neurulation, organogenesis, and pattern formation. Researchers may use various techniques to observe and manipulate the chick embryo, such as surgical alterations, cell labeling, and exposure to drugs or other agents.

A blister is a small fluid-filled bubble that forms on the skin due to friction, burns, or contact with certain chemicals or irritants. Blisters are typically filled with a clear fluid called serum, which is a component of blood. They can also be filled with blood (known as blood blisters) if the blister is caused by a more severe injury.

Blisters act as a natural protective barrier for the underlying skin and tissues, preventing infection and promoting healing. It's generally recommended to leave blisters intact and avoid breaking them, as doing so can increase the risk of infection and delay healing. If a blister is particularly large or painful, medical attention may be necessary to prevent complications.

Melanosis is a general term that refers to an increased deposit of melanin, the pigment responsible for coloring our skin, in the skin or other organs. It can occur in response to various factors such as sun exposure, aging, or certain medical conditions. There are several types of melanosis, including:

1. Epidermal melanosis: This type of melanosis is characterized by an increase in melanin within the epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin. It can result from sun exposure, hormonal changes, or inflammation.
2. Dermal melanosis: In this type of melanosis, there is an accumulation of melanin within the dermis, the middle layer of the skin. It can be caused by various conditions such as nevus of Ota, nevus of Ito, or melanoma metastasis.
3. Mucosal melanosis: This type of melanosis involves an increase in melanin within the mucous membranes, such as those lining the mouth, nose, and genitals. It can be a sign of systemic disorders like Addison's disease or Peutz-Jeghers syndrome.
4. Lentigo simplex: Also known as simple lentigines, these are small, benign spots that appear on sun-exposed skin. They result from an increase in melanocytes, the cells responsible for producing melanin.
5. Labial melanotic macule: This is a pigmented lesion found on the lips, typically the lower lip. It is more common in darker-skinned individuals and is usually benign but should be monitored for changes that may indicate malignancy.
6. Ocular melanosis: An increase in melanin within the eye can lead to various conditions such as ocular melanocytosis, oculodermal melanocytosis, or choroidal melanoma.

It is important to note that while some forms of melanosis are benign and harmless, others may indicate an underlying medical condition or even malignancy. Therefore, any new or changing pigmented lesions should be evaluated by a healthcare professional.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Quail" is typically used to refer to a group of small birds that belong to the family Phasianidae and the subfamily Perdicinae. There is no established medical definition for "quail."

However, if you're referring to the verb "to quail," it means to shrink back, draw back, or cower, often due to fear or intimidation. In a medical context, this term could be used metaphorically to describe a patient's psychological response to a threatening situation, such as receiving a difficult diagnosis. But again, "quail" itself is not a medical term.

Artificial organs are medical devices that are implanted in the human body to replace the function of a damaged, diseased, or failing organ. These devices can be made from a variety of materials, including metals, plastics, and synthetic biomaterials. They are designed to mimic the structure and function of natural organs as closely as possible, with the goal of improving the patient's quality of life and extending their lifespan.

Some examples of artificial organs include:

1. Artificial heart: A device that is implanted in the chest to replace the function of a failing heart. It can be used as a temporary or permanent solution for patients with end-stage heart failure.
2. Artificial pancreas: A device that is used to treat type 1 diabetes by regulating blood sugar levels. It consists of an insulin pump and a continuous glucose monitor, which work together to deliver insulin automatically based on the patient's needs.
3. Artificial kidney: A device that filters waste products from the blood, similar to a natural kidney. It can be used as a temporary or permanent solution for patients with end-stage renal disease.
4. Artificial lung: A device that helps patients with respiratory failure breathe by exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
5. Artificial bladder: A device that is implanted in the body to help patients with bladder dysfunction urinate.
6. Artificial eyes: Prosthetic devices that are used to replace a missing or damaged eye, providing cosmetic and sometimes functional benefits.

It's important to note that while artificial organs can significantly improve the quality of life for many patients, they are not without risks. Complications such as infection, rejection, and device failure can occur, and ongoing medical care is necessary to monitor and manage these risks.

"Holothuria" is a genus of marine invertebrate animals, also known as sea cucumbers. They belong to the class Holothuroidea and the phylum Echinodermata. Sea cucumbers are characterized by their elongated, cylindrical body shape and leathery skin. They have a simple, tube-like gut and a set of complex internal organs used for feeding and respiration.

Holothuria species are found in oceans worldwide, inhabiting various depths from shallow waters to the deep sea. They play an important role in marine ecosystems by helping to recycle nutrients and maintain sediment stability. Some Holothuria species have commercial value as food in certain cultures, while others are harvested for their medicinal properties.

Skin pigmentation is the coloration of the skin that is primarily determined by two types of melanin pigments, eumelanin and pheomelanin. These pigments are produced by melanocytes, which are specialized cells located in the epidermis. Eumelanin is responsible for brown or black coloration, while pheomelanin produces a red or yellow hue.

The amount and distribution of melanin in the skin can vary depending on genetic factors, age, sun exposure, and various other influences. Increased production of melanin in response to UV radiation from the sun helps protect the skin from damage, leading to darkening or tanning of the skin. However, excessive sun exposure can also cause irregular pigmentation, such as sunspots or freckles.

Abnormalities in skin pigmentation can result from various medical conditions, including albinism (lack of melanin production), vitiligo (loss of melanocytes leading to white patches), and melasma (excessive pigmentation often caused by hormonal changes). These conditions may require medical treatment to manage or improve the pigmentation issues.

A biopsy is a medical procedure in which a small sample of tissue is taken from the body to be examined under a microscope for the presence of disease. This can help doctors diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as cancer, infections, or autoimmune disorders. The type of biopsy performed will depend on the location and nature of the suspected condition. Some common types of biopsies include:

1. Incisional biopsy: In this procedure, a surgeon removes a piece of tissue from an abnormal area using a scalpel or other surgical instrument. This type of biopsy is often used when the lesion is too large to be removed entirely during the initial biopsy.

2. Excisional biopsy: An excisional biopsy involves removing the entire abnormal area, along with a margin of healthy tissue surrounding it. This technique is typically employed for smaller lesions or when cancer is suspected.

3. Needle biopsy: A needle biopsy uses a thin, hollow needle to extract cells or fluid from the body. There are two main types of needle biopsies: fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy. FNA extracts loose cells, while a core needle biopsy removes a small piece of tissue.

4. Punch biopsy: In a punch biopsy, a round, sharp tool is used to remove a small cylindrical sample of skin tissue. This type of biopsy is often used for evaluating rashes or other skin abnormalities.

5. Shave biopsy: During a shave biopsy, a thin slice of tissue is removed from the surface of the skin using a sharp razor-like instrument. This technique is typically used for superficial lesions or growths on the skin.

After the biopsy sample has been collected, it is sent to a laboratory where a pathologist will examine the tissue under a microscope and provide a diagnosis based on their findings. The results of the biopsy can help guide further treatment decisions and determine the best course of action for managing the patient's condition.

Erythema is a term used in medicine to describe redness of the skin, which occurs as a result of increased blood flow in the superficial capillaries. This redness can be caused by various factors such as inflammation, infection, trauma, or exposure to heat, cold, or ultraviolet radiation. In some cases, erythema may also be accompanied by other symptoms such as swelling, warmth, pain, or itching. It is a common finding in many medical conditions and can vary in severity from mild to severe.

"Cutaneous administration" is a route of administering medication or treatment through the skin. This can be done through various methods such as:

1. Topical application: This involves applying the medication directly to the skin in the form of creams, ointments, gels, lotions, patches, or solutions. The medication is absorbed into the skin and enters the systemic circulation slowly over a period of time. Topical medications are often used for local effects, such as treating eczema, psoriasis, or fungal infections.

2. Iontophoresis: This method uses a mild electrical current to help a medication penetrate deeper into the skin. A positive charge is applied to a medication with a negative charge, or vice versa, causing it to be attracted through the skin. Iontophoresis is often used for local pain management and treating conditions like hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating).

3. Transdermal delivery systems: These are specialized patches that contain medication within them. The patch is applied to the skin, and as time passes, the medication is released through the skin and into the systemic circulation. This method allows for a steady, controlled release of medication over an extended period. Common examples include nicotine patches for smoking cessation and hormone replacement therapy patches.

Cutaneous administration offers several advantages, such as avoiding first-pass metabolism (which can reduce the effectiveness of oral medications), providing localized treatment, and allowing for self-administration in some cases. However, it may not be suitable for all types of medications or conditions, and potential side effects include skin irritation, allergic reactions, and systemic absorption leading to unwanted systemic effects.

Microfibrils are tiny, thread-like structures that are found in the extracellular matrix (the material that surrounds and supports cells) of many types of biological tissues. They are made up of bundles of long, thin proteins called fibrillins, which are joined together by other proteins such as microfibril-associated glycoproteins (MAGPs).

Microfibrils play an important role in providing structural support and elasticity to tissues. They are particularly abundant in the connective tissue that surrounds blood vessels, where they help to regulate the diameter of the vessels and maintain blood pressure. Microfibrils are also found in the elastic fibers of the lungs, skin, and other tissues, where they contribute to the ability of these tissues to stretch and recoil.

In addition to their structural roles, microfibrils have been shown to play a role in regulating cell behavior and signaling. For example, they can bind to growth factors and other signaling molecules, helping to control the activity of these molecules and influence cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and migration.

Abnormalities in microfibril structure or function have been linked to a number of diseases, including Marfan syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, and cutis laxa. These conditions are characterized by problems with connective tissue strength and elasticity, which can lead to a range of symptoms such as skeletal abnormalities, cardiovascular disease, and skin fragility.

Medically, hair is defined as a threadlike structure that grows from the follicles found in the skin of mammals. It is primarily made up of a protein called keratin and consists of three parts: the medulla (the innermost part or core), the cortex (middle layer containing keratin filaments) and the cuticle (outer layer of overlapping scales).

Hair growth occurs in cycles, with each cycle consisting of a growth phase (anagen), a transitional phase (catagen), and a resting phase (telogen). The length of hair is determined by the duration of the anagen phase.

While hair plays a crucial role in protecting the skin from external factors like UV radiation, temperature changes, and physical damage, it also serves as an essential aspect of human aesthetics and identity.

Mucinoses are a group of cutaneous disorders characterized by the abnormal deposit of mucin in the dermis. Mucin is a complex sugar-protein substance that provides cushioning and lubrication to various tissues in the body. In mucinoses, an excess of mucin accumulates in the skin, leading to various clinical manifestations such as papules, nodules, plaques, or generalized swelling.

Mucinoses can be classified into two main categories: primary and secondary. Primary mucinoses are caused by genetic mutations that affect the production or degradation of mucin, while secondary mucinoses occur as a result of other underlying medical conditions, such as autoimmune disorders, infections, or neoplasms.

Examples of primary mucinoses include:

* Lichen myxedematosus (also known as papular mucinosis): characterized by multiple, firm, flesh-colored to yellowish papules and nodules, usually on the trunk and proximal extremities.
* Follicular mucinosis: a condition that affects hair follicles and is characterized by the accumulation of mucin in the follicular epithelium, leading to hair loss, itching, and inflammation.
* Scleromyxedema: a rare systemic disorder characterized by generalized thickening and hardening of the skin due to excessive deposition of mucin and collagen fibers.

Examples of secondary mucinoses include:

* Lupus erythematosus: an autoimmune disorder that can affect various organs, including the skin, and is characterized by the accumulation of mucin in the dermis.
* Dermatomyositis: another autoimmune disorder that affects the skin and muscles, and can also cause mucin deposition in the dermis.
* Rosai-Dorfman disease: a rare histiocytic disorder characterized by the accumulation of large, foamy histiocytes that contain mucin in the lymph nodes and other organs, including the skin.

The diagnosis of mucinoses is usually based on clinical examination, skin biopsy, and laboratory tests. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include topical or systemic medications, phototherapy, or surgical intervention.

Subcutaneous tissue, also known as the subcutis or hypodermis, is the layer of fatty connective tissue found beneath the dermis (the inner layer of the skin) and above the muscle fascia. It is composed mainly of adipose tissue, which serves as a energy storage reservoir and provides insulation and cushioning to the body. The subcutaneous tissue also contains blood vessels, nerves, and immune cells that support the skin's functions. This layer varies in thickness depending on the location in the body and can differ significantly between individuals based on factors such as age, genetics, and weight.

According to the medical definition, ultraviolet (UV) rays are invisible radiations that fall in the range of the electromagnetic spectrum between 100-400 nanometers. UV rays are further divided into three categories: UVA (320-400 nm), UVB (280-320 nm), and UVC (100-280 nm).

UV rays have various sources, including the sun and artificial sources like tanning beds. Prolonged exposure to UV rays can cause damage to the skin, leading to premature aging, eye damage, and an increased risk of skin cancer. UVA rays penetrate deeper into the skin and are associated with skin aging, while UVB rays primarily affect the outer layer of the skin and are linked to sunburns and skin cancer. UVC rays are the most harmful but fortunately, they are absorbed by the Earth's atmosphere and do not reach the surface.

Healthcare professionals recommend limiting exposure to UV rays, wearing protective clothing, using broad-spectrum sunscreen with an SPF of at least 30, and avoiding tanning beds to reduce the risk of UV-related health problems.

Facial dermatoses refer to various skin conditions that affect the face. These can include a wide range of disorders, such as:

1. Acne vulgaris: A common skin condition characterized by the formation of comedones (blackheads and whiteheads) and inflammatory papules, pustules, and nodules. It primarily affects the face, neck, chest, and back.
2. Rosacea: A chronic skin condition that causes redness, flushing, and visible blood vessels on the face, along with bumps or pimples and sometimes eye irritation.
3. Seborrheic dermatitis: A common inflammatory skin disorder that causes a red, itchy, and flaky rash, often on the scalp, face, and eyebrows. It can also affect other oily areas of the body, like the sides of the nose and behind the ears.
4. Atopic dermatitis (eczema): A chronic inflammatory skin condition that causes red, itchy, and scaly patches on the skin. While it can occur anywhere on the body, it frequently affects the face, especially in infants and young children.
5. Psoriasis: An autoimmune disorder that results in thick, scaly, silvery, or red patches on the skin. It can affect any part of the body, including the face.
6. Contact dermatitis: A skin reaction caused by direct contact with an allergen or irritant, resulting in redness, itching, and inflammation. The face can be affected when allergens or irritants come into contact with the skin through cosmetics, skincare products, or other substances.
7. Lupus erythematosus: An autoimmune disorder that can cause a butterfly-shaped rash on the cheeks and nose, along with other symptoms like joint pain, fatigue, and photosensitivity.
8. Perioral dermatitis: A inflammatory skin condition that causes redness, small bumps, and dryness around the mouth, often mistaken for acne. It can also affect the skin around the nose and eyes.
9. Vitiligo: An autoimmune disorder that results in the loss of pigmentation in patches of skin, which can occur on the face and other parts of the body.
10. Tinea faciei: A fungal infection that affects the facial skin, causing red, scaly, or itchy patches. It is also known as ringworm of the face.

These are just a few examples of skin conditions that can affect the face. If you experience any unusual symptoms or changes in your skin, it's essential to consult a dermatologist for proper diagnosis and treatment.

The ear is the sensory organ responsible for hearing and maintaining balance. It can be divided into three parts: the outer ear, middle ear, and inner ear. The outer ear consists of the pinna (the visible part of the ear) and the external auditory canal, which directs sound waves toward the eardrum. The middle ear contains three small bones called ossicles that transmit sound vibrations from the eardrum to the inner ear. The inner ear contains the cochlea, a spiral-shaped organ responsible for converting sound vibrations into electrical signals that are sent to the brain, and the vestibular system, which is responsible for maintaining balance.

Granulation tissue is the pinkish, bumpy material that forms on the surface of a healing wound. It's composed of tiny blood vessels (capillaries), white blood cells, and fibroblasts - cells that produce collagen, which is a protein that helps to strengthen and support the tissue.

Granulation tissue plays a crucial role in the wound healing process by filling in the wound space, contracting the wound, and providing a foundation for the growth of new skin cells (epithelialization). It's typically formed within 3-5 days after an injury and continues to develop until the wound is fully healed.

It's important to note that while granulation tissue is a normal part of the healing process, excessive or overgrowth of granulation tissue can lead to complications such as delayed healing, infection, or the formation of hypertrophic scars or keloids. In these cases, medical intervention may be necessary to manage the excess tissue and promote proper healing.

Electron microscopy (EM) is a type of microscopy that uses a beam of electrons to create an image of the sample being examined, resulting in much higher magnification and resolution than light microscopy. There are several types of electron microscopy, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and reflection electron microscopy (REM).

In TEM, a beam of electrons is transmitted through a thin slice of the sample, and the electrons that pass through the sample are focused to form an image. This technique can provide detailed information about the internal structure of cells, viruses, and other biological specimens, as well as the composition and structure of materials at the atomic level.

In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of the sample, and the electrons that are scattered back from the surface are detected to create an image. This technique can provide information about the topography and composition of surfaces, as well as the structure of materials at the microscopic level.

REM is a variation of SEM in which the beam of electrons is reflected off the surface of the sample, rather than scattered back from it. This technique can provide information about the surface chemistry and composition of materials.

Electron microscopy has a wide range of applications in biology, medicine, and materials science, including the study of cellular structure and function, disease diagnosis, and the development of new materials and technologies.

Facial neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the tissues of the face. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Facial neoplasms can occur in any of the facial structures, including the skin, muscles, bones, nerves, and glands.

Benign facial neoplasms are typically slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body. Examples include papillomas, hemangiomas, and neurofibromas. While these tumors are usually harmless, they can cause cosmetic concerns or interfere with normal facial function.

Malignant facial neoplasms, on the other hand, can be aggressive and invasive. They can spread to other parts of the face, as well as to distant sites in the body. Common types of malignant facial neoplasms include basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma.

Treatment for facial neoplasms depends on several factors, including the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches. It is important to seek medical attention promptly if you notice any unusual growths or changes in the skin or tissues of your face.

Localized scleroderma, also known as morphea, is a rare autoimmune disorder that affects the skin and connective tissues. It is characterized by thickening and hardening (sclerosis) of the skin in patches or bands, usually on the trunk, limbs, or face. Unlike systemic scleroderma, localized scleroderma does not affect internal organs, although it can cause significant disfigurement and disability in some cases.

There are two main types of localized scleroderma: plaque morphea and generalized morphea. Plaque morphea typically presents as oval or circular patches of thickened, hard skin that are often white or pale in the center and surrounded by a purple or darker border. Generalized morphea, on the other hand, is characterized by larger areas of sclerosis that can cover much of the body surface.

The exact cause of localized scleroderma is not fully understood, but it is thought to involve an overactive immune system response that leads to inflammation and scarring of the skin and underlying tissues. Treatment typically involves a combination of topical therapies (such as corticosteroids or calcineurin inhibitors), phototherapy, and systemic medications (such as methotrexate or mycophenolate mofetil) in more severe cases.

Eye evisceration is a surgical procedure in which the contents of the eye are removed, leaving the sclera (the white part of the eye) and the eyelids intact. This procedure is typically performed to treat severe eye injuries or infections, as well as to alleviate pain in blind eyes. After the eye contents are removed, an orbital implant is placed in the eye socket to restore its shape and volume. The eyelids are then closed over the implant, creating a smooth appearance. It's important to note that although the eye appears to have some cosmetic normality after the procedure, vision cannot be restored.

The basement membrane is a thin, specialized layer of extracellular matrix that provides structural support and separates epithelial cells (which line the outer surfaces of organs and blood vessels) from connective tissue. It is composed of two main layers: the basal lamina, which is produced by the epithelial cells, and the reticular lamina, which is produced by the connective tissue. The basement membrane plays important roles in cell adhesion, migration, differentiation, and survival.

The basal lamina is composed mainly of type IV collagen, laminins, nidogens, and proteoglycans, while the reticular lamina contains type III collagen, fibronectin, and other matrix proteins. The basement membrane also contains a variety of growth factors and cytokines that can influence cell behavior.

Defects in the composition or organization of the basement membrane can lead to various diseases, including kidney disease, eye disease, and skin blistering disorders.

A cicatrix is a medical term that refers to a scar or the process of scar formation. It is the result of the healing process following damage to body tissues, such as from an injury, wound, or surgery. During the healing process, specialized cells called fibroblasts produce collagen, which helps to reconnect and strengthen the damaged tissue. The resulting scar tissue may have a different texture, color, or appearance compared to the surrounding healthy tissue.

Cicatrix formation is a natural part of the body's healing response, but excessive scarring can sometimes cause functional impairment, pain, or cosmetic concerns. In such cases, various treatments may be used to minimize or improve the appearance of scars, including topical creams, steroid injections, laser therapy, and surgical revision.

Leg dermatoses is a general term that refers to various skin conditions affecting the legs. This can include a wide range of inflammatory, infectious, or degenerative diseases that cause symptoms such as redness, itching, scaling, blistering, or pigmentation changes on the leg skin. Examples of specific leg dermatoses include stasis dermatitis, venous eczema, contact dermatitis, lichen planus, psoriasis, and cellulitis among others. Accurate diagnosis usually requires a thorough examination and sometimes a biopsy to determine the specific type of dermatosis and appropriate treatment.

Parasitic skin diseases are conditions caused by parasites living on or in the skin. These parasites can be insects, mites, or fungi that feed off of the host for their own survival. They can cause a variety of symptoms including itching, rashes, blisters, and lesions on the skin. Examples of parasitic skin diseases include scabies, lice infestations, and ringworm. Treatment typically involves the use of topical or oral medications to kill the parasites and alleviate symptoms.

Keratosis, in general, refers to a skin condition characterized by the abnormal growth or development of keratin, a protein that forms part of the outer layer of the skin (epidermis). There are several types of keratosis, including:

1. Seborrheic Keratosis: benign, often pigmented, rough, and scaly growths that can appear anywhere on the body. They tend to increase in number with age.
2. Actinic Keratosis: rough, scaly patches or spots on the skin that are caused by long-term exposure to sunlight or artificial UV light. These have the potential to develop into squamous cell carcinoma, a type of skin cancer.
3. Solar Keratosis: another term for actinic keratosis, as it is primarily caused by sun damage.
4. Keratosis Pilaris: a common condition where small, rough bumps appear on the skin, often on the arms, thighs, or cheeks. These are caused by excess keratin blocking hair follicles.
5. Follicular Keratosis: a disorder characterized by the formation of horny plugs within the hair follicles, leading to rough, sandpaper-like bumps on the skin.
6. Intraepidermal Keratosis: a term used to describe the abnormal accumulation of keratin in the epidermis, which can lead to various skin conditions.

It's important to consult with a healthcare professional or dermatologist for proper diagnosis and treatment if you suspect having any form of keratosis.

A skin ulcer is a defined as a loss of continuity or disruption of the skin surface, often accompanied by inflammation and/or infection. These lesions can result from various causes including pressure, venous or arterial insufficiency, diabetes, and chronic dermatological conditions. Skin ulcers are typically characterized by their appearance, depth, location, and underlying cause. Common types of skin ulcers include pressure ulcers (also known as bedsores), venous leg ulcers, arterial ulcers, and diabetic foot ulcers. Proper evaluation, wound care, management of underlying conditions, and prevention strategies are crucial in the treatment of skin ulcers to promote healing and prevent complications.

Versican is a type of proteoglycan, which is a complex protein molecule that contains one or more long sugar chains (glycosaminoglycans) attached to it. Proteoglycans are important components of the extracellular matrix (the material that provides structural support and regulates cell behavior in tissues and organs).

Versican is primarily found in the extracellular matrix of connective tissues, including skin, tendons, ligaments, and blood vessels. It plays a role in regulating cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation, as well as in maintaining the structural integrity of tissues. Versican has been implicated in various physiological and pathological processes, such as embryonic development, wound healing, inflammation, and cancer progression.

There are several isoforms of versican (V0, V1, V2, and V3) that differ in their structure and function, depending on the specific glycosaminoglycan chains attached to them. Abnormal expression or regulation of versican has been associated with various diseases, including cancer, fibrosis, and inflammatory disorders.

A nevus pigmentosus, also known as a pigmented mole or melanocytic nevus, is a benign proliferation of melanocytes, the pigment-producing cells in the skin. These lesions typically appear as well-circumscribed, brown to black macules or papules. They can vary in size and shape and may be flat or raised. Most nevi are harmless and do not require treatment; however, some may undergo malignant transformation into melanoma, a potentially life-threatening skin cancer. Regular self-skin examinations and professional skin checks are recommended to monitor for changes in nevi that may indicate malignancy.

An artificial eye, also known as a prosthetic eye, is a type of medical device that is used to replace a natural eye that has been removed or is not functional due to injury, disease, or congenital abnormalities. It is typically made of acrylic or glass and is custom-made to match the size, shape, and color of the patient's other eye as closely as possible.

The artificial eye is designed to fit over the eye socket and rest on the eyelids, allowing the person to have a more natural appearance and improve their ability to blink and close their eye. It does not restore vision, but it can help protect the eye socket and improve the patient's self-esteem and quality of life.

The process of fitting an artificial eye typically involves several appointments with an ocularist, who is a healthcare professional trained in the measurement, design, and fabrication of prosthetic eyes. The ocularist will take impressions of the eye socket, create a model, and then use that model to make the artificial eye. Once the artificial eye is made, the ocularist will fit it and make any necessary adjustments to ensure that it is comfortable and looks natural.

Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, inflammatory skin condition that is commonly known as eczema. It is characterized by dry, itchy, and scaly patches on the skin that can become red, swollen, and cracked over time. The condition often affects the skin on the face, hands, feet, and behind the knees, and it can be triggered or worsened by exposure to certain allergens, irritants, stress, or changes in temperature and humidity. Atopic dermatitis is more common in people with a family history of allergies, such as asthma or hay fever, and it often begins in infancy or early childhood. The exact cause of atopic dermatitis is not fully understood, but it is thought to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors that affect the immune system and the skin's ability to maintain a healthy barrier function.

Mycosis fungoides is the most common type of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), a rare cancer that affects the skin's immune system. It is characterized by the infiltration of malignant CD4+ T-lymphocytes into the skin, leading to the formation of patches, plaques, and tumors. The disease typically progresses slowly over many years, often starting with scaly, itchy rashes that can be mistaken for eczema or psoriasis. As the disease advances, tumors may form, and the lymphoma may spread to other organs, such as the lymph nodes, lungs, or spleen. Mycosis fungoides is not contagious and cannot be spread from person to person. The exact cause of mycosis fungoides is unknown, but it is thought to result from a combination of genetic, environmental, and immune system factors.

Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus (LSEA) is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that can affect both males and females, but it's most commonly found in women after menopause. It can occur at any age, including children. The condition typically affects the genital and anal areas, though it can appear elsewhere on the body as well.

The medical definition of Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus is:

A skin disorder characterized by white patches (plaques) that can be smooth or wrinkled, thickened, and easily bruised. These patches may merge to form larger areas of affected skin. The condition can cause itching, burning, pain, and blistering. In women, the vulva is often affected, and sexual intercourse may become painful. In men, it can affect the foreskin and glans penis, leading to difficulty urinating or having sex.

The exact cause of Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus remains unknown, but it's believed that hormonal imbalances, genetics, and an overactive immune system may play a role in its development. Treatment usually involves topical corticosteroids to reduce inflammation and alleviate symptoms. In some cases, other medications or phototherapy might be recommended. It is essential to consult with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hoof and Claw" is not a medical term or condition. The term "hoof" refers to the hard covering on the toes of animals such as horses, cows, and other ungulates, while "claw" refers to the sharp nail-like structure found on the toes of animals such as cats, dogs, and birds.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you.

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a group of inherited disorders that affect connective tissues, which are the proteins and chemicals in the body that provide structure and support for skin, bones, blood vessels, and other organs. People with EDS have stretching (elastic) skin and joints that are too loose (hypermobile). There are several types of EDS, each with its own set of symptoms and level of severity. Some of the more common types include:

* Classical EDS: This type is characterized by skin that can be stretched far beyond normal and bruises easily. Affected individuals may also have joints that dislocate easily.
* Hypermobile EDS: This type is marked by joint hypermobility, which can lead to frequent dislocations and subluxations (partial dislocations). Some people with this type of EDS also have Marfan syndrome-like features, such as long fingers and a curved spine.
* Vascular EDS: This type is caused by changes in the COL3A1 gene and is characterized by thin, fragile skin that tears or bruises easily. People with vascular EDS are at risk of serious complications, such as arterial rupture and organ perforation.
* Kyphoscoliosis EDS: This type is marked by severe kyphoscoliosis (a forward curvature of the spine) and joint laxity. Affected individuals may also have fragile skin that tears or bruises easily.

EDS is typically inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, meaning that a person only needs to inherit one copy of the altered gene from either parent to develop the condition. However, some types of EDS are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, which means that a person must inherit two copies of the altered gene (one from each parent) to develop the condition.

There is no cure for EDS, and treatment is focused on managing symptoms and preventing complications. This may include physical therapy to strengthen muscles and improve joint stability, bracing to support joints, and surgery to repair damaged tissues or organs.

Allergic contact dermatitis is a type of inflammatory skin reaction that occurs when the skin comes into contact with a substance (allergen) that the immune system recognizes as foreign and triggers an allergic response. This condition is characterized by redness, itching, swelling, blistering, and cracking of the skin, which usually develops within 24-48 hours after exposure to the allergen. Common allergens include metals (such as nickel), rubber, medications, fragrances, and cosmetics. It is important to note that a person must first be sensitized to the allergen before developing an allergic response upon subsequent exposures.

Contact dermatitis is a type of inflammation of the skin that occurs when it comes into contact with a substance that the individual has developed an allergic reaction to or that causes irritation. It can be divided into two main types: allergic contact dermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis.

Allergic contact dermatitis is caused by an immune system response to a substance, known as an allergen, which the individual has become sensitized to. When the skin comes into contact with this allergen, it triggers an immune reaction that results in inflammation and characteristic symptoms such as redness, swelling, itching, and blistering. Common allergens include metals (such as nickel), rubber, medications, fragrances, and cosmetics.

Irritant contact dermatitis, on the other hand, is caused by direct damage to the skin from a substance that is inherently irritating or corrosive. This can occur after exposure to strong acids, alkalis, solvents, or even prolonged exposure to milder irritants like water or soap. Symptoms of irritant contact dermatitis include redness, pain, burning, and dryness at the site of contact.

The treatment for contact dermatitis typically involves avoiding further exposure to the allergen or irritant, as well as managing symptoms with topical corticosteroids, antihistamines, or other medications as needed. In some cases, patch testing may be performed to identify specific allergens that are causing the reaction.

Histological techniques are a set of laboratory methods and procedures used to study the microscopic structure of tissues, also known as histology. These techniques include:

1. Tissue fixation: The process of preserving tissue specimens to maintain their structural integrity and prevent decomposition. This is typically done using formaldehyde or other chemical fixatives.
2. Tissue processing: The preparation of fixed tissues for embedding by removing water, fat, and other substances that can interfere with sectioning and staining. This is usually accomplished through a series of dehydration, clearing, and infiltration steps.
3. Embedding: The placement of processed tissue specimens into a solid support medium, such as paraffin or plastic, to facilitate sectioning.
4. Sectioning: The cutting of thin slices (usually 4-6 microns thick) from embedded tissue blocks using a microtome.
5. Staining: The application of dyes or stains to tissue sections to highlight specific structures or components. This can be done through a variety of methods, including hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, immunohistochemistry, and special stains for specific cell types or molecules.
6. Mounting: The placement of stained tissue sections onto glass slides and covering them with a mounting medium to protect the tissue from damage and improve microscopic visualization.
7. Microscopy: The examination of stained tissue sections using a light or electron microscope to observe and analyze their structure and composition.

These techniques are essential for the diagnosis and study of various diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and infections. They allow pathologists and researchers to visualize and understand the cellular and molecular changes that occur in tissues during disease processes.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum (PXE) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by the calcification and fragmentation of elastic fibers in the skin, eyes, and cardiovascular system. This causes changes in these tissues, leading to the clinical features of the disease. In the skin, this manifests as yellowish papules and plaques, often located on the neck, axillae, and flexural areas. In the eyes, it can cause angioid streaks, peau d'orange, and choroidal neovascularization, potentially leading to visual loss. In the cardiovascular system, calcification of the elastic fibers in the arterial walls can lead to premature atherosclerosis and increased risk of cardiovascular events. The disease is caused by mutations in the ABCC6 gene.

Morphogenesis is a term used in developmental biology and refers to the process by which cells give rise to tissues and organs with specific shapes, structures, and patterns during embryonic development. This process involves complex interactions between genes, cells, and the extracellular environment that result in the coordinated movement and differentiation of cells into specialized functional units.

Morphogenesis is a dynamic and highly regulated process that involves several mechanisms, including cell proliferation, death, migration, adhesion, and differentiation. These processes are controlled by genetic programs and signaling pathways that respond to environmental cues and regulate the behavior of individual cells within a developing tissue or organ.

The study of morphogenesis is important for understanding how complex biological structures form during development and how these processes can go awry in disease states such as cancer, birth defects, and degenerative disorders.

Topical administration refers to a route of administering a medication or treatment directly to a specific area of the body, such as the skin, mucous membranes, or eyes. This method allows the drug to be applied directly to the site where it is needed, which can increase its effectiveness and reduce potential side effects compared to systemic administration (taking the medication by mouth or injecting it into a vein or muscle).

Topical medications come in various forms, including creams, ointments, gels, lotions, solutions, sprays, and patches. They may be used to treat localized conditions such as skin infections, rashes, inflammation, or pain, or to deliver medication to the eyes or mucous membranes for local or systemic effects.

When applying topical medications, it is important to follow the instructions carefully to ensure proper absorption and avoid irritation or other adverse reactions. This may include cleaning the area before application, covering the treated area with a dressing, or avoiding exposure to sunlight or water after application, depending on the specific medication and its intended use.

Silicone elastomers are a type of synthetic rubber made from silicone, which is a polymer composed primarily of silicon-oxygen bonds. They are known for their durability, flexibility, and resistance to heat, cold, and moisture. Silicone elastomers can be manufactured in various forms, including liquids, gels, and solids, and they are used in a wide range of medical applications such as:

1. Breast implants: Silicone elastomer shells filled with silicone gel are commonly used for breast augmentation and reconstruction.
2. Contact lenses: Some contact lenses are made from silicone elastomers due to their high oxygen permeability, which allows for better eye health.
3. Catheters: Silicone elastomer catheters are flexible and resistant to kinking, making them suitable for long-term use in various medical procedures.
4. Implantable drug delivery systems: Silicone elastomers can be used as a matrix for controlled release of drugs, allowing for sustained and targeted medication administration.
5. Medical adhesives: Silicone elastomer adhesives are biocompatible and can be used to attach medical devices to the skin or other tissues.
6. Sealants and coatings: Silicone elastomers can be used as sealants and coatings in medical devices to prevent leakage, improve durability, and reduce infection risk.

It is important to note that while silicone elastomers are generally considered safe for medical use, there have been concerns about the potential health risks associated with breast implants, such as capsular contracture, breast pain, and immune system reactions. However, these risks vary depending on the individual's health status and the specific type of silicone elastomer used.

Papulosquamous skin diseases are a group of chronic inflammatory disorders of the skin characterized by the development of papules (small, solid, often conical bump) and scales. These diseases include psoriasis, lichen planus, and seborrheic dermatitis among others. The skin lesions in these conditions are often red, scaly, and may be pruritic (itchy). They can vary in severity and distribution, and can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life. The exact cause of these diseases is not fully understood, but they are believed to involve an abnormal immune response and genetic factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of topical therapies, phototherapy, and systemic medications.

Decorin is a small proteoglycan, a type of protein with a attached sugar chain, that is found in the extracellular matrix of connective tissues in the body. It is composed of a core protein and one or more glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains, specifically dermatan sulfate. Decorin plays important roles in the organization and biomechanical properties of collagen fibrils, regulation of cell proliferation and migration, and modulation of growth factor activity. It has been studied for its potential role in various physiological and pathological processes, including wound healing, fibrosis, and cancer.

Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are a group of structural and functional molecules that provide support, organization, and regulation to the cells in tissues and organs. The ECM is composed of a complex network of proteins, glycoproteins, and carbohydrates that are secreted by the cells and deposited outside of them.

ECM proteins can be classified into several categories based on their structure and function, including:

1. Collagens: These are the most abundant ECM proteins and provide strength and stability to tissues. They form fibrils that can withstand high tensile forces.
2. Proteoglycans: These are complex molecules made up of a core protein and one or more glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains. The GAG chains attract water, making proteoglycans important for maintaining tissue hydration and resilience.
3. Elastin: This is an elastic protein that allows tissues to stretch and recoil, such as in the lungs and blood vessels.
4. Fibronectins: These are large glycoproteins that bind to cells and ECM components, providing adhesion, migration, and signaling functions.
5. Laminins: These are large proteins found in basement membranes, which provide structural support for epithelial and endothelial cells.
6. Tenascins: These are large glycoproteins that modulate cell adhesion and migration, and regulate ECM assembly and remodeling.

Together, these ECM proteins create a microenvironment that influences cell behavior, differentiation, and function. Dysregulation of ECM proteins has been implicated in various diseases, including fibrosis, cancer, and degenerative disorders.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Scleredema Adultorum is a rare and chronic connective tissue disorder, primarily characterized by thickening and hardening (induration) of the skin. The term "adultorum" refers to its occurrence in adults, although similar conditions can affect children.

The key features of Scleredema Adultorum include:

1. Skin induration: Thickening and hardening of the skin, often starting on the neck and upper back, before spreading to other areas such as the chest, abdomen, and extremities. The overlying skin may appear normal or have a woody texture.
2. Progression: The condition typically progresses in three stages - early, intermediate, and late. In the early stage, symptoms are usually limited to the skin. As the disease advances, it can affect deeper tissues, including muscles and nerves.
3. Associations: Scleredema Adultorum is often associated with certain medical conditions, such as diabetes mellitus, monoclonal gammopathy (abnormal proliferation of a single clone of plasma cells), and following infections like streptococcus.

The exact cause of Scleredema Adultorum remains unclear; however, it is believed to involve abnormalities in collagen metabolism and excessive deposition of extracellular matrix components, such as glycosaminoglycans, in the skin and underlying tissues. Treatment options are limited, and the prognosis varies depending on the severity and progression of the disease.

Sweat glands are specialized tubular structures in the skin that produce and secrete sweat, also known as perspiration. They are part of the body's thermoregulatory system, helping to maintain optimal body temperature by releasing water and heat through evaporation. There are two main types of sweat glands: eccrine and apocrine.

1. Eccrine sweat glands: These are distributed throughout the body, with a higher concentration on areas like the palms, soles, and forehead. They are responsible for producing a watery, odorless sweat that primarily helps to cool down the body through evaporation.

2. Apocrine sweat glands: These are mainly found in the axillary (armpit) region and around the anogenital area. They become active during puberty and produce a thick, milky fluid that does not have a strong odor on its own but can mix with bacteria on the skin's surface, leading to body odor.

Sweat glands are controlled by the autonomic nervous system, meaning they function involuntarily in response to various stimuli such as emotions, physical activity, or changes in environmental temperature.

The scalp is the anatomical region located at the upper part of the human head, covering the skull except for the face and the ears. It is made up of several layers: the skin, the connective tissue, the galea aponeurotica (a strong, flat, tendinous sheet), loose areolar tissue, and the periosteum (the highly vascularized innermost layer that attaches directly to the skull bones). The scalp has a rich blood supply and is home to numerous sensory receptors, including those for touch, pain, and temperature. It also contains hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and sweat glands.

Genetic skin diseases are a group of disorders caused by mutations or alterations in the genetic material (DNA), which can be inherited from one or both parents. These mutations affect the structure, function, or development of the skin and can lead to various conditions with different symptoms, severity, and prognosis.

Some examples of genetic skin diseases include:

1. Epidermolysis Bullosa (EB): A group of disorders characterized by fragile skin and mucous membranes that blister and tear easily, leading to painful sores and wounds. There are several types of EB, each caused by mutations in different genes involved in anchoring the epidermis to the dermis.
2. Ichthyosis: A family of genetic disorders characterized by dry, thickened, scaly, or rough skin. The severity and symptoms can vary widely, depending on the specific type and underlying genetic cause.
3. Neurofibromatosis: A group of conditions caused by mutations in the NF1 gene, which regulates cell growth and division. The most common types, NF1 and NF2, are characterized by the development of benign tumors called neurofibromas on the skin and nerves, as well as other symptoms affecting various organs and systems.
4. Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC): A genetic disorder caused by mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 genes, which control cell growth and division. TSC is characterized by the development of benign tumors in multiple organs, including the skin, brain, heart, kidneys, and lungs.
5. Xeroderma Pigmentosum (XP): A rare genetic disorder caused by mutations in genes responsible for repairing DNA damage from ultraviolet (UV) radiation. People with XP are extremely sensitive to sunlight and have a high risk of developing skin cancer and other complications.
6. Incontinentia Pigmenti (IP): A genetic disorder that affects the development and growth of skin, hair, nails, teeth, and eyes. IP is caused by mutations in the IKBKG gene and primarily affects females.
7. Darier's Disease: An inherited skin disorder characterized by greasy, crusted, keratotic papules and plaques, usually located on the trunk, scalp, and seborrheic areas of the body. Darier's disease is caused by mutations in the ATP2A2 gene.

These are just a few examples of genetic skin disorders. There are many more, each with its unique set of symptoms, causes, and treatments. If you or someone you know has a genetic skin disorder, it is essential to consult with a dermatologist or other healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Burns are injuries to tissues caused by heat, electricity, chemicals, friction, or radiation. They are classified based on their severity:

1. First-degree burns (superficial burns) affect only the outer layer of skin (epidermis), causing redness, pain, and swelling.
2. Second-degree burns (partial-thickness burns) damage both the epidermis and the underlying layer of skin (dermis). They result in redness, pain, swelling, and blistering.
3. Third-degree burns (full-thickness burns) destroy the entire depth of the skin and can also damage underlying muscles, tendons, and bones. These burns appear white or blackened and charred, and they may be painless due to destroyed nerve endings.

Immediate medical attention is required for second-degree and third-degree burns, as well as for large area first-degree burns, to prevent infection, manage pain, and ensure proper healing. Treatment options include wound care, antibiotics, pain management, and possibly skin grafting or surgery in severe cases.

Cell movement, also known as cell motility, refers to the ability of cells to move independently and change their location within tissue or inside the body. This process is essential for various biological functions, including embryonic development, wound healing, immune responses, and cancer metastasis.

There are several types of cell movement, including:

1. **Crawling or mesenchymal migration:** Cells move by extending and retracting protrusions called pseudopodia or filopodia, which contain actin filaments. This type of movement is common in fibroblasts, immune cells, and cancer cells during tissue invasion and metastasis.
2. **Amoeboid migration:** Cells move by changing their shape and squeezing through tight spaces without forming protrusions. This type of movement is often observed in white blood cells (leukocytes) as they migrate through the body to fight infections.
3. **Pseudopodial extension:** Cells extend pseudopodia, which are temporary cytoplasmic projections containing actin filaments. These protrusions help the cell explore its environment and move forward.
4. **Bacterial flagellar motion:** Bacteria use a whip-like structure called a flagellum to propel themselves through their environment. The rotation of the flagellum is driven by a molecular motor in the bacterial cell membrane.
5. **Ciliary and ependymal movement:** Ciliated cells, such as those lining the respiratory tract and fallopian tubes, have hair-like structures called cilia that beat in coordinated waves to move fluids or mucus across the cell surface.

Cell movement is regulated by a complex interplay of signaling pathways, cytoskeletal rearrangements, and adhesion molecules, which enable cells to respond to environmental cues and navigate through tissues.

Keratins are a type of fibrous structural proteins that constitute the main component of the integumentary system, which includes the hair, nails, and skin of vertebrates. They are also found in other tissues such as horns, hooves, feathers, and reptilian scales. Keratins are insoluble proteins that provide strength, rigidity, and protection to these structures.

Keratins are classified into two types: soft keratins (Type I) and hard keratins (Type II). Soft keratins are found in the skin and simple epithelial tissues, while hard keratins are present in structures like hair, nails, horns, and hooves.

Keratin proteins have a complex structure consisting of several domains, including an alpha-helical domain, beta-pleated sheet domain, and a non-repetitive domain. These domains provide keratin with its unique properties, such as resistance to heat, chemicals, and mechanical stress.

In summary, keratins are fibrous structural proteins that play a crucial role in providing strength, rigidity, and protection to various tissues in the body.

Asepsis is a state or practice of being free from infection or contamination, especially by pathogenic microorganisms. It is a set of procedures and practices used in medicine and healthcare to prevent infection and the spread of disease-causing microorganisms. Aseptic techniques include the use of sterile equipment, barriers, and environmental controls to prevent the introduction of microorganisms into a susceptible host.

There are two types of asepsis: medical and surgical. Medical asepsis involves practices that reduce the number of microorganisms in the environment, such as hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and cleaning and disinfection of surfaces and equipment. Surgical asepsis is a more stringent form of asepsis that aims to create a sterile field during surgical procedures, using sterilized instruments, drapes, gowns, gloves, and other materials to prevent the introduction of microorganisms into the surgical site.

Maintaining aseptic techniques is critical in healthcare settings to prevent the transmission of infectious agents and protect patients from harm. Failure to follow aseptic practices can result in healthcare-associated infections (HAIs), which can cause significant morbidity, mortality, and increased healthcare costs.

The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a complex network of biomolecules that provides structural and biochemical support to cells in tissues and organs. It is composed of various proteins, glycoproteins, and polysaccharides, such as collagens, elastin, fibronectin, laminin, and proteoglycans. The ECM plays crucial roles in maintaining tissue architecture, regulating cell behavior, and facilitating communication between cells. It provides a scaffold for cell attachment, migration, and differentiation, and helps to maintain the structural integrity of tissues by resisting mechanical stresses. Additionally, the ECM contains various growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines that can influence cellular processes such as proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Overall, the extracellular matrix is essential for the normal functioning of tissues and organs, and its dysregulation can contribute to various pathological conditions, including fibrosis, cancer, and degenerative diseases.

In medical and embryological terms, the mesoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early stages of embryonic development. It forms between the ectoderm and endoderm during gastrulation, and it gives rise to a wide variety of cell types, tissues, and organs in the developing embryo.

The mesoderm contributes to the formation of structures such as:

1. The connective tissues (including tendons, ligaments, and most of the bones)
2. Muscular system (skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscles)
3. Circulatory system (heart, blood vessels, and blood cells)
4. Excretory system (kidneys and associated structures)
5. Reproductive system (gonads, including ovaries and testes)
6. Dermis of the skin
7. Parts of the eye and inner ear
8. Several organs in the urogenital system

Dysfunctions or abnormalities in mesoderm development can lead to various congenital disorders and birth defects, highlighting its importance during embryogenesis.

Hyaluronic acid is a glycosaminoglycan, a type of complex carbohydrate, that is naturally found in the human body. It is most abundant in the extracellular matrix of soft connective tissues, including the skin, eyes, and joints. Hyaluronic acid is known for its remarkable capacity to retain water, which helps maintain tissue hydration, lubrication, and elasticity. Its functions include providing structural support, promoting wound healing, and regulating cell growth and differentiation. In the medical field, hyaluronic acid is often used in various forms as a therapeutic agent for conditions like osteoarthritis, dry eye syndrome, and skin rejuvenation.

The term "back" is a common word used to describe the large posterior part of the body of a human or an animal, which extends from the neck to the pelvis and contains the spine, spinal cord, ribs, muscles, and other various tissues. In medical terms, the back is also known as the dorsal region. It provides support, protection, and mobility for the body, allowing us to stand upright, bend, twist, and perform various physical activities. The back is susceptible to various injuries, disorders, and conditions, such as back pain, strains, sprains, herniated discs, scoliosis, and arthritis, among others.

Keratolytic agents are substances that cause the softening and sloughing off of excess keratin, the protein that makes up the outermost layer of the skin (stratum corneum). These agents help to break down and remove dead skin cells, increase moisture retention, and promote the growth of new skin cells. They are commonly used in the treatment of various dermatological conditions such as psoriasis, eczema, warts, calluses, and ichthyosis. Examples of keratolytic agents include salicylic acid, urea, lactic acid, and retinoic acid.

In situ hybridization (ISH) is a molecular biology technique used to detect and localize specific nucleic acid sequences, such as DNA or RNA, within cells or tissues. This technique involves the use of a labeled probe that is complementary to the target nucleic acid sequence. The probe can be labeled with various types of markers, including radioisotopes, fluorescent dyes, or enzymes.

During the ISH procedure, the labeled probe is hybridized to the target nucleic acid sequence in situ, meaning that the hybridization occurs within the intact cells or tissues. After washing away unbound probe, the location of the labeled probe can be visualized using various methods depending on the type of label used.

In situ hybridization has a wide range of applications in both research and diagnostic settings, including the detection of gene expression patterns, identification of viral infections, and diagnosis of genetic disorders.

Angiokeratoma is a cutaneous condition characterized by the presence of small, dilated blood vessels (capillaries) in the upper dermis, which are covered by thickened epidermis. These lesions appear as dark red to black papules or plaques on the skin surface. They can occur spontaneously or as a result of an underlying medical condition such as Fabry disease. Angiokeratomas are typically asymptomatic but may occasionally cause mild discomfort or itching. They most commonly affect the lower extremities, particularly the buttocks and genital region, but can also appear on other parts of the body.

Systemic Scleroderma, also known as Systemic Sclerosis (SSc), is a rare, chronic autoimmune disease that involves the abnormal growth and accumulation of collagen in various connective tissues, blood vessels, and organs throughout the body. This excessive collagen production leads to fibrosis or scarring, which can cause thickening, hardening, and tightening of the skin and damage to internal organs such as the heart, lungs, kidneys, and gastrointestinal tract.

Systemic Scleroderma is characterized by two main features: small blood vessel abnormalities (Raynaud's phenomenon) and fibrosis. The disease can be further classified into two subsets based on the extent of skin involvement: limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis (lcSSc) and diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (dcSSc).

Limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis affects the skin distally, typically involving fingers, hands, forearms, feet, lower legs, and face. It is often associated with Raynaud's phenomenon, calcinosis, telangiectasias, and pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis involves more extensive skin thickening and fibrosis that spreads proximally to affect the trunk, upper arms, thighs, and face. It is commonly associated with internal organ involvement, such as interstitial lung disease, heart disease, and kidney problems.

The exact cause of Systemic Scleroderma remains unknown; however, it is believed that genetic, environmental, and immunological factors contribute to its development. There is currently no cure for Systemic Scleroderma, but various treatments can help manage symptoms, slow disease progression, and improve quality of life.

Pigmentation disorders are conditions that affect the production or distribution of melanin, the pigment responsible for the color of skin, hair, and eyes. These disorders can cause changes in the color of the skin, resulting in areas that are darker (hyperpigmentation) or lighter (hypopigmentation) than normal. Examples of pigmentation disorders include melasma, age spots, albinism, and vitiligo. The causes, symptoms, and treatments for these conditions can vary widely, so it is important to consult a healthcare provider for an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan.

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by infection with Leishmania parasites, which are transmitted through the bite of infected female sandflies. The disease primarily affects the skin and mucous membranes, causing lesions that can be disfiguring and stigmatizing. There are several clinical forms of cutaneous leishmaniasis, including localized, disseminated, and mucocutaneous.

Localized cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most common form of the disease, characterized by the development of one or more nodular or ulcerative lesions at the site of the sandfly bite, typically appearing within a few weeks to several months after exposure. The lesions may vary in size and appearance, ranging from small papules to large plaques or ulcers, and can be painful or pruritic (itchy).

Disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis is a more severe form of the disease, characterized by the widespread dissemination of lesions across the body. This form of the disease typically affects people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or those receiving immunosuppressive therapy.

Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis is a rare but severe form of the disease, characterized by the spread of infection from the skin to the mucous membranes of the nose, mouth, and throat. This can result in extensive tissue destruction, disfigurement, and functional impairment.

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is diagnosed through a combination of clinical evaluation, epidemiological data, and laboratory tests such as parasite detection using microscopy or molecular techniques, or serological tests to detect antibodies against the Leishmania parasites. Treatment options for cutaneous leishmaniasis include systemic or topical medications, such as antimonial drugs, miltefosine, or pentamidine, as well as physical treatments such as cryotherapy or thermotherapy. The choice of treatment depends on various factors, including the species of Leishmania involved, the clinical form of the disease, and the patient's overall health status.

CD1 antigens are a group of molecules found on the surface of certain immune cells, including dendritic cells and B cells. They play a role in the immune system by presenting lipid antigens to T cells, which helps initiate an immune response against foreign substances such as bacteria and viruses. CD1 molecules are distinct from other antigen-presenting molecules like HLA because they present lipids rather than peptides. There are five different types of CD1 molecules (CD1a, CD1b, CD1c, CD1d, and CD1e) that differ in their tissue distribution and the types of lipid antigens they present.

According to the American Academy of Ophthalmology and the National Organization for Rare Disorders, bullous pemphigoid is an autoimmune blistering disorder characterized by the formation of large, fluid-filled blisters (bullae) on the skin and mucous membranes. This condition primarily affects older adults, with most cases occurring in individuals over 60 years of age.

In bullous pemphigoid, the immune system mistakenly produces antibodies against proteins called BP230 and BP180, which are found in the basement membrane zone – a layer that separates the epidermis (outer skin layer) from the dermis (inner skin layer). This autoimmune response leads to the formation of blisters, causing significant discomfort and potential complications if left untreated.

The symptoms of bullous pemphigoid typically include:

1. Large, fluid-filled blisters on the skin, often appearing on the trunk, arms, or legs. These blisters may be itchy or painful.
2. Blisters that rupture easily, leading to raw, open sores.
3. Mucous membrane involvement, such as blisters in the mouth, nose, eyes, or genital area.
4. Skin redness and irritation.
5. Fluid-filled bumps (papules) or pus-filled bumps (pustules).
6. Scarring and skin discoloration after blisters heal.

Treatment for bullous pemphigoid usually involves a combination of medications to control the immune response, reduce inflammation, and promote healing. These may include corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, or other targeted therapies. In some cases, antibiotics may also be prescribed to help manage secondary infections that can occur due to blister formation.

It is essential to consult with a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan if you suspect you have bullous pemphigoid or are experiencing related symptoms.

Dermabrasion is a medical procedure that involves the mechanical exfoliation, or removal, of the outer layers of the skin using a rapidly rotating abrasive tool. The goal of dermabrasion is to improve the appearance of various skin conditions, such as acne scars, fine lines and wrinkles, age spots, and sun damage.

During the procedure, the doctor uses a high-speed brush or a diamond-coated wheel to remove the top layers of the skin, revealing smoother, more evenly textured skin underneath. The depth of the treatment can be adjusted based on the individual's needs and desired outcome.

After dermabrasion, it is common for the skin to be red, swollen, and sensitive for several days or weeks. It may take several months for the skin to fully heal and for the final results to become apparent.

It is important to note that dermabrasion is not appropriate for everyone, particularly those with certain skin conditions such as active acne, eczema, or psoriasis. Additionally, there are risks associated with the procedure, including infection, scarring, and changes in skin color. It is essential to consult with a qualified medical professional before undergoing dermabrasion to determine if it is the right treatment option for you.

The reticular dermis is the lower layer of the dermis, found under the papillary dermis, composed of dense irregular connective ... The papillary dermis is the uppermost layer of the dermis. It intertwines with the rete ridges of the epidermis and is composed ... The dermis is tightly connected to the epidermis through a basement membrane. Structural components of the dermis are collagen ... Epidermis, papillary dermis and reticular dermis. The dermal papillae (DP) (singular papilla, diminutive of Latin papula, ' ...
Human dermis Small intestinal submucosa Bovine dermis Porcine dermis Human Demineralized Bone Matrix Equine pericardium Bovine ... Acellular dermis is a type of biomaterial derived from processing human or animal tissues to remove cells and retain portions ... Alloderm, an acellular dermis derived from the skin of donated cadavers, is used in reconstructive and dental surgeries. In ... In the case of Graftjacket, an allograft from human dermis, the matrix is quickly populated by host cells as vasculature. The ...
"Athletics' Dermis Garcia: Pushed off 40-man roster". cbssports.com. Retrieved April 24, 2023. "Athletics' Dermis Garcia: ... Dermis García (born January 7, 1998) is a Dominican professional baseball infielder for the Algodoneros de Unión Laguna of the ... Darragh McDonald (July 10, 2022). "Athletics To Select Dermis Garcia". Mlbtraderumors.com. Retrieved July 18, 2022. "Pair of ...
Amazon.com page on The Dermis Probe Internet Movie Database page on The Dermis Probe Octagon Press page for The Dermis Probe ... The Dermis Probe can therefore be read as part of a course of study on Sufism. The Dermis Probe is a collection of teaching ... The Dermis Probe is a book by Idries Shah published by Octagon Press in 1970. A paperback edition was published in 1989 and ... The Dermis Probe develops the theme of patterns of material - arrangements: it is necessary to remember that the position of a ...
... is a US-based online dermatology and tele-health website providing answers to skin conditions. Users send in cases ... First Derm was founded in 2014 by Dr. Alexander Börve to support dermatologists in treating patients online. Dr. Börve studied ... The purpose of First Derm is to provide immediate solutions to skin care concerns without diagnosing the patient. This allows ...
Derm (Approved) at GEOnet Names Server, United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency "Derm, Namibia". Hudson Institute ... Derm is a hamlet in the Hardap Region of central Namibia, on Route M-41 at its intersection with routes D-1328 and C-25. It is ... Derm is situated 132 kilometres (82 mi) north-east of Mariental and 24 km east of Uhlenhorst in the Rehoboth district. ... "NamPol-Derm, C25, Mariental Rural, Mariental, Namibia". Smith, Darren (29 July 2021). "Nampol trek 207 vermeende veediewe in ...
Perez, Dermis. Alberto Korda. Art Nexus. Mar.-May 2009. Che'd by Bruce Labruce [https://thequietus.com/articles/25636-bruce- ...
ISBN 1-898942-17-X. Shah, Idries (1980) [1970]. The Dermis Probe. London, UK: Octagon Press. p. 21. ISBN 0-86304-045-4. Shah, ... ISBN 1-85043-751-3. Shah, Idries (1980) [1970]. The Dermis Probe. London, UK: Octagon Press. p. 18. ISBN 0-86304-045-4. ... The Dermis Probe ISBN 9781784790486 (1970-2016) Thinkers of the East: Studies in Experientialism ISBN 9781784790608 (1971-2016 ...
ISBN 978-0-7216-2921-6. "DermIS - Adenoma Sebaceum (information on the diagnosis)". www.dermis.net. Retrieved 2016-01-01. v t e ...
The dermis takes 3 mechanical states soft (S1), standard (S2) and stiff (S3). Animals without stimulation takes the standard ... Connective tissue, including dermis, tendons and ligaments, is one of four main animal tissues. Usual connective tissue does ... Starfish: body-wall dermis; walls of tube feet. Brittle stars: intervertebral ligaments; autotomy tendons of arm muscles. Sea ... Sea cucumbers: body-wall dermis. Early echinoderms were sessile organisms that fed on suspended particles carried by water ...
Derm. Syph. 28: 532-543. 1933. (With A. McH. Hopkins.) The fungi of blastomycosis and coccidioidal granuloma. Arch. Derm. Syph ... Derm. Syph. 25: 1046-1057. 1932. (With B. M. Kesten, B. K. Ashford, C. W. Emmons and M. C. Moss.) Vegetable parasites that ...
Derm. 78: 483-487, 1958. Descargues P, Deraison C, Bonnart C, Kreft M, Kishibe M, Ishida-Yamamoto A, Elias P, Barrandon Y, ...
Derm. Vener. (in Russian). 4: 64. Cited by Mitchell and Rook (1979), p. 693. Mitchell J, Rook A (1979). Botanical Dermatology: ...
Derm. Syph. 181: 571-583, 1940. Blaszczyk M, Depaepe A, Nuytinck L, Glinska-Ferenz M, Jablonska S (2000). "Acrogeria of the ...
Borelli, D (1961). "Hipotesis sobre ecologia de Paracoccidioides". Derm. Venez. 3: 130-132. Restrepo, M; et al. (1969). "Effect ...
Derm. Syph. (Wien), vol. 55, p. 810; Farber, S. (1941). American Journal of Pathology, vol. 17, p. 625; Flori, A. G. and ...
Derm. Syph. Paris. 5: 598-606, 661-666. Balzer F, Ménétrier P (1885). "Étude sur un cas d'adénomes sébacés de la face et du ...
Derm. Wschr. 89: 1163-1168 (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, All articles with ...
León, Dermis Pérez (December 2012). "Diango Hernández: Educating Ourselves for Life Under Capitalism". ArtNexus. Retrieved 2018 ...
The spirochetes multiply and migrate outward within the dermis. The host inflammatory response to the bacteria in the skin ... Hellerström S (1930). "Erythema chronicum migrans Afzelii". Acta Derm. Venerol. (in German). 11: 315-21. Lenhoff C (1948). " ... "Spirochetes in aetiologically obscure diseases". Acta Derm. Venerol. 28 (3): 295-324. PMID 18891989. Thyresson N (1949). "The ...
Acta Derm. Venereol. 85 (5): 394-9. doi:10.1080/00015550510037684. PMID 16159729. v t e (CS1: long volume value, Articles with ...
Acta Derm. Venereol. 85 (4): 346-8. doi:10.1080/00015550510026613. PMID 16191859. Freiberg RA, Choate KA, Deng H, Alperin ES, ...
Valsecchi R, Leghissa P, Greco V (2004). "Cutaneous lesions in Blastocystis hominis infection". Acta Derm. Venereol. 84 (4): ...
Acta Derm. Venereol. 86 (5): 393-8. doi:10.2340/00015555-0118. PMID 16955181. Baltz KM, Krusch M, Bringmann A, et al. (2007). " ...
Lorenz M, Wozel G, Schmitt J (March 2012). "Hypersensitivity reactions to dapsone: a systematic review". Acta Derm. Venereol. ...
Langeland T, Nyrud M (1982). "Contact urticaria to wheat bran bath: a case report". Acta Derm. Venereol. 62 (1): 82-3. doi: ... 2006). "Hydrolysed wheat proteins present in cosmetics can induce immediate hypersensitivities". Contact Derm. 54 (5): 283-9. ...
June 2004). "Content of oak moss allergens atranol and chloroatranol in perfumes and similar products". Contact Derm. 50 (6): ... Contact Derm. 52 (4): 216-25. doi:10.1111/j.0105-1873.2005.00563.x. PMID 15859994. S2CID 5661020. Deborah Gushman. "The Nose ...
Histologic sections showed the dermis to be almost devoid of elastin in most areas with clumping of elastic material in other ... Acta Derm. Venereol. 61 (6): 497-503. doi:10.2340/0001555561497503. PMID 6177160. S2CID 28727015. v t e (Articles with short ...
Acta Derm. Venereol. 78 (6): 417-9. doi:10.1080/000155598442683. PMID 9833038. Grimsby S, Jaensson H, Dubrovska A, et al. (2004 ...
The reticular dermis is the lower layer of the dermis, found under the papillary dermis, composed of dense irregular connective ... The papillary dermis is the uppermost layer of the dermis. It intertwines with the rete ridges of the epidermis and is composed ... The dermis is tightly connected to the epidermis through a basement membrane. Structural components of the dermis are collagen ... Epidermis, papillary dermis and reticular dermis. The dermal papillae (DP) (singular papilla, diminutive of Latin papula, ...
Dermis. The primary function of the dermis is to sustain and support the epidermis. The dermis is a more complex structure and ... the more superficial papillary dermis and the deeper reticular dermis. The papillary dermis is thinner, consisting of loose ... They often are found deep within the dermis and in the face may even lie in the subcutaneous fat beneath the dermis. This ... Collagen makes up 70% of the weight of the dermis, primarily Type I (85% of the total collagen) and Type III (15% of the total ...
The dermis is also vulnerable to injury and disease. Most skin cancers begin in the dermis and so do most infections. The ... The dermis has variable thickness ranging from 0.5 to 3 mm. it is thinnest in the eye and thickest in the soles of the feet and ... The dermis is structurally sub divided into two segments: a superficial area adjacent to the epidermis, called the papillary ... The second layer, which is not visible, is called the dermis. It is made up of loose tissue, contains many glands and nerves. ...
Learn about Dermis at online-medical-dictionary.org ... Embedded in or beneath the dermis are SWEAT GLANDS; HAIR ... The surface of the dermis contains innervated papillae. ...
Inflammatory process involving lymphatic channels of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. It is most often due to streptococcal infection, but Staphylococcus aureus is occasionally implicated, too. Acute lymphangitis follows cutaneous injury or infection and presents as a tender red streak ascending the arm or leg from a site of injury. Associated symptoms include tender, enlarged, draining regional lymph nodes, fever, and malaise.. ...
A fibrosarcoma of the skin, beginning most often as an indurated nodule that grows slowly and hence is often ignored until it grows large. Dermatofibrosarcomas show an extremely aggressive tendency to invade local surrounding tissue. They do not metastasize, however, even after multiple recurrences. About 50% will recur after simple incision; hence wide excision should be resorted to. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1356). ...
... papillary dermis. This is the topmost layer of the dermis, and then below the papillary dermis, we have whats called the ... reticular dermis, the reticular dermis, right here. The main difference between the dermis versus the epidermis is the type of ... In the papillary dermis we have very thin, loose connective tissue, and this allows for all the stuff in the papillary dermis ... Is the topmost layer of the dermis called the papillary dermis for the same reason that the muscles in the heart that open and ...
by Michael Aicken , Dec 8, 2017 , Blog, DERM. Lipstick or smokers lines can be tricky to treat. They are relatively ...
Pro-Derm PSF Pure Skin Formulations RapidLash RejudiCare Synergy Revision Skincare RevitaLash Rosebud Shira Silver Miracles ...
BuyObagi Medical Nu-Derm® Everyday Essentials Duo (Worth $86.00)online with Dermstore. We have a great range ofproducts ... Obagi Medical Nu-Derm Foaming Gel (6.7 fl. oz.). Obagi Nu-Derm Foaming Gel deep cleanses your pores to remove impurities like ... Obagi Medical Nu-Derm Foaming Gel (6.7 fl. oz.). Obagi Nu-Derm Foaming Gel deep cleanses your pores to remove impurities like ... Obagi Medical Nu-Derm Toner (6.7 fl. oz.). Obagi Nu-Derm Toner gently removes excess oil and impurities without stripping your ...
Vi Derm Cleanser, Cleanser. Read more Vi Aesthetics product reviews at Total Beauty. ...
This top dermatologist shared two easy at-home tips for preventing fine lines and wrinkles around the eyes.
The Nu-Derm system offers a complete prescription-strength regimen that helps to diminish the appearance of age spots, dark ... The Obagi Nu-Derm System Trial Kit comes in a six week supply and is TS ... Discover the transforming power of Nu-Derm with this trial-size kit. ... Discover the transforming power of Nu-Derm with this trial-size kit. The Nu-Derm system offers a complete prescription-strength ...
The therapy would consist of using a skin biopsy to harvest dermis-isolated, adult stem cells (DIAS cells), which will undergo ... The project now has a consistent source of human dermis tissue from which stem cells can be isolated. This includes skin ... The therapy would begin with a biopsy of the patients own skin to harvest dermis isolated, adult stem cells (DIAS cells), ... The therapy would begin with a biopsy of the patients own skin to harvest dermis isolated, adult stem cells (DIAS cells), ...
The Derm Vet Podcast. 29. QoL for derm patients and clients September 03, 2020 Ashley Bourgeois, DVM, Dip ACVD Season 1 Episode ...
Use left/right arrows to navigate the slideshow or swipe left/right if using a mobile ...
Eli Global acquires veterinary derm company Stratford Pharmaceuticals. Eli to enter global animal health industry. August 28, ...
The thin TSG Dermis (Pro) A mountain bike protectors are perfect for comfortable climbs and fast downhills, providing ... I. The Dermis Pro A Knee-Sleeves. The new Dermis Pro A is a lightweight, slimline and compact knee and shin protector for trail ... "The Dermis A Knee-Sleeves are my favourite when it comes to riding singletrail. Indeed, the Dermis A perfectly fits the knee ... youth knee-sleeve dermis pro A. youth knee-sleeve dermis pro A ... youth elbow-sleeve dermis A. youth elbow-sleeve dermis A. 59.95 ...
An independently owned and operated Franchisee of ITEX Corporation ...
Home Miami-Dade Community News Participate in DERMs Fats, Oils and Grease roundtable ... The Division of Environmental Resources Management (DERM) is hosting the 21st Roundtable, a virtual Fats, Oils and Grease (FOG ...
Summer is here, and its time to step up your beauty routine. With a little bit of planning and all-natural products, you can look fabulous on your summer vacation while still keeping things simple. And if youre wondering from where you should start? Dont worry. Weve enlisted some pointers that might help. Also, since its …. Your All-Natural Summer Vacation Beauty Routine! Read More ». ...
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A woman presents with spontaneous reddish-purple discoloration of her toes.
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Co-owner: Form Derm Spa & WardMD Facial Plastic Surgery. Old Mill, Cottonwood Heights. City Creek, Downtown SLC. Mountain View ... P. Daniel Ward, MD, and the team at the Form Derm Spa take the ideology of self-care to a whole new level. ... Ward is a key thought leader and on the advisory board for several major aesthetic companies, so clients of Form Derm Spa know ... With a company wide-philosophy of "Improving Lives by Inspiring Confidence," the ladies at Form Derm Spa take on a lofty goal ...
Decellularized Dermis 40 mm x 70 mm x 1.0 mm ... Decellularized Dermis 40 mm x 70 mm x 1.0 mm. AFLEX401. Request ...
... comes into the contemporary shaped Neo Derm Interior solution by Beige Design. ... Neo Derm Interior by Beige Design. October 24, 2012, 8:50 pm. Comments Off on Neo Derm Interior by Beige Design ... Project: Neo Derm Interior. Designed by Beige Design. Location: Hong Kong, China. Website: www.beige.com.hk. Subtle combination ... of white and green, comes into the contemporary shaped Neo Derm Interior solution by Beige Design. ...
SPF 50 , Will the VI Derm SPF 50+ make me break out?. The VI Derm SPF 50+ was formulated to prevent breakouts typically ... How long will my VI Derm products last?. VI Derm products have a shelf-life of 2 years. For those that contain active ... Yes, all VI Derm products are cruelty free. We do not believe in animal testing and choose to partner with suppliers who share ... The VI Derm Beauty SPF 50 Daily UV Defense Broad Spectrum Sunscreen is a great option that does not leave a white cast on your ...
  • Obagi Nu-Derm Toner gently removes excess oil and impurities without stripping your skin of vital moisture. (dermstore.com)
  • The integument consists of 2 mutually dependent layers, the epidermis and dermis, which rest on a fatty subcutaneous layer, the panniculus adiposus. (medscape.com)
  • Teeth, hair, and hair follicles are formed by the epidermis and dermis in concert, while fingernails and toenails are formed by the epidermis alone. (medscape.com)
  • Second degree burn affects the epidermis and dermis. (lu.se)
  • The papillary dermis is the uppermost layer of the dermis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epidermis, papillary dermis and reticular dermis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dermal papillae are part of the uppermost layer of the dermis, the papillary dermis, and the ridges they form greatly increase the surface area between the dermis and epidermis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reticular dermis is the lower layer of the dermis, found under the papillary dermis, composed of dense irregular connective tissue featuring densely-packed collagen fibers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reticular region is usually much thicker than the overlying papillary dermis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different online sites say that the arrector pili muscle is in the reticular or papillary dermis. (khanacademy.org)
  • In these videos the speaker alternates between the reticular and the papillary dermis. (khanacademy.org)
  • Arrector pili muscles span both layers of the dermis, they originate in the papillary dermis and attach to hair follicles in the reticular dermis. (khanacademy.org)
  • It is divided into two layers, the superficial area adjacent to the epidermis called the papillary region and a deep thicker area known as the reticular dermis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The orientation of collagen fibers within the reticular dermis creates lines of tension called Langer's lines, which are of some relevance in surgery and wound healing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hair follicles, sebaceous glands, sweat glands, apocrine glands, and mammary glands are considered epidermal glands or epidermal appendages, because they develop as downgrowths or diverticula of the epidermis into the dermis. (medscape.com)
  • Introduced in 2018, the Dermis A Sleeves for knees and elbows soon became our enduro rider's favourite pads. (ridetsg.com)
  • With our Dermis A Knee and Elbow-Sleeves we took a new approach when we launched them in 2018. (ridetsg.com)
  • with Obagi's Nu-Derm Gentle Cleanser. (wifh.com)
  • Obagi Nu-Derm Foaming Gel is a deep cleanser which removes impurities like dirt, oil and other pollutants from your pores. (skincareheaven.com)
  • The wounds were treated with autologous PRP, double-layer artificial dermis , or thei combination of autologous PRP and double-layer artificial dermis , followed by autologous split-thickness scalp grafting after good growth of granulation tissue . (bvsalud.org)
  • Structural components of the dermis are collagen, elastic fibers, and extrafibrillar matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apart from these cells, the dermis is also composed of matrix components such as collagen (which provides strength), elastin (which provides elasticity), and extrafibrillar matrix, an extracellular gel-like substance primarily composed of glycosaminoglycans (most notably hyaluronan), proteoglycans, and glycoproteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dermis is derived primarily from mesoderm and contains collagen, elastic fibers, blood vessels, sensory structures, and fibroblasts. (medscape.com)
  • The dermis or corium is a layer of skin between the epidermis (with which it makes up the cutis) and subcutaneous tissues, that primarily consists of dense irregular connective tissue and cushions the body from stress and strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Nu-Derm system offers a complete prescription-strength regimen that helps to diminish the appearance of age spots, dark spots, freckles, hyper-pigmentation, and discoloration. (obagi.com)
  • The epidermis contains no blood vessels and is entirely dependent on the underlying dermis for nutrient delivery and waste disposal via diffusion through the dermoepidermal junction. (medscape.com)
  • Q: How do I order Avan Derm Nu Advanced Eye Serum directly from the manufacturer? (consumerhealthdigest.com)
  • You can learn more about the Avan Derm Nu Advanced Eye Serum, read about how their products can benefit your anti-aging skincare regimen, and place an order for this product at their website at https://www.avanderm-eye.com/index.php. (consumerhealthdigest.com)
  • The Dermis Pro A offers sufficient protection against abrasion and light shocks on and off the trail and racetrack. (ridetsg.com)
  • Avan Derm Nu is a product that is known to help in reducing the look of age spots, fine lines, wrinkles and other aging symptoms. (consumerhealthdigest.com)
  • The dermis has variable thickness ranging from 0.5 to 3 mm. it is thinnest in the eye and thickest in the soles of the feet and the back. (dermanetwork.org)
  • Needles are 1,5 to 2mm in thickness and traumatize the dermis. (globale-dermatologie.com)
  • Avan Derm Nu is an anti-aging formula, that contains ingredients that are capable of making you look younger than your actual age and boosting confidence. (consumerhealthdigest.com)
  • Avan Derm Nu Ingredients - Are they Safe & Effective? (consumerhealthdigest.com)
  • Obagi Exfoderm part of the Nu-Derm System - A lightweight lotion that helps exfoliate the top layer of the skin, removing dull, old skin cells, while revealing new skin cells for a brighter complexion. (gardnerplasticsurgery.com)
  • Now for 2019 we increase the range and launch the Dermis Pro A with Shin Protection and a set specially designed for younger riders. (ridetsg.com)
  • The dermis is composed of three major types of cells: fibroblasts, macrophages, and mast cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Third degree burn goes through the dermis and affect deeper tissues. (lu.se)
  • Hill's Prescription Diet Derm Complete Rice & Egg Recipe Wet Dog Food provides all the nutrition your dog needs and can be used long-term. (hillspet.com.au)
  • In artificial dermis alone group, one patient experienced partial liquefaction and detachment of the double-layer artificial dermis due to local infection of Staphylococcus epidermidis , which received wound dressing change, second artificial dermis transplantation , and subsequent treatment as before. (bvsalud.org)
  • The success and growth of the Dermis Dermatology Clinic Group can primarily be attributed to our specialists who practice their profession with passion and humanity. (dermis-hautklinik.ch)
  • The new Dermis Pro A is a lightweight, slimline and compact knee and shin protector for trail and all-mountain bikers as well as bmx racers. (ridetsg.com)
  • Local injection of PRP combined with double-layer artificial dermis is effective in treating wounds with exposed tendon on extremity , which can not only significantly shorten wound healing time and length of hospital stay , but also improve scar pliability after wound healing to some extent in the long term. (bvsalud.org)
  • The dermal papillae (DP) (singular papilla, diminutive of Latin papula, 'pimple') are small, nipple-like extensions (or interdigitations) of the dermis into the epidermis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The surface of the dermis contains innervated papillae. (online-medical-dictionary.org)
  • The protective foam in the Dermis Pro A is deliberately thinner than in TSG's dirt and downhill pads to meet the flow of trail riders and BMX racers as they're light, flexible and comfortable when pedalling. (ridetsg.com)
  • The Division of Environmental Resources Management (DERM) is hosting the 21st Roundtable, a virtual Fats, Oils and Grease (FOG) meeting for restaurant owners and related businesses on Monday. (communitynewspapers.com)
  • These protein fibers give the dermis its properties of strength, extensibility, and elasticity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the main function of the dermis is to support the epidermis, this greatly increases the exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste products between these two layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Maui Derm NP + PA Fall 2023 will present a wealth of pearls to put into practice between September 27-30 in Asheville, North Carolina. (dermatologytimes.com)
  • Throughout the dermis, small perivascular to interstitial heterophilic and pleocellular infiltrates were present. (cdc.gov)
  • The Obagi Nu-Derm System Trial Kit comes in a six week supply and is TSA-friendly. (obagi.com)
  • The second layer, which is not visible, is called the dermis. (dermanetwork.org)
  • Clinical efficacy of local injection of platelet-rich plasma combined with double-layer artificial dermis in treating wounds with exposed tendon on extremity]. (bvsalud.org)
  • To investigate the clinical efficacy of local injection of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) combined with double-layer artificial dermis in treating wounds with exposed tendon on extremity . (bvsalud.org)
  • Janie Ward, her husband Dr. P. Daniel Ward, MD , and the team at the Form Derm Spa take the ideology of self-care to a whole new level. (saltlakemagazine.com)
  • The patients were divided into PRP alone group, artificial dermis alone group, and PRP+artificial dermis group, with 16 patients in each group. (bvsalud.org)
  • On the 7th day after the secondary surgery , there was no statistically significant difference in the autograft survival rate of patients among PRP alone group, artificial dermis alone group, and PRP+artificial dermis group (P>0.05). (bvsalud.org)
  • Obagi Nu-Derm Foaming Gel deep cleanses your pores to remove impurities like dirt, oil and other pollutants with a gentle complex of oat amino acids. (dermstore.com)
  • He recommended a few dog food brands and after thoroughly researching them, I felt that Derm Complete was the best fit! (petcarerx.com)
  • To try Derm complete, this food flared up his IBD and my dog is on antibiotics. (petcarerx.com)
  • By removing dirt, oil, makeup and acne-causing bacteria, the Obagi Nu-Derm Foaming Gel helps prevent future breakouts and soothes, heals and calms. (skincareheaven.com)
  • The therapy would consist of using a skin biopsy to harvest dermis-isolated, adult stem cells (DIAS cells), which will undergo processing to yield neocartilage. (ca.gov)
  • The project now has a consistent source of human dermis tissue from which stem cells can be isolated. (ca.gov)
  • The Dermis line pads are so comfortable that you might just forget you're wearing them! (ridetsg.com)
  • The Dermis line pads are so comfortable that you might just forget about having them on unless you happen to hit the ground while wearing them. (ridetsg.com)
  • Looking ahead, Utahns can expect a rebrand of the FormRX line with beautiful new designs, as well as an expanded vision for Form Derm Spa, both geographically and with a wider range of services to help them improve Utah lives by inspiring that Form brand of confidence. (saltlakemagazine.com)
  • occasional immunoreactivity was found in dermis and brain endothelium. (cdc.gov)
  • With a company wide-philosophy of "Improving Lives by Inspiring Confidence," the ladies at Form Derm Spa take on a lofty goal of boosting self-confidence in both their clients and their employees, taking on a role in individual growth journeys by helping them achieve security with their appearance. (saltlakemagazine.com)
  • Dr. Ward is a key thought leader and on the advisory board for several major aesthetic companies, so clients of Form Derm Spa know they are getting a world-class experience. (saltlakemagazine.com)
  • Tatu-Derm strives to improve the tattoo experience for both the artist and their clients by creating a simpler aftercare process. (painfulpleasures.com)
  • I switched to Derm Complete a month ago and she has almost completely stopped. (petcarerx.com)
  • Since starting the Derm Complete they have needed their Cytopoint injections less frequently and have had far fewer flare ups than they did in the years before. (petcarerx.com)
  • We switched from Z/D to Derm Complete. (petcarerx.com)
  • Otherwise, when someone lightly touches you, they're only touching the epidermis but the receptors in the dermis can sense it. (khanacademy.org)