Perception of three-dimensionality.
The difference between two images on the retina when looking at a visual stimulus. This occurs since the two retinas do not have the same view of the stimulus because of the location of our eyes. Thus the left eye does not get exactly the same view as the right eye.
The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.
The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.
Images seen by one eye.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.
The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.
The turning inward of the lines of sight toward each other.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
The functional superiority and preferential use of one eye over the other. The term is usually applied to superiority in sighting (VISUAL PERCEPTION) or motor task but not difference in VISUAL ACUITY or dysfunction of one of the eyes. Ocular dominance can be modified by visual input and NEUROTROPHIC FACTORS.
Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.
Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.
The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.
The sensory discrimination of a pattern shape or outline.
Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.
Differential response to different stimuli.
An illusion of vision usually affecting spatial relations.
Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.
Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.
The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.
The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.
Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.
The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).
The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.
The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The process by which PAIN is recognized and interpreted by the brain.
The ability to estimate periods of time lapsed or duration of time.
The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.
A dimension of auditory sensation varying with cycles per second of the sound stimulus.
The sensory interpretation of the dimensions of objects.
The process by which the nature and meaning of gustatory stimuli are recognized and interpreted by the brain. The four basic classes of taste perception are salty, sweet, bitter, and sour.
Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.
The process by which the nature and meaning of tactile stimuli are recognized and interpreted by the brain, such as realizing the characteristics or name of an object being touched.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are coniferous evergreen trees and should not be confused with hemlock plants (CICUTA and CONIUM).

Temporal aspects of stereoscopic slant estimation: an evaluation and extension of Howard and Kaneko's theory. (1/1300)

We investigated temporal aspects of stereoscopically perceived slant produced by the following transformations: horizontal scale, horizontal shear, vertical scale, vertical shear, divergence and rotation, between the half-images of a stereogram. Six subjects viewed large field stimuli (70 degrees diameter) both in the presence and in the absence of a visual reference. The presentation duration was: 0.1, 0.4, 1.6, 6.4 or 25.6 s. Without reference we found the following: rotation and divergence evoked considerable perceived slant in a number of subjects. This finding violates the recently published results of Howard and Kaneko. Slant evoked by vertical scale and shear was similar to slant evoked by horizontal scale and shear but was generally less. With reference we found the following: vertical scale and vertical shear did not evoke slant. Slant due to rotation and divergence was similar to slant due to horizontal scale and shear but was generally less. According to the theory of Howard and Kaneko, perceived slant depends on the difference between horizontal and vertical scale and shear disparities. We made their theory more explicit by translating their proposals into linear mathematical expressions that contain weighting factors that allow for both slant evoked by rotation or divergence, subject-dependent underestimation of slant and other related phenomena reported in the literature. Our data for all stimulus durations and for all subjects is explained by this 'unequal-weighting' extension of Howard and Kaneko's theory.  (+info)

Monocular occlusion cues alter the influence of terminator motion in the barber pole phenomenon. (2/1300)

The influence of monocular occlusion cues on the perceived direction of motion of barber pole patterns is examined. Unlike previous studies that have emphasized the importance of binocular disparity, we find that monocular cues strongly influence the perceived motion direction and can even override binocular depth cues. The difference in motion bias for occluders with and without disparity cues is relatively small. Additionally, although 'T-junctions' aligned with occluders are particularly important, they are not strictly necessary for creating a change in motion perception. Finally, the amount of motion bias differs for several stimulus configurations, suggesting that the extrinsic/intrinsic classification of terminators is not all-or-none.  (+info)

The effects of contrast on perceived depth and depth discrimination. (3/1300)

The contrast dependence of perceived depth was quantified through a series of depth matching experiments. Perceived depth was found to be a power law function of contrast. In addition, subjects exhibited a large uncrossed depth bias indicating that low contrast test patterns appeared much farther away than high contrast patterns of equal disparity. For disparities in the range of +/- 4.0 arc min, matching disparities for low contrast patterns were shifted in the uncrossed direction by the same amount. In other words, while the magnitude of the uncrossed depth bias is a power law function of contrast, it is constant with respect to disparity. In a second series of experiments, the contrast dependence of stereo increment thresholds was measured. Like perceived depth and stereoacuity, stereo increment thresholds were found to be a power law function of contrast. These results suggest that contrast effects occur at or before the extraction of depth and have implications for the response properties of disparity-selective mechanisms.  (+info)

Quantitative depth for a phantom surface can be based on cyclopean occlusion cues alone. (4/1300)

Liu, L., Stevenson, S.B., and Schor, C.M. (1994, Nature, 367, 66-669) reported quantitative stereoscopic depth in a phantom rectangle which appeared to lack conventional matching elements. Later, Gillam, B.J. (1995, Nature, 373, 202-203) and Liu, L., Stevenson, S.B., and Schor, C.M. (1995, Nature, 373, 203) and Liu, L., Stevenson, S.B., and Schor, C.M. (1997, Vision Research, 37(5), 633-644) indicated that the varying depth of the phantom rectangle could be based on stereoscopic matching. To remove the contaminating effects of conventional stereopsis from the Liu et al. (1994) original example, we presented a pair of parallel vertical lines to each eye where there is a central gap in the right line for the left eye's view and in the left line for the right eye's view. Observers saw a phantom rectangle bounded by subjective contours whose depth increased with the thickness of the lines. We attribute the quantitative variation of depth to a purely cyclopean (binocular) process sensitive to the pattern of contour presence and absence in the two eye's view.  (+info)

Configuration saliency revealed in short duration binocular rivalry. (5/1300)

Supra-threshold spatial integration was studied by testing the saliency of multi-Gabor element configurations in short duration binocular rivalry (dichoptic masking) conditions. Dichoptic presentations allow for a competition between spatially overlapping supra-threshold stimuli that involve non-overlapping monocular receptive fields in the first stage of visual filtering. Different spatial configurations of Gabor patches (sigma = lambda = 0.12 degree) were presented to one eye (target) together with a bandpass noise presented to the other eye (mask). After a short rivalry period (120 ms) in which a dominance of one eye was established, a probe (a randomly positioned small rectangle of reduced contrast in the target) was presented for additional detection period (80 ms). Probe detection performance was measured (two-alternative-forced choice paradigm (2AFC) by finding the mask contrast leading to 79% correct response. Results show that configuration saliency is consistently expressed as dominance in short-duration binocular rivalry, with similar results obtained for longer durations (200 ms and continuous presentations). We find that textures of high-contrast randomly oriented patches are more dominant than uniform textures where the effect decreases and eventually reverses with decreasing of contrast. For supra-threshold contours, however, we find that smooth collinear contours are more dominant than 'jagged' ones, regardless of phase and contrast. These findings suggest principles underlying early lateral integration mechanisms based on contrast dependent inhibitory and excitatory connections. This mechanism could be based on iso-orientation surround (2D) inhibition and collinear (1D) facilitation, with inhibition being more effective at high contrasts.  (+info)

Occlusion contributes to temporal processing differences between crossed and uncrossed stereopsis in random-dot displays. (6/1300)

Stereoscopic depth discrimination was investigated in crossed and uncrossed directions using stimuli defined by binocular disparity differences embedded in dynamic random-dot stereograms. Across three experiments, fixation was directed to a point on the display screen (which placed crossed stimuli in front of and uncrossed stimuli behind, the background dots of the stereogram), to a point in front of the display screen (which placed both crossed and uncrossed stimuli in front of the background dots), and to a point behind the display screen (which placed both crossed and uncrossed stimuli behind the background dots). Results showed that depth discrimination was always good when the stimuli appeared in front of the background dots of the stereogram, whereas discrimination was always poor when the stimuli appeared behind the background dots. These results suggest that differences between crossed and uncrossed stereopsis as reported in past research arose, in part, from effects related to occlusion.  (+info)

Categorical learning in pigeons: the role of texture and shape in complex static stimuli. (7/1300)

Pigeons are known to be able to categorize a wide variety of visual stimulus classes. However, it remains unclear which are the characteristics of the perceptually relevant features employed to reach such good performance. Here, we investigate the relative contributions of texture and shape information to categorization decisions about complex natural classes. We trained three groups of pigeons to discriminate between sets of photorealistic frontal images of human faces according to sex and subsequently, tested them on different stimulus sets. Only the pigeons that were presented with texture information were successful at the discrimination task. Pigeons seem to possess a sophisticated texture processing system but are less capable in discriminating shapes. The results are discussed in terms of the possible evolutionary advantages of utilizing texture as a very general and potent perceptual dimension in the birds' visual environment.  (+info)

Feature specific segmentation in perceived structure-from-motion. (8/1300)

Motion information is important to vision for extracting the 3-D (three-dimensional) structure of an object, as evidenced by the compelling percept of three-dimensionality attainable in displays which are purely motion-defined. It has recently been shown that when subjects view a rotating transparent cylinder of dots simulated with parallel projection, they rarely perceive rotation reversals which are physically introduced (Treue, Andersen, Ando & Hildreth, Vision Research, 35;1995:139-148). We show however that when the elements defining the cylinder are oriented, the number of perceived reversals increases systematically to near maximum as the difference between element orientations on the two surfaces increases. These results imply that structure-from-motion mechanisms are capable of exploiting local feature differences between the different surfaces of a moving object.  (+info)

Depth perception is the ability to accurately judge the distance or separation of an object in three-dimensional space. It is a complex visual process that allows us to perceive the world in three dimensions and to understand the spatial relationships between objects.

Depth perception is achieved through a combination of monocular cues, which are visual cues that can be perceived with one eye, and binocular cues, which require input from both eyes. Monocular cues include perspective (the relative size of objects), texture gradients (finer details become smaller as distance increases), and atmospheric perspective (colors become less saturated and lighter in value as distance increases). Binocular cues include convergence (the degree to which the eyes must turn inward to focus on an object) and retinal disparity (the slight difference in the images projected onto the two retinas due to the slightly different positions of the eyes).

Deficits in depth perception can occur due to a variety of factors, including eye disorders, brain injuries, or developmental delays. These deficits can result in difficulties with tasks such as driving, sports, or navigating complex environments. Treatment for depth perception deficits may include vision therapy, corrective lenses, or surgery.

Vision disparity, also known as binocular vision disparity, refers to the difference in the image that is perceived by each eye. This can occur due to a variety of reasons such as misalignment of the eyes (strabismus), unequal refractive power in each eye (anisometropia), or abnormalities in the shape of the eye (astigmatism).

When there is a significant difference in the image that is perceived by each eye, the brain may have difficulty combining the two images into a single, three-dimensional perception. This can result in visual symptoms such as double vision (diplopia), eyestrain, headaches, and difficulty with depth perception.

Vision disparity can be detected through a comprehensive eye examination and may be treated with corrective lenses, prism lenses, vision therapy, or surgery, depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition.

Binocular vision refers to the ability to use both eyes together to create a single, three-dimensional image of our surroundings. This is achieved through a process called binocular fusion, where the images from each eye are aligned and combined in the brain to form a unified perception.

The term "binocular vision" specifically refers to the way that our visual system integrates information from both eyes to create depth perception and enhance visual clarity. When we view an object with both eyes, they focus on the same point in space and send slightly different images to the brain due to their slightly different positions. The brain then combines these images to create a single, three-dimensional image that allows us to perceive depth and distance.

Binocular vision is important for many everyday activities, such as driving, reading, and playing sports. Disorders of binocular vision can lead to symptoms such as double vision, eye strain, and difficulty with depth perception.

In the context of medicine and psychology, perception refers to the neurophysiological processes, cognitive abilities, and psychological experiences that enable an individual to interpret and make sense of sensory information from their environment. It involves the integration of various stimuli such as sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell to form a coherent understanding of one's surroundings, objects, events, or ideas.

Perception is a complex and active process that includes attention, pattern recognition, interpretation, and organization of sensory information. It can be influenced by various factors, including prior experiences, expectations, cultural background, emotional states, and cognitive biases. Alterations in perception may occur due to neurological disorders, psychiatric conditions, sensory deprivation or overload, drugs, or other external factors.

In a clinical setting, healthcare professionals often assess patients' perceptions of their symptoms, illnesses, or treatments to develop individualized care plans and improve communication and adherence to treatment recommendations.

Monocular vision refers to the ability to see and process visual information using only one eye. It is the type of vision that an individual has when they are using only one eye to look at something, while the other eye may be covered or not functioning. This can be contrasted with binocular vision, which involves the use of both eyes working together to provide depth perception and a single, combined visual field.

Monocular vision is important for tasks that only require the use of one eye, such as when looking through a microscope or using a telescope. However, it does not provide the same level of depth perception and spatial awareness as binocular vision. In some cases, individuals may have reduced visual acuity or other visual impairments in one eye, leading to limited monocular vision in that eye. It is important for individuals with monocular vision to have regular eye exams to monitor their eye health and ensure that any visual impairments are detected and treated promptly.

Photic stimulation is a medical term that refers to the exposure of the eyes to light, specifically repetitive pulses of light, which is used as a method in various research and clinical settings. In neuroscience, it's often used in studies related to vision, circadian rhythms, and brain function.

In a clinical context, photic stimulation is sometimes used in the diagnosis of certain medical conditions such as seizure disorders (like epilepsy). By observing the response of the brain to this light stimulus, doctors can gain valuable insights into the functioning of the brain and the presence of any neurological disorders.

However, it's important to note that photic stimulation should be conducted under the supervision of a trained healthcare professional, as improper use can potentially trigger seizures in individuals who are susceptible to them.

Psychophysics is not a medical term per se, but rather a subfield of psychology and neuroscience that studies the relationship between physical stimuli and the sensations and perceptions they produce. It involves the quantitative investigation of psychological functions, such as how brightness or loudness is perceived relative to the physical intensity of light or sound.

In medical contexts, psychophysical methods may be used in research or clinical settings to understand how patients with neurological conditions or sensory impairments perceive and respond to different stimuli. This information can inform diagnostic assessments, treatment planning, and rehabilitation strategies.

Motion perception is the ability to interpret and understand the movement of objects in our environment. It is a complex process that involves multiple areas of the brain and the visual system. In medical terms, motion perception refers to the specific function of the visual system to detect and analyze the movement of visual stimuli. This allows us to perceive and respond to moving objects in our environment, which is crucial for activities such as driving, sports, and even maintaining balance. Disorders in motion perception can lead to conditions like motion sickness or difficulty with depth perception.

Ocular convergence is the normal, inward movement of both eyes towards each other to focus on a nearby object. This coordinated action allows for single, clear vision (binocular vision) of the object. It is an important component of visual function and is controlled by the brain receiving input from the muscles that move the eyes.

Convergence insufficiency is a common condition where the eyes have difficulty maintaining alignment during close work, such as reading or using a computer. This can result in eye strain, double vision, and difficulty concentrating. Treatment for convergence insufficiency may include vision therapy, exercises to improve convergence ability, and/or the use of prism lenses.

In the context of medicine, "cues" generally refer to specific pieces of information or signals that can help healthcare professionals recognize and respond to a particular situation or condition. These cues can come in various forms, such as:

1. Physical examination findings: For example, a patient's abnormal heart rate or blood pressure reading during a physical exam may serve as a cue for the healthcare professional to investigate further.
2. Patient symptoms: A patient reporting chest pain, shortness of breath, or other concerning symptoms can act as a cue for a healthcare provider to consider potential diagnoses and develop an appropriate treatment plan.
3. Laboratory test results: Abnormal findings on laboratory tests, such as elevated blood glucose levels or abnormal liver function tests, may serve as cues for further evaluation and diagnosis.
4. Medical history information: A patient's medical history can provide valuable cues for healthcare professionals when assessing their current health status. For example, a history of smoking may increase the suspicion for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a patient presenting with respiratory symptoms.
5. Behavioral or environmental cues: In some cases, behavioral or environmental factors can serve as cues for healthcare professionals to consider potential health risks. For instance, exposure to secondhand smoke or living in an area with high air pollution levels may increase the risk of developing respiratory conditions.

Overall, "cues" in a medical context are essential pieces of information that help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about patient care and treatment.

Ocular dominance refers to the preference of one eye over the other in terms of visual perception and processing. In other words, it is the tendency for an individual to rely more heavily on the input from one particular eye when interpreting visual information. This can have implications in various visual tasks such as depth perception, aiming, and targeting.

Ocular dominance can be determined through a variety of tests, including the Miles test, the Porta test, or simply by observing which eye a person uses to align a visual target. It is important to note that ocular dominance does not necessarily indicate any sort of visual impairment or deficit; rather, it is a normal variation in the way that visual information is processed by the brain.

Head movements refer to the voluntary or involuntary motion of the head in various directions. These movements can occur in different planes, including flexion (moving the head forward), extension (moving the head backward), rotation (turning the head to the side), and lateral bending (leaning the head to one side).

Head movements can be a result of normal physiological processes, such as when nodding in agreement or shaking the head to indicate disagreement. They can also be caused by neurological conditions, such as abnormal head movements in patients with Parkinson's disease or cerebellar disorders. Additionally, head movements may occur in response to sensory stimuli, such as turning the head toward a sound.

In a medical context, an examination of head movements can provide important clues about a person's neurological function and help diagnose various conditions affecting the brain and nervous system.

Eye movements, also known as ocular motility, refer to the voluntary or involuntary motion of the eyes that allows for visual exploration of our environment. There are several types of eye movements, including:

1. Saccades: rapid, ballistic movements that quickly shift the gaze from one point to another.
2. Pursuits: smooth, slow movements that allow the eyes to follow a moving object.
3. Vergences: coordinated movements of both eyes in opposite directions, usually in response to a three-dimensional stimulus.
4. Vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR): automatic eye movements that help stabilize the gaze during head movement.
5. Optokinetic nystagmus (OKN): rhythmic eye movements that occur in response to large moving visual patterns, such as when looking out of a moving vehicle.

Abnormalities in eye movements can indicate neurological or ophthalmological disorders and are often assessed during clinical examinations.

Sensory thresholds are the minimum levels of stimulation that are required to produce a sensation in an individual, as determined through psychophysical testing. These tests measure the point at which a person can just barely detect the presence of a stimulus, such as a sound, light, touch, or smell.

There are two types of sensory thresholds: absolute and difference. Absolute threshold is the minimum level of intensity required to detect a stimulus 50% of the time. Difference threshold, also known as just noticeable difference (JND), is the smallest change in intensity that can be detected between two stimuli.

Sensory thresholds can vary between individuals and are influenced by factors such as age, attention, motivation, and expectations. They are often used in clinical settings to assess sensory function and diagnose conditions such as hearing or vision loss.

Form perception, also known as shape perception, is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in the field of neuropsychology and sensory perception, form perception refers to the ability to recognize and interpret different shapes and forms of objects through visual processing. This ability is largely dependent on the integrity of the visual cortex and its ability to process and interpret information received from the retina.

Damage to certain areas of the brain, particularly in the occipital and parietal lobes, can result in deficits in form perception, leading to difficulties in recognizing and identifying objects based on their shape or form. This condition is known as visual agnosia and can be a symptom of various neurological disorders such as stroke, brain injury, or degenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease.

Visual pattern recognition is the ability to identify and interpret patterns in visual information. In a medical context, it often refers to the process by which healthcare professionals recognize and diagnose medical conditions based on visible signs or symptoms. This can involve recognizing the characteristic appearance of a rash, wound, or other physical feature associated with a particular disease or condition. It may also involve recognizing patterns in medical images such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRIs.

In the field of radiology, for example, visual pattern recognition is a critical skill. Radiologists are trained to recognize the typical appearances of various diseases and conditions in medical images. This allows them to make accurate diagnoses based on the patterns they see. Similarly, dermatologists use visual pattern recognition to identify skin abnormalities and diseases based on the appearance of rashes, lesions, or other skin changes.

Overall, visual pattern recognition is an essential skill in many areas of medicine, allowing healthcare professionals to quickly and accurately diagnose medical conditions based on visible signs and symptoms.

Optical illusions are visual phenomena that occur when the brain perceives an image or scene differently from the actual physical properties of that image or scene. They often result from the brain's attempt to interpret and make sense of ambiguous, contradictory, or incomplete information provided by the eyes. This can lead to visually perceived images that are different from the objective reality. Optical illusions can be categorized into different types such as literal illusions, physiological illusions, and cognitive illusions, based on the nature of the illusion and the underlying cause.

The visual cortex is the part of the brain that processes visual information. It is located in the occipital lobe, which is at the back of the brain. The visual cortex is responsible for receiving and interpreting signals from the retina, which are then transmitted through the optic nerve and optic tract.

The visual cortex contains several areas that are involved in different aspects of visual processing, such as identifying shapes, colors, and movements. These areas work together to help us recognize and understand what we see. Damage to the visual cortex can result in various visual impairments, such as blindness or difficulty with visual perception.

In a medical context, "orientation" typically refers to an individual's awareness and understanding of their personal identity, place, time, and situation. It is a critical component of cognitive functioning and mental status. Healthcare professionals often assess a person's orientation during clinical evaluations, using tests that inquire about their name, location, the current date, and the circumstances of their hospitalization or visit.

There are different levels of orientation:

1. Person (or self): The individual knows their own identity, including their name, age, and other personal details.
2. Place: The individual is aware of where they are, such as the name of the city, hospital, or healthcare facility.
3. Time: The individual can accurately state the current date, day of the week, month, and year.
4. Situation or event: The individual understands why they are in the healthcare setting, what happened leading to their hospitalization or visit, and the nature of any treatments or procedures they are undergoing.

Impairments in orientation can be indicative of various neurological or psychiatric conditions, such as delirium, dementia, or substance intoxication or withdrawal. It is essential for healthcare providers to monitor and address orientation issues to ensure appropriate diagnosis, treatment, and patient safety.

Contrast sensitivity is a measure of the ability to distinguish between an object and its background based on differences in contrast, rather than differences in luminance. Contrast refers to the difference in light intensity between an object and its immediate surroundings. Contrast sensitivity is typically measured using specially designed charts that have patterns of parallel lines with varying widths and contrast levels.

In clinical settings, contrast sensitivity is often assessed as part of a comprehensive visual examination. Poor contrast sensitivity can affect a person's ability to perform tasks such as reading, driving, or distinguishing objects from their background, especially in low-light conditions. Reduced contrast sensitivity is a common symptom of various eye conditions, including cataracts, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration.

Ocular fixation is a term used in ophthalmology and optometry to refer to the ability of the eyes to maintain steady gaze or visual focus on an object. It involves the coordinated movement of the extraocular muscles that control eye movements, allowing for clear and stable vision.

In medical terminology, fixation specifically refers to the state in which the eyes are aligned and focused on a single point in space. This is important for maintaining visual perception and preventing blurring or double vision. Ocular fixation can be affected by various factors such as muscle weakness, nerve damage, or visual processing disorders.

Assessment of ocular fixation is often used in eye examinations to evaluate visual acuity, eye alignment, and muscle function. Abnormalities in fixation may indicate the presence of underlying eye conditions or developmental delays that require further investigation and treatment.

Visual pathways, also known as the visual system or the optic pathway, refer to the series of specialized neurons in the nervous system that transmit visual information from the eyes to the brain. This complex network includes the retina, optic nerve, optic chiasma, optic tract, lateral geniculate nucleus, pulvinar, and the primary and secondary visual cortices located in the occipital lobe of the brain.

The process begins when light enters the eye and strikes the photoreceptor cells (rods and cones) in the retina, converting the light energy into electrical signals. These signals are then transmitted to bipolar cells and subsequently to ganglion cells, whose axons form the optic nerve. The fibers from each eye's nasal hemiretina cross at the optic chiasma, while those from the temporal hemiretina continue without crossing. This results in the formation of the optic tract, which carries visual information from both eyes to the opposite side of the brain.

The majority of fibers in the optic tract synapse with neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), a part of the thalamus. The LGN sends this information to the primary visual cortex, also known as V1 or Brodmann area 17, located in the occipital lobe. Here, simple features like lines and edges are initially processed. Further processing occurs in secondary (V2) and tertiary (V3-V5) visual cortices, where more complex features such as shape, motion, and depth are analyzed. Ultimately, this information is integrated to form our perception of the visual world.

Visual perception refers to the ability to interpret and organize information that comes from our eyes to recognize and understand what we are seeing. It involves several cognitive processes such as pattern recognition, size estimation, movement detection, and depth perception. Visual perception allows us to identify objects, navigate through space, and interact with our environment. Deficits in visual perception can lead to learning difficulties and disabilities.

Neurological models are simplified representations or simulations of various aspects of the nervous system, including its structure, function, and processes. These models can be theoretical, computational, or physical and are used to understand, explain, and predict neurological phenomena. They may focus on specific neurological diseases, disorders, or functions, such as memory, learning, or movement. The goal of these models is to provide insights into the complex workings of the nervous system that cannot be easily observed or understood through direct examination alone.

Social perception, in the context of psychology and social sciences, refers to the ability to interpret and understand other people's behavior, emotions, and intentions. It is the process by which we make sense of the social world around us, by observing and interpreting cues such as facial expressions, body language, tone of voice, and situational context.

In medical terminology, social perception is not a specific diagnosis or condition, but rather a cognitive skill that can be affected in various mental and neurological disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, and dementia. For example, individuals with autism may have difficulty interpreting social cues and understanding other people's emotions and intentions, while those with schizophrenia may have distorted perceptions of social situations and interactions.

Healthcare professionals who work with patients with cognitive or neurological disorders may assess their social perception skills as part of a comprehensive evaluation, in order to develop appropriate interventions and support strategies.

Speech perception is the process by which the brain interprets and understands spoken language. It involves recognizing and discriminating speech sounds (phonemes), organizing them into words, and attaching meaning to those words in order to comprehend spoken language. This process requires the integration of auditory information with prior knowledge and context. Factors such as hearing ability, cognitive function, and language experience can all impact speech perception.

'Task Performance and Analysis' is not a commonly used medical term, but it can be found in the field of rehabilitation medicine and ergonomics. It refers to the process of evaluating and understanding how a specific task is performed, in order to identify any physical or cognitive demands placed on an individual during the performance of that task. This information can then be used to inform the design of interventions, such as workplace modifications or rehabilitation programs, aimed at improving task performance or reducing the risk of injury.

In a medical context, task performance and analysis may be used in the assessment and treatment of individuals with disabilities or injuries, to help them return to work or other activities of daily living. The analysis involves breaking down the task into its component parts, observing and measuring the physical and cognitive demands of each part, and evaluating the individual's ability to perform those demands. Based on this analysis, recommendations may be made for modifications to the task or the environment, training or education, or assistive devices that can help the individual perform the task more safely and efficiently.

Overall, task performance and analysis is a valuable tool in promoting safe and effective task performance, reducing the risk of injury, and improving functional outcomes for individuals with disabilities or injuries.

"Macaca mulatta" is the scientific name for the Rhesus macaque, a species of monkey that is native to South, Central, and Southeast Asia. They are often used in biomedical research due to their genetic similarity to humans.

Visual acuity is a measure of the sharpness or clarity of vision. It is usually tested by reading an eye chart from a specific distance, such as 20 feet (6 meters). The standard eye chart used for this purpose is called the Snellen chart, which contains rows of letters that decrease in size as you read down the chart.

Visual acuity is typically expressed as a fraction, with the numerator representing the testing distance and the denominator indicating the smallest line of type that can be read clearly. For example, if a person can read the line on the eye chart that corresponds to a visual acuity of 20/20, it means they have normal vision at 20 feet. If their visual acuity is 20/40, it means they must be as close as 20 feet to see what someone with normal vision can see at 40 feet.

It's important to note that visual acuity is just one aspect of overall vision and does not necessarily reflect other important factors such as peripheral vision, depth perception, color vision, or contrast sensitivity.

Auditory perception refers to the process by which the brain interprets and makes sense of the sounds we hear. It involves the recognition and interpretation of different frequencies, intensities, and patterns of sound waves that reach our ears through the process of hearing. This allows us to identify and distinguish various sounds such as speech, music, and environmental noises.

The auditory system includes the outer ear, middle ear, inner ear, and the auditory nerve, which transmits electrical signals to the brain's auditory cortex for processing and interpretation. Auditory perception is a complex process that involves multiple areas of the brain working together to identify and make sense of sounds in our environment.

Disorders or impairments in auditory perception can result in difficulties with hearing, understanding speech, and identifying environmental sounds, which can significantly impact communication, learning, and daily functioning.

Neurons, also known as nerve cells or neurocytes, are specialized cells that constitute the basic unit of the nervous system. They are responsible for receiving, processing, and transmitting information and signals within the body. Neurons have three main parts: the dendrites, the cell body (soma), and the axon. The dendrites receive signals from other neurons or sensory receptors, while the axon transmits these signals to other neurons, muscles, or glands. The junction between two neurons is called a synapse, where neurotransmitters are released to transmit the signal across the gap (synaptic cleft) to the next neuron. Neurons vary in size, shape, and structure depending on their function and location within the nervous system.

Pain perception refers to the neural and psychological processes involved in receiving, interpreting, and responding to painful stimuli. It is the subjective experience of pain, which can vary greatly among individuals due to factors such as genetics, mood, expectations, and past experiences. The perception of pain involves complex interactions between the peripheral nervous system (which detects and transmits information about tissue damage or potential harm), the spinal cord (where this information is processed and integrated with other sensory inputs), and the brain (where the final interpretation and emotional response to pain occurs).

Time perception, in the context of medicine and neuroscience, refers to the subjective experience and cognitive representation of time intervals. It is a complex process that involves the integration of various sensory, attentional, and emotional factors.

Disorders or injuries to certain brain regions, such as the basal ganglia, thalamus, or cerebellum, can affect time perception, leading to symptoms such as time distortion, where time may seem to pass more slowly or quickly than usual. Additionally, some neurological and psychiatric conditions, such as Parkinson's disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and depression, have been associated with altered time perception.

Assessment of time perception is often used in neuropsychological evaluations to help diagnose and monitor the progression of certain neurological disorders. Various tests exist to measure time perception, such as the temporal order judgment task, where individuals are asked to judge which of two stimuli occurred first, or the duration estimation task, where individuals are asked to estimate the duration of a given stimulus.

Space perception, in the context of neuroscience and psychology, refers to the ability to perceive and understand the spatial arrangement of objects and their relationship to oneself. It involves integrating various sensory inputs such as visual, auditory, tactile, and proprioceptive information to create a coherent three-dimensional representation of our environment.

This cognitive process enables us to judge distances, sizes, shapes, and movements of objects around us. It also helps us navigate through space, reach for objects, avoid obstacles, and maintain balance. Disorders in space perception can lead to difficulties in performing everyday activities and may be associated with neurological conditions such as stroke, brain injury, or neurodevelopmental disorders like autism.

Pitch perception is the ability to identify and discriminate different frequencies or musical notes. It is the way our auditory system interprets and organizes sounds based on their highness or lowness, which is determined by the frequency of the sound waves. A higher pitch corresponds to a higher frequency, while a lower pitch corresponds to a lower frequency. Pitch perception is an important aspect of hearing and is crucial for understanding speech, enjoying music, and localizing sounds in our environment. It involves complex processing in the inner ear and auditory nervous system.

Size perception in a medical context typically refers to the way an individual's brain interprets and perceives the size or volume of various stimuli. This can include visual stimuli, such as objects or distances, as well as tactile stimuli, like the size of an object being held or touched.

Disorders in size perception can occur due to neurological conditions, brain injuries, or certain developmental disorders. For example, individuals with visual agnosia may have difficulty recognizing or perceiving the size of objects they see, even though their eyes are functioning normally. Similarly, those with somatoparaphrenia may not recognize the size of their own limbs due to damage in specific areas of the brain.

It's important to note that while 'size perception' is not a medical term per se, it can still be used in a medical or clinical context to describe these types of symptoms and conditions.

Taste perception refers to the ability to recognize and interpret different tastes, such as sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami, which are detected by specialized sensory cells called taste buds located on the tongue and other areas in the mouth. These taste signals are then transmitted to the brain, where they are processed and identified as specific tastes. Taste perception is an important sense that helps us to appreciate and enjoy food, and it also plays a role in our ability to detect potentially harmful substances in our diet.

Color perception refers to the ability to detect, recognize, and differentiate various colors and color patterns in the visual field. This complex process involves the functioning of both the eyes and the brain.

The eye's retina contains two types of photoreceptor cells called rods and cones. Rods are more sensitive to light and dark changes and help us see in low-light conditions, but they do not contribute much to color vision. Cones, on the other hand, are responsible for color perception and function best in well-lit conditions.

There are three types of cone cells, each sensitive to a particular range of wavelengths corresponding to blue, green, and red colors. The combination of signals from these three types of cones allows us to perceive a wide spectrum of colors.

The brain then interprets these signals and translates them into the perception of different colors and hues. It is important to note that color perception can be influenced by various factors, including cultural background, personal experiences, and even language. Some individuals may also have deficiencies in color perception due to genetic or acquired conditions, such as color blindness or cataracts.

Touch perception, also known as tactile perception, refers to the ability to perceive and interpret sensations resulting from mechanical stimulation of the skin and other tissues. This sense is mediated by various receptors in the skin, such as Meissner's corpuscles, Pacinian corpuscles, Merkel's disks, and Ruffini endings, which detect different types of stimuli like pressure, vibration, and texture.

The information gathered by these receptors is transmitted to the brain through sensory neurons, where it is processed and integrated with other sensory information to create a coherent perception of the environment. Touch perception plays a crucial role in many aspects of daily life, including object manipulation, social interaction, and the appreciation of various forms of sensory pleasure.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Tsuga" is not a medical term. It is actually the genus name for a group of evergreen trees commonly known as hemlocks, which are found in North America and East Asia. The misconception might arise from the fact that some parts of these trees have been used in traditional medicine, but "Tsuga" itself is not a medical term or concept.

... ? Why Some People Can't See in Depth Space perception , Webvision. Depth perception , Webvision. Make3D. Depth ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Depth perception. Depth perception example Archived 2016-08-17 at the Wayback Machine , ... Depth perception is the ability to perceive distance to objects in the world using the visual system and visual perception. It ... Depth perception arises from a variety of depth cues. These are typically classified into binocular cues and monocular cues. ...
Depth perception. The equipment consists of two white rods, one stationary (on the right) and another movable (on the left). ... Wide angle perception. The candidate must place their face against the testing machine, looking forward, then tell the colour ...
Stinson, Dan (July 12, 2003). "Depth perception". Vancouver Sun. p. E4. Retrieved October 31, 2022 - via ...
You know the difference between a brown-nose and a shithead? Depth perception. That's the only time I never really fought with ...
Depth perception. DP is the visual ability to perceive the world in three dimensions. It is a trait common to many higher ... Depth perception allows the beholder to accurately gauge the distance to an object. Diaphragm. In optics, a diaphragm is a thin ... Depth of field. In optics, particularly photography and machine vision, the depth of field (DOF) is the distance in front of ... The perception of the frequency (or wavelength) of light, and can be compared to how pitch (or a musical note) is the ...
Podmin (17 August 2014). "Series 1, Episode 2: Brent Griffin (Spod)". Depth Perception Podcast. Retrieved 17 November 2017. ... on Depth Perception podcast (2014) Interview with Brent Griffin (Spod) on HearSej podcast (2017) (Articles with short ...
B.2782241-2248 Kalloniatis, Michael (1995). "Perception of Depth". WEBVISION: The Organization of the Retina and Visual System ... so that an equivalent detectable depth interval at ¼ meter is 0.01 cm or the depth of impression of the head on a coin. These ... To ascertain that depth can be seen in a binocular views, a test must be easily administered and not subject to deception. The ... Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 241, 42-6 The Ferrier Lecture (1994) Seeing depth with two eyes: stereopsis. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol ...
Little depth perception. Poor mobility of removing tissue within the surgical site. Requires higher standards of safety ...
Poor depth perception. Surgeons must use tools to interact with tissue rather than manipulate it directly with their hands. ... the lack of tactile perception, and the limited working area are factors adding to the technical complexity of this surgical ...
"Blake Ward , Depth and Perception". 9 October 2015. "Post Mythology in Blake Ward's sculptures - ARTORONTO". "Blake Ward". " ... "Sculptor Blake Ward's work will challenge the 'Depth of Perception' at Toronto exhibit". 24 August 2015. SSC New Members Show ... "Sculptor Blake Ward's work will challenge the 'Depth of Perception' at Toronto exhibit". 24 August 2015. "Blake Ward: 'Just ... Depth of Perception' at Toronto exhibit". 24 August 2015. The Burning Buddha Video The Figure Catalogue online General Showcase ...
... static depth perception (or static stereo perception) and motion-in-depth perception (or stereo motion perception). Some ... The perception of depth in such cases is also referred to as "stereoscopic depth". The perception of depth and three- ... is the component of depth perception retrieved through binocular vision. Stereopsis is not the only contributor to depth ... Kalloniatis, Michael (1995). "Perception of Depth". WEBVISION: The Organization of the Retina and Visual System. University of ...
"Depth Perception Cues (Psychology)". Retrieved December 20, 2014. Linear perspective describes the tendency of parallel lines ... Some of the scenes showed the ropes, adding an interesting additional 3D depth cue To save weight and space in the otherwise 75 ...
2 Depth perception. Thornhill, Ontario, Canada: I Porteous. Howard, I. P. (2012). Perceiving in depth. Volume 1, Basic ... Howard, I. P. (2012). Perceiving in depth. Volume 3, Other mechanisms of depth perception. Oxford: Oxford University Press. " ... Perception, 28, 299-306. doi: 10.1068/p2891 Jenkin, H. L., Dyde, R. T., Jenkin, M. R., Howard, I. P., & Harris, L. R. (2003). ... Howard was renowned for his research into human visual perception. In June 2013, Howard had an h-index of 35. During his time ...
... have poor depth perception; shadows and dips in the ground may cause sheep to baulk. In general, sheep have a tendency to ... Good depth perception, inferred from the sheep's sure-footedness, was confirmed in "visual cliff" experiments; behavioral ... responses indicating depth perception are seen in lambs at one day old. Sheep are thought to have colour vision, and can ... Despite these perceptions, a University of Illinois monograph on sheep reported their intelligence to be just below that of ...
Depth and Size Perception (PDF). SAGE. 2015. pp. 169-179. Knight, Randall Dewey., Brian Jones, and Stuart Field. College ... Another monocular cue of depth perception is that of lighting and shading. Shading in a scene or on an object allows the ... Ames room Anamorphosis Depth perception Perspective distortion (photography) Trompe-l'œil Kevin Brownlow, David Lean, p.209 ... carefully modifying the scale of objects placed on the plane to reinforce the illusion through depth perception in which ...
Osborne, Conrad L. "Depth Perception." Opera News, 2009, 22-25. Polignano, Antonio. "Costanti stilistiche ed elementi di ...
"Depth Perception and Drunk Driving". 2 August 2016. Archived from the original on 2015-06-02. ...
You have no depth perception. If you're in a car driving down the road and you close your eyes, you have no idea what your ... Under Colonel Kittinger's superior leadership, depth of knowledge and aggressive management ability, the transition of the 49th ... Robinson, T. R. (1896). Light intensity and depth perception. American ... that intensity of stimulation is related to perception via a power-law. Fechner's general formula for getting at the number of ...
... motion-in-depth perception of mantises; reaction to different stimuli; the physiology of the mantis eye and many other studies ... "Motion-in-depth perception and prey capture in the praying mantis Sphodromantis Lineola". Journal of Experimental Biology. 222 ... They use looming signals in order to detect and calculate other organisms or objects heading towards them using motion-in-depth ... Nityananda, V.; Bissianna, G.; Tarawneh, G.; Read, J. C. A. (2016). "Small or far away? Size and distance perception in the ...
Ogle, K. N. (1953). Precision and validity in stereoscopic depth perception from double images. Journal of the Optical Society ... Ogle, K. N. (1967). Some aspects of stereoscopic depth perception. Journal of the Optical Society of America, 57, 1073-1081. ... Ogle, K. N., & Wakefield, J. M. (1967). Stereoscopic depth and binocular rivalry. Vision Research, 7, 89-98. "On the ...
Like depth perception, motion perception is responsible for a number of sensory illusions. Film animation is based on the ... The Ponzo illusion is an example of an illusion which uses monocular cues of depth perception to fool the eye. But even with ... This is because haze is a cue for depth perception, signalling the distance of far-away objects (Aerial perspective). The ... The optical illusion seen in a diorama/false perspective also exploits assumptions based on monocular cues of depth perception ...
1951). Anisopia and perception of space. JOSA. 41(10): 676-677. Cibis, P. A. (1952). Faulty depth perception caused by ...
Each hint helps to establish small facts about a scene that work together to form a perception of depth. Binocular cues and ... Certain cues help establish depth perception. Binocular cues are made by humans' two eyes, which are subconsciously compared to ... Animals with wider-set eyes have a harder time establishing depth, such as horses and cows. A special depth test was used on ... To sense depth, humans use both eyes to see three dimensional objects. This sense is present at birth in humans and some ...
Not all HMDs provide depth perception. Some lower-end modules are essentially bi-ocular devices where both eyes are presented ... Depth perception inside an HMD requires different images for the left and right eyes. There are multiple ways to provide these ... Binocular overlap is the basis for the sense of depth and stereo, allowing humans to sense which objects are near and which ...
They possessed a short, deep skull, which was suited for stereoscopic vision; this allowed for better depth perception. S. ...
"Depth Perception, Snowboarding Film by Quiksilver". Wiese, Ben (November 15, 2018). "SHEL and Kevin ... He recently composed original score for Travis Rice's recent film, Depth Perception and season one of Queen America starring ...
The model can have suggestions according to depth perception and accommodating control. The 2.5D range data is obtained by a ... Blur perception plays a key role in focusing on near or far objects. Retinal focus patterns are critical in blur perception as ... 2.5D (visual perception) offers an automatic approach to making human face models. It analyzes a range data set and a color ... Perception of the physical environment is limited because of visual and cognitive issues. The visual problem is the lack of ...
Gogel, Walter C; Civil Aeromedical Research Institute (U.S.) (1963). The perception of depth from binocular disparity. Oklahoma ... In order for stereopsis to occur, an individual must be able to make use of binocular depth cues, a skill the namesake of the ... Wolbarsht, Myron L. (1972-09-01). "Foundations of Cyclopean Perception. Bela Julesz". The Quarterly Review of Biology. 47 (3): ... Because cyclopean images are created using binocular depth cues, cyclopean images are important in understanding the ...
Howard, Ian P; Rogers, Brian J (2002). Seeing in Depth, vol. 2: Depth Perception. Ontario, Canada: I. Porteous. Ono, Hiroshi; ... Hering's law of visual direction describes the perceived visual direction of a point relative to an observer, a perception ... Smith, A. Mark (2001). Alhacen's theory of visual perception. Volume Two, English Translation. Philadelphia: American ... Mapp, Alistair P (1995). "A restatement of Wells-Hering's law of visual direction". Perception. 24 (2): 237-252. doi:10.1068/ ...
Depth Perception? Why Some People Cant See in Depth Space perception , Webvision. Depth perception , Webvision. Make3D. Depth ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Depth perception. Depth perception example Archived 2016-08-17 at the Wayback Machine , ... Depth perception is the ability to perceive distance to objects in the world using the visual system and visual perception. It ... Depth perception arises from a variety of depth cues. These are typically classified into binocular cues and monocular cues. ...
In this easy demonstration (3rd on the page), learners explore depth perception by conducting a test with two pencils. Learners ...
depth perception . free photographs for download. creative commons licensed images. ...
The literature pays little attention to the home as a venue for in-depth data gathering and yet from our experi … ... Perceptions of the researcher: in-depth interviewing in the home Contemp Nurse. 2002 Dec;14(1):24-37. doi: 10.5172/conu.14.1.24 ... The literature pays little attention to the home as a venue for in-depth data gathering and yet from our experience it is very ...
SoftKinetics Depth Perception Camera Scans Real-World Objects for 3D Printing. News By Avram Piltch ... Get our in-depth reviews, helpful tips, great deals, and the biggest news stories delivered to your inbox. ...
... slider allows you to vary the symmetric fixate location shown in the details while the program computes the symmetric depth ... This Demonstration shows that binocular disparity alone does NOT determine the relative depth of a distractorThe ... Motion Parallax versus Depth, 2D (Visual Depth Perception 12). Keith Stroyan. *. Motion Parallax versus Depth, 3D (Visual Depth ... Binocular Disparity (Visual Depth Perception 7). Keith Stroyan. *. Disparity, Convergence, and Depth (Visual Depth Perception ...
... we investigated whether right PPC might play a crucial role in attentional processing of illusory depth perception, given the ... are necessary to further explore the neuro-functional bases of attentional contribution to illusory depth perception. ... RTMS of the right or left PPC did not affect NC perception. On the other hand, rTMS of the right PPC (but not left PPC) induces ... RTMS of the right or left PPC did not affect NC perception. On the other hand, rTMS of the right PPC (but not left PPC) induces ...
There has been an increase since late 2006 in perceptions that Hillary Clinton is dishonest (from 6% to 15%) and John McCain is ... Top-of-Mind Candidate Perceptions In-Depth. Mix of positive and negative in Americans perceptions of each. by Jeffrey M. Jones ... Another new perception of McCain is that he is a war hawk given his positions on the Iraq war, which were probably not as ... Perhaps the most notable change in perceptions of Obama is that he is dishonest. Five percent now mention this, but it did ...
JoVE Science Education Database. Sensation and Perception. 더 에임스 룸. JoVE, Cambridge, MA, (2023).… More ...
... the Braves checked Matt Diaz eyes and found out he had almost no depth perception. A major league hitter without depth ... perception…wow.. Evidently you can fix this with contacts (though I am not sure how that works). No big surprise that he has ...
... depth perception in FTVR systems using three tasks. The tasks are based on psychological research on human vision and depth ... User Behavior and the Importance of Stereo for Depth Perception in Fish Tank Virtual Reality Sirisilp Kongsilp, Sirisilp ... The Perception of Distance in Simulated Visual Displays:A Comparison of the Effectiveness and Accuracy of Multiple Depth Cues ... We conclude that FTVR users rely on stereopsis for depth perception in FTVR environments more than they do on motion parallax, ...
The Architecture of an Information System for Public Relations via Mobile Application Using In-depth User Experience for ... of an Information System for Public Relations via Mobile Application Using In-depth User Experience for Proactive Perception of ... of an information system for public relations via mobile application using in-depth user experience for proactive perception of ... of an information system for public relations via mobile application using in-depth user experience for proactive perception of ...
Palavras-chave : visual perception; depth perception; facial masks. · resumo em Português , Espanhol · texto em Português · ... SANTOS, Esther Sampaio et al. The perception of depth or relief of hollow and convex face. Estud. psicol. (Natal) [online]. ... It was investigated the monocular perception of depth or relief of objective concave and convex masks. The study included 40 ... However, the visual inversion of depth of the concavities was not affected by the position of the masks (vertical or inverted) ...
... Part of Advances in Neural Information ... estimates depth ordering in a probabilistic fashion and estimates the structure of the visual scene during depth perception. ... We present an ideal observer model of depth estimation for this situation where structural or ordinal information is important ...
... Seeing God with Fuller Vision. by Elizabeth Enlow One of my daughters has amblyopia-one of her eyes is ... Depth perception is the ability to see the world in three dimensions. If you only have monocular vision, you can still see a ... Either way, our depth perception is limited. What we see is true, but its not the full picture. ... That can be disorienting at the time, but we need the therapy for our depth perception. Otherwise, our weak eye will only grow ...
Depth perception is the visual ability to perceive the world in three dimensions and the distance of an object. Depth sensation ... Depth perception is the visual ability to perceive the world in three dimensions and the distance of an object. Depth sensation ...
Estimate depth in aerial images from monocular downward-facing drone ... More details about this submission can be found at : ...
Depth perception¶. DepthAI platform supports different ways of perceiving depth:. *. Passive stereo depth perception - Used by ... Time-of-Flight depth perception¶. Stereo perception has its pros and cons. Its cheap, can perceive depth at greater distances ... Passive stereo depth perception¶. Passive stereo works a lot like our eyes. Our brains (subconsciously) estimate the depth of ... Active stereo depth perception¶. On our OAK Pro cameras, we use conventional active stereo vision (ASV). A dot projector is ...
Estimate depth in aerial images from monocular downward-facing drone ... ... ...
Depth , Perceptions is a mixed media, sculptural series that explores the rich aesthetic value inherent in even the most ... Depth , Perceptions invites viewers to take a long view, to pause, contemplate, and reflect--through the transformation of ...
A curated collection of Depth Perception emails for inspiration and references. Each review includes a full preview of the ... Emails featuring Depth Perception. A curated collection of emails featuring Depth Perception for inspiration and references. ...
Depth perception 360 degrees using OAK-FFC-IMX378-W (Camera sensor) (Qty: 6) OAK-FFC-6P (Qty: 1): Customer originally thought ... Depth perception 360 degrees BradleyDillon. Depth perception 360 degrees using OAK-FFC-IMX378-W (Camera sensor) (Qty: 6) OAK- ... I wanted depth perception to create a bounding box and only these feed into yolo8. additionally I wanted the depth perception ... With stereo depth perception, on ether side of the FOV there is an area that the other camera in the pair does not see. Is that ...
But here is a good example where I have lost depth perception and sense of value. My brother was on one window, Safari open on ... Dont lose your depth perception of your relationship with Him. He deserves priority at all times. Hang out with Him daily. ... That is loss of depth perception. In the book, The Church of Facebook, Jesse Rice uses this phrase show how technology has ... The Depth Perception of Love. by Kayla Norris , Jan 1, 2012 , Community , 0 comments ...
... is usually due to one eye being blind or unable to register similar images as the other eye impacting their dept perception. ... Depth perception is taken for granted by many, but how do people adjust and adapt to having limited or no depth perception? ... Although all of these cues may, on an individual basis, still provide an inaccurate depth perception by utilizing all or some ... Although this type of vision can provide a larger field of vision, it also promotes increased difficulty with depth perception. ...
A new study explores whether the COVID-19 virus may affect the vision and depth perception of people who have contracted the ... Coronavirus May Alter Depth Perception and Eyesight. Loss of taste and smell are common complaints of COVID-19, but these are ... Poor depth perception. Annual comprehensive eye exams prevent eye disease. Preventing eye disease is always more manageable and ... A new study published in Nature Communications explores whether the COVID-19 virus may affect the vision and depth perception ...
... and depth perception (which uses the two eyes together). Certainly, when trying the 3D magic eye pictures my eyes have been ... There was no depth, and the outer white diamond that encloses the entire image was square. ... I could see the four circles were distorted and had depth. Also, the outer diamond was bowed toward me. Keeping my eyes on this ... Diamond Depth Perception - a user reports. * User testing *Leave a comment on Diamond Depth Perception - a user reports ...
Read more about depth perception & how you can improve it from Seal Beach Eyes ... Causes of Depth Perception. Several conditions or vision problems can cause poor depth perception. The most common ones are: * ... What Is Depth Perception?. Depth perception mainly relies on visual information or binocular vision, which is having vision in ... Vision Therapy to Improve Depth Perception. If your eye doctor has confirmed poor depth perception, its not too late to ...
... covers human visual perception and color models; analog-video representations; 2D digital video representations and a brief ... 2.1.4 Stereo/Depth Perception. Stereoscopy creates the illusion of 3D depth from two 2D images, a left and a right image that ... They also observe that scaling (zoom in/out) one or both views of a stereoscopic test sequence does not affect depth perception ... The depth of an object in the scene is determined by the disparity value, which is the displacement of a feature point between ...
  • This Demonstration shows that binocular disparity alone does NOT determine the relative depth of a distractor. (
  • Binocular disparity is explained in more detail in the Demonstration 'Binocular Disparity (Visual Depth Perception 7)' and the addition of convergence for depth is in 'Disparity, Convergence, and Depth (Visual Depth Perception 10)' (see Related Links). (
  • we have a stereo camera pair - left and right monocular cameras - and the VPU (brains of the OAK cameras) does the disparity matching to estimate the depth of objects and scenes. (
  • The depth map is calculated from the disparity map (on the camera) using this formula . (
  • Disparity matching won't work well with blank, featureless surfaces (like walls or ceilings) when using passive stereo depth perception. (
  • Does depth perception require vertical disparity detectors? (
  • Although neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) are selective for binocular disparity, their responses do not explicitly code perceived depth. (
  • The interplane disparity was varied parametrically to determine the stereoacuity threshold (the smallest detectable disparity) and the upper depth limit (largest detectable disparity). (
  • Activity increased as the interplane disparity increased above the stereoacuity threshold and dropped as interplane disparity approached the upper depth limit. (
  • Thus we should perceive reversed depth, if perception is solely determined by dispanity.However, we tend to perceive normal depth, i.e.a normal convex face instead of concave face(reversed disparity illusion). (
  • We conclude that FTVR users rely on stereopsis for depth perception in FTVR environments more than they do on motion parallax, especially for tasks requiring depth acuity. (
  • The patients were asked to participate in a series of tests to assess their vision, including a visual acuity test, a contrast sensitivity test and a depth perception test. (
  • The visual acuity test measured the patients' overall vision functioning, while the contrast sensitivity and depth perception tests focused on the patients' ability to distinguish between objects of different shades of color and the ability to determine relative distances between and within objects. (
  • Specifically, 96% had visual acuity levels less than age-expected values, 37% had poor contrast sensitivity and 31% failed the depth perception test. (
  • 5. Vision is affected in terms of acuity, depth perception and colour. (
  • Sensory tests may test such areas as visual resolution or acuity, depth perception, peripheral vision, color vision, and pattern discrimination. (
  • The perception of perspective is possible when looking with one eye only, but stereoscopic vision enhances the impression of the spatial. (
  • Human cortical activity correlates with stereoscopic depth perception. (
  • Stereoscopic depth perception is based on binocular disparities. (
  • We created stereoscopic stimuli that portrayed two planes of dots in depth, placed symmetrically about the plane of fixation, or else asymmetrically with both planes either nearer or farther than fixation. (
  • Measured cortical activity covaried with psychophysical measures of stereoscopic depth perception. (
  • Stereoscopic depth cues provide information about distances of objects in near space as a function of their relative horizontal positions in the visual field. (
  • Depth perception happens primarily due to stereopsis and accommodation of the eye. (
  • At about four months, infants are able to perceive depth via the difference in the optical projections at the two retinas to determine depth, known as stereopsis. (
  • Stereopsis allows people intuitively to perceive depth. (
  • If objects are farther away than about 9 feet (3 meters), clues to depth perception obtained from only one eye (for example, the apparent size of objects) provide more information on relative position than stereopsis. (
  • Stereoacuity, or binocular depth perception, using polarized glasses may show reduced stereopsis. (
  • article{meuschke_evalviz_2019, title = {{EvalViz} - {Surface} visualization evaluation wizard for depth and shape perception tasks}, volume = {82}, issn = {0097-8493}, url = { }, doi = {}, abstract = {User studies are indispensable for visualization application papers in order to assess the value and limitations of the presented approach. (
  • It's cheap, can perceive depth at greater distances, and has a high resolution. (
  • When it comes to monocular vision, the vision in one eye is usually limited, reducing the overall field of vision by as much as 60 degrees and limiting depth perception. (
  • However, depth perception in those with monocular vision or vision in only one eye is not as strong. (
  • In this article, we show that visual distance perception (VDP) is influenced by the auditory environmental context through reverberation-related cues. (
  • Results of both experiments show that the auditory environment can influence VDP, presumably through reverberation cues related to the perception of room size. (
  • Some animals that lack binocular vision due to their eyes having little common field-of-view employ motion parallax more explicitly than humans for depth cueing (for example, some types of birds, which bob their heads to achieve motion parallax, and squirrels, which move in lines orthogonal to an object of interest to do the same). (
  • Depth perception mainly relies on visual information or binocular vision , which is having vision in both eyes. (
  • Their eyes are completely immobile, providing binocular vision that boosts depth perception. (
  • Monocular cues provide depth information when viewing a scene with one eye. (
  • Depth sensation is the corresponding term for non-human animals, since although it is known that they can sense the distance of an object, it is not known whether they perceive it in the same way that humans do. (
  • students will be expected to be familiar with basic ideas and concepts as covered in PSYC11312 Sensation and Perception. (
  • Depth perception is the ability to perceive distance to objects in the world using the visual system and visual perception. (
  • But if the cube rotates, the visual system will extract the necessary information for perception of the third dimension from the movements of the lines, and a cube is seen. (
  • Visual perception of perspective in real space, for instance in rooms, in settlements and in nature, is a result of several optical impressions and the interpretation by the visual system. (
  • see the Demonstration 'Dynamic Approximation of Static Quantities (Visual Depth Perception 14)' in the Related Links. (
  • Our results indicate that the nervous system estimates depth ordering in a probabilistic fashion and estimates the structure of the visual scene during depth perception. (
  • However, the visual inversion of depth of the concavities was not affected by the position of the masks (vertical or inverted) or by the direction of the light source incident on them (from top or bottom). (
  • This vision impairment makes it increasingly difficult for people to determine depth perception of objects in close proximity, therefore forcing them to rely on other factors to estimate visual depth. (
  • There are 17 visual skills , and even if you have good or 20/20 vision, you can still have reduced depth perception. (
  • If your eye doctor has confirmed poor depth perception, it's not too late to improve your visual skills and performance. (
  • We begin with a short introduction to human visual perception and color models in Section 2.1. (
  • Vision distortion and poor depth perception can sometimes cause non-visual symptoms, such as dizziness or nausea. (
  • The perception of motion is an important part of an individual's visual interpretation of his or her environment . (
  • Visual perception of egocentric distance to an object (visual distance perception or VDP) has been studied since Leonardo da Vinci's times 1 until nowadays, where it remains the subject of both numerous and various studies. (
  • The tasks are based on psychological research on human vision and depth judgments common in VR applications. (
  • Although this type of vision can provide a larger field of vision, it also promotes increased difficulty with depth perception. (
  • A new study published in Nature Communications explores whether the COVID-19 virus may affect the vision and depth perception of people who have contracted the virus. (
  • An inflamed retina can cause blurred vision and a reduction in depth perception. (
  • Several conditions or vision problems can cause poor depth perception. (
  • Vision distortion with astigmatism can also take the form of poor depth perception . (
  • Tangram Vision, a startup building software and hardware for robotic perception, unveiled a new 3D depth sensor today called HiFi that packs powerful computer vision capabilities into an off-the-shelf product priced at $549. (
  • The degree to which the study participants suffer from vision damage, particularly depth perception problems, can have a major impact on their lives. (
  • Especially important for dialysis patients, loss of depth perception affects their ability to follow critical medication regimens," continued Jassal. (
  • A number of other symptoms and problems can affect the eyes, including changes in the appearance of the eyes, color blindness, dry eyes, glare and halos, impaired depth perception, itchy eyes, light sensitivity, and night blindness. (
  • Since one of the most important aspects of a Fish Tank Virtual Reality (FTVR) system is how well it provides the illusion of depth to users, we present a study that evaluates users' depth perception in FTVR systems using three tasks. (
  • The results confirm that in the face perception, the top-down process overlaps the bottom-up process and that the hollow-face illusion is an effective instrument in depth perception verification. (
  • These results indicate that the illusion occurs through complex dynamics among different depth cue systems. (
  • Another aspect that must be considered in space perception (and in particular in VDP) is calibration. (
  • Our brains (subconsciously) estimate the depth of objects and scenes based on the difference of what our left eye sees versus what our right eye sees. (
  • Without depth perception, you wouldn't be able to judge or determine the distance between objects or tell if it's near or far away. (
  • This last result suggests that the information provided by the place where the subject and the target are located, which we call "environmental-context information", can also influence the perception of objects and events presented within it. (
  • Depth perception is the ability to determine the relative position of objects in space. (
  • People with impaired depth perception may have difficulty distinguishing which of two objects is closer. (
  • In this paper, we propose a framework that allows visualization researchers to quickly create task-based user studies on depth and shape perception for different surface visualizations and perform the resulting tasks via a web interface. (
  • Since the question was last asked about her, there have been significant increases in perceptions of Hillary Clinton as being dishonest and of the baggage Bill Clinton brings. (
  • One type makes the pupil smaller, which increases the depth of focus, similar to a pinhole camera. (
  • We present an ideal observer model of depth estimation for this situation where structural or ordinal information is important and then fit the model to human data from a stereo-matching task. (
  • have shown that pathological constraints imposed upon spatial attention by the brain lesion, in patients with neglect, affected perception of illusory three-dimensional stimuli (i.e., the Necker cubes, NC). (
  • infant perception , process by which a human infant (age 0 to 12 months) gains awareness of and responds to external stimuli. (
  • If information about the direction and velocity of movement is known, motion parallax can provide absolute depth information. (
  • We will also discuss aspects of action including human action, disorders of action and the perception of actions. (
  • If a three-dimensional interpretation has been recognised, it receives a preference and determines the perception. (
  • Our sensory impressions are, together with motivation, interest and the brain's development, the basis for our perception, our interpretation of the world around us. (
  • Then I looked into the black space in the middle of the screen, relaxed my eyes (I was probably staring into the distance) and BAM, I could see the four circles were distorted and had depth. (
  • Depth perception is the ability to identify an exact location or distance of an object or person. (
  • Depth perception is the ability to see the world in three dimensions. (
  • Depth perception is the ability to view what's around you in three dimensions (3D). (
  • That can be disorienting at the time, but we need the therapy for our depth perception. (
  • In this easy demonstration (3rd on the page), learners explore depth perception by conducting a test with two pencils. (
  • Important aspects are how well depth and shape information can be perceived, as coding of these aspects is essential to enable an understandable representation of complex 3D data. (
  • RTMS of the right or left PPC did not affect NC perception. (
  • The technique eliminates the need for bifocals or reading glasses, but it can affect depth perception. (
  • We demonstrate our framework by applying shape and depth evaluation tasks to visualizations of various surface representations used in many technical and biomedical applications. (
  • Depth from motion When an object moves toward the observer, the retinal projection of an object expands over a period of time, which leads to the perception of movement in a line toward the observer. (
  • From this, you can see that hand-eye coordination, tracking an object, or following a moving object requires good depth perception. (
  • So for high-accuracy applications, Time-of-Flight (ToF) approach is suggested, as it can provide sub-centimeter depth accuracy. (
  • Although all of these cues may, on an individual basis, still provide an inaccurate depth perception by utilizing all or some of them, a person may be able to closely approximate depth approximations. (
  • When I noticed that during spring training, the Braves checked Matt Diaz eyes and found out he had almost no depth perception. (
  • The second reason is that we need two eyes for accurate depth perception. (
  • Perhaps I have been unable to separate the two process of focussing (which is done with the lens in each eye) and depth perception (which uses the two eyes together). (
  • You can improve depth perception with individually prescribed exercises to retrain your brain and how it interacts with your eyes. (
  • Cones enable color perception and are best in bright (photopic) light. (
  • Color Depth Perception. (
  • Kinetic depth effect If a stationary rigid figure (for example, a wire cube) is placed in front of a point source of light so that its shadow falls on a translucent screen, an observer on the other side of the screen will see a two-dimensional pattern of lines. (
  • It was investigated the monocular perception of depth or relief of objective concave and convex masks. (
  • The study included 40 students, who judge the depth or relief of a concave and a convex mask. (
  • demonstrate an understanding of advanced perception and action research. (
  • Plan, research and write up an essay on a topic in the area of perception and action. (
  • Purpose of the pretest ( e.g. , is more in-depth information about target audience perceptions of the topic desired? (
  • His contributions to SAGE Publications's Encyclopedia of Perception (2010) formed the basis of his contributions to Britannica. (