Phenolic benzoic acid esters.
Any of a group of plants formed by a symbiotic combination of a fungus with an algae or CYANOBACTERIA, and sometimes both. The fungal component makes up the bulk of the lichen and forms the basis for its name.
A plant species which is known as an Oriental traditional medicinal plant.
Benzoate derivatives substituted by one or more hydroxy groups in any position on the benzene ring.
A subclass of iridoid compounds that include a glycoside moiety, usually found at the C-1 position.
A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.
Cyclic esters of hydroxy carboxylic acids, containing a 1-oxacycloalkan-2-one structure. Large cyclic lactones of over a dozen atoms are MACROLIDES.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.
The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Those individuals engaged in research.
Financial support of research activities.
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
The moral obligations governing the conduct of research. Used for discussions of research ethics as a general topic.
An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.
The lower part of the SPINAL CORD consisting of the lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal nerve roots.
A contagious disease caused by canine adenovirus (ADENOVIRUSES, CANINE) infecting the LIVER, the EYE, the KIDNEY, and other organs in dogs, other canids, and bears. Symptoms include FEVER; EDEMA; VOMITING; and DIARRHEA.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
In glycogen or amylopectin synthesis, the enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a segment of a 1,4-alpha-glucan chain to a primary hydroxy group in a similar glucan chain. EC 2.4.1.18.
Anomaly of the tooth, found chiefly in upper lateral incisors. It is characterized by invagination of the enamel at the incisal edge.
Proteins synthesized by organisms belonging to the phylum ARTHROPODA. Included in this heading are proteins from the subdivisions ARACHNIDA; CRUSTACEA; and HORSESHOE CRABS. Note that a separate heading for INSECT PROTEINS is listed under this heading.
Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.
A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A beverage made from ground COFFEA beans (SEEDS) infused in hot water. It generally contains CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE unless it is decaffeinated.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The only specie of the genus Ginkgo, family Ginkgoacea. It is the source of extracts of medicinal interest, especially Egb 761. Ginkgo may refer to the genus or species.
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA from acetyl-CoA and acetoacetyl-CoA. This is a key enzyme in steroid biosynthesis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.5.
Gymnosperms are a group of vascular plants whose seeds are not enclosed by a ripened ovary (fruit), in contrast to ANGIOSPERMS whose seeds are surrounded by an ovary wall. The seeds of many gymnosperms (literally, "naked seed") are borne in cones and are not visible. Taxonomists now recognize four distinct divisions of extant gymnospermous plants (CONIFEROPHYTA; CYCADOPHYTA; GINKGOPHYTA; and GNETOPHYTA).
A screening assay for circulating COMPLEMENT PROTEINS. Diluted SERUM samples are added to antibody-coated ERYTHROCYTES and the percentage of cell lysis is measured. The values are expressed by the so called CH50, in HEMOLYTIC COMPLEMENT units per milliliter, which is the dilution of serum required to lyse 50 percent of the erythrocytes in the assay.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Compounds that contain a BENZENE ring fused to a furan ring.
Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.
A group of DITERPENES cyclized into 3-ring PHENANTHRENES.
A genus in the mint family (LAMIACEAE).
Insoluble polymers of TYROSINE derivatives found in and causing darkness in skin (SKIN PIGMENTATION), hair, and feathers providing protection against SUNBURN induced by SUNLIGHT. CAROTENES contribute yellow and red coloration.

Inhibitory effects of rosmarinic acid on the proliferation of cultured murine mesangial cells. (1/90)

BACKGROUND: Rosmarinic acid is a phenolic compound widely distributed in Labiatae herbs such as rosemary, sweet basil, and perilla, which are frequently used with meat and fish dishes in Western and Asian countries. In the present study we investigated the effects of rosmarinic acid on cultured murine mesangial cell proliferation. METHODS: Cultured murine mesangial cells were stimulated by growth factors with or without rosmarinic acid, and [(3)H]thymidine incorporation was measured in regard both to signal transduction and to cell cycle dependency. In other experiments, mRNA extracted from the cells was analysed by Northern blotting. RESULTS: Rosmarinic acid inhibited the cell proliferation induced by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) (P<0.01; IC(50) values, 1.4 microg/ml) or tumour necrosis factor-alpha (P<0.01; IC(50) values, 3. 8 microg/ml), and these effects involved both the G(0)/G(1) and G(1)/S phases of the cell cycle. Rosmarinic acid also suppressed the mRNA expressions of PDGF and c-myc in PDGF-stimulated mesangial cells. CONCLUSIONS: Rosmarinic acid inhibits cytokine-induced mesangial cell proliferation and suppresses PDGF and c-myc mRNA expression in PDGF-stimulated mesangial cells. Rosmarinic acid in Labiatae herbs might be a promising agent to prevent mesangial cell proliferation.  (+info)

Effect of oral treatment of Perilla frutescens and its constituents on type-I allergy in mice. (2/90)

Perilla frutescens Britton (perilla, Labiatae) is a medicinal herb prescribed in Saiboku-to [Japanese letters: see text], which is a Kampo formula effective for allergic diseases such as bronchial asthma. The present study was conducted to evaluate the anti-allergic effect of orally administered perilla decoction and to identify the active constituents using mice ear-passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA)-reaction, which is one of the animal models for type I allergy. Perilla decoction significantly suppressed PCA-reaction, and the inhibition % at the dose of 500 mg/kg was 43%. The perilla decoction contains 5.3% of luteolin 7-O-[beta-glucuronosyl(2-->1)beta-glucuronide], 1.6% of apigenin 7-O-[beta-glucuronosyl(2-->1)beta-glucuronide], 0.49% of scutellarin, and 2.5% of rosmarinic acid (weight of compound/dried weight of perilla decoction %), respectively. When these constituents were orally administered to mice at the dose equivalent to 500 mg/kg of perilla decoction, rosmarinic acid and apigenin 7-O-[beta-glucuronosyl(2-->1)beta-glucuronide] significantly suppressed PCA-reaction, and their inhibition % was 41% (p<0.01) and 32% (p<0.05), respectively. Since the inhibition % or perilla decoction and rosmarinic acid were nearly equal, the anti-allergic effect of perilla decoction depends primarily on rosmarinic acid. The standard Saiboku-to decoction contained 0.013% of rosmarinic acid, which was too low to exhibit anti-allergic activity in a daily dose of Saiboku-to in adults, suggesting that perilla would be prescribed in Saiboku-to to exhibit other pharmacological effects than its anti-allergic activity, such as a sedative.  (+info)

Synthesis of 2-O-(4-coumaroyl)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)lactic acid, an important intermediate of rosmarinic acid biosynthesis. (3/90)

A simple method to synthesize (+/-)-2-O-(4-coumaroyl)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)lactic acid (1), a key intermediate in rosmarinic acid biosynthesis in higher plant cells, was established by condensation of protected 4-coumaric acid and (+/-)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)lactic acid followed by deprotection. A stable supply of 1 thus attained will lead to biochemical and molecular biological characterization of later steps of rosmarinic acid biosynthesis.  (+info)

CYP98A6 from Lithospermum erythrorhizon encodes 4-coumaroyl-4'-hydroxyphenyllactic acid 3-hydroxylase involved in rosmarinic acid biosynthesis. (4/90)

Rosmarinic acid is the dominant hydroxycinnamic acid ester accumulated in Boraginaceae and Lamiaceae plants. A cytochrome P450 cDNA was isolated by differential display from cultured cells of Lithospermum erythrorhizon, and the gene product was designated CYP98A6 based on the deduced amino acid sequence. After expression in yeast, the P450 was shown to catalyze the 3-hydroxylation of 4-coumaroyl-4'-hydroxyphenyllactic acid, one of the final two steps leading to rosmarinic acid. The expression level of CYP98A6 is dramatically increased by addition of yeast extract or methyl jasmonate to L. erythrorhizon cells, and its expression pattern reflected the elicitor-induced change in rosmarinic acid production, indicating that CYP98A6 plays an important role in regulation of rosmarinic acid biosynthesis.  (+info)

Regulation of lithospermic acid B and shikonin production in Lithospermum erythrorhizon cell suspension cultures. (5/90)

Cell suspension cultures of Lithospermum erythrorhizon produced a large amount of lithospermic acid B, a caffeic acid tetramer, as well as shikonin derivatives (each ca. 10% of dry wt.) when cultured in shikonin production medium M-9. Various culture factors for increasing the production of lithospermic acid B were investigated. Lithospermic acid B production was inhibited by 2, 4-D or NH4+, whereas it was stimulated by Cu2+. These regulatory patterns were similar to those for the production of shikonin derivatives in these cell cultures, suggestive of close relations and similar metabolic regulation between the production of these compounds. Cultivation under light illumination, however, showed that these metabolisms were independently regulated. In particular, blue light showed a stimulatory effect on lithospermic acid B production, while shikonin production was strongly inhibited, indicative of an effective condition for lithospermic acid B production.  (+info)

Differential production of meta hydroxylated phenylpropanoids in sweet basil peltate glandular trichomes and leaves is controlled by the activities of specific acyltransferases and hydroxylases. (6/90)

Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) peltate glandular trichomes produce a variety of small molecular weight phenylpropanoids, such as eugenol, caffeic acid, and rosmarinic acid, that result from meta hydroxylation reactions. Some basil lines do not synthesize eugenol but instead synthesize chavicol, a phenylpropanoid that does not contain a meta hydroxyl group. Two distinct acyltransferases, p-coumaroyl-coenzyme A:shikimic acid p-coumaroyl transferase and p-coumaroyl-coenzyme A:4-hydroxyphenyllactic acid p-coumaroyl transferase, responsible for the production of p-coumaroyl shikimate and of p-coumaroyl 4-hydroxyphenyllactate, respectively, were partially purified and shown to be specific for their substrates. p-Coumaroyl-coenzyme A:shikimic acid p-coumaroyl transferase is expressed in basil peltate glands that are actively producing eugenol and is not active in glands of noneugenol-producing basil plants, suggesting that the levels of this activity determine the levels of synthesis of some meta-hydroxylated phenylpropanoids in these glands such as eugenol. Two basil cDNAs encoding isozymes of cytochrome P450 CYP98A13, which meta hydroxylates p-coumaroyl shikimate, were isolated and found to be highly similar (90% identity) to the Arabidopsis homolog, CYP98A3. Like the Arabidopsis enzyme, the basil enzymes were found to be very specific for p-coumaroyl shikimate. Finally, additional hydroxylase activities were identified in basil peltate glands that convert p-coumaroyl 4-hydroxyphenyllactic acid to its caffeoyl derivative and p-coumaric acid to caffeic acid.  (+info)

Rosmarinic acid inhibits Ca2+-dependent pathways of T-cell antigen receptor-mediated signaling by inhibiting the PLC-gamma 1 and Itk activity. (7/90)

Rosmarinic acid (RosA) is a hydroxylated compound frequently found in herbal plants and is mostly responsible for anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activity. Previously, we observed that RosA inhibited T-cell antigen receptor (TCR)- induced interleukin 2 (IL-2) expression and subsequent T-cell proliferation in vitro. In this study, we investigated in detail inhibitory mechanism of RosA on TCR signaling, which ultimately activates IL-2 promoter by activating transcription factors, such as nuclear factor of activated T cells (NF-AT) and activating protein-1 (AP-1). Interestingly, RosA inhibited NF-AT activation but not AP-1, suggesting that RosA inhibits Ca(2+)-dependent signaling pathways only. Signaling events upstream of NF-AT activation, such as the generation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and Ca(2+) mobilization, and tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase C-gamma 1 (PLC-gamma 1) were strongly inhibited by RosA. Tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-gamma 1 is largely dependent on 3 kinds of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs), ie, Lck, ZAP-70, and Itk. We found that RosA efficiently inhibited TCR-induced tyrosine phosphorylation and subsequent activation of Itk but did not inhibit Lck or ZAP-70. ZAP-70-dependent signaling pathways such as the tyrosine phosphorylation of LAT and SLP-76 and serine/threonine phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were intact in the presence of RosA, confirming that RosA suppresses TCR signaling in a ZAP-70-independent manner. Therefore, we conclude that RosA inhibits TCR signaling leading to Ca(2+) mobilization and NF-AT activation by blocking membrane-proximal events, specifically, the tyrosine phosphorylation of inducible T cells kinase (Itk) and PLC-gamma 1.  (+info)

Suppressive effects of Perilla frutescens on IgA nephropathy in HIGA mice. (8/90)

BACKGROUND: Perilla frutescens (perilla) is a herbal medicine used in Japanese traditional Kampo medicine. The present study was conducted to evaluate the anti-nephritic effects of perilla in HIGA mice that spontaneously develop high levels of serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) along with mesangial IgA deposition. METHODS: A perilla decoction and its major active constituent, rosmarinic acid (RsA), were orally administrated to 10-week-old HIGA mice for 16 weeks. At study completion, we measured proteinuria and serum IgA levels and generated histological scores from kidney specimens. In addition, we measured concentrations of IgA in culture media of intestinal Peyer's patch cells and spleen cells obtained from the HIGA mice. RESULTS: Perilla suppressed proteinuria, proliferation of glomerular cells, serum levels of IgA, glomerular IgA and IgG depositions in HIGA mice. Cultured Peyer's patch cells and spleen cells from perilla-treated mice produced significantly less IgA than controls. Rosmarinic acid, by itself, suppressed serum IgA levels and glomerular IgA deposition in HIGA mice. Cultured spleen cells from RsA-treated mice produced less IgA than controls. CONCLUSIONS: The perilla decoction may suppress IgA nephropathy, in part, through modulation of the intestinal mucosal immune system. These effects were caused by RsA acting synergistically with other constituents.  (+info)

osmarinic acid is a primary ingredient of Perilla Oil, an oil that is a part of traditional Japanese Kampo medicine known as Saiboku-To. The use of Saiboku-To has proven effective in treating allergies in research studies (1-3).. Rosmarinic acid has shown antioxidant effects in vitro against superoxide radicals and hydroxyl radicals (4). Rosmarinic acid can also prevent the oxidation of LDL molecules, and has shown synergy with lycopene (5).. A 2004 study showed the effect of rosmarinic acid on seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and the resulting inflammatory allergic response that comes with this condition (6). Over 21 days patients who supplemented with rosmarinic acid had significantly reduced symptoms when compared to the placebo group. The same group conducted an animal study at the same time and concluded that rosmarinic acid was able to reduce inflammation via an antioxidant effect as well as by directly inhibiting the inflammatory response.. In the same year a further study on ...
Lithospermic acid ((+)-Lithospermic acid) is a plant-derived polycyclic phenolic carboxylic acid isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza, and has the anti-oxidative and hepatoprotective activity on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver damage in vitro and in vivo. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
Quorum sensing is a bacterial communication mechanism that controls genes, enabling bacteria to live as communities, such as biofilms. Homoserine lactone (HSL) molecules function as quorum-sensing signals for Gram-negative bacteria. Plants also produce previously unidentified compounds that affect quorum sensing. We identified rosmarinic acid as a plant-derived compound that functioned as an HSL mimic. In vitro assays showed that rosmarinic acid bound to the quorum-sensing regulator RhlR of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and competed with the bacterial ligand N-butanoyl-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL). Furthermore, rosmarinic acid stimulated a greater increase in RhlR-mediated transcription in vitro than that of C4-HSL. In P. aeruginosa, rosmarinic acid induced quorum sensing-dependent gene expression and increased biofilm formation and the production of the virulence factors pyocyanin and elastase. Because P. aeruginosa PAO1 infection induces rosmarinic acid secretion from plant roots, our results ...
China Natural High Quality Rosemary Extract Rosmarinic Acid, Find details about China Rosmarinic Acid, Rosemary Extract from Natural High Quality Rosemary Extract Rosmarinic Acid - Nanjing Zelang Medical Technology Co., Ltd.
Rosmarinic acid is a actinic admixture begin in a array of plants. It has antioxidant properties. Rosmarinic acid is a abeyant anxiolytic as it acts as a GABA transaminase inhibitor, added accurately on 4-aminobutyrate transaminase. Rosmarinic acid aswell inhibits the announcement of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase via its cyclooxygenase-inhibiting properties. Senescent leaves of Heliotropium foertherianum (Boraginaceae) aswell…
China Rosemary extract Rosmarinic Acid 10% with High-Quality, Leading Rosemary extract Rosmarinic Acid 10% Manufacturers & Suppliers, find Rosemary extract Rosmarinic Acid 10% Factory & Exporters.
Malondialdehyde level significantly decreased in the group that received rosmarinic acid alone (group 2) in comparison to the control group and increased in the exposure group (3) compared to the control group. Sertoli cells apoptosis was increased in all groups in comparison to the control group, but only significant in the exposure groups 3 and 4. Level of testosterone and total antioxidant capacity significantly increased in the group (2) that received rosmarinic acid alone compared to the control group. In contrast, testosterone level significantly decreased in the exposure group (3) compared to the control group ...
This study evaluated the protective effects of two rosemary components, namely, rosmarinic acid and carnosic acid against hypoglycemia, hyperlipidemia, oxidative stress and an imbalanced architecture of gut microbiota in diabetic rats. The treatment with rosmarinic acid and carnosic acid (30 mg/Kg) decreased
I thought this article was interesting on rosmarinic acid and T cells and autoimmune disease. Ive taken rosmarinic acid before, but only short term...
Skeletal muscle is a major insulin-target tissue and plays an important role in glucose homeostasis. Impaired insulin action in muscles leads to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. 5′ AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) is an energy sensor, its activation increases glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and AMPK activators have been viewed as a targeted approach in combating insulin resistance. We previously reported AMPK activation and increased muscle glucose uptake by rosemary extract (RE). In the present study, we examined the effects and the mechanism of action of rosmarinic acid (RA), a major RE constituent, in L6 rat muscle cells. RA (5.0 μM) increased glucose uptake (186 ± 4.17% of control, p , 0.001) to levels comparable to maximum insulin (204 ± 10.73% of control, p , 0.001) and metformin (202 ± 14.37% of control, p , 0.001). Akt phosphorylation was not affected by RA, while AMPK phosphorylation was increased. The RAstimulated glucose uptake was inhibited by the AMPK inhibitor ...
Inflammatory activation plays a vital role in the pathophysiological mechanisms of stroke, exerting deleterious effects on the progression of tissue damage and may lead to the vascular damage in diabetes. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of rosmarinic acid (RA) on a cultured neuronal cell line, SH-SY5Y in vitro and experimental ischemic diabetic stroke in vivo. For oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) stimulated SH-SY5Y cell line in vitro, SH-SY5Y cells were incubated with RA. For an in vivo experiment, diabetic rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MACO) for 40 minutes followed by reperfusion for 23 h. Treatment of SH-SY5Y cells with RA reduced the OGD-induced apoptosis and cytotoxicity, blocked TNF-α-induced nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) activation, and decreased high-mobility group box1 (HMGB1) expression. At doses higher than 50 mg/kg, RA produced a significant neuroprotective potential in rats with ischemia
One of the aims of the EU-funded Research and Innovation Action (RIA), titled Ageing with Elegans (AwE) is to enhance better understanding of the factors causing health and disease in aging and develop evidence-based preventive, diagnostic, therapeutic, and other strategies. The work package-5 of this project is focused on testing the effects of phytochemicals of natural and synthetic origin on aging, longevity, and health of human cells in vitro, after the initial screening using the animal model systems of nematodes and rats and mice. Accordingly, the first series of three compounds, rosmarinic acid (ROSM), ampelopsin (AMPEL), and amorfrutin-A (AMOR), were selected to test for their short-term and long-term effects on human skin fibroblasts undergoing aging and senescence in vitro. The lifelong modulatory effects of these compounds were tested individually at two doses (0.5 and 1.0 mu M), selected after a short-term dose response check of a 20,000-fold range (0.01-200 mu M). The results show ...
Healthy adults with a clinical diagnosis of osteoarthritis of the knee will be recruited and will undergo a brief phone screening interview, followed by a detailed in-person screening process, to determine study eligibility.. Eligible participants will be matched according to sex, baseline pain according to the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) score, and duration of osteoarthritis. Participants will then be randomly assigned to receive either the investigative high rosmarinic acid spearmint tea or a comparable placebo mint tea.. During the 4-month treatment period, participants will consume two cups (300 mL in the morning and 300 mL in the evening) of either the high rosmarinic acid spearmint tea (approximately 300 mg rosmarinic acid per day) or the commercial spearmint tea (approximately 20 mg of rosmarinic acid per day) daily.. Data collection will occur at baseline (week 0), mid-treatment (week 8), post-treatment (week 16), and follow-up (week 20). Outcome ...
Abstract: The method of the physical load in condition of the coronary circulation of the blood disturbance, caused mesaton injection, induced development rat cardiopathology, bring about of the heart function decompensation and 40% death of experimenthal animals. Under electronic-microscopic study of rat cardiomyocytes are discovered signs to disorganizations of mitochondrial apparatus of these cells. Administration to therapeutic mode of luteolin and echinochrome A preparations has provided to 100% animal probability of survival. At the same time, mitochondrial apparatus of cardiomyocytes was characterized by the normal parameter i.e. given preparations have provided of defensive adative effect at cardiomyocytes level. Similar activities for rosmarinic acid have not shown. Study some metabolic parameter and endocrine status animal has also allowed revealing of therapeutic effect of luteolin and echinochrome A.Findings be evidence of that echinochrome А and luteolin capable to play the ...
20283-92-5 - DOUMFZQKYFQNTF-WUTVXBCWSA-N - Rosmarinic acid - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
The mint (Lamiaceae) family is a large family that consists of 236 genera and more than 7,000 species of flowering and herbaceous plants. Many of the most widely used and popular culinary herbs belong to this family, such as rosemary, sage, basil, mint, lavender, lemon balm, oregano and thyme. These herbs, besides being pantry staples, are also known to […]
The mint (Lamiaceae) family is a large family that consists of 236 genera and more than 7,000 species of flowering and herbaceous plants. Many of the most widely used and popular culinary herbs belong to this family, such as rosemary, sage, basil, mint, lavender, lemon balm, oregano and thyme. These herbs, besides being pantry staples, are also known to […]
By default, all articles on GreenMedInfo.com are sorted based on the content type which best reflects the data which most users are searching for. For instance, people viewing substances are generally most interested in viewing diseases that these substances have shown to have positive influences. This section is for allowing more advanced sorting methods. Currently, these advanced sorting methods are available for members only. If you are already a member, you can sign in by clicking here. If you do not currently have a user account, and would like to create one/become a member, click here to begin the singup process ...
Japans largest platform for academic e-journals: J-STAGE is a full text database for reviewed academic papers published by Japanese societies
What does QH-absorb do? Ubiquinol is the reduced (active antioxidant) state of Co-Q10, the form produced by our cells and is significantly better absorbed as a supplement, particularly as we age. Jarrow FORMULAS QH-absorb is a proprietary enhanced stability formula, which has been clinically shown in humans to increase Co-Q10 levels up to 777% (6.14x) over baseline at 300 mg per day intake. Suggested Usage Take 1 softgel 1 to 3 times per day with a meal or as directed by your qualified health care consultant. Keep out of the reach of children. Supplement Facts Servings Per Container 120 Ubiquinol (Kaneka QH) 100mg* *Daily Value Not Established. Other Ingredients Medium chain triglycerides, phosphatidyl-choline (from soy lecithin), beeswax, rosmarinic acid, vitamin E,and ascorbyl palmitate. Softgel consists of gelatin, glycerin and water. Carob extract and caramel added as a light barrier. Contains: Soy. No wheat, no gluten, no dairy, no egg, no fish/shellfish, no peanuts/tree
3-prenyl-4-methoxyisoflavone-7-O-beta-(2-O-4-coumaroyl)glucopyranoside: phytoestrogen isolated from herb Sopubia delphinfolia; has estrogenic activity; structure given in first source
Supplement Facts & Directions Supplement Facts Serving Size: 500 milligrams Servings Per Container: Varies Amount Per Serving % Daily Value* Rosemary Extract (Rosmarinus officinalis) 500 mg (standardized to ≥5% rosmarinic acid) (leaf) † * Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet.† Daily Value Not Esta
In our previous report, rosmarinic acid (RA) was revealed to be an antidote active compound in Argusia argentea (family: Boraginaceae). The plant is locally used in Okinawa in Japan as an antidote for poisoning from snake venom, Trimeresurus flavoviridis (habu). This article presents mechanistic evidence of RAs neutralization of the hemorrhagic effects of snake venom. Anti-hemorrhagic activity was assayed by using several kinds of snake venom. Inhibition against fibrinogen hydrolytic and collagen hydrolytic activities of T. flavoviridis venom were examined by SDS-PAGE. A histopathological study was done by microscopy after administration of venom in the presence or absence of RA. RA was found to markedly neutralize venom-induced hemorrhage, fibrinogenolysis, cytotoxicity and digestion of type IV collagen activity. Moreover, RA inhibited both hemorrhage and neutrophil infiltrations caused by T. flavoviridis venom in pathology sections. These results demonstrate that RA inhibited most of the hemorrhage
antibody-antibodies.com is the marketplace for research antibodies. Find the right antibody for your research needs. Accumulation of tilianin and rosmarinic acid and expression of phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes in Agastache rugosa.
The flowers and dried fruit spikes of Prunella vulgaris L. (P. vulgaris L.) have been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine and food. P. vulgaris L. is regarded as a good option for treating uterine myoma (UM). However, scientific evidence of anti-UM activity of the extract of P. vulgaris L. (PVE) is lacking. The present study aimed to characterize the chemical composition of PVE and evaluate the pharmacodynamics and mechanism of PVE against UM. The chemical composition of PVE was analyzed by GC-MS. MTT was used to screen and evaluate cell proliferation and toxicity. Double fluorescence flow cytometry method were used to determine the apoptosis and cell cycle progression of UM cells under PVE treatment. The anti-UM activity of PVE was investigated by using a specific-pathogen-free (SPF) rat model of UM. TUNEL staining was used to detect the apoptosis of UM cells. The concentrations of estrogen and progesterone in the serum of SPF rats were detected by ELISA. The expression levels of PCNA, estrogen
Learn more about Perilla frutescens at Reston Hospital Center Rosmarinic Acid, Chinese Basil Uses Principal Proposed Uses Allergic Rhinitis ...
Herbal therapy is one way to ensure this. Read on to find out more about some of the herbs which are best for cleansing the lungs and supporting the respiratory system. And, one more thing - these herbs are naturally rich in carvacrol, flavonoids, and terpenes; all of which are natural decongestants and antihistamines.. Oregano. Oregano is awesome! How this works - well, when pollen, dust, mold, chemicals, fungus, and bacteria are invading your body, it releases a chemical called histamine which causes a reaction similar to allergic reactions - nasal congestion, increased mucous production, and sneezing. Histamine reducing herbs like oregano aid in counteracting histamine and may help reduce these reactions. Oregano also contains rosmarinic acid.. A recent study, conducted by group of researchers, has discovered that rosmarinic acid reduces fluid buildup and even swelling during an allergy attack, making it a natural histamine-reducing compound. And, you should also know that oregano contains ...
Herpes simplex viruses (HSV) are pathogenic. With the emergence of drug-resistant strains of HSV, new antiviral agents, especially those with different modes of action, are urgently needed. Prunella vulgaris L. (Labiatae), a perennial plant commonly found in China and Europe, has long been used as a …
Self heal, or heal all (Prunella vulgaris), was blooming away along the trails of one of our favorite parks yesterday. Very simple lance shaped leaves and a slender stalk that are all but invisible until they flower. Then what a show! The plant spreads quickly. So if you put some in a corner of your garden expect to watch it conquer new territory. The good news is that it is easy to remove or relocate plants that appear where you rather they didnt. The plant prefers a shady, moist area to grow and you will often see it growing in disturbed edges of woodland, though I have also seen it spread happily through bark paths in my garden in full sun.. As the common name suggests, this plant has a long history of use to heal wounds and staunch bleeding. It has been used as an alterative, antibacterial, antibiotic, antioxidant, antiviral, antiseptic, astringent, bitter, carminative, febrifuge, hemostatic, hypotensive, styptic, tonic and vulnerary. The plant contains beta-carotene, vitamin B1, vitamin C, ...
Comfrey contains allantoin, which helps repair damaged tissue. The herb has a significant anti-inflammatory action due to the rosmarinic acid.
For the most part, achieving a clear understanding of the biology and biochemistry of roots has remained difficult due to the underground growth habit of the plants hidden half. This underground habit poses major technical difficulties for root study and has hindered biochemical research in particular. A recent reincarnation of a classic plant organ culture system, root culture, has proven extremely useful in reinvigorating research on root metabolism. The soil microorganism Agrobacterium rhizogenes causes the hairy root disease, which is characterized by the proliferation of adventitious roots at the infection site. Hairy roots are able to express root-specific biosynthetic pathways such as the synthesis of hyoscyamine, β-carbolines, and rosmarinic acid among other metabolites at levels equal to or greater than in the roots in planta (Flores et al., 1999; Bais et al., 2001, 2002a, 2002b; Vivanco et al., 2002). In addition to secondary metabolites, hairy roots can produce and secrete bioactive ...
Inflammatory diseases are due to abnormal immune system responses and so are seen as a an imbalance of inflammatory mediators and cells. review can be to go over the anti-inflammatory ramifications of RosA in inflammatory illnesses and its root mechanism. and research possess reported the anti-inflammatory ramifications of RosA in inflammatory illnesses. This review systematically identifies the restorative potential of RosA for inflammatory illnesses and discusses its likely mechanisms. Open up in another window Shape 1 The framework of RosA. Aftereffect of Rosmarinic Acid solution on ICG-001 ic50 Inflammatory Illnesses Arthritis Arthritis can be an inflammatory disease which involves damage to a number of joints. They have several hundred types, the most frequent which are osteoarthritis and arthritis rheumatoid (Petchi et?al., 2013). Osteoarthritis (OA) can be a intensifying degenerative disease seen as a inflammation from the synovial, scratching from the cartilage surface area, subchondral ...
Balm is an excellent carminative herb that relieves spasms in the digestive tract, and is used in cases of flatulent dyspepsia. Because of its mild anti-depressive properties, it is primarily indicated where there is dyspepsia associated with anxiety or depression, as the gently sedative oils relieve tension & stress reactions, thus acting to lighten depression. Primary chemical constituents of this herb include essential oil (citral, linalool, eugenol, citronellal, geraniol), tannins, bitter principle, resin, tannins, polyphenols, flavonoids, succinic acid, and rosmarinic acid. The volatile oils appear to act between the digestive tract and nervous system. It may be used effectively in conditions of migraine that are associated with tension, neuralgia, anxiety induced palpitations, and/or insomnia. Lemon balm has a tonic effect on the heart and circulatory system causing mild vasodilation of the peripheral vessels, thus lowering blood pressure. It can be used in feverish conditions such as ...
Peppermint is an excellent source of manganese, vitamin C and vitamin A (vitamin A involving carotenoids, including beta-carotene).. Contains the substance rosmarinic acid - to reduce asthma symptoms - as well as encourages cells to make substances called prostacyclins for aiding the opening of airways for easy breathing. Reasearch has also noted a contribution for relieving the nasal symptoms of allergic rhinitis (colds related to allergy).. Peppermint (fresh), 2 ...
Basil Genovese , also known as Sweet Basil plants are a must for your culinary herb gardening, and Basil Genovese is a favorite for its sweet flavor. Perfect for pestos! Buy farm-fresh plants online!
Sweet basil is small, bitter, pungent in taste, hot in nature, and stimulating. It ends vatta disorders and fever, and brings phlegm out.
Heal-all also has been studied for its ability to inhibit the growth and metastasis of Melanoma cells. 5 The oral administrations of Heal-all reduced the lung metastasis and tumor cell growth by B16-F10 or B16-F1 melanoma cells. These results suggested that the anti-metastatic effect of Heal-all is mediated through the suppression of MMP-9 expression by the inhibition of NF-kappaB via ERK1/2 signaling pathway as well as MMP-9 activity.. In 2009, a study was conducted that exhibited significant antiestrogenic properties, both in vitro and in vivo, in Heal-all. This activity is likely due to the ability of Heal-all-activated AHR to interfere with estrogen. This herb may be useful as an adjunct for the treatment of estrogen-dependent processes like endometriosis and breast and uterine cancers. Full characterization of this herb will likely provide new insights into the crosstalk between AHR and ESR1, with potential for therapeutic applications in women. 6 ...
Antifungal activities of different extracts of Millingtonia hortensis were investigated against various fungal pathogens. Methanol extract was found t..
The southern var. frutescens is common along the entire NC coast, while the northern var. oraria, distinguished by larger, broader leaves, occurs from Dare County north. The Dune Marsh-elder (Iva imbricata) tends to occur on oceanside dunes and has smaller, thicker, mostly untoothed leaves.. Carteret Co., NC 7/17/2008 ...
MRS. D: It was written...America shall become desolate; for she hath rebelled against her God. And they shall fall by the sword, the filthy heathens, one by one: their infants shall be dashed into pieces, their women stoned with bricks, their men castrated, their tongues ripped out, and their eyeballs gouged squishily. And no one whose testicles are crushed or whose male organ is cut shall enter the assembly of the Lord. For my god is a jealous god and those that curse his name shall have their heads chopped off and thrown into the river of blood and heads. BLOOD AND HEADS ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bidirect effects from cisplatin combine with rosmarinic acid (RA) or hot water extracts of Glechoma hederacea (HWG) on renal cancer cells. AU - Chou, Su Tze. AU - Ho, Bing Ying. AU - Tai, Yu Ting. AU - Huang, Chun Jen. AU - Chao, Wen Wan. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2020 The Author(s). Copyright: Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2020/7/29. Y1 - 2020/7/29. N2 - Background: Cisplatin (CDDP) is a chemotherapeutic drug which also causes adverse side effects. Glechoma hederacea is a traditional Chinese herb belonging to the Labiatae family and has many biological activities. Our previous study indicated that rosmarinic acid (RA) was the most abundant phytochemical in G. hederacea. However, the antioxidant or anti-inflammatory effects of the combined treatment of G. hederacea, RA and CDDP on human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) 786-O cells have not been clearly demonstrated. We aimed to investigate the bioefficacy of hot water extracts of G. hederacea (HWG) and RA ...
The leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis harvested from three different locations of Turkey were extracted by both methanolic and supercritical CO(2) extraction. Subsequently, six extracts and the active compounds, carnosic acid, and rosmarinic acid were applied to various human cancer cell lines including NCI-H82 (human, small cell lung, carcinoma), DU-145 (human, prostate, carcinoma), Hep-3B (human, black, liver, carcinoma, hepatocellular), K-562 (human chronic myeloid leukemia), MCF-7 (human, breast, adenocarcinoma), PC-3 (human, prostate, adenocarcinoma) and MDA-MB-231 (human, breast, adenocarcinoma) by MTT assay. Supercritical CO(2) extracts had superior antiproliferative effect compared to the soxhlet extracts. Although the extracts exhibited various cytotoxic effects against different cell lines, comparatively low IC(50) values ranging between 12.50 and 47.55 microg/ml were attained against K-562, being the most sensitive cell line. Moreover, carnosic acid caused the lowest cell viability ...
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Interpretive Summary: We were the first to identify and report that chicoric acid can be found within basil leaves, a widely used culinary herb. Chicoric acid is the main phenolic compound in Echinacea purpurea extracts sold as dietary supplements in the United States. In basil leaves, we found chicoric acid to be the second most abundant phenolic after rosmarinic acid. Basil is a more commonly available and inexpensive source for chicoric acid than E. purpurea. The impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on basil phenolics was also explored. Technical Abstract: This is the first report to identify the presence of chicoric acid (cichoric acid; also known as dicaffeoyltartaric acid) in basil leaves. Rosmarinic acid, chicoric acid, and caftaric acid (in the order of most abundant to least; all derivatives of caffeic acid) were identified in fresh basil leaves. Rosmarinic acid was the main phenolic found in both leaves and stems. Chicoric acid was not present in sweet basil stems, although a low ...
GA is an important phytohormone that regulates root growth and secondary metabolism. GRAS family transcription factors (TFs) are the key regulators of GA signaling. Here, we found that SmGRAS5 was co-expressed in the root periderm with tanshinones in
Peppermint Leaf Extract: The leaves are harvested, milled, ground, and then a concentrated liquid is extracted from the leaves by percolation. Major constituents of the peppermint leaves are rosmarinic acid and several flavonoids, primarily eriocitrin, luteolin and hesperidin.2. Peppermint Leaf Powder: Its green leaves are gathered during the plants flowering period.The leaves are dried, sifted, and prepared into a fine powder. Major constituents of the peppermint leaves are rosmarinic acid and several flavonoids, primarily eriocitrin, luteolin and hesperidin.2. Peppermint Oil: Peppermint oil is steam distilled from the leaves and stems of the peppermint plant. Menthol is a major volatile components of the essential oil, and its minty aroma and taste make it a popular, natural flavor.2. ...
Prunella Vulgaris, Self-heal, All-heal, is also known as Heal All Herb, a wild herb plant with many benefits. It tastes a lot like black tea when infused.
Incihaku.fi on ilmainen yli 19000 hakusanan kosmetiikan sanasto. Incihaku-palvelussa voit hakea tietoa kosmetiikan ainesosista ja niiden INCI-nimistä sekä kosmetiikassa käytettävistä kasveista.
Orach (Atriplex hortensis L.) is a halophyte plant, cultivated ever since the ancient times, used in the food industry, biotherapy, human medicine and apiculture. But, then it has a germinal capacity of about 25% and a duration of two years. These characteristics make the A. hortensis L. a plant with economic potential exploitable via biotechnological methods. These methods use phytoregulators as biochemical instruments capable of modeling somatic type explants cultivated in vitro for the purposes of the induction, generation and materialization of the properties characteristic of stem type cells. These properties are especially relevant by the use of auxinic or cytokininic type phytoregulators. The experimental researches described in this study has aimed at testing treatments with exogenous auxins or exogenous cytokinins of A. hortensis L., on somatic type explants cultivated in vitro, for the purposes of the induction, generation and materialization of properties characteristic of stem type ...
Perilla (Shiso), perilla frutescens - Plant information. Healthy Home Gardening, Pictures, Video and Information about Perilla (Shiso).
This study investigated the factors affecting in vitro flowering of Perilla frutescens. The shoots regenerated from cotyledonary and hypocotyl explants cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with benzyladenine (BA) and indole-3-acetic acid, each at 0.5 mg l−1, were excised and transferred to MS medium containing 30 g l−1 of sucrose, 8.25 g l−1 of ammonium nitrate, and 1.0 mg l−1 of BA. After 40 d of culture, 86.2% of shoots flowered and most of which self-fertilized in vitro and produced mature fruits with viable seeds. These seeds were germinated and plants were grown to maturity and flowered in soil under greenhouse conditions. The in vitro flowering system reported in this study may facilitate rapid breeding of P. frutescens and offers a model system for studying the physiological mechanism of flowering.
Widely popular, charming rosemary herb (Rosmarinus officinalis) is a perfect potherb to have in your home garden. The herb contains unique health-benefiting phytonutrient, rosmarinic acid.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Perilla frutescens in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Nov. 4. Reference page ...
Oxidation of quercetin by air oxygen takes place in water and aqueous ethanol solutions under mild conditions, namely in moderately-basic media (pH ∼ 8-10) at ambient temperature and in the absence of any radical initiators, without enzymatic catalysis or irradiation of the reaction media by light. The principal reaction products are typical of other oxidative degradation processes of quercetin, namely 3,4-dihydroxy-benzoic (proto-catechuic) and 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzoic (phloroglucinic) acids, as well as the decarboxylation product of the latter - 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene (phloroglucinol). In accordance with the literature data, this process involves the cleavage of the γ-pyrone fragment (ring C) of the quercetin molecule by oxygen, with primary formation of 4,6-dihydroxy-2-(3,4-dihydroxybenzoyloxy)benzoic acid (depside). However under such mild conditions the accepted mechanism of this reaction (oxidative decarbonylation with formation of carbon monoxide, CO) should be reconsidered as preferably an
Perilla extract Offers Perilla seed extract for more concentrated polyphenols, rosmarinic acid, luteolin and other beneficial compounds compared to leaf Supports healthy modulation of Th2 cytokines, and eosinophil and mast cell activity Maintain
AntioxidantsAntioxidants: In a study of patients with chronic bronchitis, exposure to essential oils of basil caused lowering of plasma levels of dienic conjugates and ketons and activation of catalase in red cells, which are characteristic of antioxidant effects (63). Fractions of basil leaf were examined for antioxidant effects in vitro (40). Constituent antioxidants were found (phenolic compounds and flavonoids), and antioxidant effects were shown in various in vitro assays, such as iron (III) reduction, the ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay, alkylperoxyl-scavenging assay, and the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-scavenging assay (40). Antioxidant- and free radical-scavenging effects of basil and its constituents (e.g., rosmarinic acid) have been shown in other in vitro studies (177; 44; 45; 46; 48; 49), including nitric oxide inhibition (178), inhibition of Ikappa-B phosphorylation (179), stimulation of antioxidant enzymes (hepatic glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, and ...
Background and objectives:Lallemantia iberica (Lamiaceae) is a medicinal plant distributed in different parts of Iran. This research, has evaluated the phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activity of the aerial parts of the plant. Methods: Different chromatographic methods such as column chromatographies using Silica gel (normal and reversed phases), Sephadex LH-20 and HPLC were used for isolation of the compounds from the ethyl acetate and methanol extract of L. iberica aerial parts. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated using 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and EI-MS. Antioxidant activity of the extracts were also evaluated in DPPH and FRAP tests. Results: Two sterols,β-sitosterol acetate (1), β-sitosterol (2), one triterpenoic acid,ursolic acid (3), one polyphenol, rosmarinic acid (4) and six flavonoides,Luteolin-7-O-glucoside (5), 4-methoxy-luteolin-7-O-glucoside (6), apigenin-7-O-glucoside (7), Luteolin (8), diosmetin (9), apigenin (10) were isolated and identified from the ethyl
Campylobacter jejuni antibody [380/412] for ELISA. Anti-Campylobacter jejuni mAb (GTX42561) is tested in Campylobacter jejuni samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Ive been on Zyrtec since I got pregnant with my son 5 years ago and have been on it since. I tried stopping it a few times and intense itching of the palms of my hands would set in which I attributed to allergies before finally doing some research and finding out Zyrtec has a withdrawal addiction phase of intense itching. Ive been off the Zyrtec for 2 weeks now. Ive also been on Advair discus for over a decade. With the help of crocodile bile pills and a Himalayan salt inhaler I was also able to go off of that. After a lot more research after still experiencing intense itching and realizing it was worse after eating a banana I came across the foreign concept of histamine intolerance. Ive been on quercetin with bromelain by Aller-Pure for a week now. It also contains vitamin C, manganese, fish oil, holy basil, perilla, rosmarinic acid and bioflavonoids. It helps but Ive come to rely on it as a band aid. I started on this after a horrible bout of allergic pink eye that made my eyes swell ...
Persistent accumulation of free radicals in cells leads to oxidative stress, which plays a causative role in the induction and progression of various chronic diseases. Therapeutic focus has therefore shifted towards the use of antioxidants, with recent interest in those of plant origin. This study investigated radical scavenging and cytoprotective activities of phytochemicals (quercetin, curcumin, sulforaphane, rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid, danshensu (3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid), ferulic acid and m-coumaric acid) against DPPH free radical in a non-cellular assay, and oxidative damage in hepatic (HepG2) and pancreatic (1.1B4) cells, elicited by an organic hydroperoxide (tert-butylhydroperoxide - tBHP) and a more physiologically relevant stressor (palmitate). Direct and indirect cytoprotective activities were assessed by neutral red viability assay after 5 h co-exposure and 20 h pre-exposure conditions, respectively ...
1. Effective in seasonal allergy: Mint has one of the highest antioxidant capacities and also contains an anti-inflammatory agent called as rosmarinic acid which helps in relieving various seasonal allergic symptoms.. 2. Respiratory health issues : The menthol content of mint is a natural decongestant that helps in reducing the mucus and phlegm and give relief in respiratory disorders like asthma and common cold . Mint leaves when added in tea, helps relieve sore throat and irritation caused by chronic coughing.. 3. Stomach Issues: Mint has a soothing and calming effect and can be used to aid with digestion by increasing the bile flow, which in turn helps to ease digestion. It also helps in upset stomach. Other stomach issues such as bloating or flatulence that can cause pain and discomfort can be relieved by peppermint. Peppermint is the favorite home reedy for flatulence.. 4. Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Use of peppermint is effective for people suffering with abdominal pain or symptoms ...
This dissertation is composed of four chapters. Reported in the chapters 1, 2 and 3 in detail were the studies on the chemical constituents and bio-activities of five medicinal plants, Thamnolia vermicularis, Lethariella cladonioides, Isodon adenanth, I. sculponeata and Hypoestes triflora. As a result, there were eighty-one compounds totally to be isolated from the plants above, and seventy-eight of them were identified on the basis of spectral evidences as well as X-ray crystallographic analysis, including twenty-four new compounds. Moreover, forty compounds, such as allantoin, rosmarinic acid and so on, were isolated from their respective plants for the first time. The biological activity assays of several new compounds were also carried out. As a result, sculponeatin I and adenanthin C, isolated from Isodon sculponeata and /. adenantha respectively, exhibited significant cytotoxicities against the human tumor cell K562, and their IC50 values were 0.0738 fj.g/ml and 0.175 jag/ml, respectively. ...
Seven phenolic lichen metabolites (1?7) have been isolated from a methanol extract of the Antarctic lichen Stereocaulon alpinum by various chromatographic methods. The structures of these compounds were determined mainly by analysis of NMR spectroscopic data. A depsidone-type compound, lobaric acid (1) and two pseudodepsidone-type compounds, 2 and 3, exhibited potent inhibitory activity against protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) with IC50 values of 0.87 lM, 6.86 lM, and 2.48 lM, respectively. Kinetic analyses of PTP1B inhibition by compounds 1 and 2 suggested that these compounds inhibited PTP1B activity in a non-competitive manner ...
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Shikonin, a naphthoquinone pigment abundant in the root of the Chinese herb Lithospermum erythrorhizon, has been widely used to treat inflammatory diseases for thousands of years. Whether shikonin changes drug metabolism remains unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: We investigated whether shikonin modulates the expression of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters as well as the possible mechanisms of this action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Primary hepatocytes isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 0-2 μM shikonin and the protein and mRNA levels of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters as well as the activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) were determined ...
Common NameStandardized: heal allOther: self heal Botanical NamePrunella vulgaris L.Plant Family: Lamiaceae OverviewIntroductionHeal all is a common w
Pigment extracts from the root of Lithospermum erythrorhizon are used as natural red dyes, as well as basic drugs due to their numerous pharmacological activities. In recent years, the demand for such natural pigment materials has increased; however, in natural dye production, the pigment yield is strongly affected by the source of cultivation, extracting conditions, and solvents. Accordingly, this study proposes a method of enzymatic pigment production based on the introduction of hydrolytic enzymes prior to the usual extraction to avoid repeated pigment extraction. The matrix destruction in the epidermal layer of the root by the enzymes was found to improve the pigment extractability, that is, the increment of KL, the mass transfer coefficient, representing the pigment mobility in the epidermal layer. The root tissue maceration by the hydrolytic enzymes was also measured to evaluate the pigment extractability, and a linear relationship was observed between the KL values and the tissue ...
Most are native to Europe, Asia, and North Africa, but Prunella vulgaris (the Common Self-heal) is Holarctic in distribution, occurring in North America as well, and is a common lawn weed. Self-heals are low-growing plants, and thrive in moist wasteland and grass, spreading rapidly to cover the ground. They are members of the mint family and have the square stem common to mints.[1][2][3]. ...
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Perilla Perilla frutescens, is nutrient dense herb support for Cholesterol, Cancer, Heart Disease, Allergy, Oral Health, Asthma, Allergies, Bronchitis, Cavities and stomach discomfort
I have mentioned phenotypes before. In biology they are the characteristic traits expressed by a species and are generally thought to be an interaction between genes and the environment. It can seem a bit complicated.. Here is an example of two selfheal (Prunella vulgaris) phenotypes. Both have been raised from seed here at Reading University. One comes from a wildflower seed company and is the generic selfheal they provide - its the taller plant on the right. A taller plant like this does best in meadow type environments. It also is easier for seed companies to harvest from.. The one on the left is from seed collected from a lawn that has seen regular mowing for over 20 years. The environment (a regularly mown turf lawn) has influenced the genes that are successfully expressed by the selfheal. A shorter and more compact form of selfheal is the result.. This compact form is widely found in most old lawns across the UK, but I dont know of any seed company that offers compact lawn selfheal as ...
Ive read that triazole contains CAPE which is a potential natural SERM, and Prunella Vulgaris which can interfere with estrogen action. My question
Eguchi (2001) - Major (n=9): TL 1.8-2.6 mm, HL 0.87-1.15 mm, HW 0.77-1.05 mm, SL 0.38-0.48 mm, FL 0.46-0.62 mm, CI 85-95, SI 45-53, FI 55-63. Head broadest at about 3/5-2/3 distance of head (as measured from the mid-point of a transverse line spanning the anteriormost and posteriormost projecting points, respectively) (Fig. 20A), in profile weakly impressed on vertex (Fig. 20B). Hypostoma bearing a median process, which is sometimes much reduced compared with the process just mesal to each mandibular insertion (arrows in Fig. 20C). Clypeus without a median longitudinal carina, with anterior margin very weakly concave medially; each lateral part of clypeus weakly produced dorsally, but not well developed into a horn as seen in P. clypeocornis sp. nov. Eye situated at about 1/3 distance of head; distance between mandibular insertion and anterior margin of eye 1.5-1.8 times as long as maximal diameter of eye. Frontal carina horizontal, extending backward to about 3/5~2/3 distance of head (Fig. ...
Home care has something to do with it too.. In my twenty-five years of practice, I have seen this repeatedly. For me, two cases have illustrated it best:. Earlier in my career, I had a patient who needed a lot of dental work. He already had quite a bit done, but much of it was pretty old and, frankly, it didnt look very good. Its actually uncommon for me to see work that I believe wasnt done carefully, but if any situation fit that bill, this was it. His crowns fit like socks on a goose. I dont know where he had it done and, at this point, it really isnt the moral of this story. The important thing is that this work was, apparently, what he could afford at the time. What amazed me was that these crowns were still functioning after more than twenty years. There was no reason they should have. They fit that badly. So, why were they working? This patients home care was excellent. He brushed and flossed after every meal. He knew that getting new dental work was going to be costly for him, so ...
Ethyl chloroacetate Chloroacetic acid Methyl chloroformate at Sigma-Aldrich Fischer, Emil (1914). "Synthesis of depsides, ...
It is a common subunit of depsides. It can be prepared by the oxidation of orsellaldehyde. This is also produced when everninic ...
... instead of depsides). The chemotypes of Macaronesian Ramalinas also seem related to the genus Vermilacinia, especially in ...
It contains the depsides gyrophoric acid and stenosporic acid. List of Xanthoparmelia species "Synonymy: Xanthoparmelia ...
... s (+ "depside" + "one") are chemical compounds that are sometimes found as secondary metabolites in lichens. They are ... esters that are both depsides and cyclic ethers. An example is norstictic acid. Norstictic acid: Correlations between its ...
1956). "Fluorescence of lichen depsides and depsidones as a taxonomic criterion". Castanea. 21 (1): 30-32. JSTOR 4031709. Bruce ...
The most common types are depsides, depsidones, dibenzofurans, and anthraquinones. As of March 2021[update], Species Fungorum ...
"NMR assignments of depsides and tridepsides of the lichen family Umbilicariaceae". Phytochemistry. 48 (5): 815-822. doi:10.1016 ...
... and depsides (Niebla homalea), which also includes the acid deficient Niebla homaleoides considered to be more related to ... species with depsidones; N. dissecta is included in the depside group. This view implies that there are no geographical ...
Digalloyl esters involve either -meta or -para depside bonds. Tannase is an enzyme that uses digallate to produce gallic acid. ...
Multi-Targeting Anti-Inflammatory Depsides from Cetrelia monachorum". PLOS ONE. 8 (10): e76929. doi:10.1371/journal.pone. ...
Further doubt was cast on the possibility of a basidiomycete mycobiont with the discovery of the depside confluentic acid in ... The lichen also contains the colorless depside compound confluentinic acid. A 2005 study employed the technique Raman ... and presence of para-depsides (gyrophoric acid in C. striata and confluentic acid in C. rubrocincta). The red and green of C. ...
Elix, John A.; Wardlaw, Judith H. (2002). "5-Chlorolecanoric acid, a new depside from Punctelia species" (PDF). Australasian ...
Gyrophoric acid, a depside, and orcinol are found in lichen. The green alga Botryococcus braunii is the subject of research ...
Nielsen, Joan; Nielsen, Per Halfdan; Frisvad, Jens C (January 1999). "Fungal depside, guisinol, from a marine derived strain of ...
Members of the genus have a diverse chemistry, including fatty acids, depsides, depsidones, and pigments. Menegazzia species ...
Ragasa, Consolacion Y.; Tan, Maria Carmen S.; Linis, Virgilio C.; Shen, Chien-Chang (2018). "A triterpene and a depside from ...
These depsides are related compounds but nevertheless warrant species distinction as seen in other lichen genera. For example, ...
... is a secondary metabolite of lichen and belongs to the depside group. Atranorin has analgesic, anti-inflammatory, ...
Elix, JA; Jones, AJ; Lajide, LCBJ; James, PW (1984). "Two new diphenyl ethers and a new depside from the lichen Micarea prasina ...
Secondary chemicals produced by the genus include xanthones and the orcinol depside compound sphaerophorin. Calycidium cuneatum ...
The predominant secondary chemicals present in the genus are orcinol depsides such as lecanoric acid and gyrophoric acid. ...
Depside what Jadwiga's surname might suggest, she was born to a rooted Polish Roman Catholic family. At the time of marriage, ...
... is morphologically similar to Maronina but can be distinguished by containing depsidones instead of depsides ...
... depsides (pd-). It was stated that: "This beautiful terricolous species forms extensive discontinuous mats...on beach terrace ... variant of Niebla pulchribarbara that was distinguished from Niebla homalea by containing depsidones instead of depsides, and ...
Chemicals that are commonly reported from the family are depsides (including atranorin), terpenes, depsidones (e.g., norstictic ...
... is a depside that can be found in the lichen Cryptothecia rubrocincta and in Xanthoparmelia pokomyi. ...
While in its lichenized condition divaricatic acid, an orcinol depside, made up 1.9% of Evernia esorediosa's dry weight. ...
" "a triterpenoid chemistry lacking diterpenes, depsidones, and para or meta-depsides." This distinction was further emphasized ...
The wide diversity in the types of chemical compounds includes depsides, depsidones, aliphatic acids, triterpenes, ...
A depside is a type of polyphenolic compound composed of two or more monocyclic aromatic units linked by an ester bond. ... Depsides are most often found in lichens, but have also been isolated from higher plants, including species of the Ericaceae, ... Some depsides are described as anti-HIV. Salsalate homodimer formed from self-condensation of salicylic acid to form ester ... A depsidase is a type of enzyme that cuts depside bonds. One such enzyme is tannase. Gyrophoric acid, found in the lichen ...
In enzymology, an orsellinate-depside hydrolase (EC 3.1.1.40) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction orsellinate ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is orsellinate-depside hydrolase. This enzyme is also called lecanorate hydrolase. ... Purification and properties of an orsellinate depside hydrolase obtained from Lasallia pustulata". Eur. J. Biochem. 22 (2): 153 ... the two substrates of this enzyme are orsellinate depside and H2O, whereas its product is orsellinate. This enzyme belongs to ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Identification of Anziaic Acid, a Lichen Depside from Hypotrachyna sp., as a New ... Identification of Anziaic Acid, a Lichen Depside from Hypotrachyna sp., as a New Topoisomerase Poison Inhibitor. ...
CH9751113Synthesis of para-β-orcinol depsides. JA Elix and S Norfolk ...
C97091New Depsides from the Lichen Neofuscelia. depsidella. John A. Elix and Judith H. Wardlaw ...
Anthelmintic and antimicrobial activities of three new depsides and ten known depsides and phenols from Indonesian lichen: ... Anthelmintic and antimicrobial activities of three new depsides and ten known depsides and phenols from Indonesian lichen: ... resulted in the successful isolation of 13 phenol and depside derivatives (1-13) including the previously unreported depsides 3 ... A phenolic group at C4 also contributed to the antimicrobial activity of the depsides as shown for compounds 7 and 8, which ...
Antioxidant activity of depsides and depsidones. Phytochemistry 37, 1585-1587. Huneck, S., 1999. The significance of lichens ...
It also serves as a component of depsides and depsidones. For instance, the well known lichen substance atranorin is a depside ...
Publications] Endo, T.et al.: Inhibition of photosystem II of spinach by lichen-derived depsides. Biosci.Biotech.Biochem.62. ... Publications] Endo,T.et al.: Inhibition of photosystem II of spinach by lichen-derived depsides. Biosci.Biotech.Biochem.62. ...
Depsides and depsidones [PK1308]. Diphenyl ethers, biphenyls, dibenzyls and stilbenes [PK1309]. Benzofuranoids [PK1310] ...
Two new depsides as well as the known p-hydroxybenzoic acid and its methyl ester, protocatechuic acid, 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)- ...
Bioactive depsides and anthocyanins from jaboticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora). J. Nat. Prod. 69: 1228-1230. ...
Metabolic fate of depsides and alkaloid constituents in aqueous extracts from Mercurialis perennis L. during fermentation. ...
New Depsides in Stirtonia ramose (Ascomycotina, Arthoniaceae). The Bryologist, 93(3): 279-282. ...
45, 2725 [1912] (Depside 302); Skraup, Monatsh. 10, 395 [1889]Google Scholar ...
Bioactive depsides and anthocyanins from jaboticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora). Journal of Natural Product, Columbus, v. 69, n. 8, ...
EC 3.1.1.40: orsellinate-depside hydrolase * EC 3.1.1.41: cephalosporin-C deacetylase ...
Hidalgo ME, Fernández E, Quilhot W et al (1994) Antioxidant activity of depsides and depsidones. Phytochemistry 37:1585-1587 ...
Hence, the regulation of the pathways of these depsides is of key importance. Mazzaferas group recently showed by RT-PCR, that ...
... a plausible complementary role of tanshinones and depsides. Planta Med. 2015;81(12-13):1003-16. ...
Synthesis of Novel Depsides as Gram-positive and Gram-negative Antibacterials Worcester State University Summer Undergraduate ... Synthesis of Depside Derivatives as Antimicrobial Compounds for Disease Treatment Renata Lima, Antonia Marashio, Bryan Urbina, ...
Depsides, depsidones, dibenzofuranes, xanthenes, an thraquinones and usnic acids are amongst the more extensively studied ...
Gypmacrophin A, a Rare Pentacyclic Sesterterpenoid, Together with Three Depsides, Functioned as New Chemical Evidence for ...
Wu, W.Y.; Wang, Y.P. Pharmacological actions and therapeutic applications of Salvia miltiorrhiza depside salt and its active ...
Except for usnic acid, no cytotoxic effects were observed for the two depsides (atranorin and perlatolic acid) and the alkyl ...
The evidence for the occurrence of m- and p-depside linkages in a galloyl chain is also described. ... Chinese gallotannin has been shown to be a mixture consisting mainly of penta-undeca-galloylglucoses which have depside galloyl ...
L. Li, "New depsides from Salvia species", Youji Huaxue 1993, 13, 303-304.【C. A. 119: 156298q (1993)】. 36. H. J. Zhang, L. N. ... C. B. Ai, Q. H. Deng, W. Z. Song, L. N. Li, "Salvianolic acid J, a depside from Salvia flava", Phytochemistry 1994, 37, 907-908 ... C. Ai, L. Li, "Salvianolic acid D and E:two new depsides from Salvia miltiorrhiza.", Planta Med. 1992, 58, 197-199.. 114. Z. T ... T. Qian, L. Li, "Isosalvianolic acid C, a depside prossessing a dibenzooxepin skeleton.", Phytochemistry 1992, 31, 1068-1070. ...
Depsides, which were present in large amounts in the most active extracts, could be involved in anti-biofilm activities. This ... Depsides, which were present in large amounts in the most active extracts, could be involved in anti-biofilm activities. This ...
Assignment of 1H NMR Spectra of Depsides, Depsidones, Depsones and Dibenzofurans from Lichens by NOE Difference Spectroscopy. ...
  • Depsides, depsidones, dibenzofuranes, xanthenes , an thraquinones and usnic acids are amongst the more extensively studied lichen metabolites (Honda and Vilegas, 1998). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as depsides and depsidones. (ecmdb.ca)
  • In enzymology, an orsellinate-depside hydrolase (EC 3.1.1.40) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction orsellinate depside + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 2 orsellinate Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are orsellinate depside and H2O, whereas its product is orsellinate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is orsellinate-depside hydrolase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Identification of Anziaic Acid, a Lichen Depside from Hypotrachyna sp. (elsevier.com)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Identification of Anziaic Acid, a Lichen Depside from Hypotrachyna sp. (elsevier.com)
  • 2011. Insights from the first putative biosynthetic gene cluster for a lichen depside and depsidone. (duke.edu)
  • Gyrophoric acid, found in the lichen Cryptothecia rubrocincta, is a depside. (wikipedia.org)
  • Except for usnic acid , no cytotoxic effects were observed for the two depsides (atranorin and perlatolic acid) and the alkyl depsidone (physodic acid). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The cannabinoids are thought to be formed by condensation of monoterpene derivatives such as geraniol phosphate with a depside-type olivetolic acid. (420magazine.com)
  • Domain swapping experiments assigned this depside formation from orsellinic acid to the OrsA thioesterase domain. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • A Triterpene and a Depside from Parmotrema austrocetratum Elix and J. Johnst. (phcogj.com)
  • An extensive phytochemical study of a foliose lichen from Indonesia, Parmelia cetrata, resulted in the successful isolation of 13 phenol and depside derivatives (1-13) including the previously unreported depsides 3'-hydroxyl-5'-pentylphenyl 2,4-dihydroxyl-6-methylbenzoate (7), 3'-hydroxyl-5'-propylphenyl 2,4-dihydroxyl-6-methylbenzoate (8) and 3'-hydroxyl-5'-methylphenyl 2-hydroxyl-4-methoxyl-6-propylbenzoate (9). (x-mol.com)
  • As inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis and leukotriene B4 biosynthesis, some depsides have in vitro anti-inflammatory activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depsides as non-redox inhibitors of leukotriene B4 biosynthesis and HaCaT cell growth, 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • SAR studies revealed that mononuclear polyketidesare more potent inhibitors as compared to depsides, diphenylethers, and dibenzofurans. (eurekaselect.com)
  • These are polycyclic compounds that is either a polyphenolic compound composed of two or more monocyclic aromatic units linked by an ester bond (depside), or a compound containing the depsidone structure (depsidone). (ecmdb.ca)
  • Furthermore, jaboticabin, an anti-inflammatory depside, was found in several Vaccinium berries for the first time. (cuny.edu)
  • Depsides are most often found in lichens, but have also been isolated from higher plants, including species of the Ericaceae, Lamiaceae, Papaveraceae and Myrtaceae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using a range of molecular and structural characterization techniques (UV-vis, LC-MS, GC-MS, and NMR), the oxidation of quercetin was found to result in the generation of somewhat similar metabolites including depside, phenolic acids, and quercetin-solvent adducts, although the transformation process and quantities of each product depend on the type of oxidation method employed. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Pharmacological actions and therapeutic applications of Salvia miltiorrhiza depside salt and its active components. (cocites.com)
  • Anthelmintic and antimicrobial activities of three new depsides and ten known depsides and phenols from Indonesian lichen: Parmelia cetrata Ach. (x-mol.com)
  • A phenolic group at C4 also contributed to the antimicrobial activity of the depsides as shown for compounds 7 and 8, which caused 89% and 96% growth inhibition at 100 µM, respectively. (x-mol.com)
  • A depside is a type of polyphenolic compound composed of two or more monocyclic aromatic units linked by an ester bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • An antitumor iridoid compound and two depsides showing inhibitory activity of monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) have been isolated from bellaco-caspi bark. (rain-tree.com)
  • A depsidase is a type of enzyme that cuts depside bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The recent achievements include Depsides Salt, a modernized TCM, for the treatment of coronary artery disease and Antofloxacin Hydrochloride, an anti-bacterial drug. (cas.cn)
  • Gypmacrophin A, a Rare Pentacyclic Sesterterpenoid, Together with Three Depsides, Functioned as New Chemical Evidence for Gypsoplaca macrophylla (Zahlbr. (mdpi.com)
  • The evidence for the occurrence of m - and p -depside linkages in a galloyl chain is also described. (rsc.org)
  • Depsides, which were present in large amounts in the most active extracts, could be involved in anti-biofilm activities. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • lighter air than saltatory and Robin restored his depsides optimizes and show virtually. (hhhs.tk)