Depressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Antidepressive Agents: Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Mood Disorders: Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.Dysthymic Disorder: Chronically depressed mood that occurs for most of the day more days than not for at least 2 years. The required minimum duration in children to make this diagnosis is 1 year. During periods of depressed mood, at least 2 of the following additional symptoms are present: poor appetite or overeating, insomnia or hypersomnia, low energy or fatigue, low self esteem, poor concentration or difficulty making decisions, and feelings of hopelessness. (DSM-IV)Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation: A structurally and mechanistically diverse group of drugs that are not tricyclics or monoamine oxidase inhibitors. The most clinically important appear to act selectively on serotonergic systems, especially by inhibiting serotonin reuptake.Depressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant: Failure to respond to two or more trials of antidepressant monotherapy or failure to respond to four or more trials of different antidepressant therapies. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 9th ed.)Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit the reuptake of serotonin in the brain.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Citalopram: A furancarbonitrile that is one of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS used as an antidepressant. The drug is also effective in reducing ethanol uptake in alcoholics and is used in depressed patients who also suffer from tardive dyskinesia in preference to tricyclic antidepressants, which aggravate this condition.Cyclohexanols: Monohydroxy derivatives of cyclohexanes that contain the general formula R-C6H11O. They have a camphorlike odor and are used in making soaps, insecticides, germicides, dry cleaning, and plasticizers.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Interview, Psychological: A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.Fluoxetine: The first highly specific serotonin uptake inhibitor. It is used as an antidepressant and often has a more acceptable side-effects profile than traditional antidepressants.Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic: A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.Personality Inventory: Check list, usually to be filled out by a person about himself, consisting of many statements about personal characteristics which the subject checks.Suicide, Attempted: The unsuccessful attempt to kill oneself.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Psychotherapy: A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.Phobic Disorders: Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)Sertraline: A selective serotonin uptake inhibitor that is used in the treatment of depression.Personality Assessment: The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.Cognitive Therapy: A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Somatoform Disorders: Disorders having the presence of physical symptoms that suggest a general medical condition but that are not fully explained by a another medical condition, by the direct effects of a substance, or by another mental disorder. The symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. In contrast to FACTITIOUS DISORDERS and MALINGERING, the physical symptoms are not under voluntary control. (APA, DSM-V)Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Electroconvulsive Therapy: Electrically induced CONVULSIONS primarily used in the treatment of severe AFFECTIVE DISORDERS and SCHIZOPHRENIA.Borderline Personality Disorder: A personality disorder marked by a pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (DSM-IV)Child of Impaired Parents: Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Suicide: The act of killing oneself.Affective Disorders, Psychotic: Disorders in which the essential feature is a severe disturbance in mood (depression, anxiety, elation, and excitement) accompanied by psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, gross impairment in reality testing, etc.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Panic Disorder: A type of anxiety disorder characterized by unexpected panic attacks that last minutes or, rarely, hours. Panic attacks begin with intense apprehension, fear or terror and, often, a feeling of impending doom. Symptoms experienced during a panic attack include dyspnea or sensations of being smothered; dizziness, loss of balance or faintness; choking sensations; palpitations or accelerated heart rate; shakiness; sweating; nausea or other form of abdominal distress; depersonalization or derealization; paresthesias; hot flashes or chills; chest discomfort or pain; fear of dying and fear of not being in control of oneself or going crazy. Agoraphobia may also develop. Similar to other anxiety disorders, it may be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait.Gyrus Cinguli: One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.Anhedonia: Inability to experience pleasure due to impairment or dysfunction of normal psychological and neurobiological mechanisms. It is a symptom of many PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS (e.g., DEPRESSIVE DISORDER, MAJOR; and SCHIZOPHRENIA).Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Neurotic Disorders: Disorders in which the symptoms are distressing to the individual and recognized by him or her as being unacceptable. Social relationships may be greatly affected but usually remain within acceptable limits. The disturbance is relatively enduring or recurrent without treatment.Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of serotonergic neurons. They are different than SEROTONIN RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to SEROTONIN. They remove SEROTONIN from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. Regulates signal amplitude and duration at serotonergic synapses and is the site of action of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Conduct Disorder: A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Life Change Events: Those occurrences, including social, psychological, and environmental, which require an adjustment or effect a change in an individual's pattern of living.Irritable Mood: Abnormal or excessive excitability with easily triggered anger, annoyance, or impatience.Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic: Substances that contain a fused three-ring moiety and are used in the treatment of depression. These drugs block the uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin into axon terminals and may block some subtypes of serotonin, adrenergic, and histamine receptors. However the mechanism of their antidepressant effects is not clear because the therapeutic effects usually take weeks to develop and may reflect compensatory changes in the central nervous system.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Suicidal Ideation: A risk factor for suicide attempts and completions, it is the most common of all suicidal behavior, but only a minority of ideators engage in overt self-harm.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Sleep Disorders: Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)Psychodrama: Primarily a technique of group psychotherapy which involves a structured, directed, and dramatized acting out of the patient's personal and emotional problems.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Depression, Postpartum: Depression in POSTPARTUM WOMEN, usually within four weeks after giving birth (PARTURITION). The degree of depression ranges from mild transient depression to neurotic or psychotic depressive disorders. (From DSM-IV, p386)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Psychotropic Drugs: A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Personality Disorders: A major deviation from normal patterns of behavior.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Child Development Disorders, Pervasive: Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.ThiophenesAdjustment Disorders: Maladaptive reactions to identifiable psychosocial stressors occurring within a short time after onset of the stressor. They are manifested by either impairment in social or occupational functioning or by symptoms (depression, anxiety, etc.) that are in excess of a normal and expected reaction to the stressor.Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry): The co-existence of a substance abuse disorder with a psychiatric disorder. The diagnostic principle is based on the fact that it has been found often that chemically dependent patients also have psychiatric problems of various degrees of severity.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Outpatients: Persons who receive ambulatory care at an outpatient department or clinic without room and board being provided.Combat Disorders: Neurotic reactions to unusual, severe, or overwhelming military stress.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Community Psychiatry: Branch of psychiatry concerned with the provision and delivery of a coordinated program of mental health care to a specified population. The foci included in this concept are: all social, psychological and physical factors related to etiology, prevention, and maintaining positive mental health in the community.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Psychopathology: The study of significant causes and processes in the development of mental illness.Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT1A: A serotonin receptor subtype found distributed through the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM where they are involved in neuroendocrine regulation of ACTH secretion. The fact that this serotonin receptor subtype is particularly sensitive to SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS such as BUSPIRONE suggests its role in the modulation of ANXIETY and DEPRESSION.United StatesAge Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Hypericum: Genus of perennial plants in the family CLUSIACEAE (sometimes classified as Hypericaceae). Herbal and homeopathic preparations are used for depression, neuralgias, and a variety of other conditions. Hypericum contains flavonoids; GLYCOSIDES; mucilage, TANNINS; volatile oils (OILS, ESSENTIAL), hypericin and hyperforin.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Alcohol-Related Disorders: Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.Agoraphobia: Obsessive, persistent, intense fear of open places.Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Postmortem Changes: Physiological changes that occur in bodies after death.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Social Adjustment: Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System: A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor: A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Tic Disorders: Disorders characterized by recurrent TICS that may interfere with speech and other activities. Tics are sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic, stereotyped motor movements or vocalizations which may be exacerbated by stress and are generally attenuated during absorbing activities. Tic disorders are distinguished from conditions which feature other types of abnormal movements that may accompany another another condition. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Affective Symptoms: Mood or emotional responses dissonant with or inappropriate to the behavior and/or stimulus.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.Competitive Bidding: Pricing statements presented by more than one party for the purpose of securing a contract.Pituitary-Adrenal System: The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Limbic System: A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).Antipsychotic Agents: Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Dependent Personality Disorder: A personality disorder characterized by a pervasive and excessive need to be taken care of that leads to submissive and clinging behavior and fears of separation, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (From DSM-IV, 1994)OregonChild Guidance Clinics: Facilities which administer the delivery of mental health counseling services to children.Functional Neuroimaging: Methods for visualizing REGIONAL BLOOD FLOW, metabolic, electrical, or other physiological activities in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM using various imaging modalities.Facial Expression: Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.Moclobemide: A reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase type A; (RIMA); (see MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS) that has antidepressive properties.General Adaptation Syndrome: The sum of all nonspecific systemic reactions of the body to long-continued exposure to systemic stress.Paroxetine: A serotonin uptake inhibitor that is effective in the treatment of depression.Child Abuse: Abuse of children in a family, institutional, or other setting. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Antisocial Personality Disorder: A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Antimanic Agents: Agents that are used to treat bipolar disorders or mania associated with other affective disorders.Endophenotypes: Measurable biological (physiological, biochemical, and anatomical features), behavioral (psychometric pattern) or cognitive markers that are found more often in individuals with a disease than in the general population. Because many endophenotypes are present before the disease onset and in individuals with heritable risk for disease such as unaffected family members, they can be used to help diagnose and search for causative genes.Diseases in Twins: Disorders affecting TWINS, one or both, at any age.Bupropion: A unicyclic, aminoketone antidepressant. The mechanism of its therapeutic actions is not well understood, but it does appear to block dopamine uptake. The hydrochloride is available as an aid to smoking cessation treatment.Trazodone: A serotonin uptake inhibitor that is used as an antidepressive agent. It has been shown to be effective in patients with major depressive disorders and other subsets of depressive disorders. It is generally more useful in depressive disorders associated with insomnia and anxiety. This drug does not aggravate psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p309)Psychotherapy, Brief: Any form of psychotherapy designed to produce therapeutic change within a minimal amount of time, generally not more than 20 sessions.Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders: Disorders characterized by impairment of the ability to initiate or maintain sleep. This may occur as a primary disorder or in association with another medical or psychiatric condition.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Adult Survivors of Child Abuse: Persons who were child victims of violence and abuse including physical, sexual, or emotional maltreatment.Helplessness, Learned: Learned expectation that one's responses are independent of reward and, hence, do not predict or control the occurrence of rewards. Learned helplessness derives from a history, experimentally induced or naturally occurring, of having received punishment/aversive stimulation regardless of responses made. Such circumstances result in an impaired ability to learn. Used for human or animal populations. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Lithium Carbonate: A lithium salt, classified as a mood-stabilizing agent. Lithium ion alters the metabolism of BIOGENIC MONOAMINES in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, and affects multiple neurotransmission systems.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Temperament: Predisposition to react to one's environment in a certain way; usually refers to mood changes.Thinking: Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Compulsive Personality Disorder: Disorder characterized by an emotionally constricted manner that is unduly conventional, serious, formal, and stingy, by preoccupation with trivial details, rules, order, organization, schedules, and lists, by stubborn insistence on having things one's own way without regard for the effects on others, by poor interpersonal relationships, and by indecisiveness due to fear of making mistakes.Vagus Nerve Stimulation: An adjunctive treatment for PARTIAL EPILEPSY and refractory DEPRESSION that delivers electrical impulses to the brain via the VAGUS NERVE. A battery implanted under the skin supplies the energy.Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Psychological Tests: Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Neurobiology: The study of the structure, growth, activities, and functions of NEURONS and the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Lymphoproliferative Disorders: Disorders characterized by proliferation of lymphoid tissue, general or unspecified.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Ketamine: A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors: Drugs that block the transport of adrenergic transmitters into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. The tricyclic antidepressants (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) and amphetamines are among the therapeutically important drugs that may act via inhibition of adrenergic transport. Many of these drugs also block transport of serotonin.Resilience, Psychological: The human ability to adapt in the face of tragedy, trauma, adversity, hardship, and ongoing significant life stressors.Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Sociology: A social science dealing with group relationships, patterns of collective behavior, and social organization.Croatia: Created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia.Twin Studies as Topic: Methods of detecting genetic etiology in human traits. The basic premise of twin studies is that monozygotic twins, being formed by the division of a single fertilized ovum, carry identical genes, while dizygotic twins, being formed by the fertilization of two ova by two different spermatozoa, are genetically no more similar than two siblings born after separate pregnancies. (Last, J.M., A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Psychotherapy, Group: A form of therapy in which two or more patients participate under the guidance of one or more psychotherapists for the purpose of treating emotional disturbances, social maladjustments, and psychotic states.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Personality: Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.Movement Disorders: Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Akathisia, Drug-Induced: A condition associated with the use of certain medications and characterized by an internal sense of motor restlessness often described as an inability to resist the urge to move.Pleasure: Sensation of enjoyment or gratification.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Expressed Emotion: Frequency and quality of negative emotions, e.g., anger or hostility, expressed by family members or significant others, that often lead to a high relapse rate, especially in schizophrenic patients. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 7th ed)Neuroimaging: Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.Mother-Child Relations: Interaction between a mother and child.Anxiety, Separation: Anxiety experienced by an individual upon separation from a person or object of particular significance to the individual.Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Speech Disorders: Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.Seasonal Affective Disorder: A syndrome characterized by depressions that recur annually at the same time each year, usually during the winter months. Other symptoms include anxiety, irritability, decreased energy, increased appetite (carbohydrate cravings), increased duration of sleep, and weight gain. SAD (seasonal affective disorder) can be treated by daily exposure to bright artificial lights (PHOTOTHERAPY), during the season of recurrence.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Monoamine Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. It is a flavin-containing enzyme that is localized in mitochondrial membranes, whether in nerve terminals, the liver, or other organs. Monoamine oxidase is important in regulating the metabolic degradation of catecholamines and serotonin in neural or target tissues. Hepatic monoamine oxidase has a crucial defensive role in inactivating circulating monoamines or those, such as tyramine, that originate in the gut and are absorbed into the portal circulation. (From Goodman and Gilman's, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p415) EC 1.4.3.4.Gene-Environment Interaction: The combined effects of genotypes and environmental factors together on phenotypic characteristics.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Major depressive disorder[edit]. Anhedonia occurs in roughly 70% of people with a major depressive disorder.[2] Anhedonia is a ... anhedonia is a component of depressive disorders, substance related disorders, psychotic disorders, and personality disorders, ... A longitudinal study of schizophrenia and major depressive disorder". Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 110 (3): 363-371. doi: ... schizophrenia spectrum disorders,[26] as it is seen as a potential evolution of most personality disorders, if the patient is ...
Major depressive disorder[edit]. Anhedonia occurs in roughly 70% of people with a major depressive disorder.[2] Anhedonia is a ... anhedonia is a component of depressive disorders, substance related disorders, psychotic disorders, and personality disorders, ... A longitudinal study of schizophrenia and major depressive disorder". Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 110 (3): 363-371. doi: ... Substance related disorders[edit]. Anhedonia is common in people who are dependent upon a wide variety of drugs, including ...
Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive disorder, is a condition in which depressive phases alternate with periods of ... Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of ... "Diagnostic Criteria for Major Depressive Disorder and Depressive Episodes" (PDF). City of Palo Alto Project Safety Net.. ... Major depressive disorder is classified as a mood disorder in DSM-5.[115] The diagnosis hinges on the presence of single or ...
Major depressive disorder[edit]. There has been much debate as to whether reboxetine is more efficacious than placebo in the ... although it has also been used off-label for panic disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).[3] It is ... Panic disorder[edit]. In a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial reboxetine significantly improved the symptoms of ... Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder[edit]. Numerous clinical trials have provided support for the efficacy of reboxetine ...
Main article: Major depressive disorder. Using data from the ECA study, Eaton, Anthony, Mandel, and Garrison (1990) found that ... Musculoskeletal disorders[edit]. Main article: Musculoskeletal disorders. Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) involve injury and ... Mental disorder[edit]. Main article: Mental disorder. Research has found that psychosocial workplace factors are among the risk ... Personality disorders[edit]. Main article: Personality disorder. Depending on the diagnosis, severity and individual, and the ...
Major depressive disorder, enuresis. Trileptal (oxcarbazepine). Epilepsy, bipolar disorder. 690 (US only). 2007[91]. Teva ... Acute pain, inflammatory disorders (such as rheumatoid arthritis). 759 (excl. OTC). 2012[83]. −4%. ... Lucentis has been approved worldwide as a treatment for wet macular degeneration and other retinal disorders; Avastin is used ... a drug to treat a growth hormone disorder; and Zelnorm, a drug for irritable bowel syndrome.[117] In September, 2010, Novartis ...
Major depressive disorder 2009-06-23 Management of multiple sclerosis 2008-1-25 ... Diseases/disorders/syndromes should be categorized within Category:Diseases and disorders by their ICD-10 code(s). These ... If applicable, diseases/disorders/syndromes may also be categorized within subcategories of Category:Genetic disorders. ... For example, the official descriptions of mental disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders are ...
... the disorder (major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, etc.) may be described as a seasonal affective disorder. Outside the ... For the mood disorder, see Major depressive disorder.. "Hopelessness" redirects here. For the album by ANOHNI, see Hopelessness ... The mood disorders are a group of disorders considered to be primary disturbances of mood. These include major depressive ... Depressed mood is also a symptom of some mood disorders such as major depressive disorder or dysthymia.[1] ...
Major depressive disorder: Spanish researchers analysed the diets of 12,059 people over six years and found that those who ate ... The OFC controls reward, reward expectation, and empathy (all of which are reduced in depressive mood disorders) and regulates ... the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid in the postmortem orbitofrontal cortex of patients with major depressive disorder" ... When the brains of 15 major depressive subjects who had committed suicide were examined post-mortem and compared against 27 age ...
24.1 Medicines used in psychotic disorders. *24.2 Medicines used in mood disorders *24.2.1 Medicines used in depressive ... Medicines used in mood disorders[edit]. Medicines used in depressive disorders[edit]. *Amitriptyline ... Medicines for mental and behavioural disorders[edit]. Medicines used in psychotic disorders[edit]. *Chlorpromazine ... Medicines used for obsessive compulsive disorders[edit]. *Clomipramine. Medicines for disorders due to psychoactive substance ...
Curtis, R. C. (1990). Self-Defeating Behaviors and Mood Disorders. In B. Wolman and G. Stricker (Eds.), Depressive Disorders. ... Journal of Mental and Nervous Disorders, 180, 275. Curtis, R. C. (1992). Integrating social and clinical psychology. In G. ...
They are also frequently used as antidepressants for the treatment of major depressive disorder, anxiety and panic disorder. ... anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, ... "Depressive Disorders". Merck Manual. Archived from the original on 5 December 2013. Retrieved 30 November 2012. Taylor D, Carol ... Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, ...
Bianchi, R.; Schonfeld, I. S.; Laurent, E. (2014). "Is burnout a depressive disorder? A re-examination with special focus on ... Burnout is not recognized as a distinct disorder in the DSM-5.[10] It is included in the ICD-10, but not as a disorder.[11] It ... Bianchi, R.; Schonfeld, I.S.; Laurent, E. (2014). "Is burnout a depressive disorder? A reexamination with special focus on ... Long limited to these dimensions, burnout is now known to involve the full array of depressive symptoms (e.g., low mood, ...
Major depression (also called "major depressive disorder", "clinical depression" or often simply "depression") is a leading ... How Psychiatry Transformed Normal Sorrow into Depressive Disorder. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-804269-3.. ... "Journal of Affective Disorders. 81 (2): 91-102. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2003.08.009. PMID 15306134. Retrieved 2008-02-28.. ... "Journal of Affective Disorders. 72 (1): 1-14. doi:10.1016/S0165-0327(01)00459-1. PMID 12204312. Retrieved 2008-02-28.. ...
Mood disorders, major depressive disorder, anxiety disordersEdit. To be populated.. Infections: HIV-AIDS, Measles, RSV, others ... Mood disorders, major depressive disorder, anxiety disordersEdit. To be populated re IL6, immunology of depression/anxiety, ... Substance P has been associated with the regulation of mood disorders, anxiety, stress,[30] reinforcement,[31] neurogenesis,[32 ... Dermatological disorders: eczema/psoriasis, chronic pruritusEdit. High levels of BDNF and substance P have been found ...
Major depressive disorderEdit. If therapy with antidepressants does not fully treat the symptoms of major depressive disorder ( ... disorders of impulse control, and some psychiatric disorders in children.[2] In mood disorders, of which bipolar disorder is ... It is primarily used to treat bipolar disorder and treat major depressive disorder that does not improve following the use of ... Because of prevalent theories linking excess uric acid to a range of disorders, including depressive and manic disorders, Carl ...
Major depressive disorderEdit. There is a correlation between adherence to a healthy diet, like the Mediterranean diet, and a ... increasing use of the diet may have contributed to the growing rate of gluten-related disorders.[31] ...
Depressive (with primary, recurrent, familial mood disorders) Reduction in raphe nucleus and mesiotemporal cortex 12+8 [14] ... Major depressive disorder (medicated and unmedicated) Reduction in "many of the regions examined" 25+18 [15] ... Panic disorder in treated and untreated patients Reducing in binding in raphe in both treated and untreated. Reduced binding in ... "Serotonin 5-HT1A receptor binding in people with panic disorder: positron emission tomography study". The British Journal of ...
... including major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, schizophreniform disorder, ... bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and other mental disorders, narcolepsy, as well as drug abuse or ... brief psychotic disorder, and substance-induced psychotic disorder. It appears as the Kahlbaum syndrome (motionless catatonia ... In the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), catatonia is not recognized as a ...
Some young people, especially those with co-morbid conduct disorder and major depressive disorder, may have had undiagnosed and ... Childhood depression is often co-morbid with mental disorders outside of other mood disorders; most commonly anxiety disorder ... "Depressive-disorders in childhood. 3. A longitudinal-study of co-morbidity with and risk for conduct disorders". Journal of ... such as the mood disorders major depressive disorder and dysthymia. Depression in childhood and adolescence is similar to adult ...
Evidence suggests it is useful for neuropathic pain[4] and treatment-resistant major depressive disorder.[4][5] A 2015 Cochrane ... anxiety disorders,[4] including panic disorder[57] and obsessive-compulsive disorder.[4] The most promising areas to target for ... TMS Therapy System for Major Depressive Disorder" (pdf). Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 2010-07-16.. ... Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Depressive Disorders. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. pp. 81-90. ISBN 978- ...
"Structural neuroimaging studies in major depressive disorder. Meta-analysis and comparison with bipolar disorder". Archives of ... impairment of delayed recall and the cumulative length of depressive disorder in a large sample of depressed outpatients". The ... Journal of Affective Disorders. 94 (1-3): 121-126. PMID 16701903. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2006.03.010. Retrieved 2014-01-29.. ... Some studies shows correlation of reduced hippocampus volume and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).[121][122][123] A study ...
Silverstone T, T (1985). "Dopamine in manic depressive illness. A pharmacological synthesis". Journal of Affective Disorders. 8 ... a type of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) or "OCD-spectrum disorder", or a disorder of impulsivity. A number of authors do ... The DSM does include an entry called Sexual Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (Sexual Disorder NOS) to apply to, among other ... hypersexuality can be a symptom of hypomania or mania in bipolar disorder or schizoaffective disorder. Pick's disease causes ...
KP Su; SY Huang; CC Chiu; WW Shen (2003). "Omega-3 fatty acids in major depressive disorder. A preliminary double-blind, ... There is also more preliminary evidence showing that dietary ω-3 can ease symptoms in several psychiatric disorders. ...
"The role of purinergic signaling in depressive disorders". Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica. 14 (4): 231-8. PMID 23269209. ... "Role of Adenosine Signaling in Penile Erection and Erectile Disorders". The Journal of Sexual Medicine. 7 (11): 3553-3564. doi: ...
Mixed anxiety-depressive disorder. *Gender dysphoria. *Personality disorders such as borderline personality disorder, dependent ... Dissociative disorders such as dissociative identity disorder, dissociative amnesia, and depersonalization disorder. ... "gender identity disorder", making it clear that they no longer consider the gender identity to be disordered, but rather the ... The current edition (DSM-5) of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders uses the term "gender dysphoria" where ...
The term seasonal affective disorder (SAD) describes episodes of major depression, mania, or hypomania that regularly occur ... Atypical depressive symptoms in seasonal and non-seasonal mood disorders. J Affect Disord 1997; 44:39. ... Bright light treatment in elderly patients with nonseasonal major depressive disorder: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. ... Seasonal affective disorder - Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is defined as recurrent episodes of major depression, mania, or ...
... recovery and follow-up care for Seasonal affective disorder. ... Learn about Seasonal affective disorder, find a doctor, ... Depression is defined as a mood disorder, and there are several subtypes. Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive ... Osborn J, Raetz J, Kost A. Seasonal affective disorder, grief reaction, and adjustment disorder. Med Clin North Am. 2014;98: ... Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a type of depression that occurs at a certain time of the year, usually in winter. ...
... common stimulants used in the treatment of depressive disorders. As well, recent studies suggest that electro-acupuncture maybe ... These set of symptoms form a condition commonly referred to as seasonal affective disorder (SAD). Seasonal affective disorder ... Luo H, Jia Y, Zhan L (1985) Electro-acupuncture vs amitriptyline in the treatment of depressive states. J Tradit Chin Med. 5:3- ... For a condition such as seasonal affective disorder, Traditional Chinese medicine considers it essential to look at the whole ...
Seasonal affective disorder and vitamin D deficiency can have damaging effects on seniors physical and mental health. ... in the amount of daylight during fall and winter affects circadian rhythms and causes hormonal changes that lead to depressive ... Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a form of depression that cycles with the seasons. It can occur during any time of the ... Supposedly if you have any kind of bipolar disorder a light box could cause mania. But a dawn simulator seems to be safer. It ...
You might have seasonal affective disorder. Learn how to spot the signs. ... A study conducted at Duke University Medical Center found that patients with major depressive disorder who performed aerobic ... and a clinical disorder known as seasonal affective disorder (SAD) or seasonal depression. SAD is similar to non-seasonal ... Home > Articles > Seasonal Affective Disorder: 8 Ways to Stay Mentally Strong this Season ...
Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive disorder, is a condition in which depressive phases alternate with periods of ... Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of ... "Diagnostic Criteria for Major Depressive Disorder and Depressive Episodes" (PDF). City of Palo Alto Project Safety Net.. ... Major depressive disorder is classified as a mood disorder in DSM-5.[115] The diagnosis hinges on the presence of single or ...
A depressive disorder is not a passing blue mood but rather persistent feelings of sadness and worthlessness and a lack of ... Depressive Disorders. A depressive disorder is not a passing blue mood but rather persistent feelings of sadness and ... A depressive disorder is not the same as a passing blue mood. It is not a sign of personal weakness or a condition that can be ... Depressive disorders come in different forms, just as is the case with other illnesses such as heart disease. Three of the most ...
Persistent depressive disorder (PDD) is a chronic (ongoing) type of depression in which a persons moods are regularly low. ... Fava M, Østergaard SD, Cassano P. Mood disorders: depressive disorders (major depressive disorder). In: Stern TA, Fava M, ... Persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: ... Persistent depressive disorder (PDD) is a chronic (ongoing) type of depression in which a persons moods are regularly low. ...
... and disorders ranging from major depression to bipolar disorder are increasingly diagnosed in children and adolescents. ... Depressive disorders include major depressive disorder (unipolar depression); persistent depressive disorder (formerly called ... Depressive Disorders (Children and Adolescents). Children can get depressed, and disorders ranging from major depression to ... Bipolar disorder is not nearly as prevalent as other forms of depressive disorders and is characterized by mood changes, such ...
This review addresses the complex treatment options for this underdiagnosed disorder. ... as classified by a schedule of affective disorders and schizophrenia delusion severity score of 1 at the second assessment when ... it could have produced greater reductions in depressive symptoms or higher response or remission rates. ... that support specific pharmacological regimens for the treatment of psychotic depression in patients with bipolar disorder.[27] ...
Dysthymic disorder, or dysthymia, is a type of chronic depression that lasts for at least 2 years. Click to learn more about ... Persistent depressive disorder (PDD) is a type of depression that lasts a long time. A persons moods are generally low for at ... Panic Disorder. Panic disorder is a condition in which a person has episodes of intense fear or anxiety that occur suddenly,… ... Social phobia, also called social anxiety disorder, is a fear of being judged, embarrassed, or rejected by others. ...
... are elevated in patients with major depressive disorder: a meta-analysis and meta-regression," Journal of Affective Disorders, ... "Amygdala and whole-brain activity to emotional faces distinguishes major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder," Bipolar ... M. Fava and K. S. Kendler, "Major depressive disorder," Neuron, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 335-341, 2000. View at Google Scholar · ... Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most common psychiatric diseases. MDD is not only characterized by profound ...
... formerly known as dysthymic disorder (also known as dysthymia or chronic depression), was renamed in the DSM-5 (American ... This disorder represents a consolidation of DSM-IV-defined chronic major depressive disorder and dysthymic disorder. Major ... and major depressive episodes may occur during persistent depressive disorder. Individuals whose symptoms meet major depressive ... Persistent depressive disorder, formerly known as dysthymic disorder (also known as dysthymia or chronic depression), was ...
Homeopathic Remedies for Depression, Anxiety and Mood Disorders can help you living healthy with Neuropsychology disorders ... Many nerve-related disorders including depression can be treated with the use of this homeopathic remedy.. Staphysagria is most ... Various depressive conditions relating to menstruation, labor, menopause as well as pregnancy are addressed with the use of ... So one who is suffering from mental emotional disorder can easily take benefit from these medicines. I am also a qualified and ...
Psychological treatment for depressive disorder: Authors reply. BMJ 1990; 300 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.300.6739.1587-c ...
Dysthymic disorder may be diagnosed in pediatric patients, either children or adolescents, when a pervasive depressed or ... encoded search term (Pediatric Persistent Depressive Disorder (Dysthymia)) and Pediatric Persistent Depressive Disorder ( ... Conditions to consider in the differential diagnosis of persistent depressive disorder (PDD) disorder in pediatric patients ... Pediatric Persistent Depressive Disorder (Dysthymia) Differential Diagnoses. Updated: Oct 14, 2016 * Author: Jeffrey S Forrest ...
Al Levin has recovered from two bouts of major depressive disorder and has become passionate about supporting others. Read his ... Having major depressive disorder can take a toll on your emotional and physical well-being. See how some simple self-care can ... I was first diagnosed with major depressive disorder in 2010. I had recently been promoted and found myself in the middle of ... Al has recovered from two bouts of major depressive disorder, and from his experience, has become passionate about supporting ...
Find breaking news, commentary, and archival information about Major Depressive Disorder From The tribunedigital-chicagotribune ... The drug, mifepristone, was being developed for treating psychotic symptoms in patients with major depressive disorder. ... The drug, mifepristone, was being developed for treating psychotic symptoms in patients with major depressive disorder. ... Food and Drug Administration approved Lundbecks antidepressant Brintellix to treat adults with major depressive disorder. The ...
Genetic aspects of Manic-depressive psychoses, Genetic aspects of Schizophrenia, Manic-depressive psychoses, Schizophrenia ... Schizophrenia and manic-depressive disorder by E. Fuller Torrey; 1 edition; Subjects: Diseases in twins, Genetic aspects, ... Schizophrenia and manic-depressive disorder the biological roots of mental illness as revealed by the landmark study of ... Are you sure you want to remove Schizophrenia and manic-depressive disorder from your list? ...
Volumetric neuroimaging investigations in mood disorders: bipolar disorder versus major depressive disorder. Bipolar Disord ... Major depressive disorder has traditionally been viewed as an illness in which depressive episodes are followed by periods of ... Major depressive disorder is likely to have a large number of causes, both genetic and environmental. We have attempted to ... Major depressive disorder is caused by the cumulative impact of genetics, adverse events in childhood and ongoing or recent ...
Depressive Disorders - FPN. Fridays Progress Notes. Mental Health Information. July 2017 - Vol. 21 Issue 7. Published by ... 5. Medications to treat Major Depressive Disorder. This website lists the medications that are in some way related to, or used ... In addition to helping to make the diagnosis of depressive disorders, the PHQ-9 is also a reliable and valid measure of ... Collaborative Care to Improve the Management of Depressive Disorders. *Depression as a Major Component of Public Health for ...
The essential feature of Major Depressive Disorder is a clinical course that is characterized by one or more Major Depressive ... Major Depressive Disorder *- Dysthymic Disorder *Bipolar disorders *Bipolar II Disorder *Cyclothymic Disorder *Mood disorders ... Other mental disorders frequently co-occur with Major Depressive Disorder (e.g., Substance-Related Disorders, Panic Disorder, ... Major Depressive Episodes in Major Depressive Disorder must be distinguished from a Mood Disorder Due to a General Medical ...
Previous research has reported both a moderate degree of comorbidity between cannabis dependence and major depressive disorder ... Major depressive disorder, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempt in twins discordant for cannabis dependence and early-onset ... Major depressive disorder, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempt in twins discordant for cannabis dependence and early-onset ... Previous research has reported both a moderate degree of comorbidity between cannabis dependence and major depressive disorder ...
Dysthymic disorder may be diagnosed in pediatric patients, either children or adolescents, when a pervasive depressed or ... Persistent depressive disorder versus major depressive disorder. A considerable overlap of symptoms is observed between PDD and ... Pediatric Persistent Depressive Disorder (Dysthymia) Clinical Presentation. Updated: Oct 14, 2016 * Author: Jeffrey S Forrest, ... Incidence of major depressive disorder and dysthymia in young adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1997 Apr. 36(4): ...
Understanding Bipolar Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder The failure to properly recognize patients who experience... ... Bipolar Disorder And Manic Depressive Disorder. 1740 Words , 7 Pages * Bipolar Disorder And Major Depressive Disorder. 856 ... Major Depressive Disorder And Bipolar Disorder. 2117 Words , 9 Pages Abstract Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Disorder ... Bipolar Disorder And Manic Depressive Disorder. 1740 Words , 7 Pages Bipolar disorder, previously manic depressive disorder, is ...
  • Although it is not always the go-to treatment for SAD, some studies have shown that light therapy has the potential to be as effective as antidepressant medication when it comes to treating the disorder. (agingcare.com)
  • To receive the right treatment for SAD, other depressive disorders must also be ruled out. (makegreatlight.com)
  • In order to meet the diagnostic criteria for dysthymic disorder, the symptoms may not be due to the direct physiological effects of the use or abuse of a substance (for instance, alcohol, drugs, or medications) or a general medical condition (e.g., cancer or a stroke). (psychcentral.com)
  • For more information about treatment, please see general treatment guidelines for dysthymic disorder . (psychcentral.com)
  • Vance A, Sanders M, Arduca Y. Dysthymic disorder contributes to oppositional defiant behaviour in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, combined type (ADHD-CT). (medscape.com)
  • For example, although modifications enacted in DSM-IV have effectively decreased overlap with panic disorder, GAD remains characterized by prominent comorbidity. (scribd.com)
  • March 5, 2008 - Madison, N.J., February 29, 2008 Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, a division of Wyeth (NYSE:WYE), announced today that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved PRISTIQ (desvenlafaxine), a structurally novel, once-daily serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), to treat adult patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). (prleap.com)
  • APA, 1987) included a number of symptoms that reflected acute arousal of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), which made it challenging to disentangle GAD from panic disorder (Marten et al. (scribd.com)
  • The recent message on this list regarding a misdiagnosed manic/depressive illness reminded me of a client I've seen for 2 sessions. (emofree.com)
  • However, decisions regarding nosology should not only account for current manifestations of symptom profiles, but also the potential diagnostic utility of associated characteristics, which, given past research, may suggest greater distinctiveness between these disorder classes. (scribd.com)
  • A cardinal symptom of major depressive disorder (MDD) is the disruption of circadian patterns. (pnas.org)