Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.
An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.
Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.
Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.
A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.
Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.
Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)
Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.
Chronically depressed mood that occurs for most of the day more days than not for at least 2 years. The required minimum duration in children to make this diagnosis is 1 year. During periods of depressed mood, at least 2 of the following additional symptoms are present: poor appetite or overeating, insomnia or hypersomnia, low energy or fatigue, low self esteem, poor concentration or difficulty making decisions, and feelings of hopelessness. (DSM-IV)
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
A structurally and mechanistically diverse group of drugs that are not tricyclics or monoamine oxidase inhibitors. The most clinically important appear to act selectively on serotonergic systems, especially by inhibiting serotonin reuptake.
Failure to respond to two or more trials of antidepressant monotherapy or failure to respond to four or more trials of different antidepressant therapies. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 9th ed.)
Compounds that specifically inhibit the reuptake of serotonin in the brain.
Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.
A furancarbonitrile that is one of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS used as an antidepressant. The drug is also effective in reducing ethanol uptake in alcoholics and is used in depressed patients who also suffer from tardive dyskinesia in preference to tricyclic antidepressants, which aggravate this condition.
Monohydroxy derivatives of cyclohexanes that contain the general formula R-C6H11O. They have a camphorlike odor and are used in making soaps, insecticides, germicides, dry cleaning, and plasticizers.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.
The first highly specific serotonin uptake inhibitor. It is used as an antidepressant and often has a more acceptable side-effects profile than traditional antidepressants.
A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.
Check list, usually to be filled out by a person about himself, consisting of many statements about personal characteristics which the subject checks.
The unsuccessful attempt to kill oneself.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.
An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.
Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.
A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)
A selective serotonin uptake inhibitor that is used in the treatment of depression.
The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.
A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.
Disorders related to substance abuse.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Disorders having the presence of physical symptoms that suggest a general medical condition but that are not fully explained by a another medical condition, by the direct effects of a substance, or by another mental disorder. The symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. In contrast to FACTITIOUS DISORDERS and MALINGERING, the physical symptoms are not under voluntary control. (APA, DSM-V)
Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.
Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.
Electrically induced CONVULSIONS primarily used in the treatment of severe AFFECTIVE DISORDERS and SCHIZOPHRENIA.
A personality disorder marked by a pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (DSM-IV)
Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.
Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The act of killing oneself.
Disorders in which the essential feature is a severe disturbance in mood (depression, anxiety, elation, and excitement) accompanied by psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, gross impairment in reality testing, etc.
The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
A type of anxiety disorder characterized by unexpected panic attacks that last minutes or, rarely, hours. Panic attacks begin with intense apprehension, fear or terror and, often, a feeling of impending doom. Symptoms experienced during a panic attack include dyspnea or sensations of being smothered; dizziness, loss of balance or faintness; choking sensations; palpitations or accelerated heart rate; shakiness; sweating; nausea or other form of abdominal distress; depersonalization or derealization; paresthesias; hot flashes or chills; chest discomfort or pain; fear of dying and fear of not being in control of oneself or going crazy. Agoraphobia may also develop. Similar to other anxiety disorders, it may be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait.
One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.
Inability to experience pleasure due to impairment or dysfunction of normal psychological and neurobiological mechanisms. It is a symptom of many PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS (e.g., DEPRESSIVE DISORDER, MAJOR; and SCHIZOPHRENIA).
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
Disorders in which the symptoms are distressing to the individual and recognized by him or her as being unacceptable. Social relationships may be greatly affected but usually remain within acceptable limits. The disturbance is relatively enduring or recurrent without treatment.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of serotonergic neurons. They are different than SEROTONIN RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to SEROTONIN. They remove SEROTONIN from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. Regulates signal amplitude and duration at serotonergic synapses and is the site of action of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Those occurrences, including social, psychological, and environmental, which require an adjustment or effect a change in an individual's pattern of living.
Abnormal or excessive excitability with easily triggered anger, annoyance, or impatience.
Substances that contain a fused three-ring moiety and are used in the treatment of depression. These drugs block the uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin into axon terminals and may block some subtypes of serotonin, adrenergic, and histamine receptors. However the mechanism of their antidepressant effects is not clear because the therapeutic effects usually take weeks to develop and may reflect compensatory changes in the central nervous system.
The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
A risk factor for suicide attempts and completions, it is the most common of all suicidal behavior, but only a minority of ideators engage in overt self-harm.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
Primarily a technique of group psychotherapy which involves a structured, directed, and dramatized acting out of the patient's personal and emotional problems.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)
Depression in POSTPARTUM WOMEN, usually within four weeks after giving birth (PARTURITION). The degree of depression ranges from mild transient depression to neurotic or psychotic depressive disorders. (From DSM-IV, p386)
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).
A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)
A major deviation from normal patterns of behavior.
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.
Thiophenes are aromatic heterocyclic organic compounds containing a five-membered ring with four carbon atoms and one sulfur atom, which are found in various natural substances and synthesized for use in pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals.
Maladaptive reactions to identifiable psychosocial stressors occurring within a short time after onset of the stressor. They are manifested by either impairment in social or occupational functioning or by symptoms (depression, anxiety, etc.) that are in excess of a normal and expected reaction to the stressor.
The co-existence of a substance abuse disorder with a psychiatric disorder. The diagnostic principle is based on the fact that it has been found often that chemically dependent patients also have psychiatric problems of various degrees of severity.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Persons who receive ambulatory care at an outpatient department or clinic without room and board being provided.
Neurotic reactions to unusual, severe, or overwhelming military stress.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Branch of psychiatry concerned with the provision and delivery of a coordinated program of mental health care to a specified population. The foci included in this concept are: all social, psychological and physical factors related to etiology, prevention, and maintaining positive mental health in the community.
Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.
The study of significant causes and processes in the development of mental illness.
A serotonin receptor subtype found distributed through the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM where they are involved in neuroendocrine regulation of ACTH secretion. The fact that this serotonin receptor subtype is particularly sensitive to SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS such as BUSPIRONE suggests its role in the modulation of ANXIETY and DEPRESSION.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Genus of perennial plants in the family CLUSIACEAE (sometimes classified as Hypericaceae). Herbal and homeopathic preparations are used for depression, neuralgias, and a variety of other conditions. Hypericum contains flavonoids; GLYCOSIDES; mucilage, TANNINS; volatile oils (OILS, ESSENTIAL), hypericin and hyperforin.
Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.
Obsessive, persistent, intense fear of open places.
Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Organized services to provide mental health care.
Physiological changes that occur in bodies after death.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.
A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
Disorders characterized by recurrent TICS that may interfere with speech and other activities. Tics are sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic, stereotyped motor movements or vocalizations which may be exacerbated by stress and are generally attenuated during absorbing activities. Tic disorders are distinguished from conditions which feature other types of abnormal movements that may accompany another another condition. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Mood or emotional responses dissonant with or inappropriate to the behavior and/or stimulus.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.
Pricing statements presented by more than one party for the purpose of securing a contract.
The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).
Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.
A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
A personality disorder characterized by a pervasive and excessive need to be taken care of that leads to submissive and clinging behavior and fears of separation, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Oregon" is a geographical location and not a medical concept or condition. It is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to help answer those!
Facilities which administer the delivery of mental health counseling services to children.
Methods for visualizing REGIONAL BLOOD FLOW, metabolic, electrical, or other physiological activities in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM using various imaging modalities.
Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.
A reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase type A; (RIMA); (see MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS) that has antidepressive properties.
The sum of all nonspecific systemic reactions of the body to long-continued exposure to systemic stress.
A serotonin uptake inhibitor that is effective in the treatment of depression.
Abuse of children in a family, institutional, or other setting. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Agents that are used to treat bipolar disorders or mania associated with other affective disorders.
Measurable biological (physiological, biochemical, and anatomical features), behavioral (psychometric pattern) or cognitive markers that are found more often in individuals with a disease than in the general population. Because many endophenotypes are present before the disease onset and in individuals with heritable risk for disease such as unaffected family members, they can be used to help diagnose and search for causative genes.
Disorders affecting TWINS, one or both, at any age.
A unicyclic, aminoketone antidepressant. The mechanism of its therapeutic actions is not well understood, but it does appear to block dopamine uptake. The hydrochloride is available as an aid to smoking cessation treatment.
A serotonin uptake inhibitor that is used as an antidepressive agent. It has been shown to be effective in patients with major depressive disorders and other subsets of depressive disorders. It is generally more useful in depressive disorders associated with insomnia and anxiety. This drug does not aggravate psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p309)
Any form of psychotherapy designed to produce therapeutic change within a minimal amount of time, generally not more than 20 sessions.
Disorders characterized by impairment of the ability to initiate or maintain sleep. This may occur as a primary disorder or in association with another medical or psychiatric condition.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Persons who were child victims of violence and abuse including physical, sexual, or emotional maltreatment.
Learned expectation that one's responses are independent of reward and, hence, do not predict or control the occurrence of rewards. Learned helplessness derives from a history, experimentally induced or naturally occurring, of having received punishment/aversive stimulation regardless of responses made. Such circumstances result in an impaired ability to learn. Used for human or animal populations. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
A lithium salt, classified as a mood-stabilizing agent. Lithium ion alters the metabolism of BIOGENIC MONOAMINES in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, and affects multiple neurotransmission systems.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Predisposition to react to one's environment in a certain way; usually refers to mood changes.
Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.
Disorder characterized by an emotionally constricted manner that is unduly conventional, serious, formal, and stingy, by preoccupation with trivial details, rules, order, organization, schedules, and lists, by stubborn insistence on having things one's own way without regard for the effects on others, by poor interpersonal relationships, and by indecisiveness due to fear of making mistakes.
An adjunctive treatment for PARTIAL EPILEPSY and refractory DEPRESSION that delivers electrical impulses to the brain via the VAGUS NERVE. A battery implanted under the skin supplies the energy.
Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The state wherein the person is well adjusted.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
The study of the structure, growth, activities, and functions of NEURONS and the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Disorders characterized by proliferation of lymphoid tissue, general or unspecified.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.
Drugs that block the transport of adrenergic transmitters into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. The tricyclic antidepressants (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) and amphetamines are among the therapeutically important drugs that may act via inhibition of adrenergic transport. Many of these drugs also block transport of serotonin.
The human ability to adapt in the face of tragedy, trauma, adversity, hardship, and ongoing significant life stressors.
Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.
A social science dealing with group relationships, patterns of collective behavior, and social organization.
Created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia.
Methods of detecting genetic etiology in human traits. The basic premise of twin studies is that monozygotic twins, being formed by the division of a single fertilized ovum, carry identical genes, while dizygotic twins, being formed by the fertilization of two ova by two different spermatozoa, are genetically no more similar than two siblings born after separate pregnancies. (Last, J.M., A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A form of therapy in which two or more patients participate under the guidance of one or more psychotherapists for the purpose of treating emotional disturbances, social maladjustments, and psychotic states.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.
Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
A condition associated with the use of certain medications and characterized by an internal sense of motor restlessness often described as an inability to resist the urge to move.
Sensation of enjoyment or gratification.
Female parents, human or animal.
The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
Frequency and quality of negative emotions, e.g., anger or hostility, expressed by family members or significant others, that often lead to a high relapse rate, especially in schizophrenic patients. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 7th ed)
Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.
Interaction between a mother and child.
Anxiety experienced by an individual upon separation from a person or object of particular significance to the individual.
Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.
Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.
A syndrome characterized by depressions that recur annually at the same time each year, usually during the winter months. Other symptoms include anxiety, irritability, decreased energy, increased appetite (carbohydrate cravings), increased duration of sleep, and weight gain. SAD (seasonal affective disorder) can be treated by daily exposure to bright artificial lights (PHOTOTHERAPY), during the season of recurrence.
A person's view of himself.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. It is a flavin-containing enzyme that is localized in mitochondrial membranes, whether in nerve terminals, the liver, or other organs. Monoamine oxidase is important in regulating the metabolic degradation of catecholamines and serotonin in neural or target tissues. Hepatic monoamine oxidase has a crucial defensive role in inactivating circulating monoamines or those, such as tyramine, that originate in the gut and are absorbed into the portal circulation. (From Goodman and Gilman's, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p415) EC 1.4.3.4.
The combined effects of genotypes and environmental factors together on phenotypic characteristics.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
A characteristic symptom complex.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Disorders whose essential features are the failure to resist an impulse, drive, or temptation to perform an act that is harmful to the individual or to others. Individuals experience an increased sense of tension prior to the act and pleasure, gratification or release of tension at the time of committing the act.

Predicting delayed anxiety and depression in patients with gastrointestinal cancer. (1/4586)

The aim of this study was to examine the possibility of predicting anxiety and depression 6 months after a cancer diagnosis on the basis of measures of anxiety, depression, coping and subjective distress associated with the diagnosis and to explore the possibility of identifying individual patients with high levels of delayed anxiety and depression associated with the diagnosis. A consecutive series of 159 patients with gastrointestinal cancer were interviewed in connection with the diagnosis, 3 months (non-cured patients only) and 6 months later. The interviews utilized structured questionnaires assessing anxiety and depression [Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale], coping [Mental Adjustment to Cancer (MAC) scale] and subjective distress [Impact of Event (IES) scale]. Patient anxiety and depression close to the diagnosis were found to explain approximately 35% of the variance in anxiety and depression that was found 6 months later. The addition of coping and subjective distress measures did little to improve that prediction. A model using (standardized) cut-off scores of moderate to high anxiety, depression (HAD) and intrusive thoughts (IES subscale) close to the diagnosis to identify patients at risk for delayed anxiety and depression achieved a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 98%. Levels of anxiety and depression at diagnosis predicted a similar status 6 months later. The results also indicated that the HAD scale in combination with the IES intrusion subscale may be used as a tool for detecting patients at risk of delayed anxiety and depression.  (+info)

Executive function in depression: the role of performance strategies in aiding depressed and non-depressed participants. (2/4586)

OBJECTIVES: Depression has been found to be associated with dysfunction in executive processes, whereas relatively automatic processes are thought to remain intact. Failure to generate or implement adequate performance strategies has been postulated in depressed participants. The present study investigated spontaneous strategy usage in depressed and control participants, and the effectiveness of providing a hint about performance strategies. METHODS: Unipolar depressed participants were compared with matched healthy controls on three tasks sensitive to executive function: memory for categorised words, response suppression, and multiple scheduling. Participants in each group were randomly allocated to strategy aid and no strategy aid conditions. Those in the strategy aid condition were given a hint about the use of an appropriate performance strategy for each task, in addition to the standard instructions given to those in the no strategy aid condition. RESULTS: Depressed participants performed worse than controls on each of the three tasks, and were found to use appropriate performance strategies less often. Provision of strategy hints increased the use of performance strategies in two of the three tasks, memory for categorised words, and response suppression, but did not significantly improve overall performance for either group. CONCLUSIONS: The findings were consistent with the view that depressed participants fail to use appropriate performance strategies spontaneously to the same extent as controls. However, provision of information alone does not seem to be an adequate means of enhancing performance. The role of performance strategies in cognitive impairment in depression is discussed, both in terms of initiating use of such strategies and carrying these out efficiently.  (+info)

Ten year follow-up of depression after diagnosis in general practice. (3/4586)

BACKGROUND: Depression is a serious illness with a high recurrence rate, mortality, and suicide rate, and a substantial loss of quality of life. Long-term course of depression, in particular of patients not referred to specialist care, is not completely clear. We performed a study in which the course of depression in general practice was studied for 10 years after the first diagnosis. AIM: To learn more about long-term course and outcome of patients with depressive illness for a full 10 years after diagnosis. METHOD: A historic cohort study with 386 patients classified as depressive before January 1984, recruited from four general practices belonging to the Continuous Morbidity Registry of the University of Nijmegen in The Netherlands. This cohort was followed up for 10 years. Mortality was compared with a control group matched for age, sex, social class, and practice. Of 222 patients out of this cohort who could be followed up for a full 10 years after diagnosis, the case records were studied in detail. RESULTS: No statistically significant difference was found in mortality between the 386 patients and the control group. Recurrence of depressive episodes did not occur in about 60% of the 222 patients (confidence interval 54% to 67%). Of the depressive patients, 15% were referred to secondary care and 9% were admitted to hospital. CONCLUSION: Mortality, suicide, and recurrence rate were lower than expected, taking into account what is known from depression studies in psychiatry. These results stress the importance of long-term prospective follow-up studies of all patients with depression because of the emphasis on case-finding and treatment without exact knowledge of long-term course and outcome of patients who were not referred.  (+info)

The impact of depression on the physical health of family members. (4/4586)

BACKGROUND: Depressive illness is common. Depression in one family member is associated with an increased incidence of psychopathology in other family members. There are no data on the physical well being of the families of depressed individuals. AIM: To compare physical morbidity of family members of depressed patients with that of family members of comparison patients. METHOD: A comparative follow-up study from case notes. Two hundred and one subjects from 88 families with an index family member diagnosed with depression ('depression families') were compared with 200 subjects from 88 families with a matched index subject without depression ('comparison families'), using the Duke University Illness Severity Scores (ISS) to assess burden of illness experienced by both groups. RESULTS: The cumulative incidence of depression over 11 months in depression families was 8.9% compared to 1.4% in the Family Practice Unit as a whole. Members of depression families had significantly greater ISS than members of comparison families (difference in means = 0.164; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.113-0.215; P < 0.001). Excluding family members with depression (in addition to the index subject), ISS of members of depression families remained significantly greater than the comparison group (difference in means = 0.136; 95% CI 0.083-0.189; P < 0.001). Among depression families, mean ISS was significantly higher after presentation of depression in index subjects compared with before (difference in means = 0.155; 95% CI 0.115-0.194; P < 0.0001). No significant difference was seen between ISS of depression and comparison families before presentation of depression (difference in means = 0.008; 95% CI -0.004-0.058; P = 0.74). CONCLUSION: Depression in patients is associated with increased physical morbidity in their families.  (+info)

Modeling geriatric depression in animals: biochemical and behavioral effects of olfactory bulbectomy in young versus aged rats. (5/4586)

Geriatric depression exhibits biological and therapeutic differences relative to early-onset depression. We studied olfactory bulbectomy (OBX), a paradigm that shares major features of human depression, in young versus aged rats to determine mechanisms underlying these differences. Young OBX rats showed locomotor hyperactivity and a loss of passive avoidance and tactile startle. In contrast, aged OBX animals maintained avoidance and startle responses but showed greater locomotor stimulation; the aged group also exhibited decreased grooming and suppressed feeding with novel presentation of chocolate milk, effects which were not seen in young OBX. These behavioral contrasts were accompanied by greater atrophy of the frontal/parietal cortex and midbrain in aged OBX. Serotonin transporter sites were increased in the cortex and hippocampus of young OBX rats, but were decreased in the aged OBX group. Cell signaling cascades also showed age-dependent effects, with increased adenylyl cyclase responses to monoaminergic stimulation in young OBX but no change or a decrease in aged OBX. These data indicate that there are biological distinctions in effects of OBX in young and aged animals, which, if present in geriatric depression, provide a mechanistic basis for differences in biological markers and drug responses. OBX may provide a useful animal model with which to test therapeutic interventions for geriatric depression.  (+info)

Sustained antidepressant effect of sleep deprivation combined with pindolol in bipolar depression. A placebo-controlled trial. (6/4586)

Total sleep deprivation (TSD) shows powerful but transient clinical effects in patients affected by bipolar depression. Pindolol blocks the serotonergic 5-HT1A autoreceptor, thus improving the antidepressant effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. We evaluated the interaction of TSD and pindolol in the treatment of acute episodes of bipolar depression. Forty bipolar depressed inpatients were randomized to receive pindolol 7.5 mg/day or placebo for nine days in combination with three consecutive TSD cycles. Pindolol significantly improved the antidepressant effect of TSD, and prevented the short-term relapse after treatment. The response rate (HDRS scores < 8) at the end of treatment was 15/20 for pindolol, and 3/20 for placebo. Coadministration of pindolol and TSD resulted in a complete response, which could be sustained for six months with lithium salts alone, in 65% of cases. This results suggest a major role for serotonergic transmission in the mechanism of action of TSD, and makes TSD treatment more effective in the treatment of bipolar depression.  (+info)

Depression during the longitudinal course of schizophrenia. (7/4586)

This prospective research investigated the occurrence and persistence of depression during the longitudinal course of schizophrenia. The research goals were to (1) compare depression in schizophrenia with that in schizoaffective and major depressive disorders, (2) assess whether some schizophrenia patients are vulnerable to depression, and (3) assess the relationship of depression to posthospital adjustment in schizophrenia. A total of 70 schizophrenia, 31 schizoaffective depressed, 17 psychotic unipolar major depressed, and 69 nonpsychotic unipolar major depressed patients were assessed during hospitalization and prospectively assessed for depression, psychosis, and posthospital functioning at 4.5- and 7.5-year followups. A large number (30% to 40%) of schizophrenia patients evidenced full depressive syndromes at each followup, including a subgroup of patients who evidenced repeated depression. Even when considering the influence of psychosis on outcome, depression in schizophrenia was associated with poor overall outcome, work impairment, lower activity, dissatisfaction, and suicidal tendencies. During the post-acute phase assessed, neither the rates nor the severity of depressive syndromes differentiated depression in schizophrenia from schizodepressive or major depressive disorders. However, the depressed schizophrenia patients showed poorer posthospital adjustment in terms of less employment, more rehospitalizations, and more psychosis than the patients with primary major depression. The high prevalence of depression in schizophrenia warrants its incorporation into theory about the disorder. A continuum of vulnerability to depression contributes to the heterogeneity of schizophrenia, with some schizophrenia patients being prone to depression even years after the acute phase. Depression in schizophrenia is one factor, in addition to psychosis, associated with poor outcome and requires specific attention to the treatment strategies by psychiatrists.  (+info)

Effects of fluoxetine on the polysomnogram in outpatients with major depression. (8/4586)

This study investigated the effects of open-label fluoxetine (20 mg/d) on the polysomnogram (PSG) in depressed outpatients (n = 58) who were treated for 5 weeks, after which dose escalation was available (< or = 40 mg/d), based on clinical judgment. Thirty-six patients completed all 10 weeks of acute phase treatment and responded (HRS-D < or = 10). PSG assessments were conducted and subjective sleep evaluations were gathered at baseline and at weeks 1, 5, and 10. Of the 36 subjects who completed the acute phase, 17 were reevaluated after 30 weeks on continuation phase treatment and 13 after approximately 7 weeks (range 6-8 weeks) following medication discontinuation. Acute phase treatment in responders was associated with significant increases in REM latency, Stage 1 sleep, and REM density, as well as significant decreases in sleep efficiency, total REM sleep, and Stage 2 sleep. Conversely, subjective measures of sleep indicated a steady improvement during acute phase treatment. After fluoxetine was discontinued, total REM sleep and sleep efficiency were found to be increased as compared to baseline.  (+info)

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), also simply referred to as depression, is a serious mental health condition characterized by the presence of one or more major depressive episodes. A major depressive episode is a period of at least two weeks during which an individual experiences a severely depressed mood and/or loss of interest or pleasure in nearly all activities, accompanied by at least four additional symptoms such as significant changes in appetite or weight, sleep disturbances, psychomotor agitation or retardation, fatigue or loss of energy, feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt, difficulty thinking, concentrating, or making decisions, and recurrent thoughts of death or suicide.

MDD can significantly impair an individual's ability to function in daily life, and it is associated with increased risks of suicide, substance abuse, and other mental health disorders. The exact cause of MDD is not fully understood, but it is believed to result from a complex interplay of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of psychotherapy (such as cognitive-behavioral therapy) and medication (such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or tricyclic antidepressants).

A depressive disorder is a mental health condition characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest or pleasure in activities. It can also include changes in sleep, appetite, energy levels, concentration, and self-esteem, as well as thoughts of death or suicide. Depressive disorders can vary in severity and duration, with some people experiencing mild and occasional symptoms, while others may have severe and chronic symptoms that interfere with their ability to function in daily life.

There are several types of depressive disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), persistent depressive disorder (PDD), and postpartum depression. MDD is characterized by symptoms that interfere significantly with a person's ability to function and last for at least two weeks, while PDD involves chronic low-grade depression that lasts for two years or more. Postpartum depression occurs in women after childbirth and can range from mild to severe.

Depressive disorders are thought to be caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, psychotherapy (talk therapy), and lifestyle changes.

Antidepressive agents are a class of medications used to treat various forms of depression and anxiety disorders. They act on neurotransmitters, the chemical messengers in the brain, to restore the balance that has been disrupted by mental illness. The most commonly prescribed types of antidepressants include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). These medications can help alleviate symptoms such as low mood, loss of interest in activities, changes in appetite and sleep patterns, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, and thoughts of death or suicide. It is important to note that antidepressants may take several weeks to reach their full effectiveness and may cause side effects, so it is essential to work closely with a healthcare provider to find the right medication and dosage.

Anxiety disorders are a category of mental health disorders characterized by feelings of excessive and persistent worry, fear, or anxiety that interfere with daily activities. They include several different types of disorders, such as:

1. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): This is characterized by chronic and exaggerated worry and tension, even when there is little or nothing to provoke it.
2. Panic Disorder: This is characterized by recurring unexpected panic attacks and fear of experiencing more panic attacks.
3. Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD): Also known as social phobia, this is characterized by excessive fear, anxiety, or avoidance of social situations due to feelings of embarrassment, self-consciousness, and concern about being judged or viewed negatively by others.
4. Phobias: These are intense, irrational fears of certain objects, places, or situations. When a person with a phobia encounters the object or situation they fear, they may experience panic attacks or other severe anxiety responses.
5. Agoraphobia: This is a fear of being in places where it may be difficult to escape or get help if one has a panic attack or other embarrassing or incapacitating symptoms.
6. Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD): This is characterized by excessive anxiety about separation from home or from people to whom the individual has a strong emotional attachment (such as a parent, sibling, or partner).
7. Selective Mutism: This is a disorder where a child becomes mute in certain situations, such as at school, but can speak normally at home or with close family members.

These disorders are treatable with a combination of medication and psychotherapy (cognitive-behavioral therapy, exposure therapy). It's important to seek professional help if you suspect that you or someone you know may have an anxiety disorder.

Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, is a mental health condition that causes extreme mood swings that include emotional highs (mania or hypomania) and lows (depression). When you become depressed, you may feel sad or hopeless and lose interest or pleasure in most activities. When your mood shifts to mania or hypomania (a less severe form of mania), you may feel euphoric, full of energy, or unusually irritable. These mood swings can significantly affect your job, school, relationships, and overall quality of life.

Bipolar disorder is typically characterized by the presence of one or more manic or hypomanic episodes, often accompanied by depressive episodes. The episodes may be separated by periods of normal mood, but in some cases, a person may experience rapid cycling between mania and depression.

There are several types of bipolar disorder, including:

* Bipolar I Disorder: This type is characterized by the occurrence of at least one manic episode, which may be preceded or followed by hypomanic or major depressive episodes.
* Bipolar II Disorder: This type involves the presence of at least one major depressive episode and at least one hypomanic episode, but no manic episodes.
* Cyclothymic Disorder: This type is characterized by numerous periods of hypomania and depression that are not severe enough to meet the criteria for a full manic or depressive episode.
* Other Specified and Unspecified Bipolar and Related Disorders: These categories include bipolar disorders that do not fit the criteria for any of the other types.

The exact cause of bipolar disorder is unknown, but it appears to be related to a combination of genetic, environmental, and neurochemical factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, psychotherapy, and lifestyle changes to help manage symptoms and prevent relapses.

Psychiatric Status Rating Scales are standardized assessment tools used by mental health professionals to evaluate and rate the severity of a person's psychiatric symptoms and functioning. These scales provide a systematic and structured approach to measuring various aspects of an individual's mental health, such as mood, anxiety, psychosis, behavior, and cognitive abilities.

The purpose of using Psychiatric Status Rating Scales is to:

1. Assess the severity and improvement of psychiatric symptoms over time.
2. Aid in diagnostic decision-making and treatment planning.
3. Monitor treatment response and adjust interventions accordingly.
4. Facilitate communication among mental health professionals about a patient's status.
5. Provide an objective basis for research and epidemiological studies.

Examples of Psychiatric Status Rating Scales include:

1. Clinical Global Impression (CGI): A brief, subjective rating scale that measures overall illness severity, treatment response, and improvement.
2. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS): A comprehensive scale used to assess the symptoms of psychosis, including positive, negative, and general psychopathology domains.
3. Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) or Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS): Scales used to evaluate the severity of depressive symptoms.
4. Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS): A scale used to assess the severity of manic or hypomanic symptoms.
5. Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) or Symptom Checklist-90 Revised (SCL-90-R): Scales that measure a broad range of psychiatric symptoms and psychopathology.
6. Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF): A scale used to rate an individual's overall psychological, social, and occupational functioning on a hypothetical continuum of mental health-illness.

It is important to note that Psychiatric Status Rating Scales should be administered by trained mental health professionals to ensure accurate and reliable results.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is a publication of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) that provides diagnostic criteria for mental disorders. It is widely used by mental health professionals in the United States and around the world to diagnose and classify mental health conditions.

The DSM includes detailed descriptions of symptoms, clinical examples, and specific criteria for each disorder, which are intended to facilitate accurate diagnosis and improve communication among mental health professionals. The manual is regularly updated to reflect current research and clinical practice, with the most recent edition being the DSM-5, published in 2013.

It's important to note that while the DSM is a valuable tool for mental health professionals, it is not without controversy. Some critics argue that the manual medicalizes normal human experiences and that its categories may be too broad or overlapping. Nonetheless, it remains an essential resource for clinicians, researchers, and policymakers in the field of mental health.

Mood disorders are a category of mental health disorders characterized by significant and persistent changes in mood, affect, and emotional state. These disorders can cause disturbances in normal functioning and significantly impair an individual's ability to carry out their daily activities. The two primary types of mood disorders are depressive disorders (such as major depressive disorder or persistent depressive disorder) and bipolar disorders (which include bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, and cyclothymic disorder).

Depressive disorders involve prolonged periods of low mood, sadness, hopelessness, and a lack of interest in activities. Individuals with these disorders may also experience changes in sleep patterns, appetite, energy levels, concentration, and self-esteem. In severe cases, they might have thoughts of death or suicide.

Bipolar disorders involve alternating episodes of mania (or hypomania) and depression. During a manic episode, individuals may feel extremely elated, energetic, or irritable, with racing thoughts, rapid speech, and impulsive behavior. They might engage in risky activities, have decreased sleep needs, and display poor judgment. In contrast, depressive episodes involve the same symptoms as depressive disorders.

Mood disorders can be caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Proper diagnosis and treatment, which may include psychotherapy, medication, or a combination of both, are essential for managing these conditions and improving quality of life.

Dysthymic disorder, also known as persistent depressive disorder, is a chronic type of depression where a person's moods are regularly low. It is characterized by depressed mood that occurs for most of the day, for at least two years, and is accompanied by at least two other symptoms such as appetite or sleep changes, low energy, low self-esteem, difficulty making decisions, or feelings of hopelessness.

To meet the diagnostic criteria, the symptoms cannot be explained by substance abuse or a medical condition, and they must cause significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. Dysthymic disorder typically has a chronic course, but it may respond to treatment, including psychotherapy and medication.

A mental disorder is a syndrome characterized by clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior. It's associated with distress and/or impaired functioning in social, occupational, or other important areas of life, often leading to a decrease in quality of life. These disorders are typically persistent and can be severe and disabling. They may be related to factors such as genetics, early childhood experiences, or trauma. Examples include depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and personality disorders. It's important to note that a diagnosis should be made by a qualified mental health professional.

Second-generation antidepressants (SGAs) are a class of medications used primarily for the treatment of depression, although they are also used for other psychiatric and medical conditions. They are called "second-generation" because they were developed after the first generation of antidepressants, which include tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs).

SGAs are also known as atypical antidepressants or novel antidepressants. They work by affecting the levels of neurotransmitters in the brain, such as serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. However, they have a different chemical structure and mechanism of action than first-generation antidepressants.

Some examples of second-generation antidepressants include:

* Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft), and citalopram (Celexa)
* Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) such as venlafaxine (Effexor) and duloxetine (Cymbalta)
* Norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitors (NDRIs) such as bupropion (Wellbutrin)
* Atypical antidepressants such as mirtazapine (Remeron), trazodone, and vortioxetine (Brintellix)

SGAs are generally considered to have a more favorable side effect profile than first-generation antidepressants. They are less likely to cause anticholinergic effects such as dry mouth, constipation, and blurred vision, and they are less likely to cause cardiac conduction abnormalities or orthostatic hypotension. However, SGAs may still cause side effects such as nausea, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, and weight gain.

It's important to note that the choice of antidepressant medication should be individualized based on the patient's specific symptoms, medical history, and other factors. It may take some trial and error to find the most effective and well-tolerated medication for a given patient.

Treatment-resistant depressive disorder is a severe form of depression that does not respond to standard treatments. It is also known as refractory depression or treatment-refractory depression.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) defines treatment-resistant depressive disorder as a major depressive disorder that has not responded to at least two trials of adequate doses of appropriately chosen antidepressant medications, either singly or in combination, for a sufficient duration of time.

The definition may also include cases where the patient has not responded to psychotherapy, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), or other forms of treatment.

It is important to note that determining whether a depression is truly treatment-resistant can be challenging and requires careful evaluation by a mental health professional. Factors such as medication adherence, dosage, duration of treatment, and the presence of co-occurring medical or psychiatric conditions must be taken into account before making this diagnosis.

Serotonin uptake inhibitors (also known as Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors or SSRIs) are a class of medications primarily used to treat depression and anxiety disorders. They work by increasing the levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps regulate mood, appetite, and sleep, among other functions.

SSRIs block the reuptake of serotonin into the presynaptic neuron, allowing more serotonin to be available in the synapse (the space between two neurons) for binding to postsynaptic receptors. This results in increased serotonergic neurotransmission and improved mood regulation.

Examples of SSRIs include fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft), paroxetine (Paxil), citalopram (Celexa), and escitalopram (Lexapro). These medications are generally well-tolerated, with side effects that may include nausea, headache, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, and increased anxiety or agitation. However, they can have serious interactions with other medications, so it is important to inform your healthcare provider of all medications you are taking before starting an SSRI.

Depression is a mood disorder that is characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest in activities. It can also cause significant changes in sleep, appetite, energy level, concentration, and behavior. Depression can interfere with daily life and normal functioning, and it can increase the risk of suicide and other mental health disorders. The exact cause of depression is not known, but it is believed to be related to a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. There are several types of depression, including major depressive disorder, persistent depressive disorder, postpartum depression, and seasonal affective disorder. Treatment for depression typically involves a combination of medication and psychotherapy.

Citalopram is a type of antidepressant known as a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). It works by increasing the levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps maintain mental balance. Citalopram is primarily used to treat major depressive disorder and is also sometimes used to treat anxiety disorders, such as panic disorder or social anxiety disorder.

The medical definition of Citalopram can be described as follows:

Citalopram (brand name Celexa) is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant that is primarily used to treat major depressive disorder. It works by increasing the levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps maintain mental balance. Citalopram may also be used off-label for the treatment of anxiety disorders, such as panic disorder or social anxiety disorder.

Common side effects of citalopram include nausea, dry mouth, increased sweating, sleepiness, fatigue, and insomnia. More serious side effects can include an increased risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior in children, adolescents, and young adults, as well as an increased risk of bleeding, particularly if taken with other medications that increase the risk of bleeding. Citalopram should be used with caution in patients with a history of heart disease, liver disease, or seizure disorders. It is important to follow the dosage instructions provided by your healthcare provider and to inform them of any other medications you are taking, as well as any medical conditions you have, before starting citalopram.

Cyclohexanols are a class of organic compounds that contain a cyclohexane ring (a six-carbon saturated ring) with a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to it. The hydroxyl group makes these compounds alcohols, and the cyclohexane ring provides a unique structure that can adopt different conformations.

The presence of the hydroxyl group in cyclohexanols allows them to act as solvents, intermediates in chemical synthesis, and starting materials for the production of other chemicals. They are used in various industries, including pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and polymers.

Cyclohexanols can exist in different forms, such as cis- and trans-isomers, depending on the orientation of the hydroxyl group relative to the cyclohexane ring. The physical and chemical properties of these isomers can differ significantly due to their distinct structures and conformations.

Examples of cyclohexanols include cyclohexanol itself (C6H11OH), as well as its derivatives, such as methylcyclohexanol (C7H13OH) and phenylcyclohexanol (C12H15OH).

Comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional health conditions or diseases alongside a primary illness or condition. These co-occurring health issues can have an impact on the treatment plan, prognosis, and overall healthcare management of an individual. Comorbidities often interact with each other and the primary condition, leading to more complex clinical situations and increased healthcare needs. It is essential for healthcare professionals to consider and address comorbidities to provide comprehensive care and improve patient outcomes.

A psychological interview is a clinical assessment tool used by mental health professionals to gather information about a person's cognitive, emotional, and behavioral status. It is a structured or unstructured conversation between the clinician and the client aimed at understanding the client's symptoms, concerns, personal history, current life situation, and any other relevant factors that contribute to their psychological state.

The interview may cover various topics such as the individual's mental health history, family background, social relationships, education, occupation, coping mechanisms, and substance use. The clinician will also assess the person's cognitive abilities, emotional expression, thought processes, and behavior during the interview to help form a diagnosis or treatment plan.

The psychological interview is an essential component of a comprehensive mental health evaluation, as it provides valuable insights into the individual's subjective experiences and helps establish a therapeutic relationship between the clinician and the client. It can be conducted in various settings, including hospitals, clinics, private practices, or community centers.

Fluoxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medication that is primarily used to treat major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, bulimia nervosa, panic disorder, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. It works by increasing the levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps maintain mental balance.

Fluoxetine is available under the brand name Prozac and is also available as a generic medication. It comes in various forms, including capsules, tablets, delayed-release capsules, and liquid solution. The typical starting dose for adults with depression is 20 mg per day, but the dosage may be adjusted based on individual patient needs and response to treatment.

Fluoxetine has a relatively long half-life, which means it stays in the body for an extended period of time. This can be beneficial for patients who may have difficulty remembering to take their medication daily, as they may only need to take it once or twice a week. However, it also means that it may take several weeks for the full effects of the medication to become apparent.

As with any medication, fluoxetine can cause side effects, including nausea, dry mouth, sleepiness, insomnia, dizziness, and headache. In some cases, it may also increase the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior in children, adolescents, and young adults, particularly during the initial stages of treatment. It is important for patients to discuss any concerns about side effects with their healthcare provider.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric condition that can occur in people who have experienced or witnessed a traumatic event such as a natural disaster, serious accident, war combat, rape, or violent personal assault. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5), PTSD is characterized by the following symptoms, which must last for more than one month:

1. Intrusion symptoms: These include distressing memories, nightmares, flashbacks, or intense psychological distress or reactivity to internal or external cues that symbolize or resemble an aspect of the traumatic event.
2. Avoidance symptoms: Persistent avoidance of stimuli associated with the traumatic event, including thoughts, feelings, conversations, activities, places, or people.
3. Negative alterations in cognitions and mood: This includes negative beliefs about oneself, others, or the world; distorted blame of self or others for causing the trauma; persistent negative emotional state; decreased interest in significant activities; and feelings of detachment or estrangement from others.
4. Alterations in arousal and reactivity: This includes irritable behavior and angry outbursts, reckless or self-destructive behavior, hypervigilance, exaggerated startle response, problems with concentration, and sleep disturbance.
5. Duration of symptoms: The symptoms must last for more than one month.
6. Functional significance: The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

It is essential to note that PTSD can occur at any age and can be accompanied by various physical and mental health problems, such as depression, substance abuse, memory problems, and other difficulties in cognition. Appropriate treatment, which may include psychotherapy, medication, or a combination of both, can significantly improve the symptoms and overall quality of life for individuals with PTSD.

A Personality Inventory is a standardized test used in psychology to assess an individual's personality traits and characteristics. It typically consists of a series of multiple-choice questions or statements that the respondent must rate according to their level of agreement or disagreement. The inventory measures various aspects of an individual's behavior, attitudes, and temperament, providing a quantifiable score that can be compared to normative data to help diagnose personality disorders, assess personal strengths and weaknesses, or provide insights into an individual's likely responses to different situations. Examples of well-known personality inventories include the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the California Psychological Inventory (CPI).

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), "An attempted suicide is a non-fatal self-directed, potentially injurious behavior with intent to die as a result of the behavior. It's a clear expression of intention to die."

It's important to note that anyone who has attempted suicide requires immediate professional medical attention and support. They should be assessed for their level of suicidal ideation and any underlying mental health conditions, and provided with appropriate care and treatment. If you or someone you know is struggling with thoughts of suicide, please reach out to a healthcare provider or a trusted mental health professional immediately.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

Psychotherapy is a type of treatment used primarily to treat mental health disorders and other emotional or behavioral issues. It involves a therapeutic relationship between a trained psychotherapist and a patient, where they work together to understand the patient's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, identify patterns that may be causing distress, and develop strategies to manage symptoms and improve overall well-being.

There are many different approaches to psychotherapy, including cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), psychodynamic therapy, interpersonal therapy, and others. The specific approach used will depend on the individual patient's needs and preferences, as well as the training and expertise of the therapist.

Psychotherapy can be conducted in individual, group, or family sessions, and may be provided in a variety of settings, such as hospitals, clinics, private practices, or online platforms. The goal of psychotherapy is to help patients understand themselves better, develop coping skills, improve their relationships, and enhance their overall quality of life.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a mental health disorder characterized by the presence of obsessions and compulsions. Obsessions are recurrent and persistent thoughts, urges, or images that are intrusive, unwanted, and often distressing. Compulsions are repetitive behaviors or mental acts that an individual feels driven to perform in response to an obsession or according to rigid rules, and which are aimed at preventing or reducing anxiety or distress, or preventing some dreaded event or situation. These obsessions and/or compulsions cause significant distress, take up a lot of time (an hour or more a day), and interfere with the individual's daily life, including social activities, relationships, and work or school performance. OCD is considered a type of anxiety disorder and can also co-occur with other mental health conditions.

A phobic disorder is a type of anxiety disorder characterized by an excessive and irrational fear or avoidance of specific objects, situations, or activities. This fear can cause significant distress and interfere with a person's daily life. Phobic disorders are typically classified into three main categories: specific phobias (such as fear of heights, spiders, or needles), social phobia (or social anxiety disorder), and agoraphobia (fear of open spaces or situations where escape might be difficult).

People with phobic disorders often recognize that their fear is excessive or unreasonable, but they are unable to control it. When exposed to the feared object or situation, they may experience symptoms such as rapid heartbeat, sweating, trembling, and difficulty breathing. These symptoms can be so distressing that individuals with phobic disorders go to great lengths to avoid the feared situation, which can have a significant impact on their quality of life.

Treatment for phobic disorders typically involves cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), which helps individuals identify and challenge their irrational thoughts and fears, as well as exposure therapy, which gradually exposes them to the feared object or situation in a safe and controlled environment. In some cases, medication may also be recommended to help manage symptoms of anxiety.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with hyperactivity is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects both children and adults. The condition is characterized by symptoms including:

1. Difficulty paying attention or staying focused on a single task
2. Impulsivity, or acting without thinking
3. Hyperactivity, or excessive fidgeting, restlessness, or talking

In order to be diagnosed with ADHD with hyperactivity, an individual must exhibit these symptoms to a degree that is developmentally inappropriate and interferes with their daily functioning. Additionally, the symptoms must have been present for at least six months and be present in multiple settings (e.g., at home, school, work).

It's important to note that ADHD can manifest differently in different people, and some individuals may experience predominantly inattentive or impulsive symptoms rather than hyperactive ones. However, when the hyperactive component is prominent, it is referred to as ADHD with hyperactivity.

Effective treatments for ADHD with hyperactivity include a combination of medication (such as stimulants) and behavioral therapy. With appropriate treatment, individuals with ADHD can learn to manage their symptoms and lead successful, fulfilling lives.

Sertraline is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). It is primarily used to treat depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, social anxiety disorder, and in some cases, premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

Sertraline works by increasing the levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps maintain mental balance, in the synaptic cleft (the space between two nerve cells where neurotransmitters are released and received). By inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin, sertraline enhances the signal strength and duration of action of this neurotransmitter, which can help alleviate symptoms associated with various mental health conditions.

It is important to note that sertraline should only be taken under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as it may have side effects and potential interactions with other medications. Always consult a medical provider for personalized advice regarding medication use.

A personality assessment is a systematic process used by healthcare professionals to evaluate and understand an individual's characteristic patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior. It typically involves the use of standardized measures, such as self-report questionnaires, interviews, and observational techniques, to gather information about an individual's personality traits, attitudes, values, and behaviors.

The goal of a personality assessment is to provide a comprehensive and integrated understanding of an individual's unique personality style, including their strengths, weaknesses, and potential vulnerabilities. This information can be useful in a variety of contexts, including clinical treatment planning, vocational counseling, and forensic evaluation.

It is important to note that personality assessments should always be conducted by qualified professionals with appropriate training and expertise in the use of these measures. Additionally, while personality assessments can provide valuable insights into an individual's personality style, they are not infallible and should always be considered alongside other sources of information when making important decisions about treatment or management.

Cognitive Therapy (CT) is a type of psychotherapeutic treatment that helps patients understand the thoughts and feelings that influence behaviors. It is a form of talk therapy where the therapist and the patient work together to identify and change negative or distorted thinking patterns and beliefs, with the goal of improving emotional response and behavior.

Cognitive Therapy is based on the idea that our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are all interconnected, and that negative or inaccurate thoughts can contribute to problems like anxiety and depression. By identifying and challenging these thoughts, patients can learn to think more realistically and positively, which can lead to improvements in their mood and behavior.

In cognitive therapy sessions, the therapist will help the patient identify negative thought patterns and replace them with healthier, more accurate ways of thinking. The therapist may also assign homework or exercises for the patient to practice between sessions, such as keeping a thought record or challenging negative thoughts.

Cognitive Therapy has been shown to be effective in treating a wide range of mental health conditions, including depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is often used in combination with other forms of treatment, such as medication, and can be delivered individually or in group settings.

Substance-related disorders, as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), refer to a group of conditions caused by the use of substances such as alcohol, drugs, or medicines. These disorders are characterized by a problematic pattern of using a substance that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress. They can be divided into two main categories: substance use disorders and substance-induced disorders. Substance use disorders involve a pattern of compulsive use despite negative consequences, while substance-induced disorders include conditions such as intoxication, withdrawal, and substance/medication-induced mental disorders. The specific diagnosis depends on the type of substance involved, the patterns of use, and the presence or absence of physiological dependence.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Somatoform disorders are a group of psychological disorders characterized by the presence of physical symptoms that cannot be fully explained by a medical condition or substance abuse. These symptoms cause significant distress and impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. The individual's belief about the symptoms is not consistent with the medical evaluation and often leads to excessive or repeated medical evaluations.

Examples of somatoform disorders include:

1. Somatization disorder: characterized by multiple physical symptoms that cannot be explained medically, affecting several parts of the body.
2. Conversion disorder: characterized by the presence of one or more neurological symptoms (such as blindness, paralysis, or difficulty swallowing) that cannot be explained medically and appear to have a psychological origin.
3. Pain disorder: characterized by chronic pain that is not fully explained by a medical condition.
4. Hypochondriasis: characterized by an excessive preoccupation with having a serious illness, despite reassurance from medical professionals.
5. Body dysmorphic disorder: characterized by the obsessive idea that some aspect of one's own body part or appearance is severely flawed and warrants exceptional measures to hide or fix it.

It's important to note that these disorders are not caused by intentional deceit or malingering, but rather reflect a genuine belief in the presence of physical symptoms and distress related to them.

Anxiety: A feeling of worry, nervousness, or unease, typically about an imminent event or something with an uncertain outcome. In a medical context, anxiety refers to a mental health disorder characterized by feelings of excessive and persistent worry, fear, or panic that interfere with daily activities. It can also be a symptom of other medical conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, or substance abuse disorders. Anxiety disorders include generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and phobias.

Psychometrics is a branch of psychology that deals with the theory and technique of psychological measurement, such as the development and standardization of tests used to measure intelligence, aptitude, personality, attitudes, and other mental abilities or traits. It involves the construction and validation of measurement instruments, including the determination of their reliability and validity, and the application of statistical methods to analyze test data and interpret results. The ultimate goal of psychometrics is to provide accurate, objective, and meaningful measurements that can be used to understand individual differences and make informed decisions in educational, clinical, and organizational settings.

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a medical treatment most commonly used in cases of severe or treatment-resistant major depression, bipolar disorder, and catatonia. In ECT, a brief electrical current is passed through the brain, intentionally triggering a seizure. The purpose and specific effects of this procedure are not fully understood, but it's believed to cause changes in brain chemistry that can help relieve symptoms of certain mental health conditions.

The treatment is typically administered under general anesthesia and is usually given two to three times a week for a total of six to twelve treatments. While ECT has been associated with certain risks, such as memory loss and confusion, it is generally considered safe when performed by trained medical professionals. It's important to note that ECT should only be used in cases where other treatment options have been exhausted or have proven ineffective.

Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a mental health disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, affect, and mood, as well as marked impulsivity that begins by early adulthood and is present in various contexts.

Individuals with BPD often experience intense and fluctuating emotions, ranging from profound sadness, anxiety, and anger to feelings of happiness or calm. They may have difficulty managing these emotions, leading to impulsive behavior, self-harm, or suicidal ideation.

People with BPD also tend to have an unstable sense of self, which can lead to rapid changes in their goals, values, and career choices. They often struggle with feelings of emptiness and boredom, and may engage in risky behaviors such as substance abuse, reckless driving, or binge eating to alleviate these feelings.

Interpersonal relationships are often strained due to the individual's fear of abandonment, intense emotional reactions, and difficulty regulating their emotions. They may experience idealization and devaluation of others, leading to rapid shifts in how they view and treat people close to them.

Diagnosis of BPD is typically made by a mental health professional using criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which is published by the American Psychiatric Association. Treatment for BPD may include psychotherapy, medication, and support groups to help individuals manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

There is no formal medical definition for "child of impaired parents." However, it generally refers to a child who has at least one parent with physical, mental, or psychological challenges that impact their ability to care for themselves and/or their children. These impairments may include substance abuse disorders, mental illnesses, chronic medical conditions, or developmental disabilities.

Children of impaired parents often face unique challenges and stressors in their lives, which can affect their emotional, social, and cognitive development. They may have to take on additional responsibilities at home, experience neglect or abuse, or witness disturbing behaviors related to their parent's impairment. As a result, these children are at higher risk for developing mental health issues, behavioral problems, and academic difficulties.

Support services and interventions, such as family therapy, counseling, and community resources, can help mitigate the negative effects of growing up with impaired parents and improve outcomes for these children.

Psychotic disorders are a group of severe mental health conditions characterized by distorted perceptions, thoughts, and emotions that lead to an inability to recognize reality. The two most common symptoms of psychotic disorders are hallucinations and delusions. Hallucinations are when a person sees, hears, or feels things that aren't there, while delusions are fixed, false beliefs that are not based on reality.

Other symptoms may include disorganized speech, disorganized behavior, catatonic behavior, and negative symptoms such as apathy and lack of emotional expression. Schizophrenia is the most well-known psychotic disorder, but other types include schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder, brief psychotic disorder, shared psychotic disorder, and substance-induced psychotic disorder.

Psychotic disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, brain chemistry imbalances, trauma, and substance abuse. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, therapy, and support services to help manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Suicide is defined in the medical field as the intentional taking of one's own life. It is a complex phenomenon with various contributing factors, including psychological, biological, environmental, and sociocultural elements. Suicide is a significant global public health concern that requires comprehensive understanding, prevention, and intervention strategies. If you or someone you know is struggling with thoughts of self-harm or suicide, it's essential to seek help from a mental health professional immediately.

Affective disorders, psychotic are a category of mental health conditions characterized by significant disturbances in mood, thinking, and behavior. These disorders combine the symptoms of both mood disorders (such as depression or bipolar disorder) and psychotic disorders (such as schizophrenia).

In psychotic affective disorders, individuals experience severe changes in their mood, such as prolonged periods of depression or mania, along with psychotic features like hallucinations, delusions, or disorganized thinking and speech. These symptoms can significantly impair a person's ability to function in daily life and may require intensive treatment, including medication and therapy.

Examples of psychotic affective disorders include:

1. Psychotic Depression: A severe form of major depressive disorder that includes psychotic symptoms like delusions or hallucinations, often with a theme of guilt or worthlessness.
2. Bipolar Disorder with Psychotic Features: During manic or depressive episodes, some individuals with bipolar disorder may experience psychotic symptoms such as delusions or hallucinations. These symptoms can vary in intensity and may require hospitalization and intensive treatment.
3. Schizoaffective Disorder: A mental health condition that includes features of both schizophrenia and a mood disorder, such as depression or bipolar disorder. Individuals with this disorder experience psychotic symptoms like hallucinations and delusions, along with significant changes in mood.

It is essential to seek professional help if you suspect you or someone you know may have a psychotic affective disorder. Early intervention and treatment can significantly improve outcomes and quality of life.

In medical and psychological terms, "affect" refers to a person's emotional or expressive state, mood, or dispositions that are outwardly manifested in their behavior, facial expressions, demeanor, or speech. Affect can be described as being congruent or incongruent with an individual's thoughts and experiences.

There are different types of affect, including:

1. Neutral affect: When a person shows no apparent emotion or displays minimal emotional expressiveness.
2. Positive affect: When a person exhibits positive emotions such as happiness, excitement, or enthusiasm.
3. Negative affect: When a person experiences and displays negative emotions like sadness, anger, or fear.
4. Blunted affect: When a person's emotional response is noticeably reduced or diminished, often observed in individuals with certain mental health conditions, such as schizophrenia.
5. Flat affect: When a person has an almost complete absence of emotional expressiveness, which can be indicative of severe depression or other mental health disorders.
6. Labile affect: When a person's emotional state fluctuates rapidly and frequently between positive and negative emotions, often observed in individuals with certain neurological conditions or mood disorders.

Clinicians may assess a patient's affect during an interview or examination to help diagnose mental health conditions, evaluate treatment progress, or monitor overall well-being.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

Panic Disorder is a type of anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, unexpected panic attacks and significant worry about the implications of these attacks or fear of their occurrence. A panic attack is a sudden surge of intense fear or discomfort that reaches a peak within minutes, and includes physical symptoms such as accelerated heart rate, sweating, trembling, shortness of breath, and feelings of impending doom or danger. In Panic Disorder, these attacks are not triggered by specific situations or stimuli, but can occur spontaneously and without warning. The individual may also develop avoidance behaviors to prevent future panic attacks, which can interfere with daily functioning and quality of life.

The gyrus cinguli, also known as the cingulate gyrus, is a structure located in the brain. It forms part of the limbic system and plays a role in various functions such as emotion, memory, and perception of pain. The gyrus cinguli is situated in the medial aspect of the cerebral hemisphere, adjacent to the corpus callosum, and curves around the frontal portion of the corpus callosum, forming a C-shaped structure. It has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric conditions, including depression, anxiety disorders, and chronic pain syndromes.

Anhedonia is a medical term that describes the inability to feel pleasure. It is a common symptom of depression and other mental health disorders, such as schizophrenia. Anhedonia can manifest as a lack of interest in activities that were once enjoyed, a reduced ability to experience pleasure from social interactions or sexual activity, or an inability to feel positive emotions like happiness or joy.

Anhedonia is different from simply feeling sad or down. It is a more profound and persistent loss of the ability to experience pleasure, which can significantly impact a person's quality of life and overall well-being. The exact cause of anhedonia is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to changes in brain chemistry and function, particularly in areas involved in reward processing and motivation. Treatment for anhedonia typically involves addressing the underlying mental health condition, such as depression or schizophrenia, through a combination of medication and therapy.

Emotions are complex psychological states that involve three distinct components: a subjective experience, a physiological response, and a behavioral or expressive response. Emotions can be short-lived, such as a flash of anger, or more long-lasting, such as enduring sadness. They can also vary in intensity, from mild irritation to intense joy or fear.

Emotions are often distinguished from other psychological states, such as moods and temperament, which may be less specific and more enduring. Emotions are typically thought to have a clear cause or object, such as feeling happy when you receive good news or feeling anxious before a job interview.

There are many different emotions that people can experience, including happiness, sadness, anger, fear, surprise, disgust, and shame. These emotions are often thought to serve important adaptive functions, helping individuals respond to challenges and opportunities in their environment.

In medical contexts, emotions may be relevant to the diagnosis and treatment of various mental health conditions, such as depression, anxiety disorders, and bipolar disorder. Abnormalities in emotional processing and regulation have been implicated in many psychiatric illnesses, and therapies that target these processes may be effective in treating these conditions.

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), neurotic disorders are not a recognized category. However, the term "neurosis" has been used historically in psychiatry and psychology to refer to a group of mental disorders characterized by anxiety, obsessions, depressive moods, phobias, or hypochondriacal fears. These symptoms are often considered to be the result of internal conflicts, typically related to stress, frustration, or interpersonal difficulties.

The DSM-5 has replaced the category of neurotic disorders with several specific mental disorders that were previously classified under this heading. These include:

1. Anxiety Disorders (e.g., panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder)
2. Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders (e.g., obsessive-compulsive disorder, body dysmorphic disorder, hoarding disorder)
3. Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder, acute stress disorder, adjustment disorders)
4. Mood Disorders (e.g., major depressive disorder, persistent depressive disorder)
5. Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders (e.g., illness anxiety disorder, conversion disorder)

These specific disorders are defined by their own unique diagnostic criteria and should be evaluated based on those guidelines.

Serotonin plasma membrane transport proteins, also known as serotonin transporters (SERTs), are membrane-spanning proteins that play a crucial role in the regulation of serotonergic neurotransmission. They are responsible for the reuptake of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) from the synaptic cleft back into the presynaptic neuron, thereby terminating the signal transmission and allowing for its recycling or degradation.

Structurally, SERTs belong to the family of sodium- and chloride-dependent neurotransmitter transporters and contain 12 transmembrane domains with intracellular N- and C-termini. The binding site for serotonin is located within the transmembrane domain, while the substrate-binding site is formed by residues from both the transmembrane and extracellular loops.

Serotonin transporters are important targets for various psychotropic medications, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). These drugs act by blocking the SERT, increasing synaptic concentrations of serotonin, and enhancing serotonergic neurotransmission. Dysregulation of serotonin transporters has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and substance abuse.

Psychological stress is the response of an individual's mind and body to challenging or demanding situations. It can be defined as a state of emotional and physical tension resulting from adversity, demand, or change. This response can involve a variety of symptoms, including emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and physiological components.

Emotional responses may include feelings of anxiety, fear, anger, sadness, or frustration. Cognitive responses might involve difficulty concentrating, racing thoughts, or negative thinking patterns. Behaviorally, psychological stress can lead to changes in appetite, sleep patterns, social interactions, and substance use. Physiologically, the body's "fight-or-flight" response is activated, leading to increased heart rate, blood pressure, muscle tension, and other symptoms.

Psychological stress can be caused by a wide range of factors, including work or school demands, financial problems, relationship issues, traumatic events, chronic illness, and major life changes. It's important to note that what causes stress in one person may not cause stress in another, as individual perceptions and coping mechanisms play a significant role.

Chronic psychological stress can have negative effects on both mental and physical health, increasing the risk of conditions such as anxiety disorders, depression, heart disease, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, it's essential to identify sources of stress and develop effective coping strategies to manage and reduce its impact.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Conduct Disorder is a mental health disorder that typically begins in childhood or adolescence and is characterized by a repetitive pattern of behavior that violates the rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms and rules. The behaviors fall into four main categories: aggression to people and animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violation of rules.

The specific symptoms of Conduct Disorder can vary widely among individuals, but they generally include:

1. Aggression to people and animals: This may include physical fights, bullying, threatening others, cruelty to animals, and use of weapons.
2. Destruction of property: This may include deliberate destruction of others' property, arson, and vandalism.
3. Deceitfulness or theft: This may include lying, shoplifting, stealing, and breaking into homes, buildings, or cars.
4. Serious violation of rules: This may include running away from home, truancy, staying out late without permission, and frequent violations of school rules.

Conduct Disorder can have serious consequences for individuals who suffer from it, including academic failure, substance abuse, depression, anxiety, and difficulties in interpersonal relationships. It is important to note that Conduct Disorder should be diagnosed by a qualified mental health professional based on a comprehensive evaluation.

Life change events refer to significant changes or transitions in an individual's personal circumstances that may have an impact on their health and well-being. These events can include things like:

* Marriage or divorce
* Birth of a child or loss of a loved one
* Job loss or retirement
* Moving to a new home or city
* Changes in financial status
* Health diagnoses or serious illnesses
* Starting or ending of a significant relationship

Research has shown that life change events can have a profound effect on an individual's stress levels, mental health, and physical health. Some life change events may be positive and exciting, while others may be challenging and difficult to cope with. In either case, it is important for individuals to take care of themselves during times of transition and seek support as needed.

Irritable mood is not a formal medical diagnosis, but it is often described as a symptom in various mental health conditions. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) does not have a specific definition for irritable mood. However, the term "irritable" is used to describe a mood state in several psychiatric disorders such as:

1. Major Depressive Disorder (MDD): In MDD, an individual may experience an irritable mood along with other symptoms like depressed mood, loss of interest or pleasure, changes in appetite and sleep, fatigue, feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt, difficulty thinking, concentrating, or making decisions, and recurrent thoughts of death or suicide.
2. Bipolar Disorder: In bipolar disorder, an individual may experience irritable mood during a manic or hypomanic episode. During these episodes, the person may also have increased energy, decreased need for sleep, racing thoughts, rapid speech, distractibility, and excessive involvement in pleasurable activities that have a high potential for painful consequences.
3. Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD): This disorder is characterized by severe and recurrent temper outbursts that are grossly out of proportion to the situation and occur at least three times per week, along with an irritable or angry mood most of the time between temper outbursts.
4. Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD): In PMDD, an individual may experience irritability, anger, and increased interpersonal conflicts in addition to other symptoms like depressed mood, anxiety, and physical symptoms during the late luteal phase of their menstrual cycle.

It is essential to consult a mental health professional if you or someone else experiences persistent irritable mood or any other symptoms that may indicate an underlying mental health condition.

Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are a class of medications that were commonly used to treat depression. The name "tricyclic" comes from the chemical structure of these drugs, which contain three rings in their molecular makeup. TCAs were first developed in the 1950s and remained a popular choice for treating depression until the introduction of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the late 1980s.

TCAs work by increasing the levels of neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and norepinephrine, in the brain. Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that transmit signals between nerve cells. By increasing the levels of these neurotransmitters, TCAs can help to improve mood and alleviate symptoms of depression.

Some common examples of tricyclic antidepressants include amitriptyline, imipramine, and nortriptyline. While TCAs are effective in treating depression, they can have significant side effects, including dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, and drowsiness. In addition, TCAs can be dangerous in overdose and may increase the risk of suicide in some individuals. As a result, they are typically used as a last resort when other treatments have failed.

Overall, tricyclic antidepressants are a class of medications that were commonly used to treat depression but have largely been replaced by newer drugs due to their side effects and potential risks.

The "age of onset" is a medical term that refers to the age at which an individual first develops or displays symptoms of a particular disease, disorder, or condition. It can be used to describe various medical conditions, including both physical and mental health disorders. The age of onset can have implications for prognosis, treatment approaches, and potential causes of the condition. In some cases, early onset may indicate a more severe or progressive course of the disease, while late-onset symptoms might be associated with different underlying factors or etiologies. It is essential to provide accurate and precise information regarding the age of onset when discussing a patient's medical history and treatment plan.

"Sex factors" is a term used in medicine and epidemiology to refer to the differences in disease incidence, prevalence, or response to treatment that are observed between males and females. These differences can be attributed to biological differences such as genetics, hormones, and anatomy, as well as social and cultural factors related to gender.

For example, some conditions such as autoimmune diseases, depression, and osteoporosis are more common in women, while others such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are more prevalent in men. Additionally, sex differences have been observed in the effectiveness and side effects of various medications and treatments.

It is important to consider sex factors in medical research and clinical practice to ensure that patients receive appropriate and effective care.

Recurrence, in a medical context, refers to the return of symptoms or signs of a disease after a period of improvement or remission. It indicates that the condition has not been fully eradicated and may require further treatment. Recurrence is often used to describe situations where a disease such as cancer comes back after initial treatment, but it can also apply to other medical conditions. The likelihood of recurrence varies depending on the type of disease and individual patient factors.

Suicidal ideation is a medical term used to describe thoughts about, or an unusual preoccupation with, suicide. The range of suicidal ideation varies greatly from fleeting thoughts, to extensive thoughts, to detailed planning, role playing, and incomplete attempts, which may be deliberately constructed to not complete or to be discovered, or may be fully intended to result in death.

It's important to take any mention of suicide seriously and seek immediate help from a healthcare professional if someone is experiencing suicidal ideation. Mental health conditions such as depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder, and substance abuse are commonly associated with an increased risk of suicidal thoughts.

If you or someone you know is struggling with suicidal thoughts, please reach out to a mental health professional or trusted person immediately. In the US, contact the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 1-800-273-TALK (1-800-273-8255) or use the Crisis Text Line by texting HOME to 741741.

Longitudinal studies are a type of research design where data is collected from the same subjects repeatedly over a period of time, often years or even decades. These studies are used to establish patterns of changes and events over time, and can help researchers identify causal relationships between variables. They are particularly useful in fields such as epidemiology, psychology, and sociology, where the focus is on understanding developmental trends and the long-term effects of various factors on health and behavior.

In medical research, longitudinal studies can be used to track the progression of diseases over time, identify risk factors for certain conditions, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. For example, a longitudinal study might follow a group of individuals over several decades to assess their exposure to certain environmental factors and their subsequent development of chronic diseases such as cancer or heart disease. By comparing data collected at multiple time points, researchers can identify trends and correlations that may not be apparent in shorter-term studies.

Longitudinal studies have several advantages over other research designs, including their ability to establish temporal relationships between variables, track changes over time, and reduce the impact of confounding factors. However, they also have some limitations, such as the potential for attrition (loss of participants over time), which can introduce bias and affect the validity of the results. Additionally, longitudinal studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, requiring significant resources and a long-term commitment from both researchers and study participants.

Cognitive disorders are a category of mental health disorders that primarily affect cognitive abilities including learning, memory, perception, and problem-solving. These disorders can be caused by various factors such as brain injury, degenerative diseases, infection, substance abuse, or developmental disabilities. Examples of cognitive disorders include dementia, amnesia, delirium, and intellectual disability. It's important to note that the specific definition and diagnostic criteria for cognitive disorders may vary depending on the medical source or classification system being used.

Sleep disorders are a group of conditions that affect the ability to sleep well on a regular basis. They can include problems with falling asleep, staying asleep, or waking up too early in the morning. These disorders can be caused by various factors such as stress, anxiety, depression, medical conditions, or substance abuse.

The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) recognizes over 80 distinct sleep disorders, which are categorized into the following major groups:

1. Insomnia - difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep.
2. Sleep-related breathing disorders - abnormal breathing during sleep such as obstructive sleep apnea.
3. Central disorders of hypersomnolence - excessive daytime sleepiness, including narcolepsy.
4. Circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders - disruption of the internal body clock that regulates the sleep-wake cycle.
5. Parasomnias - abnormal behaviors during sleep such as sleepwalking or night terrors.
6. Sleep-related movement disorders - repetitive movements during sleep such as restless legs syndrome.
7. Isolated symptoms and normal variants - brief and occasional symptoms that do not warrant a specific diagnosis.

Sleep disorders can have significant impacts on an individual's quality of life, productivity, and overall health. If you suspect that you may have a sleep disorder, it is recommended to consult with a healthcare professional or a sleep specialist for proper evaluation and treatment.

Psychodrama is not typically defined in the context of medical terminology, but it is a recognized form of psychotherapy that uses role-playing and dramatic techniques to examine and gain insight into a person's emotions, thoughts, and behaviors. According to the American Society of Group Psychotherapy and Psychodrama (ASGPP), psychodrama is defined as "an action method, often conducted in group settings, which allows participants to enact real-life situations, past experiences, or future plans in order to gain insight, increase self-awareness, and practice new behaviors."

In a psychodrama session, the therapist (known as the psychodramatist) guides the protagonist (the individual who presents an issue or situation for exploration) through a series of scenes that recreate or represent their real-life experiences. The protagonist may assume different roles in these scenes and interact with other group members who take on auxiliary roles to help bring the scene to life.

The goal of psychodrama is to enable participants to explore their emotions, thoughts, and behaviors in a safe and supportive environment, allowing them to gain new perspectives, develop empathy for others, and practice healthier ways of interacting with their world. Psychodrama can be helpful for individuals dealing with various psychological issues, including anxiety, depression, trauma, grief, and relational difficulties.

The prefrontal cortex is the anterior (frontal) part of the frontal lobe in the brain, involved in higher-order cognitive processes such as planning complex cognitive behavior, personality expression, decision making, and moderating social behavior. It also plays a significant role in working memory and executive functions. The prefrontal cortex is divided into several subregions, each associated with specific cognitive and emotional functions. Damage to the prefrontal cortex can result in various impairments, including difficulties with planning, decision making, and social behavior regulation.

Autistic Disorder, also known as Autism or Classic Autism, is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects communication and behavior. It is characterized by:

1. Persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts, including:
* Deficits in social-emotional reciprocity;
* Deficits in nonverbal communicative behaviors used for social interaction;
* Deficits in developing, maintaining, and understanding relationships.
2. Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities, as manifested by at least two of the following:
* Stereotyped or repetitive motor movements, use of objects, or speech;
* Insistence on sameness, inflexible adherence to routines, or ritualized patterns of verbal or nonverbal behavior;
* Highly restricted, fixated interests that are abnormal in intensity or focus;
* Hyper- or hyporeactivity to sensory input or unusual interest in sensory aspects of the environment.
3. Symptoms must be present in the early developmental period (but may not become fully manifest until social demands exceed limited capacities) and limit or impair everyday functioning.
4. Symptoms do not occur exclusively during the course of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder or other psychotic disorders.

Autistic Disorder is part of the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), which also include Asperger's Syndrome and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). The current diagnostic term for this category of conditions, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), is Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Postpartum depression is a type of depressive disorder that occurs in a woman after giving birth (the postpartum period). The symptoms are similar to those of other forms of depression, such as low mood, loss of interest or pleasure in activities, changes in appetite and sleep patterns, feelings of guilt or worthlessness, difficulty thinking, concentrating or making decisions, and thoughts of death or suicide. However, in postpartum depression, these symptoms are more severe and last longer than those typically experienced after childbirth. Postpartum depression can make it difficult for a woman to care for herself or her baby and can affect the bonding between mother and child. It is important to seek medical help if you think you may be experiencing postpartum depression. Treatment may include counseling, medication, or a combination of both.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

Health surveys are research studies that collect data from a sample population to describe the current health status, health behaviors, and healthcare utilization of a particular group or community. These surveys may include questions about various aspects of health such as physical health, mental health, chronic conditions, lifestyle habits, access to healthcare services, and demographic information. The data collected from health surveys can be used to monitor trends in health over time, identify disparities in health outcomes, develop and evaluate public health programs and policies, and inform resource allocation decisions. Examples of national health surveys include the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS).

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

Neuropsychological tests are a type of psychological assessment that measures cognitive functions, such as attention, memory, language, problem-solving, and perception. These tests are used to help diagnose and understand the cognitive impact of neurological conditions, including dementia, traumatic brain injury, stroke, Parkinson's disease, and other disorders that affect the brain.

The tests are typically administered by a trained neuropsychologist and can take several hours to complete. They may involve paper-and-pencil tasks, computerized tasks, or interactive activities. The results of the tests are compared to normative data to help identify any areas of cognitive weakness or strength.

Neuropsychological testing can provide valuable information for treatment planning, rehabilitation, and assessing response to treatment. It can also be used in research to better understand the neural basis of cognition and the impact of neurological conditions on cognitive function.

Psychotropic drugs, also known as psychoactive drugs, are a class of medications that affect the function of the central nervous system, leading to changes in consciousness, perception, mood, cognition, or behavior. These drugs work by altering the chemical neurotransmitters in the brain, such as dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine, which are involved in regulating mood, thought, and behavior.

Psychotropic drugs can be classified into several categories based on their primary therapeutic effects, including:

1. Antipsychotic drugs: These medications are used to treat psychosis, schizophrenia, and other related disorders. They work by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain, which helps reduce hallucinations, delusions, and disordered thinking.
2. Antidepressant drugs: These medications are used to treat depression, anxiety disorders, and some chronic pain conditions. They work by increasing the availability of neurotransmitters such as serotonin, norepinephrine, or dopamine in the brain, which helps improve mood and reduce anxiety.
3. Mood stabilizers: These medications are used to treat bipolar disorder and other mood disorders. They help regulate the ups and downs of mood swings and can also be used as adjunctive treatment for depression and anxiety.
4. Anxiolytic drugs: Also known as anti-anxiety medications, these drugs are used to treat anxiety disorders, panic attacks, and insomnia. They work by reducing the activity of neurotransmitters such as GABA, which can help reduce anxiety and promote relaxation.
5. Stimulant drugs: These medications are used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. They work by increasing the availability of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain, which helps improve focus, concentration, and alertness.

It is important to note that psychotropic drugs can have significant side effects and should only be used under the close supervision of a qualified healthcare provider.

Alcoholism is a chronic and often relapsing brain disorder characterized by the excessive and compulsive consumption of alcohol despite negative consequences to one's health, relationships, and daily life. It is also commonly referred to as alcohol use disorder (AUD) or alcohol dependence.

The diagnostic criteria for AUD include a pattern of alcohol use that includes problems controlling intake, continued use despite problems resulting from drinking, development of a tolerance, drinking that leads to risky behaviors or situations, and withdrawal symptoms when not drinking.

Alcoholism can cause a wide range of physical and psychological health problems, including liver disease, heart disease, neurological damage, mental health disorders, and increased risk of accidents and injuries. Treatment for alcoholism typically involves a combination of behavioral therapies, medications, and support groups to help individuals achieve and maintain sobriety.

Personality disorders are a class of mental health conditions characterized by deeply ingrained, inflexible patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving that deviate significantly from the norms of their culture. These patterns often lead to distress for the individual and/or impairments in personal relationships, work, or social functioning.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), identifies ten specific personality disorders, which are grouped into three clusters based on descriptive similarities:

1. Cluster A (Odd or Eccentric) - characterized by odd, eccentric, or unusual behaviors:
* Paranoid Personality Disorder
* Schizoid Personality Disorder
* Schizotypal Personality Disorder
2. Cluster B (Dramatic, Emotional, or Erratic) - marked by dramatic, emotional, or erratic behaviors:
* Antisocial Personality Disorder
* Borderline Personality Disorder
* Histrionic Personality Disorder
* Narcissistic Personality Disorder
3. Cluster C (Anxious or Fearful) - featuring anxious, fearful behaviors:
* Avoidant Personality Disorder
* Dependent Personality Disorder
* Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

It is important to note that personality disorders can be challenging to diagnose and treat. They often require comprehensive assessments by mental health professionals, such as psychologists or psychiatrists, who specialize in personality disorders. Effective treatments typically involve long-term, specialized psychotherapies, with some cases potentially benefiting from medication management for co-occurring symptoms like anxiety or depression.

Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterized by disturbances in thought, perception, emotion, and behavior. It often includes hallucinations (usually hearing voices), delusions, paranoia, and disorganized speech and behavior. The onset of symptoms typically occurs in late adolescence or early adulthood. Schizophrenia is a complex, chronic condition that requires ongoing treatment and management. It significantly impairs social and occupational functioning, and it's often associated with reduced life expectancy due to comorbid medical conditions. The exact causes of schizophrenia are not fully understood, but research suggests that genetic, environmental, and neurodevelopmental factors play a role in its development.

Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) are a group of conditions that affect the development and functioning of the brain, leading to delays in many areas of development. The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) has replaced the term "pervasive developmental disorders" with "autism spectrum disorder" and "other neurodevelopmental disorders."

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and interaction across multiple contexts, as well as restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. The symptoms of ASD can range from mild to severe, and the condition affects approximately 1 in 54 children in the United States.

Other neurodevelopmental disorders that were previously classified as PDDs include:

1. Intellectual disability (ID): a condition characterized by significant limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. This disorder used to be referred to as "mental retardation."
2. Communication disorders: these are disorders that affect an individual's ability to communicate, including language disorders, speech sound disorders, and stuttering.
3. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
4. Specific learning disorder: a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects an individual's ability to learn and use specific academic skills, such as reading, writing, or mathematics.
5. Motor disorders: these are disorders that affect an individual's movement and coordination, including developmental coordination disorder, stereotypic movement disorder, and tic disorders.

The medical definition of 'Child Development Disorders, Pervasive' has been replaced with more specific diagnoses in the DSM-5 to better reflect the diverse nature of these conditions and improve diagnostic accuracy and treatment planning.

Thiophenes are organic compounds that contain a heterocyclic ring made up of four carbon atoms and one sulfur atom. The structure of thiophene is similar to benzene, with the benzene ring being replaced by a thiophene ring. Thiophenes are aromatic compounds, which means they have a stable, planar ring structure and delocalized electrons.

Thiophenes can be found in various natural sources such as coal tar, crude oil, and some foods like onions and garlic. They also occur in certain medications, dyes, and pesticides. Some thiophene derivatives have been synthesized and studied for their potential therapeutic uses, including anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antitumor activities.

In the medical field, thiophenes are used in some pharmaceuticals as building blocks to create drugs with various therapeutic effects. For example, tipepidine, a cough suppressant, contains a thiophene ring. Additionally, some anesthetics and antipsychotic medications also contain thiophene moieties.

It is important to note that while thiophenes themselves are not typically considered medical terms, they play a role in the chemistry of various pharmaceuticals and other medical-related compounds.

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5), an Adjustment Disorder is a mental health condition that occurs as a reaction to a stressful life event or significant change. It is characterized by emotional or behavioral symptoms that cause distress and interfere with daily functioning, but do not meet the criteria for other more specific mental disorders.

The symptoms of an Adjustment Disorder typically develop within three months of the identified stressor and may include:

* Depressed mood
* Anxiety
* Irritability or anger
* Worrying
* Difficulty sleeping
* Loss of appetite
* Difficulty concentrating
* Physical symptoms, such as headaches or stomachaches

The symptoms must be out of proportion to the severity or intensity of the stressor and may lead to significant impairment in social, occupational, or academic functioning. The diagnosis is not given if the symptoms persist for more than six months after the stressor has ended.

There are several subtypes of Adjustment Disorders, including:

* Adjustment Disorder with Depressed Mood
* Adjustment Disorder with Anxiety
* Adjustment Disorder with Mixed Anxiety and Depressed Mood
* Adjustment Disorder with Disturbance of Conduct
* Adjustment Disorder with Emotional or Behavioral Symptoms Not Otherwise Specified

Treatment for Adjustment Disorders typically involves psychotherapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or solution-focused brief therapy, to help individuals develop coping skills and manage their symptoms. In some cases, medication may also be recommended to alleviate symptoms of anxiety or depression.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

In medical terms, "outpatients" refers to individuals who receive medical care or treatment at a hospital or clinic without being admitted as inpatients. This means that they do not stay overnight or for an extended period; instead, they visit the healthcare facility for specific services such as consultations, diagnostic tests, treatments, or follow-up appointments and then return home afterward. Outpatient care can include various services like primary care, specialty clinics, dental care, physical therapy, and more. It is often more convenient and cost-effective than inpatient care, as it allows patients to maintain their daily routines while receiving necessary medical attention.

Combat disorders are a category of mental health conditions that can occur in military personnel as a result of their experiences during combat. These disorders can include post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), acute stress disorder, and adjustment disorders, among others. Combat disorders may be caused by exposure to traumatic events, such as experiencing or witnessing combat, the threat of death or serious injury, or the loss of fellow soldiers. Symptoms can include flashbacks, nightmares, avoidance of reminders of the trauma, difficulty sleeping, irritability, and feelings of detachment or numbness. Treatment for combat disorders typically involves a combination of medication and therapy.

Logistic models, specifically logistic regression models, are a type of statistical analysis used in medical and epidemiological research to identify the relationship between the risk of a certain health outcome or disease (dependent variable) and one or more independent variables, such as demographic factors, exposure variables, or other clinical measurements.

In contrast to linear regression models, logistic regression models are used when the dependent variable is binary or dichotomous in nature, meaning it can only take on two values, such as "disease present" or "disease absent." The model uses a logistic function to estimate the probability of the outcome based on the independent variables.

Logistic regression models are useful for identifying risk factors and estimating the strength of associations between exposures and health outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders, and predicting the probability of an outcome given certain values of the independent variables. They can also be used to develop clinical prediction rules or scores that can aid in decision-making and patient care.

Genetic predisposition to disease refers to an increased susceptibility or vulnerability to develop a particular illness or condition due to inheriting specific genetic variations or mutations from one's parents. These genetic factors can make it more likely for an individual to develop a certain disease, but it does not guarantee that the person will definitely get the disease. Environmental factors, lifestyle choices, and interactions between genes also play crucial roles in determining if a genetically predisposed person will actually develop the disease. It is essential to understand that having a genetic predisposition only implies a higher risk, not an inevitable outcome.

Community psychiatry is a branch of psychiatry that focuses on providing mental health services within the context of a person's community, rather than in a traditional clinical setting such as a hospital or clinic. The goal of community psychiatry is to provide comprehensive, accessible, and personalized mental health care that is integrated into the individual's natural support systems, including their family, friends, and social networks.

Community psychiatrists work closely with other mental health professionals, social workers, and community organizations to develop and implement treatment plans that address the unique needs of each individual. They may provide services in a variety of settings, such as community mental health centers, group homes, schools, and primary care clinics.

The approach of community psychiatry recognizes that mental illness affects not only the individual but also their family, friends, and larger community. Therefore, interventions often focus on improving social determinants of health, such as housing, employment, and education, in addition to providing traditional mental health treatments like medication and therapy.

Overall, community psychiatry aims to reduce stigma around mental illness, improve access to care, and promote recovery and resilience in individuals with mental health conditions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Netherlands" is not a medical term. It is a country located in Western Europe, known for its artistic heritage, elaborate canal system, and legalized marijuana and prostitution. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

Psychopathology is a branch of psychology and medicine that involves the study and classification of mental disorders, including their causes, symptoms, and treatment. It is an interdisciplinary field that draws on various methods and perspectives from psychology, neuroscience, genetics, sociology, and other related disciplines to understand and explain abnormal behavior and mental processes.

The term "psychopathology" can also refer specifically to the presence of a mental disorder or to the symptoms and features of a particular mental disorder. For example, one might say that someone has a psychopathology or that they exhibit certain psychopathological symptoms.

Psychopathology is often contrasted with normal psychology, which focuses on understanding and explaining typical behavior and mental processes. However, it is important to note that the boundary between normal and abnormal behavior is not always clear-cut, and many psychological phenomena exist on a continuum rather than falling neatly into one category or the other.

A serotonin receptor, specifically the 5-HT1A subtype, is a type of G protein-coupled receptor found in the central and peripheral nervous systems. These receptors are activated by the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) and play important roles in regulating various physiological processes, including neurotransmission, neuronal excitability, and neuroendocrine function.

The 5-HT1A receptor is widely distributed throughout the brain and spinal cord, where it is involved in modulating mood, anxiety, cognition, memory, and pain perception. Activation of this receptor can have both inhibitory and excitatory effects on neuronal activity, depending on the location and type of neuron involved.

In addition to its role in normal physiology, the 5-HT1A receptor has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, and drug addiction. As a result, drugs that target this receptor have been developed for the treatment of these conditions. These drugs include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which increase the availability of serotonin in the synaptic cleft and enhance 5-HT1A receptor activation, as well as direct agonists of the 5-HT1A receptor, such as buspirone, which is used to treat anxiety disorders.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

'Hypericum' is a genus of flowering plants, also known as St. John's Wort. While it is primarily used in herbal medicine and not considered a standard medical term, it is important to note that some species of Hypericum have been found to have medicinal properties. The most commonly studied and used species is Hypericum perforatum, which has been found to have potential benefits in treating depression, anxiety, and sleep disorders. However, its use as a medical treatment is still a subject of ongoing research and debate, and it can interact with several medications. Always consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement or medication.

Primary health care is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as:

"Essential health care that is based on practical, scientifically sound and socially acceptable methods and technology made universally accessible to individuals and families in the community through their full participation and at a cost that the community and country can afford. It forms an integral part both of the country's health system, of which it is the central function and main focus, and of the overall social and economic development of the community. It is the first level of contact of individuals, the family and community with the national health system bringing health care as close as possible to where people live and work, and constitutes the first element of a continuing health care process."

Primary health care includes a range of services such as preventive care, health promotion, curative care, rehabilitation, and palliative care. It is typically provided by a team of health professionals including doctors, nurses, midwives, pharmacists, and other community health workers. The goal of primary health care is to provide comprehensive, continuous, and coordinated care to individuals and families in a way that is accessible, affordable, and culturally sensitive.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Brain mapping is a broad term that refers to the techniques used to understand the structure and function of the brain. It involves creating maps of the various cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processes in the brain by correlating these processes with physical locations or activities within the nervous system. Brain mapping can be accomplished through a variety of methods, including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET) scans, electroencephalography (EEG), and others. These techniques allow researchers to observe which areas of the brain are active during different tasks or thoughts, helping to shed light on how the brain processes information and contributes to our experiences and behaviors. Brain mapping is an important area of research in neuroscience, with potential applications in the diagnosis and treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders.

The amygdala is an almond-shaped group of nuclei located deep within the temporal lobe of the brain, specifically in the anterior portion of the temporal lobes and near the hippocampus. It forms a key component of the limbic system and plays a crucial role in processing emotions, particularly fear and anxiety. The amygdala is involved in the integration of sensory information with emotional responses, memory formation, and decision-making processes.

In response to emotionally charged stimuli, the amygdala can modulate various physiological functions, such as heart rate, blood pressure, and stress hormone release, via its connections to the hypothalamus and brainstem. Additionally, it contributes to social behaviors, including recognizing emotional facial expressions and responding appropriately to social cues. Dysfunctions in amygdala function have been implicated in several psychiatric and neurological conditions, such as anxiety disorders, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), alcohol-related disorders are a category of mental disorders defined by a problematic pattern of alcohol use that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress. The disorders include:

1. Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD): A chronic relapsing brain disorder characterized by an impaired ability to stop or control alcohol use despite adverse social, occupational, or health consequences. AUD can be mild, moderate, or severe, and recovery is possible regardless of severity. The symptoms include problems controlling intake of alcohol, continued use despite problems resulting from drinking, development of a tolerance, drinking that leads to risky situations, or withdrawal symptoms when not drinking.
2. Alcohol Intoxication: A state of acute impairment in mental and motor function caused by the recent consumption of alcohol. The symptoms include slurred speech, unsteady gait, nystagmus, impaired attention or memory, stupor, or coma. In severe cases, it can lead to respiratory depression, hypothermia, or even death.
3. Alcohol Withdrawal: A syndrome that occurs when alcohol use is heavily reduced or stopped after prolonged and heavy use. The symptoms include autonomic hyperactivity, increased hand tremor, insomnia, nausea or vomiting, transient visual, tactile, or auditory hallucinations or illusions, psychomotor agitation, anxiety, and grand mal seizures.
4. Other Alcohol-Induced Disorders: These include alcohol-induced sleep disorder, alcohol-induced sexual dysfunction, and alcohol-induced major neurocognitive disorder.

It is important to note that alcohol use disorders are complex conditions that can be influenced by a variety of factors, including genetics, environment, and personal behavior. If you or someone you know is struggling with alcohol use, it is recommended to seek professional help.

Agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder characterized by fear and avoidance of places, situations, or events that may trigger feelings of panic, fear, or embarrassment. People with agoraphobia may feel anxious about being in crowded places, standing in line, using public transportation, or being outside their home alone. They may also have a fear of leaving their "safe" place or experience severe anxiety when they are in a situation where escape might be difficult or help unavailable. In severe cases, agoraphobia can lead to avoidance of many activities and significant impairment in social, occupational, and other areas of functioning.

Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders (ADDBDs) are a group of childhood-onset disorders characterized by persistent patterns of behavior that are difficult for the individual to control. These disorders include Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), and Conduct Disorder (CD).

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that interfere with daily functioning. These symptoms must be present for at least six months and occur in multiple settings, such as school, home, and social situations.

Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) is characterized by a pattern of negative, hostile, and defiant behavior towards authority figures, which includes arguing with adults, losing temper, actively defying rules, and deliberately annoying others. These symptoms must be present for at least six months and occur more frequently than in other children of the same age and developmental level.

Conduct Disorder (CD) is characterized by a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior that violates the rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms and rules. These behaviors include aggression towards people and animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violation of rules.

It's important to note that these disorders can co-occur with other mental health conditions, such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and learning disabilities. Proper diagnosis and treatment are essential for managing the symptoms and improving the individual's quality of life.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

Mental health services refer to the various professional health services designed to treat and support individuals with mental health conditions. These services are typically provided by trained and licensed mental health professionals, such as psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, mental health counselors, and marriage and family therapists. The services may include:

1. Assessment and diagnosis of mental health disorders
2. Psychotherapy or "talk therapy" to help individuals understand and manage their symptoms
3. Medication management for mental health conditions
4. Case management and care coordination to connect individuals with community resources and support
5. Psychoeducation to help individuals and families better understand mental health conditions and how to manage them
6. Crisis intervention and stabilization services
7. Inpatient and residential treatment for severe or chronic mental illness
8. Prevention and early intervention services to identify and address mental health concerns before they become more serious
9. Rehabilitation and recovery services to help individuals with mental illness achieve their full potential and live fulfilling lives in the community.

"Postmortem changes," also known as "autolysis" or "decomposition," refer to the natural biological processes that occur in a deceased body after death. These changes include various chemical, physical, and biological alterations such as livor mortis (pooling of blood), algor mortis (drop in body temperature), rigor mortis (stiffening of muscles), putrefaction (breakdown by microorganisms), and decomposition by insects and other animals. These changes help forensic experts estimate the time since death, known as the postmortem interval.

The double-blind method is a study design commonly used in research, including clinical trials, to minimize bias and ensure the objectivity of results. In this approach, both the participants and the researchers are unaware of which group the participants are assigned to, whether it be the experimental group or the control group. This means that neither the participants nor the researchers know who is receiving a particular treatment or placebo, thus reducing the potential for bias in the evaluation of outcomes. The assignment of participants to groups is typically done by a third party not involved in the study, and the codes are only revealed after all data have been collected and analyzed.

Social adjustment, in the context of mental health and psychology, refers to an individual's ability to adapt and function effectively within their social environment. It involves developing and maintaining positive relationships with others, fulfilling various social roles (such as being a family member, friend, or employee), and meeting the expectations and demands of one's social group.

Social adjustment can be affected by various factors, including an individual's personality traits, coping skills, mental and physical health status, and life experiences. Poor social adjustment can lead to feelings of isolation, loneliness, and dissatisfaction with life, as well as increased risk for mental health problems such as depression and anxiety.

Assessing social adjustment is an important aspect of mental health care, as it can provide valuable insights into an individual's overall functioning and quality of life. Treatments such as psychotherapy and social skills training may be used to help improve social adjustment in individuals who are struggling in this area.

The frontal lobe is the largest lobes of the human brain, located at the front part of each cerebral hemisphere and situated in front of the parietal and temporal lobes. It plays a crucial role in higher cognitive functions such as decision making, problem solving, planning, parts of social behavior, emotional expressions, physical reactions, and motor function. The frontal lobe is also responsible for what's known as "executive functions," which include the ability to focus attention, understand rules, switch focus, plan actions, and inhibit inappropriate behaviors. It is divided into five areas, each with its own specific functions: the primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, Broca's area, prefrontal cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex. Damage to the frontal lobe can result in a wide range of impairments, depending on the location and extent of the injury.

The Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal system, also known as the hypothalamic-pituitary system, is a crucial part of the endocrine system that regulates many bodily functions. It consists of two main components: the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland.

The hypothalamus is a region in the brain that receives information from various parts of the body and integrates them to regulate vital functions such as body temperature, hunger, thirst, sleep, and emotional behavior. It also produces and releases neurohormones that control the secretion of hormones from the pituitary gland.

The pituitary gland is a small gland located at the base of the brain, just below the hypothalamus. It consists of two parts: the anterior pituitary (also called adenohypophysis) and the posterior pituitary (also called neurohypophysis). The anterior pituitary produces and releases several hormones that regulate various bodily functions such as growth, metabolism, reproduction, and stress response. The posterior pituitary stores and releases hormones produced by the hypothalamus, including antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin.

The hypothalamo-hypophyseal system works together to maintain homeostasis in the body by regulating various physiological processes through hormonal signaling. Dysfunction of this system can lead to several endocrine disorders, such as diabetes insipidus, pituitary tumors, and hypothalamic-pituitary axis disorders.

Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a type of protein called a neurotrophin, which is involved in the growth and maintenance of neurons (nerve cells) in the brain. BDNFA is encoded by the BDNF gene and is widely expressed throughout the central nervous system. It plays an essential role in supporting the survival of existing neurons, encouraging the growth and differentiation of new neurons and synapses, and contributing to neuroplasticity - the ability of the brain to change and adapt as a result of experience. Low levels of BDNF have been associated with several neurological disorders, including depression, Alzheimer's disease, and Huntington's disease.

Tic disorders are a group of conditions characterized by the presence of repetitive, involuntary movements or sounds, known as tics. These movements or sounds can vary in complexity and severity, and they may be worsened by stress or strong emotions.

There are several different types of tic disorders, including:

1. Tourette's disorder: This is a neurological condition characterized by the presence of both motor (movement-related) and vocal tics that have been present for at least one year. The tics may wax and wane in severity over time, but they do not disappear for more than three consecutive months.
2. Persistent (chronic) motor or vocal tic disorder: This type of tic disorder is characterized by the presence of either motor or vocal tics (but not both), which have been present for at least one year. The tics may wax and wane in severity over time, but they do not disappear for more than three consecutive months.
3. Provisional tic disorder: This type of tic disorder is characterized by the presence of motor or vocal tics (or both) that have been present for less than one year. The tics may wax and wane in severity over time, but they do not disappear for more than three consecutive months.
4. Tic disorder not otherwise specified: This category is used to describe tic disorders that do not meet the criteria for any of the other types of tic disorders.

Tic disorders are thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, and they often co-occur with other conditions such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Treatment for tic disorders may include behavioral therapy, medication, or a combination of both.

Affective symptoms refer to emotional or mood-related disturbances that can occur in various medical and psychological conditions. These symptoms may include:

1. Depression: feelings of sadness, hopelessness, loss of interest or pleasure in activities, changes in appetite and sleep patterns, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, and thoughts of death or suicide.
2. Anxiety: excessive worry, fear, or nervousness, often accompanied by physical symptoms such as a rapid heartbeat, sweating, and trembling.
3. Irritability: easily annoyed or agitated, often leading to outbursts of anger or frustration.
4. Mania or hypomania: abnormally elevated mood, increased energy, decreased need for sleep, racing thoughts, and impulsive or risky behavior.
5. Apathy: lack of interest, motivation, or emotion, often leading to social withdrawal and decreased activity levels.
6. Mood lability: rapid and unpredictable shifts in mood, ranging from extreme happiness to sadness, anger, or anxiety.

Affective symptoms can significantly impact a person's quality of life and ability to function in daily activities. They may be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, brain chemistry imbalances, stress, trauma, and medical conditions. Proper diagnosis and treatment are essential for managing affective symptoms and improving overall well-being.

A chronic disease is a long-term medical condition that often progresses slowly over a period of years and requires ongoing management and care. These diseases are typically not fully curable, but symptoms can be managed to improve quality of life. Common chronic diseases include heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). They are often associated with advanced age, although they can also affect children and younger adults. Chronic diseases can have significant impacts on individuals' physical, emotional, and social well-being, as well as on healthcare systems and society at large.

Psychiatry is the branch of medicine focused on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders. A psychiatrist is a medically trained doctor who specializes in psychiatry, and they are qualified to assess both the mental and physical aspects of psychological problems. They can use a variety of treatments, including psychotherapy, medications, psychoeducation, and psychosocial interventions, to help patients manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

Psychiatrists often work in multidisciplinary teams that include other mental health professionals such as psychologists, social workers, and mental health nurses. They may provide services in a range of settings, including hospitals, clinics, community mental health centers, and private practices.

It's important to note that while I strive to provide accurate and helpful information, my responses should not be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. If you or someone else has concerns about mental health, it is always best to consult with a qualified healthcare provider.

"Competitive bidding" is not a medical term, but rather a business or procurement concept that can be applied in various industries, including healthcare. In the context of healthcare, competitive bidding typically refers to a process where healthcare providers or suppliers submit bids to provide goods or services to a payer, such as a government agency or insurance company, at the lowest possible price.

The goal of competitive bidding is to promote cost savings and efficiency in the delivery of healthcare services. For example, Medicare uses a competitive bidding program for certain medical equipment and supplies, such as wheelchairs and oxygen equipment, where suppliers submit bids and are awarded contracts based on their ability to provide high-quality items at the lowest price.

However, it's important to note that while competitive bidding can lead to cost savings, it may also have unintended consequences, such as reducing provider participation or limiting access to certain services in some areas. Therefore, it is essential to balance cost savings with quality and access considerations when implementing competitive bidding programs in healthcare.

The pituitary-adrenal system, also known as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, is a complex set of interactions between the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, and the adrenal glands. This system plays a crucial role in the body's response to stress through the release of hormones that regulate various physiological processes.

The hypothalamus, located within the brain, receives information from the nervous system about the internal and external environment and responds by releasing corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin. These hormones then travel to the anterior pituitary gland, where they stimulate the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).

ACTH is transported through the bloodstream to the adrenal glands, which are located on top of the kidneys. The adrenal glands consist of two parts: the outer cortex and the inner medulla. ACTH specifically targets the adrenal cortex, causing it to release cortisol and other glucocorticoids, as well as androgens such as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).

Cortisol has numerous effects on metabolism, immune function, and cardiovascular regulation. It helps regulate blood sugar levels, suppresses the immune system, and aids in the breakdown of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates to provide energy during stressful situations. DHEA can be converted into male and female sex hormones (androgens and estrogens) in various tissues throughout the body.

The pituitary-adrenal system is tightly regulated through negative feedback mechanisms. High levels of cortisol, for example, inhibit the release of CRH and ACTH from the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, respectively, thereby limiting further cortisol production. Dysregulation of this system has been implicated in several medical conditions, including Cushing's syndrome (overproduction of cortisol) and Addison's disease (underproduction of cortisol).

Genotype, in genetics, refers to the complete heritable genetic makeup of an individual organism, including all of its genes. It is the set of instructions contained in an organism's DNA for the development and function of that organism. The genotype is the basis for an individual's inherited traits, and it can be contrasted with an individual's phenotype, which refers to the observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism that result from the expression of its genes in combination with environmental influences.

It is important to note that an individual's genotype is not necessarily identical to their genetic sequence. Some genes have multiple forms called alleles, and an individual may inherit different alleles for a given gene from each parent. The combination of alleles that an individual inherits for a particular gene is known as their genotype for that gene.

Understanding an individual's genotype can provide important information about their susceptibility to certain diseases, their response to drugs and other treatments, and their risk of passing on inherited genetic disorders to their offspring.

The limbic system is a complex set of structures in the brain that includes the hippocampus, amygdala, fornix, cingulate gyrus, and other nearby areas. It's associated with emotional responses, instinctual behaviors, motivation, long-term memory formation, and olfaction (smell). The limbic system is also involved in the modulation of visceral functions and drives, such as hunger, thirst, and sexual drive.

The structures within the limbic system communicate with each other and with other parts of the brain, particularly the hypothalamus and the cortex, to regulate various physiological and psychological processes. Dysfunctions in the limbic system can lead to a range of neurological and psychiatric conditions, including depression, anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and certain types of memory impairment.

Antipsychotic agents are a class of medications used to manage and treat psychosis, which includes symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, paranoia, disordered thought processes, and agitated behavior. These drugs work by blocking the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain that is believed to play a role in the development of psychotic symptoms. Antipsychotics can be broadly divided into two categories: first-generation antipsychotics (also known as typical antipsychotics) and second-generation antipsychotics (also known as atypical antipsychotics).

First-generation antipsychotics, such as chlorpromazine, haloperidol, and fluphenazine, were developed in the 1950s and have been widely used for several decades. They are generally effective in reducing positive symptoms of psychosis (such as hallucinations and delusions) but can cause significant side effects, including extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), such as rigidity, tremors, and involuntary movements, as well as weight gain, sedation, and orthostatic hypotension.

Second-generation antipsychotics, such as clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, and aripiprazole, were developed more recently and are considered to have a more favorable side effect profile than first-generation antipsychotics. They are generally effective in reducing both positive and negative symptoms of psychosis (such as apathy, anhedonia, and social withdrawal) and cause fewer EPS. However, they can still cause significant weight gain, metabolic disturbances, and sedation.

Antipsychotic agents are used to treat various psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder with psychotic features, delusional disorder, and other conditions that involve psychosis or agitation. They can be administered orally, intramuscularly, or via long-acting injectable formulations. The choice of antipsychotic agent depends on the individual patient's needs, preferences, and response to treatment, as well as the potential for side effects. Regular monitoring of patients taking antipsychotics is essential to ensure their safety and effectiveness.

Psychological adaptation refers to the process by which individuals adjust and cope with stressors, challenges, or changes in their environment or circumstances. It involves modifying thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and copabilities to reduce the negative impact of these stressors and promote well-being. Psychological adaptation can occur at different levels, including intrapersonal (within the individual), interpersonal (between individuals), and cultural (within a group or society).

Examples of psychological adaptation include:

* Cognitive restructuring: changing negative thoughts and beliefs to more positive or adaptive ones
* Emotion regulation: managing and reducing intense or distressing emotions
* Problem-solving: finding solutions to practical challenges or obstacles
* Seeking social support: reaching out to others for help, advice, or comfort
* Developing coping strategies: using effective ways to deal with stressors or difficulties
* Cultivating resilience: bouncing back from adversity and learning from negative experiences.

Psychological adaptation is an important aspect of mental health and well-being, as it helps individuals adapt to new situations, overcome challenges, and maintain a sense of control and optimism in the face of stressors or changes.

Dependent Personality Disorder (DPD) is a mental health condition in which an individual has an extreme fear of being abandoned or rejected, leading them to rely excessively on others for support and decision-making. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), to be diagnosed with DPD, an individual must exhibit at least five of the following symptoms:

1. Difficulty making everyday decisions without excessive advice and reassurance from others.
2. Need for others to assume responsibility for most major areas of their life.
3. Has difficulty expressing disagreement with others due to fear of loss of support or approval.
4. Has difficulty initiating projects or doing things on their own due to a lack of self-confidence in judgment or abilities.
5. Goes to excessive lengths to obtain nurturance and support from others, including volunteering to do things that are not enjoyable.
6. Feels uncomfortable or helpless when alone because of exaggerated fears of being unable to care for themselves.
7. Urgently seeks another relationship as a source of care and support when a close relationship ends.
8. Is unrealistically preoccupied with fears of being left to take care of themselves.

These symptoms must be present for an extended period, typically lasting for at least two years or more, and cause significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. Additionally, the symptoms cannot be better explained by another mental health condition, such as bipolar disorder or major depressive disorder.

It is important to note that seeking help from a mental health professional is essential for an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan if you suspect you may have DPD.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Oregon" is not a medical term or concept. It is a geographical location, being the name of a state in the United States, located in the Pacific Northwest region. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

Child guidance clinics are mental health clinics specifically designed to assess, diagnose, and treat children and adolescents with behavioral, emotional, and social difficulties. These clinics are typically staffed by a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and other specialists who work together to provide comprehensive care for children and their families.

The services offered at child guidance clinics may include individual and group therapy, family therapy, psychological testing and assessment, medication management, and case management. The goal of these clinics is to help children and adolescents develop healthy social and emotional skills, improve their behavior and academic performance, and promote overall well-being.

Child guidance clinics often work closely with schools, community organizations, and other healthcare providers to ensure that children receive coordinated and continuous care. They may also provide training and education to parents, teachers, and other professionals who work with children to help them better understand and respond to the unique needs of children with mental health challenges.

Functional neuroimaging is a branch of medical imaging that involves the use of various techniques to measure and visualize the metabolic activity or blood flow in different regions of the brain. These measurements can be used to infer the level of neural activation in specific brain areas, allowing researchers and clinicians to study the functioning of the brain in various states, such as during rest, cognitive tasks, or disease processes.

Some common functional neuroimaging techniques include:

1. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI): This technique uses magnetic fields and radio waves to measure changes in blood flow and oxygenation levels in the brain, which are associated with neural activity.
2. Positron Emission Tomography (PET): This technique involves the injection of a small amount of radioactive tracer into the body, which is taken up by active brain cells. The resulting gamma rays are then detected and used to create images of brain activity.
3. Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT): Similar to PET, SPECT uses a radioactive tracer to measure blood flow in the brain, but with lower resolution and sensitivity.
4. Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS): This technique uses near-infrared light to measure changes in oxygenation levels in the brain, providing a non-invasive and relatively inexpensive method for studying brain function.

Functional neuroimaging has numerous applications in both research and clinical settings, including the study of cognitive processes, the diagnosis and monitoring of neurological and psychiatric disorders, and the development of new treatments and interventions.

A facial expression is a result of the contraction or relaxation of muscles in the face that change the physical appearance of an individual's face to convey various emotions, intentions, or physical sensations. Facial expressions can be voluntary or involuntary and are a form of non-verbal communication that plays a crucial role in social interaction and conveying a person's state of mind.

The seven basic facial expressions of emotion, as proposed by Paul Ekman, include happiness, sadness, fear, disgust, surprise, anger, and contempt. These facial expressions are universally recognized across cultures and can be detected through the interpretation of specific muscle movements in the face, known as action units, which are measured and analyzed in fields such as psychology, neurology, and computer vision.

Moclobemide is a type of antidepressant known as a reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (RIMA). It works by increasing the levels of neurotransmitters (chemical messengers) in the brain, such as serotonin and noradrenaline, which helps to improve mood and alleviate symptoms of depression.

Moclobemide is specifically designed to inhibit only monoamine oxidase A, which metabolizes neurotransmitters in the brain, and not monoamine oxidase B, which is found in other parts of the body. This selectivity reduces the risk of serious side effects associated with non-selective monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as hypertensive crisis caused by interactions with tyramine-rich foods or certain medications.

Moclobemide is used to treat major depressive disorders and may also be used off-label for other conditions, such as social anxiety disorder or panic disorder. It is available in various forms, including tablets and oral solution, and is typically taken two to three times a day. As with any medication, moclobemide should be taken under the supervision of a healthcare provider, who will determine the appropriate dosage and monitor for potential side effects.

General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) is not a term that is typically used in modern medical or clinical settings. However, it does have a historical significance in the field of stress research. It was first introduced by Hans Selye, an Austrian-Canadian endocrinologist, in 1936 as a model to describe the body's response to stress.

GAS is a three-stage response:

1. Alarm Stage: The initial stage where the body recognizes the stressor and responds with a "fight or flight" reaction, which includes the activation of the sympathetic nervous system and the release of stress hormones like adrenaline and cortisol.

2. Resistance Stage: If the stressor continues, the body tries to adapt by increasing its resistance. This stage is characterized by the continued release of stress hormones, which can have both beneficial (like increased alertness and energy) and detrimental effects (like impaired immune function and digestion).

3. Exhaustion Stage: If the stressor remains unresolved, the body's resources become depleted, leading to the exhaustion stage. At this point, the body's ability to resist the stressor is significantly reduced, making it more susceptible to disease and illness.

While GAS is not a term used in current medical practice, the concept of the body's response to stress is still very relevant. Modern research often uses the term "allostatic load" to describe the wear and tear on the body due to chronic stress.

Paroxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medication that is primarily used to treat major depressive disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. It works by increasing the levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps maintain mental balance, leading to an improvement in mood and other symptoms associated with these conditions.

Paroxetine is available under various brand names, such as Paxil and Seroxat, and it comes in different forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquid solutions. The medication is typically taken once daily, although the dosage may vary depending on the individual's needs and the specific condition being treated.

As with any medication, paroxetine can have side effects, such as nausea, dizziness, dry mouth, and sleep disturbances. In some cases, it may also cause more serious side effects, including increased risk of suicidal thoughts or behaviors in children, adolescents, and young adults, as well as an increased risk of bleeding and hyponatremia (low sodium levels).

It is important to consult with a healthcare provider before starting paroxetine or any other medication, and to follow their instructions carefully regarding dosage, timing, and potential interactions with other drugs or medical conditions.

Child abuse is a broad term that refers to any form of physical, emotional, or sexual mistreatment or neglect that causes harm to a child's health, development, or dignity. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), child abuse includes:

1. Physical abuse: Non-accidental injuries caused by hitting, kicking, shaking, burning, or otherwise harming a child's body.
2. Sexual abuse: Any sexual activity involving a child, such as touching or non-touching behaviors, exploitation, or exposure to pornographic material.
3. Emotional abuse: Behaviors that harm a child's emotional well-being and self-esteem, such as constant criticism, humiliation, threats, or rejection.
4. Neglect: Failure to provide for a child's basic needs, including food, clothing, shelter, medical care, education, and emotional support.

Child abuse can have serious short-term and long-term consequences for the physical, emotional, and psychological well-being of children. It is a violation of their fundamental human rights and a public health concern that requires prevention, early detection, and intervention.

Hydrocortisone is a synthetic glucocorticoid, which is a class of steroid hormones. It is identical to the naturally occurring cortisol, a hormone produced by the adrenal gland that helps regulate metabolism and helps your body respond to stress. Hydrocortisone has anti-inflammatory effects and is used to treat various inflammatory conditions such as allergies, skin disorders, and autoimmune diseases. It works by suppressing the immune system's response to reduce swelling, redness, itching, and other symptoms caused by inflammation.

Hydrocortisone is available in different forms, including oral tablets, topical creams, lotions, gels, and ointments, as well as injectable solutions. The specific use and dosage depend on the condition being treated and the individual patient's medical history and current health status.

As with any medication, hydrocortisone can have side effects, especially when used in high doses or for extended periods. Common side effects include increased appetite, weight gain, mood changes, insomnia, and skin thinning. Long-term use of hydrocortisone may also increase the risk of developing osteoporosis, diabetes, cataracts, and other health problems. Therefore, it is essential to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully when using this medication.

Quality of Life (QOL) is a broad, multidimensional concept that usually includes an individual's physical health, psychological state, level of independence, social relationships, personal beliefs, and their relationship to salient features of their environment. It reflects the impact of disease and treatment on a patient's overall well-being and ability to function in daily life.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines QOL as "an individual's perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns." It is a subjective concept, meaning it can vary greatly from person to person.

In healthcare, QOL is often used as an outcome measure in clinical trials and other research studies to assess the impact of interventions or treatments on overall patient well-being.

Socioeconomic factors are a range of interconnected conditions and influences that affect the opportunities and resources a person or group has to maintain and improve their health and well-being. These factors include:

1. Economic stability: This includes employment status, job security, income level, and poverty status. Lower income and lack of employment are associated with poorer health outcomes.
2. Education: Higher levels of education are generally associated with better health outcomes. Education can affect a person's ability to access and understand health information, as well as their ability to navigate the healthcare system.
3. Social and community context: This includes factors such as social support networks, discrimination, and community safety. Strong social supports and positive community connections are associated with better health outcomes, while discrimination and lack of safety can negatively impact health.
4. Healthcare access and quality: Access to affordable, high-quality healthcare is an important socioeconomic factor that can significantly impact a person's health. Factors such as insurance status, availability of providers, and cultural competency of healthcare systems can all affect healthcare access and quality.
5. Neighborhood and built environment: The physical conditions in which people live, work, and play can also impact their health. Factors such as housing quality, transportation options, availability of healthy foods, and exposure to environmental hazards can all influence health outcomes.

Socioeconomic factors are often interrelated and can have a cumulative effect on health outcomes. For example, someone who lives in a low-income neighborhood with limited access to healthy foods and safe parks may also face challenges related to employment, education, and healthcare access that further impact their health. Addressing socioeconomic factors is an important part of promoting health equity and reducing health disparities.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) is a mental health condition characterized by a pervasive pattern of disregard for the rights of others, lack of empathy, and manipulative behaviors. It is defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), as follows:

A. A consistent pattern of behavior that violates the basic rights of others and major age-appropriate societal norms and rules, as indicated by the presence of at least three of the following:

1. Failure to conform to social norms and laws, indicated by repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest.
2. Deceitfulness, as indicated by repeated lying, use of aliases, or conning others for personal profit or pleasure.
3. Impulsivity or failure to plan ahead; indication of this symptom may include promiscuity.
4. Irritability and aggressiveness, as indicated by repeated physical fights or assaults.
5. Reckless disregard for safety of self or others.
6. Consistent irresponsibility, as indicated by repeated failure to sustain consistent work behavior or honor financial obligations.
7. Lack of remorse, as indicated by being indifferent to or rationalizing having hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another.

B. The individual is at least 18 years of age.

C. There is evidence of conduct disorder with onset before the age of 15 years.

D. The occurrence of antisocial behavior is not exclusively during the course of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.

E. The individual's criminal behavior has not been better explained by a conduct disorder diagnosis or antisocial behavior that began before the age of 15 years.

It's important to note that ASPD can be challenging to diagnose, and it often requires a comprehensive evaluation from a mental health professional with experience in personality disorders.

Antimanic agents are a class of medications primarily used to treat mania, a symptom of bipolar disorder. These agents help to control and reduce the severity of manic episodes, which can include symptoms such as elevated or irritable mood, increased energy, decreased need for sleep, racing thoughts, and impulsive or risky behavior.

The most commonly used antimanic agents are mood stabilizers, such as lithium and valproate (Depakote), and atypical antipsychotics, such as olanzapine (Zyprexa), risperidone (Risperdal), quetiapine (Seroquel), and aripiprazole (Abilify). These medications work by altering the levels or activity of certain neurotransmitters in the brain, such as dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine.

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is also considered an effective antimanic treatment for severe mania that has not responded to medication. ECT involves applying electrical currents to the brain while the patient is under anesthesia, which induces a seizure and can help to reduce symptoms of mania.

It's important to note that antimanic agents should only be used under the supervision of a qualified healthcare provider, as they can have significant side effects and interactions with other medications. Additionally, a comprehensive treatment plan for bipolar disorder typically includes psychotherapy, education, and support to help manage the condition and prevent future episodes.

An endophenotype is a measurable biological or neurophysiological characteristic that is associated with a particular disease or disorder. It is thought to be a heritable component that contributes to the development and expression of the disease, and can be used to help understand the underlying genetic and neural mechanisms of the disorder. Endophenotypes are often quantifiable and can be observed in individuals both with and without the disorder, making them useful for research purposes. They may include biochemical measures, neurophysiological measures, neuroanatomical measures, or cognitive/neural performance measures.

'Diseases in Twins' is a field of study that focuses on the similarities and differences in the occurrence, development, and outcomes of diseases among twins. This research can provide valuable insights into the genetic and environmental factors that contribute to various medical conditions.

Twins can be classified into two types: monozygotic (identical) and dizygotic (fraternal). Monozygotic twins share 100% of their genes, while dizygotic twins share about 50%, similar to non-twin siblings. By comparing the concordance rates (the likelihood of both twins having the same disease) between monozygotic and dizygotic twins, researchers can estimate the heritability of a particular disease.

Studying diseases in twins also helps understand the role of environmental factors. When both twins develop the same disease, but they are discordant for certain risk factors (e.g., one twin smokes and the other does not), it suggests that the disease may have a stronger genetic component. On the other hand, when both twins share similar risk factors and develop the disease, it implies that environmental factors play a significant role.

Diseases in Twins research has contributed to our understanding of various medical conditions, including infectious diseases, cancer, mental health disorders, and developmental disorders. This knowledge can lead to better prevention strategies, early detection methods, and more targeted treatments for these diseases.

Bupropion is an antidepressant medication used primarily to treat depression, but it also has uses in helping people quit smoking and treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It works by affecting the chemicals in the brain called dopamine and norepinephrine, which regulate mood and behavior.

Bupropion is available under various brand names, including Wellbutrin, Aplenzin, and Forfivo. It comes in several forms, such as immediate-release tablets, sustained-release tablets, and extended-release tablets, which are taken orally. The dosage and form of bupropion prescribed will depend on the individual's medical condition and response to treatment.

As with any medication, bupropion can have side effects, including dry mouth, headache, insomnia, nausea, and dizziness. In some cases, it may cause more severe side effects, such as seizures, high blood pressure, or allergic reactions. It is essential to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully when taking bupropion and report any bothersome or concerning symptoms promptly.

It is important to note that bupropion can interact with other medications, including certain antidepressants, antipsychotics, and anti-seizure drugs. Therefore, it is crucial to inform the prescribing physician of all current medications before starting bupropion therapy.

Trazodone is an antidepressant medication that belongs to the class of drugs called serotonin antagonist and reuptake inhibitors (SARIs). It works by increasing the levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin in the brain, which helps to improve mood and reduce symptoms of depression.

Trazodone is primarily used to treat major depressive disorder, but it may also be prescribed for anxiety, insomnia, and other conditions. The medication comes in various forms, including tablets and an extended-release formulation, and is typically taken orally one to three times a day. Common side effects of trazodone include dizziness, dry mouth, and sedation.

It's important to note that trazodone can interact with other medications and substances, so it's essential to inform your healthcare provider about all the drugs you are taking before starting treatment. Additionally, trazodone may increase the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior in some people, particularly during the initial stages of treatment, so close monitoring is necessary.

Brief psychotherapy is a focused, goal-oriented form of psychotherapy that typically takes place over a short period of time, ranging from a few sessions to several months. It is an evidence-based treatment approach that is designed to address specific psychological issues or symptoms and help individuals make meaningful changes in their lives. The focus is on helping the person identify and modify self-defeating patterns of thought and behavior that contribute to their problems.

Brief psychotherapy can take many forms, but it often involves a collaborative approach between the therapist and the individual, with an emphasis on active participation and self-reflection. The therapist helps the individual set specific goals for treatment and provides guidance, support, and feedback as they work towards achieving those goals.

The techniques used in brief psychotherapy may include cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), solution-focused therapy, interpersonal therapy, or other evidence-based approaches. The goal is to help the individual develop new skills and strategies for managing their problems, improve their relationships, and enhance their overall well-being.

Overall, brief psychotherapy is a practical and effective treatment option for individuals who are seeking relief from specific psychological issues or symptoms and are willing to commit to a focused and time-limited course of therapy.

Sleep initiation and maintenance disorders are a category of sleep disorders that involve difficulty falling asleep and staying asleep throughout the night. This category includes:

1. Insomnia disorder: A persistent difficulty in initiating or maintaining sleep, or early morning awakening, despite adequate opportunity and circumstances for sleep, which causes clinically significant distress or impairment.
2. Narcolepsy: A chronic neurological disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy (sudden loss of muscle tone triggered by strong emotions), hypnagogic hallucinations (vivid, dream-like experiences that occur while falling asleep) and sleep paralysis (temporary inability to move or speak while falling asleep or waking up).
3. Breathing-related sleep disorders: A group of disorders that involve abnormal breathing patterns during sleep, such as obstructive sleep apnea and central sleep apnea, which can lead to difficulty initiating and maintaining sleep.
4. Circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders: A group of disorders that involve a misalignment between the individual's internal circadian rhythm and the external environment, leading to difficulty falling asleep and staying asleep at desired times.
5. Parasomnias: A group of disorders that involve abnormal behaviors or experiences during sleep, such as sleepwalking, night terrors, and REM sleep behavior disorder, which can disrupt sleep initiation and maintenance.

These disorders can have significant impacts on an individual's quality of life, daytime functioning, and overall health, and should be evaluated and managed by a healthcare professional with expertise in sleep medicine.

Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) is a type of genetic variation that occurs when a single nucleotide (A, T, C, or G) in the DNA sequence is altered. This alteration must occur in at least 1% of the population to be considered a SNP. These variations can help explain why some people are more susceptible to certain diseases than others and can also influence how an individual responds to certain medications. SNPs can serve as biological markers, helping scientists locate genes that are associated with disease. They can also provide information about an individual's ancestry and ethnic background.

'Adult survivors of child abuse' is a term used to describe individuals who have experienced any form of abuse during their childhood, including physical, sexual, emotional, or neglect, and have reached adulthood. These individuals may face various ongoing challenges related to their past experiences, such as mental health issues, difficulties in forming relationships, trust issues, low self-esteem, and coping mechanisms that may impact their daily lives. They are often in need of support, therapy, and counseling to help them overcome the effects of their abuse and lead healthy, fulfilling lives.

'Learned helplessness' is a psychological concept, rather than a medical diagnosis. It was first introduced by psychologists Martin Seligman and Steven Maier in the 1960s. The term refers to a state in which an individual has learned to behave helplessly, believing they have no control over the situation or outcomes, even when opportunities for control are available.

In this state, the person may have previously experienced situations where their actions did not impact the outcome, leading them to believe that they are unable to change their circumstances. This passivity and lack of initiative can then become a persistent behavioral pattern, even in new situations where they actually could exert control and make a difference.

While 'learned helplessness' is not a medical diagnosis itself, it can contribute to the development of various mental health conditions such as depression and anxiety disorders. It is essential to recognize this state and seek professional help to address the underlying beliefs and patterns that maintain it.

Lithium carbonate is a medical inorganic salt that is commonly used as a medication, particularly in the treatment of bipolar disorder. It works by stabilizing mood and reducing the severity and frequency of manic episodes. Lithium carbonate is available in immediate-release and extended-release forms, and it is typically taken orally in the form of tablets or capsules.

The medical definition of lithium carbonate is: "A white, crystalline powder used as a mood-stabilizing drug, primarily in the treatment of bipolar disorder. It acts by reducing the availability of sodium and potassium ions within nerve cells, which alters the electrical activity of the brain and helps to regulate mood. Lithium carbonate is also used in the treatment of cluster headaches and to reduce aggression in patients with behavioral disorders."

It's important to note that lithium carbonate requires careful medical supervision due to its narrow therapeutic index, meaning there is a small range between an effective dose and a toxic one. Regular monitoring of blood levels is necessary to ensure safe and effective treatment.

Computer-assisted image processing is a medical term that refers to the use of computer systems and specialized software to improve, analyze, and interpret medical images obtained through various imaging techniques such as X-ray, CT (computed tomography), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), ultrasound, and others.

The process typically involves several steps, including image acquisition, enhancement, segmentation, restoration, and analysis. Image processing algorithms can be used to enhance the quality of medical images by adjusting contrast, brightness, and sharpness, as well as removing noise and artifacts that may interfere with accurate diagnosis. Segmentation techniques can be used to isolate specific regions or structures of interest within an image, allowing for more detailed analysis.

Computer-assisted image processing has numerous applications in medical imaging, including detection and characterization of lesions, tumors, and other abnormalities; assessment of organ function and morphology; and guidance of interventional procedures such as biopsies and surgeries. By automating and standardizing image analysis tasks, computer-assisted image processing can help to improve diagnostic accuracy, efficiency, and consistency, while reducing the potential for human error.

In the context of medicine and psychology, "temperament" refers to a person's natural disposition or character, which is often thought to be inherited and relatively stable throughout their life. It is the foundation on which personality develops, and it influences how individuals react to their environment, handle emotions, and approach various situations.

Temperament is composed of several traits, including:

1. Activity level: The degree of physical and mental energy a person exhibits.
2. Emotional intensity: The depth or strength of emotional responses.
3. Regularity: The consistency in biological functions like sleep, hunger, and elimination.
4. Approach/withdrawal: The tendency to approach or avoid new situations or people.
5. Adaptability: The ease with which a person adapts to changes in their environment.
6. Mood: The general emotional tone or baseline mood of an individual.
7. Persistence: The ability to maintain focus and effort on a task despite challenges or distractions.
8. Distractibility: The susceptibility to being diverted from a task by external stimuli.
9. Sensitivity: The degree of responsiveness to sensory input, such as touch, taste, sound, and light.
10. Attention span: The length of time a person can concentrate on a single task or activity.

These traits combine to create an individual's unique temperamental profile, which can influence their mental and physical health, social relationships, and overall well-being. Understanding temperament can help healthcare professionals tailor interventions and treatments to meet the specific needs of each patient.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "thinking" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a cognitive process, which is a general term used to describe various mental activities related to perception, reasoning, memory, attention, language use, learning, and problem-solving. These processes are studied across many fields, including psychology, neuroscience, philosophy, and linguistics.

If you're looking for medical definitions of cognitive processes or conditions that affect cognition, I'd be happy to help! Please provide more details.

A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a type of clinical study in which participants are randomly assigned to receive either the experimental intervention or the control condition, which may be a standard of care, placebo, or no treatment. The goal of an RCT is to minimize bias and ensure that the results are due to the intervention being tested rather than other factors. This design allows for a comparison between the two groups to determine if there is a significant difference in outcomes. RCTs are often considered the gold standard for evaluating the safety and efficacy of medical interventions, as they provide a high level of evidence for causal relationships between the intervention and health outcomes.

Interpersonal relations, in the context of medicine and healthcare, refer to the interactions and relationships between patients and healthcare professionals, as well as among healthcare professionals themselves. These relationships are crucial in the delivery of care and can significantly impact patient outcomes. Positive interpersonal relations can lead to improved communication, increased trust, greater patient satisfaction, and better adherence to treatment plans. On the other hand, negative or strained interpersonal relations can result in poor communication, mistrust, dissatisfaction, and non-adherence.

Healthcare professionals are trained to develop effective interpersonal skills, including active listening, empathy, respect, and cultural sensitivity, to build positive relationships with their patients. Effective interpersonal relations also involve clear and concise communication, setting appropriate boundaries, and managing conflicts in a constructive manner. In addition, positive interpersonal relations among healthcare professionals can promote collaboration, teamwork, and knowledge sharing, leading to improved patient care and safety.

Compulsive Personality Disorder (CPD) is a mental health condition characterized by an obsessive need for order, control, and perfection, which can interfere with the individual's ability to function in daily life. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5), classifies CPD as a type of personality disorder.

The following are some of the diagnostic criteria for Compulsive Personality Disorder:

1. Rigid adherence to rules, regulations, and schedules.
2. Overconscientiousness, preoccupation with details, and perfectionism that interferes with task completion.
3. Excessive devotion to work and productivity at the expense of leisure activities and friendships.
4. Unwillingness to delegate tasks or to work with others unless they submit to exactly the individual's way of doing things.
5. Rigidity and stubbornness.
6. Inability to discard worn-out or worthless objects even when they have no sentimental value.
7. Reluctance to take vacations or engage in leisure activities due to a fear of something unexpected happening that would disrupt the individual's routine.
8. Overly restrained and inhibited in expressing emotions and affection towards others.

Individuals with CPD may experience significant distress and impairment in social, occupational, and other areas of functioning due to their rigid and inflexible behavior. Treatment typically involves psychotherapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), which can help individuals learn more adaptive ways of thinking and behaving. In some cases, medication may also be recommended to manage symptoms of anxiety or depression that often co-occur with CPD.

Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a medical treatment that involves the use of a device to send electrical signals to the vagus nerve, which is a key part of the body's autonomic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system controls various automatic functions of the body, such as heart rate and digestion.

In VNS, a small generator is implanted in the chest, and thin wires are routed under the skin to the vagus nerve in the neck. The generator is programmed to send electrical signals to the vagus nerve at regular intervals. These signals can help regulate certain body functions and have been found to be effective in treating a number of conditions, including epilepsy and depression.

The exact mechanism by which VNS works is not fully understood, but it is thought to affect the release of neurotransmitters, chemicals that transmit signals in the brain. This can help reduce seizure activity in people with epilepsy and improve mood and other symptoms in people with depression.

VNS is typically used as a last resort for people who have not responded to other treatments. It is generally considered safe, but like any medical procedure, it does carry some risks, such as infection, bleeding, and damage to the vagus nerve or surrounding tissues.

A "self-report" in a medical context refers to the information or data provided by an individual about their own symptoms, experiences, behaviors, or health status. This can be collected through various methods such as questionnaires, surveys, interviews, or diaries. Self-reports are commonly used in research and clinical settings to assess various aspects of health, including physical and mental health symptoms, quality of life, treatment adherence, and substance use.

While self-reports can be a valuable source of information, they may also be subject to biases such as recall bias, social desirability bias, or response distortion. Therefore, it is important to consider the potential limitations and validity of self-reported data in interpreting the results. In some cases, self-reports may be supplemented with other sources of information, such as medical records, physiological measures, or observer ratings.

Statistics, as a topic in the context of medicine and healthcare, refers to the scientific discipline that involves the collection, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of numerical data or quantifiable data in a meaningful and organized manner. It employs mathematical theories and models to draw conclusions, make predictions, and support evidence-based decision-making in various areas of medical research and practice.

Some key concepts and methods in medical statistics include:

1. Descriptive Statistics: Summarizing and visualizing data through measures of central tendency (mean, median, mode) and dispersion (range, variance, standard deviation).
2. Inferential Statistics: Drawing conclusions about a population based on a sample using hypothesis testing, confidence intervals, and statistical modeling.
3. Probability Theory: Quantifying the likelihood of events or outcomes in medical scenarios, such as diagnostic tests' sensitivity and specificity.
4. Study Designs: Planning and implementing various research study designs, including randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cohort studies, case-control studies, and cross-sectional surveys.
5. Sampling Methods: Selecting a representative sample from a population to ensure the validity and generalizability of research findings.
6. Multivariate Analysis: Examining the relationships between multiple variables simultaneously using techniques like regression analysis, factor analysis, or cluster analysis.
7. Survival Analysis: Analyzing time-to-event data, such as survival rates in clinical trials or disease progression.
8. Meta-Analysis: Systematically synthesizing and summarizing the results of multiple studies to provide a comprehensive understanding of a research question.
9. Biostatistics: A subfield of statistics that focuses on applying statistical methods to biological data, including medical research.
10. Epidemiology: The study of disease patterns in populations, which often relies on statistical methods for data analysis and interpretation.

Medical statistics is essential for evidence-based medicine, clinical decision-making, public health policy, and healthcare management. It helps researchers and practitioners evaluate the effectiveness and safety of medical interventions, assess risk factors and outcomes associated with diseases or treatments, and monitor trends in population health.

I couldn't find a medical definition specifically for "delayed-action preparations." However, in the context of pharmacology, it may refer to medications or treatments that have a delayed onset of action. These are designed to release the active drug slowly over an extended period, which can help to maintain a consistent level of the medication in the body and reduce the frequency of dosing.

Examples of delayed-action preparations include:

1. Extended-release (ER) or controlled-release (CR) formulations: These are designed to release the drug slowly over several hours, reducing the need for frequent dosing. Examples include extended-release tablets and capsules.
2. Transdermal patches: These deliver medication through the skin and can provide a steady rate of drug delivery over several days. Examples include nicotine patches for smoking cessation or fentanyl patches for pain management.
3. Injectable depots: These are long-acting injectable formulations that slowly release the drug into the body over weeks to months. An example is the use of long-acting antipsychotic injections for the treatment of schizophrenia.
4. Implantable devices: These are small, biocompatible devices placed under the skin or within a body cavity that release a steady dose of medication over an extended period. Examples include hormonal implants for birth control or drug-eluting stents used in cardiovascular procedures.

Delayed-action preparations can improve patient compliance and quality of life by reducing dosing frequency, minimizing side effects, and maintaining consistent therapeutic levels.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

Mental health is a state of well-being in which an individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community. It involves the emotional, psychological, and social aspects of an individual's health. Mental health is not just the absence of mental illness, it also includes positive characteristics such as resilience, happiness, and having a sense of purpose in life.

It is important to note that mental health can change over time, and it is possible for an individual to experience periods of good mental health as well as periods of poor mental health. Factors such as genetics, trauma, stress, and physical illness can all contribute to the development of mental health problems. Additionally, cultural and societal factors, such as discrimination and poverty, can also impact an individual's mental health.

Mental Health professionals like psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers and other mental health counselors use different tools and techniques to evaluate, diagnose and treat mental health conditions. These include therapy or counseling, medication, and self-help strategies.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "pilot projects" is not a medical term per se. Instead, it is a general term used in various fields, including healthcare and medicine, to describe a small-scale initiative that is implemented on a temporary basis to evaluate its feasibility, effectiveness, or impact before deciding whether to expand or continue it.

In the context of healthcare, pilot projects might involve testing new treatment protocols, implementing innovative care models, or introducing technology solutions in a limited setting to assess their potential benefits and drawbacks. The results of these projects can help inform decisions about broader implementation and provide valuable insights for improving the quality and efficiency of healthcare services.

Psychological tests are standardized procedures or measures used to assess various aspects of an individual's cognitive functioning, personality traits, emotional status, and behavior. These tests are designed to be reliable and valid tools for evaluating specific psychological constructs such as intelligence, memory, attention, achievement, aptitude, interests, and values. They can be in the form of questionnaires, interviews, observational scales, or performance-based tasks. The results obtained from these tests help mental health professionals make informed decisions about diagnosis, treatment planning, and educational or vocational guidance for their clients. It is important to note that psychological tests should only be administered, scored, and interpreted by trained and qualified professionals to ensure accurate and meaningful results.

Regression analysis is a statistical technique used in medicine, as well as in other fields, to examine the relationship between one or more independent variables (predictors) and a dependent variable (outcome). It allows for the estimation of the average change in the outcome variable associated with a one-unit change in an independent variable, while controlling for the effects of other independent variables. This technique is often used to identify risk factors for diseases or to evaluate the effectiveness of medical interventions. In medical research, regression analysis can be used to adjust for potential confounding variables and to quantify the relationship between exposures and health outcomes. It can also be used in predictive modeling to estimate the probability of a particular outcome based on multiple predictors.

Electroencephalography (EEG) is a medical procedure that records electrical activity in the brain. It uses small, metal discs called electrodes, which are attached to the scalp with paste or a specialized cap. These electrodes detect tiny electrical charges that result from the activity of brain cells, and the EEG machine then amplifies and records these signals.

EEG is used to diagnose various conditions related to the brain, such as seizures, sleep disorders, head injuries, infections, and degenerative diseases like Alzheimer's or Parkinson's. It can also be used during surgery to monitor brain activity and ensure that surgical procedures do not interfere with vital functions.

EEG is a safe and non-invasive procedure that typically takes about 30 minutes to an hour to complete, although longer recordings may be necessary in some cases. Patients are usually asked to relax and remain still during the test, as movement can affect the quality of the recording.

Neurobiology is not strictly a medical term, but rather a field of study that investigates the interconnections between the nervous system and living organisms' biological processes. It is a multidisciplinary area that combines neuroscience, biology, chemistry, and physics to understand how the brain and nervous system function at molecular, cellular, and systems levels.

In medical contexts, neurobiological concepts are often applied to understand the underlying mechanisms of various neurological and psychiatric disorders, develop diagnostic tools, and design treatment strategies. For instance, research in neurobiology may explore how genetic factors contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders like autism or how molecular changes in the brain lead to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's.

In summary, neurobiology is a scientific discipline concerned with understanding the biological basis of nervous system function, which has significant implications for medical research and practice.

Lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) are a group of diseases characterized by the excessive proliferation of lymphoid cells, which are crucial components of the immune system. These disorders can arise from both B-cells and T-cells, leading to various clinical manifestations ranging from benign to malignant conditions.

LPDs can be broadly classified into reactive and neoplastic categories:

1. Reactive Lymphoproliferative Disorders: These are typically triggered by infections, autoimmune diseases, or immunodeficiency states. They involve an exaggerated response of the immune system leading to the excessive proliferation of lymphoid cells. Examples include:
* Infectious mononucleosis (IM) caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)
* Lymph node enlargement due to various infections or autoimmune disorders
* Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), which occurs in the context of immunosuppression following organ transplantation
2. Neoplastic Lymphoproliferative Disorders: These are malignant conditions characterized by uncontrolled growth and accumulation of abnormal lymphoid cells, leading to the formation of tumors. They can be further classified into Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Examples include:
* Hodgkin lymphoma (HL): Classical HL and nodular lymphocyte-predominant HL
* Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL): Various subtypes, such as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, and Burkitt lymphoma

It is important to note that the distinction between reactive and neoplastic LPDs can sometimes be challenging, requiring careful clinical, histopathological, immunophenotypic, and molecular evaluations. Proper diagnosis and classification of LPDs are crucial for determining appropriate treatment strategies and predicting patient outcomes.

Medical mass screening, also known as population screening, is a public health service that aims to identify and detect asymptomatic individuals in a given population who have or are at risk of a specific disease. The goal is to provide early treatment, reduce morbidity and mortality, and prevent the spread of diseases within the community.

A mass screening program typically involves offering a simple, quick, and non-invasive test to a large number of people in a defined population, regardless of their risk factors or symptoms. Those who test positive are then referred for further diagnostic tests and appropriate medical interventions. Examples of mass screening programs include mammography for breast cancer detection, PSA (prostate-specific antigen) testing for prostate cancer, and fecal occult blood testing for colorectal cancer.

It is important to note that mass screening programs should be evidence-based, cost-effective, and ethically sound, with clear benefits outweighing potential harms. They should also consider factors such as the prevalence of the disease in the population, the accuracy and reliability of the screening test, and the availability and effectiveness of treatment options.

**Ketamine** is a dissociative anesthetic medication primarily used for starting and maintaining anesthesia. It can lead to a state of altered perception, hallucinations, sedation, and memory loss. Ketamine is also used as a pain reliever in patients with chronic pain conditions and during certain medical procedures due to its strong analgesic properties.

It is available as a generic drug and is also sold under various brand names, such as Ketalar, Ketanest, and Ketamine HCl. It can be administered intravenously, intramuscularly, orally, or as a nasal spray.

In addition to its medical uses, ketamine has been increasingly used off-label for the treatment of mood disorders like depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), owing to its rapid antidepressant effects. However, more research is needed to fully understand its long-term benefits and risks in these applications.

It's important to note that ketamine can be abused recreationally due to its dissociative and hallucinogenic effects, which may lead to addiction and severe psychological distress. Therefore, it should only be used under the supervision of a medical professional.

Adrenergic uptake inhibitors are a class of medications that work by blocking the reuptake of neurotransmitters, such as norepinephrine and dopamine, into the presynaptic neuron. This results in an increase in the amount of neurotransmitter available to bind to postsynaptic receptors, leading to an enhancement of adrenergic transmission.

These medications are used in the treatment of various medical conditions, including depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and narcolepsy. Some examples of adrenergic uptake inhibitors include:

* Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs): These medications, such as imipramine and amitriptyline, were developed in the 1950s and are used to treat depression, anxiety disorders, and chronic pain.
* Selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs): These medications, such as venlafaxine and duloxetine, were developed in the 1990s and are used to treat depression, anxiety disorders, and chronic pain.
* Norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors (NDRIs): These medications, such as bupropion, are used to treat depression and ADHD.

It's important to note that these medications can have side effects and should be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider.

Psychological resilience refers to the ability of an individual to adapt and cope effectively in the face of adversity, trauma, tragedy, or significant sources of stress. It is the capacity to "bounce back" from difficulties, maintain psychological well-being, and continue to function positively despite experiencing challenging life events. Psychological resilience involves various factors such as cognitive flexibility, problem-solving skills, positive self-esteem, adaptive coping strategies, and strong social support networks. It is not a fixed trait but can be developed and strengthened through personal growth, learning experiences, and supportive environments.

Cerebral dominance is a concept in neuropsychology that refers to the specialization of one hemisphere of the brain over the other for certain cognitive functions. In most people, the left hemisphere is dominant for language functions such as speaking and understanding spoken or written language, while the right hemisphere is dominant for non-verbal functions such as spatial ability, face recognition, and artistic ability.

Cerebral dominance does not mean that the non-dominant hemisphere is incapable of performing the functions of the dominant hemisphere, but rather that it is less efficient or specialized in those areas. The concept of cerebral dominance has been used to explain individual differences in cognitive abilities and learning styles, as well as the laterality of brain damage and its effects on cognition and behavior.

It's important to note that cerebral dominance is a complex phenomenon that can vary between individuals and can be influenced by various factors such as genetics, environment, and experience. Additionally, recent research has challenged the strict lateralization of functions and suggested that there is more functional overlap and interaction between the two hemispheres than previously thought.

Positron-Emission Tomography (PET) is a type of nuclear medicine imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material, called a radiotracer, to produce detailed, three-dimensional images. This technique measures metabolic activity within the body, such as sugar metabolism, to help distinguish between healthy and diseased tissue, identify cancerous cells, or examine the function of organs.

During a PET scan, the patient is injected with a radiotracer, typically a sugar-based compound labeled with a positron-emitting radioisotope, such as fluorine-18 (^18^F). The radiotracer accumulates in cells that are metabolically active, like cancer cells. As the radiotracer decays, it emits positrons, which then collide with electrons in nearby tissue, producing gamma rays. A special camera, called a PET scanner, detects these gamma rays and uses this information to create detailed images of the body's internal structures and processes.

PET is often used in conjunction with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to provide both functional and anatomical information, allowing for more accurate diagnosis and treatment planning. Common applications include detecting cancer recurrence, staging and monitoring cancer, evaluating heart function, and assessing brain function in conditions like dementia and epilepsy.

"Cost of Illness" is a medical-economic concept that refers to the total societal cost associated with a specific disease or health condition. It includes both direct and indirect costs. Direct costs are those that can be directly attributed to the illness, such as medical expenses for diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation, and medications. Indirect costs include productivity losses due to morbidity (reduced efficiency while working) and mortality (lost earnings due to death). Other indirect costs may encompass expenses related to caregiving or special education needs. The Cost of Illness is often used in health policy decision-making, resource allocation, and evaluating the economic impact of diseases on society.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "sociology" is not a term that has a medical definition. Sociology is a social science that focuses on the study of human behavior and interactions in society, including the development, structure, and functioning of human societies. It is distinct from medical disciplines which focus on the diagnosis and treatment of health conditions.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Croatia" is not a medical term or condition. It is a country located in Central and Southeastern Europe. If you have any questions about Croatian healthcare or medical practices, I would be happy to try to help answer those for you.

"Twin studies" is a type of research design used in medical and scientific research, particularly in the field of genetics. This method involves comparing similarities and differences between monozygotic (identical) twins and dizygotic (fraternal) twins to estimate the heritability of certain traits or conditions.

Monozygotic twins share 100% of their genetic material, while dizygotic twins share only about 50%, similar to non-twin siblings. By comparing the concordance rates (the likelihood that both twins in a pair will have the same trait or condition) between monozygotic and dizygotic twins, researchers can estimate the proportion of variation in a trait that is due to genetic factors (heritability).

Twin studies can provide valuable insights into the genetic and environmental contributions to various traits and conditions, including physical characteristics, cognitive abilities, personality traits, and susceptibility to diseases. However, it's important to note that twin studies have limitations, such as the potential for environmental influences to be confounded with genetic factors, and the assumption that monozygotic twins share all of their genetic material, which is not always the case due to rare genetic events like mutations during development.

Group psychotherapy is a form of psychotherapy in which a trained therapist treats a small group of individuals together as a group. The therapy focuses on interpersonal relationships and social interactions among the members of the group. The group becomes a social microcosm for each individual, allowing them to understand and work through their issues in relation to others.

The size of the group typically ranges from 5-12 members, and meetings can be held in various settings such as hospitals, community mental health centers, or private practice offices. The duration of the therapy can vary, ranging from brief, time-limited groups that meet for several weeks to longer-term groups that meet for several months or even years.

Group psychotherapy can be used to treat a wide range of psychological issues, including depression, anxiety, personality disorders, trauma, and relational difficulties. The therapist facilitates the group process by creating a safe and supportive environment where members can share their thoughts, feelings, and experiences with one another. Through this process, members can gain insights into their own behavior, develop new social skills, and improve their relationships with others.

I'm happy to help, but it seems there might be some confusion in your question. "Interviews" is a broad topic that isn't typically a medical term or subject. However, interviews can certainly be a part of medical settings and procedures, such as job interviews for healthcare positions, patient interviews during medical consultations, or research interviews in clinical studies.

In the context of medical education, an interview might refer to the process by which medical schools evaluate applicants for admission, known as the medical school interview. This is a critical component of the application process and typically involves one-on-one conversations between the applicant and an admissions committee member or a series of multiple mini-interviews (MMIs) with various evaluators.

If you could provide more context or clarify what you mean by "Interviews as Topic" in a medical setting, I'd be happy to help further!

Cognition refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring, processing, and utilizing information. These processes include perception, attention, memory, language, problem-solving, and decision-making. Cognitive functions allow us to interact with our environment, understand and respond to stimuli, learn new skills, and remember experiences.

In a medical context, cognitive function is often assessed as part of a neurological or psychiatric evaluation. Impairments in cognition can be caused by various factors, such as brain injury, neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's disease), infections, toxins, and mental health conditions. Assessing cognitive function helps healthcare professionals diagnose conditions, monitor disease progression, and develop treatment plans.

In the context of medicine and psychology, personality is a complex concept that refers to the unique patterns of thoughts, behaviors, and emotions that define an individual and differentiate them from others. It is the set of characteristics that influence how we perceive the world, how we relate to other people, and how we cope with stress and challenges.

Personality is thought to be relatively stable over time, although it can also evolve and change in response to life experiences and maturation. It is shaped by a combination of genetic factors, environmental influences, and developmental experiences.

There are many different theories and models of personality, including the Five Factor Model (FFM), which identifies five broad domains of personality: openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. Other approaches to understanding personality include psychoanalytic theory, humanistic psychology, and trait theory.

It's important to note that while the term "personality" is often used in everyday language to describe someone's behavior or demeanor, in medical and psychological contexts it refers to a more complex and multifaceted construct.

Movement disorders are a group of neurological conditions that affect the control and coordination of voluntary movements. These disorders can result from damage to or dysfunction of the cerebellum, basal ganglia, or other parts of the brain that regulate movement. Symptoms may include tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia (slowness of movement), akathisia (restlessness and inability to remain still), dystonia (sustained muscle contractions leading to abnormal postures), chorea (rapid, unpredictable movements), tics, and gait disturbances. Examples of movement disorders include Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Tourette syndrome, and dystonic disorders.

The Predictive Value of Tests, specifically the Positive Predictive Value (PPV) and Negative Predictive Value (NPV), are measures used in diagnostic tests to determine the probability that a positive or negative test result is correct.

Positive Predictive Value (PPV) is the proportion of patients with a positive test result who actually have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true positives divided by the total number of positive results (true positives + false positives). A higher PPV indicates that a positive test result is more likely to be a true positive, and therefore the disease is more likely to be present.

Negative Predictive Value (NPV) is the proportion of patients with a negative test result who do not have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true negatives divided by the total number of negative results (true negatives + false negatives). A higher NPV indicates that a negative test result is more likely to be a true negative, and therefore the disease is less likely to be present.

The predictive value of tests depends on the prevalence of the disease in the population being tested, as well as the sensitivity and specificity of the test. A test with high sensitivity and specificity will generally have higher predictive values than a test with low sensitivity and specificity. However, even a highly sensitive and specific test can have low predictive values if the prevalence of the disease is low in the population being tested.

Drug-induced akathisia is a type of movement disorder that is a side effect of certain medications. The term "akathisia" comes from the Greek words "a-," meaning "without," and "kathisia," meaning "sitting." It is characterized by a subjective feeling of restlessness and an uncontrollable urge to be in constant motion, accompanied by objective motor symptoms such as fidgeting, rocking, or pacing.

Drug-induced akathisia is most commonly associated with the use of antipsychotic medications, particularly those that block dopamine receptors in the brain. Other drugs that have been linked to akathisia include certain antidepressants, anti-nausea medications, and some beta blockers used to treat heart conditions.

The symptoms of drug-induced akathisia can range from mild to severe and may include:

* A subjective feeling of inner restlessness or anxiety
* An uncontrollable urge to move, such as fidgeting, rocking, or pacing
* Difficulty sitting still or lying down
* Agitation and irritability
* Sleep disturbances
* Depression or dysphoria
* Suicidal thoughts or behaviors (in severe cases)

The symptoms of drug-induced akathisia can be distressing and may contribute to noncompliance with medication treatment. In some cases, the symptoms may resolve on their own after a period of time, but in other cases, they may persist or worsen, requiring a change in medication or the addition of other medications to manage the symptoms. It is important for individuals who are taking medications that have been associated with akathisia to report any new or worsening symptoms to their healthcare provider as soon as possible.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "pleasure" is not typically defined in medical terms. It is more commonly understood in psychological or philosophical contexts. Pleasure is often described as a positive emotional response associated with satisfying needs and desires, or enjoying certain experiences. However, in a medical context, the term might be used to describe the positive feelings some people may associate with certain health-related behaviors or experiences. For example, a person might derive pleasure from engaging in regular exercise, which can have positive effects on their physical and mental health.

I believe there may be a misunderstanding in your question. "Mothers" is a term that refers to individuals who have given birth to and raised children. It is not a medical term with a specific definition. If you are referring to a different word or term, please clarify so I can provide a more accurate response.

A "social environment" is not a term that has a specific medical definition, but it is often used in the context of public health and social sciences to refer to the physical and social conditions, relationships, and organized institutions that influence the health and well-being of individuals and communities.

The social environment includes factors such as:

* Social support networks (family, friends, community)
* Cultural norms and values
* Socioeconomic status (income, education, occupation)
* Housing and neighborhood conditions
* Access to resources (food, healthcare, transportation)
* Exposure to discrimination, violence, and other stressors

These factors can have a significant impact on health outcomes, as they can influence behaviors related to health (such as diet, exercise, and substance use), as well as exposure to disease and access to healthcare. Understanding the social environment is essential for developing effective public health interventions and policies that promote health equity and reduce health disparities.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Functional laterality, in a medical context, refers to the preferential use or performance of one side of the body over the other for specific functions. This is often demonstrated in hand dominance, where an individual may be right-handed or left-handed, meaning they primarily use their right or left hand for tasks such as writing, eating, or throwing.

However, functional laterality can also apply to other bodily functions and structures, including the eyes (ocular dominance), ears (auditory dominance), or legs. It's important to note that functional laterality is not a strict binary concept; some individuals may exhibit mixed dominance or no strong preference for one side over the other.

In clinical settings, assessing functional laterality can be useful in diagnosing and treating various neurological conditions, such as stroke or traumatic brain injury, where understanding any resulting lateralized impairments can inform rehabilitation strategies.

Expressed Emotion (EE) is a term used in the field of psychiatry and psychology to describe the level of criticism, hostility, and emotional over-involvement expressed by family members or close relatives towards an individual with a mental illness. It is measured through a standardized interview called the Camberwell Family Interview (CFI). High levels of EE have been found to be associated with poorer outcomes in individuals with mental illness, particularly those with severe and persistent conditions such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

Neuroimaging is a medical term that refers to the use of various techniques to either directly or indirectly image the structure, function, or pharmacology of the nervous system. It includes techniques such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), functional MRI (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). These techniques are used to diagnose and monitor various neurological and psychiatric conditions, as well as to understand the underlying mechanisms of brain function in health and disease.

I could not find a specific medical definition for "Mother-Child Relations," as it is more commonly studied in fields such as psychology, sociology, and social work. However, I can provide you with some related medical or psychological terms that might help you understand the concept better:

1. Attachment Theory: Developed by John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth, attachment theory describes the emotional bond between an infant and their primary caregiver (usually the mother). Secure attachment is crucial for healthy emotional and social development in children.
2. Mother-Infant Interaction: This refers to the reciprocal communication and interaction between a mother and her infant, which includes verbal and non-verbal cues, such as facial expressions, gestures, touch, and vocalizations. Positive and responsive interactions contribute to healthy emotional development and secure attachment.
3. Parent-Child Relationship: A broader term that encompasses the emotional bond, communication patterns, and behaviors between a parent (in this case, the mother) and their child. This relationship significantly influences a child's cognitive, social, and emotional development.
4. Maternal Depression: A mental health condition in which a mother experiences depressive symptoms, such as sadness, hopelessness, or loss of interest in activities, after giving birth (postpartum depression) or at any point during the first year after childbirth (major depressive disorder with peripartum onset). Maternal depression can negatively impact mother-child relations and a child's development.
5. Parenting Styles: Different approaches to raising children, characterized by the degree of demandingness and responsiveness. Four main parenting styles include authoritative (high demandingness, high responsiveness), authoritarian (high demandingness, low responsiveness), permissive (low demandingness, high responsiveness), and neglectful/uninvolved (low demandingness, low responsiveness). These styles can influence mother-child relations and child development.

While not a direct medical definition, these terms highlight the significance of mother-child relations in various aspects of child development and mental health.

Separation anxiety is a condition in which an individual experiences excessive and disproportionate fear or distress when separated from a person or place that they are attached to. This condition is commonly diagnosed in children, but it can also affect adults. The anxiety experienced during separation may manifest as excessive worrying, crying, clinginess, panic attacks, or physical symptoms such as nausea, headaches, or rapid heartbeat. In order for a diagnosis of separation anxiety disorder to be made, the symptoms must cause significant distress and impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning.

A placebo is a substance or treatment that has no inherent therapeutic effect. It is often used in clinical trials as a control against which the effects of a new drug or therapy can be compared. Placebos are typically made to resemble the active treatment, such as a sugar pill for a medication trial, so that participants cannot tell the difference between what they are receiving and the actual treatment.

The placebo effect refers to the phenomenon where patients experience real improvements in their symptoms or conditions even when given a placebo. This may be due to psychological factors such as belief in the effectiveness of the treatment, suggestion, or conditioning. The placebo effect is often used as a comparison group in clinical trials to help determine if the active treatment has a greater effect than no treatment at all.

Demography is the statistical study of populations, particularly in terms of size, distribution, and characteristics such as age, race, gender, and occupation. In medical contexts, demography is often used to analyze health-related data and trends within specific populations. This can include studying the prevalence of certain diseases or conditions, identifying disparities in healthcare access and outcomes, and evaluating the effectiveness of public health interventions. Demographic data can also be used to inform policy decisions and allocate resources to address population health needs.

Speech disorders refer to a group of conditions in which a person has difficulty producing or articulating sounds, words, or sentences in a way that is understandable to others. These disorders can be caused by various factors such as developmental delays, neurological conditions, hearing loss, structural abnormalities, or emotional issues.

Speech disorders may include difficulties with:

* Articulation: the ability to produce sounds correctly and clearly.
* Phonology: the sound system of language, including the rules that govern how sounds are combined and used in words.
* Fluency: the smoothness and flow of speech, including issues such as stuttering or cluttering.
* Voice: the quality, pitch, and volume of the spoken voice.
* Resonance: the way sound is produced and carried through the vocal tract, which can affect the clarity and quality of speech.

Speech disorders can impact a person's ability to communicate effectively, leading to difficulties in social situations, academic performance, and even employment opportunities. Speech-language pathologists are trained to evaluate and treat speech disorders using various evidence-based techniques and interventions.

Nervous system diseases, also known as neurological disorders, refer to a group of conditions that affect the nervous system, which includes the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and muscles. These diseases can affect various functions of the body, such as movement, sensation, cognition, and behavior. They can be caused by genetics, infections, injuries, degeneration, or tumors. Examples of nervous system diseases include Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, migraine, stroke, and neuroinfections like meningitis and encephalitis. The symptoms and severity of these disorders can vary widely, ranging from mild to severe and debilitating.

Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) is not specifically defined in the latest edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DS-5), which is used by mental health professionals to diagnose mental conditions. However, it is classified as a recurrent major depressive disorder with a seasonal pattern.

According to the DSM-5, a seasonal pattern is defined as: "There has been a regular temporal relationship between the onset of major depressive episodes in major depressive disorder and a particular time of the year (e.g., always starts in fall or winter)." This means that someone with SAD experiences depressive symptoms during specific seasons, most commonly in late fall or winter, but in some cases, also in spring or summer.

The symptoms of SAD may include:

* Feeling depressed most of the day, nearly every day
* Losing interest in activities you once enjoyed
* Having low energy
* Having problems sleeping
* Experiencing changes in appetite or weight
* Feeling sluggish or agitated
* Having difficulty concentrating
* Feeling hopeless, worthless or guilty
* Having thoughts of death or suicide

These symptoms must be more severe than just feeling "blue" or having a bad day. They also must cause significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. Additionally, the symptoms must not be due to substance use or another medical condition.

I am not a medical doctor, but I can provide you with some information on this topic. Self-concept is more commonly discussed in psychology than in medicine, but it still has relevance to understanding individual experiences and behaviors in health and illness.

Self-concept refers to an individual's perception, beliefs, and attitudes about themselves, encompassing various dimensions such as:

1. Physical self (how one perceives their physical appearance, abilities, and health)
2. Social self (how one perceives their relationships with others, social roles, and status)
3. Psychological or personal self (how one perceives their personality traits, values, and beliefs)

Self-concept can influence how people view their own health, cope with illness, and engage in health behaviors. For example, a positive self-concept may contribute to better adherence to treatment plans and healthier lifestyle choices, while negative self-concepts might lead to poorer health outcomes due to decreased motivation or self-efficacy.

Understanding an individual's self-concept can help healthcare professionals tailor their communication style, recommendations, and interventions to better meet the patient's needs and preferences.

Monoamine oxidase (MAO) is an enzyme found on the outer membrane of mitochondria in cells throughout the body, but primarily in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, and central nervous system. It plays a crucial role in the metabolism of neurotransmitters and dietary amines by catalyzing the oxidative deamination of monoamines. This enzyme exists in two forms: MAO-A and MAO-B, each with distinct substrate preferences and tissue distributions.

MAO-A preferentially metabolizes serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine, while MAO-B is mainly responsible for breaking down phenethylamines and benzylamines, as well as dopamine in some cases. Inhibition of these enzymes can lead to increased neurotransmitter levels in the synaptic cleft, which has implications for various psychiatric and neurological conditions, such as depression and Parkinson's disease. However, MAO inhibitors must be used with caution due to their potential to cause serious adverse effects, including hypertensive crises, when combined with certain foods or medications containing dietary amines or sympathomimetic agents.

Gene-Environment Interaction (GEI) is a concept in genetics that refers to the way in which genetic variations and environmental factors interact to influence traits or disease susceptibility. It describes a situation where the effect of an environmental exposure on a particular trait or disease outcome is dependent on the genetic makeup of the individual, and vice versa.

In other words, GEI suggests that the impact of environmental factors on health outcomes may be different depending on a person's genetic background, and similarly, the influence of certain genes on health outcomes may depend on the presence or absence of specific environmental exposures. This interaction can help explain why some individuals are more susceptible to certain diseases or traits than others, even when exposed to similar environments.

GEI is an important concept in precision medicine, as understanding these interactions can help identify individuals who are at higher risk for certain diseases and develop targeted prevention and treatment strategies based on their genetic and environmental profiles.

Pregnancy complications refer to any health problems that arise during pregnancy which can put both the mother and the baby at risk. These complications may occur at any point during the pregnancy, from conception until childbirth. Some common pregnancy complications include:

1. Gestational diabetes: a type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy in women who did not have diabetes before becoming pregnant.
2. Preeclampsia: a pregnancy complication characterized by high blood pressure and damage to organs such as the liver or kidneys.
3. Placenta previa: a condition where the placenta covers the cervix, which can cause bleeding and may require delivery via cesarean section.
4. Preterm labor: when labor begins before 37 weeks of gestation, which can lead to premature birth and other complications.
5. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR): a condition where the fetus does not grow at a normal rate inside the womb.
6. Multiple pregnancies: carrying more than one baby, such as twins or triplets, which can increase the risk of premature labor and other complications.
7. Rh incompatibility: a condition where the mother's blood type is different from the baby's, which can cause anemia and jaundice in the newborn.
8. Pregnancy loss: including miscarriage, stillbirth, or ectopic pregnancy, which can be emotionally devastating for the parents.

It is important to monitor pregnancy closely and seek medical attention promptly if any concerning symptoms arise. With proper care and management, many pregnancy complications can be treated effectively, reducing the risk of harm to both the mother and the baby.

A syndrome, in medical terms, is a set of symptoms that collectively indicate or characterize a disease, disorder, or underlying pathological process. It's essentially a collection of signs and/or symptoms that frequently occur together and can suggest a particular cause or condition, even though the exact physiological mechanisms might not be fully understood.

For example, Down syndrome is characterized by specific physical features, cognitive delays, and other developmental issues resulting from an extra copy of chromosome 21. Similarly, metabolic syndromes like diabetes mellitus type 2 involve a group of risk factors such as obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels that collectively increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes.

It's important to note that a syndrome is not a specific diagnosis; rather, it's a pattern of symptoms that can help guide further diagnostic evaluation and management.

"Sex distribution" is a term used to describe the number of males and females in a study population or sample. It can be presented as a simple count, a percentage, or a ratio. This information is often used in research to identify any differences in health outcomes, disease prevalence, or response to treatment between males and females. Additionally, understanding sex distribution can help researchers ensure that their studies are representative of the general population and can inform the design of future studies.

The hippocampus is a complex, curved formation in the brain that resembles a seahorse (hence its name, from the Greek word "hippos" meaning horse and "kampos" meaning sea monster). It's part of the limbic system and plays crucial roles in the formation of memories, particularly long-term ones.

This region is involved in spatial navigation and cognitive maps, allowing us to recognize locations and remember how to get to them. Additionally, it's one of the first areas affected by Alzheimer's disease, which often results in memory loss as an early symptom.

Anatomically, it consists of two main parts: the Ammon's horn (or cornu ammonis) and the dentate gyrus. These structures are made up of distinct types of neurons that contribute to different aspects of learning and memory.

Impulse Control Disorders (ICDs) are a group of psychiatric conditions characterized by the failure to resist an impulse, drive, or temptation to perform an act that is harmful to oneself or others. This leads to negative consequences such as distress, anxiety, or disruption in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) recognizes several specific ICDs, including:

1. Kleptomania - the recurrent failure to resist impulses to steal items, even though they are not needed for personal use or financial gain.
2. Pyromania - the deliberate and purposeful fire-setting on more than one occasion.
3. Intermittent Explosive Disorder - recurrent behavioral outbursts representing a failure to control aggressive impulses, resulting in serious assaultive acts or destruction of property.
4. Pathological Gambling - persistent and recurrent maladaptive gambling behavior that disrupts personal, family, or vocational pursuits.
5. Internet Gaming Disorder - the excessive and prolonged use of the internet for gaming, which leads to clinically significant impairment or distress.

These disorders are typically associated with a range of emotional, cognitive, and behavioral symptoms that can vary depending on the specific disorder and individual presentation. Treatment often involves a combination of psychotherapy, medication, and self-help strategies to manage symptoms and improve overall functioning.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

Psychological models are theoretical frameworks used in psychology to explain and predict mental processes and behaviors. They are simplified representations of complex phenomena, consisting of interrelated concepts, assumptions, and hypotheses that describe how various factors interact to produce specific outcomes. These models can be quantitative (e.g., mathematical equations) or qualitative (e.g., conceptual diagrams) in nature and may draw upon empirical data, theoretical insights, or both.

Psychological models serve several purposes:

1. They provide a systematic and organized way to understand and describe psychological phenomena.
2. They generate hypotheses and predictions that can be tested through empirical research.
3. They integrate findings from different studies and help synthesize knowledge across various domains of psychology.
4. They inform the development of interventions and treatments for mental health disorders.

Examples of psychological models include:

1. The Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality, which posits that individual differences in personality can be described along five broad dimensions: Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism.
2. The Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) model, which suggests that maladaptive thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are interconnected and can be changed through targeted interventions.
3. The Dual Process Theory of Attitudes, which proposes that attitudes are formed and influenced by two distinct processes: a rapid, intuitive process (heuristic) and a slower, deliberative process (systematic).
4. The Social Cognitive Theory, which emphasizes the role of observational learning, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations in shaping behavior.
5. The Attachment Theory, which describes the dynamics of long-term relationships between humans, particularly the parent-child relationship.

It is important to note that psychological models are provisional and subject to revision or replacement as new evidence emerges. They should be considered as useful tools for understanding and explaining psychological phenomena rather than definitive truths.

Combined modality therapy (CMT) is a medical treatment approach that utilizes more than one method or type of therapy simultaneously or in close succession, with the goal of enhancing the overall effectiveness of the treatment. In the context of cancer care, CMT often refers to the combination of two or more primary treatment modalities, such as surgery, radiation therapy, and systemic therapies (chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, etc.).

The rationale behind using combined modality therapy is that each treatment method can target cancer cells in different ways, potentially increasing the likelihood of eliminating all cancer cells and reducing the risk of recurrence. The specific combination and sequence of treatments will depend on various factors, including the type and stage of cancer, patient's overall health, and individual preferences.

For example, a common CMT approach for locally advanced rectal cancer may involve preoperative (neoadjuvant) chemoradiation therapy, followed by surgery to remove the tumor, and then postoperative (adjuvant) chemotherapy. This combined approach allows for the reduction of the tumor size before surgery, increases the likelihood of complete tumor removal, and targets any remaining microscopic cancer cells with systemic chemotherapy.

It is essential to consult with a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals to determine the most appropriate CMT plan for each individual patient, considering both the potential benefits and risks associated with each treatment method.

The Chi-square distribution is a continuous probability distribution that is often used in statistical hypothesis testing. It is the distribution of a sum of squares of k independent standard normal random variables. The resulting quantity follows a chi-square distribution with k degrees of freedom, denoted as χ²(k).

The probability density function (pdf) of the Chi-square distribution with k degrees of freedom is given by:

f(x; k) = (1/ (2^(k/2) * Γ(k/2))) \* x^((k/2)-1) \* e^(-x/2), for x > 0 and 0, otherwise.

Where Γ(k/2) is the gamma function evaluated at k/2. The mean and variance of a Chi-square distribution with k degrees of freedom are k and 2k, respectively.

The Chi-square distribution has various applications in statistical inference, including testing goodness-of-fit, homogeneity of variances, and independence in contingency tables.

The caudate nucleus is a part of the brain located within the basal ganglia, a group of structures that are important for movement control and cognition. It has a distinctive C-shaped appearance and plays a role in various functions such as learning, memory, emotion, and motivation. The caudate nucleus receives inputs from several areas of the cerebral cortex and sends outputs to other basal ganglia structures, contributing to the regulation of motor behavior and higher cognitive processes.

Serotonin, also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), is a monoamine neurotransmitter that is found primarily in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, blood platelets, and the central nervous system (CNS) of humans and other animals. It is produced by the conversion of the amino acid tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), and then to serotonin.

In the CNS, serotonin plays a role in regulating mood, appetite, sleep, memory, learning, and behavior, among other functions. It also acts as a vasoconstrictor, helping to regulate blood flow and blood pressure. In the GI tract, it is involved in peristalsis, the contraction and relaxation of muscles that moves food through the digestive system.

Serotonin is synthesized and stored in serotonergic neurons, which are nerve cells that use serotonin as their primary neurotransmitter. These neurons are found throughout the brain and spinal cord, and they communicate with other neurons by releasing serotonin into the synapse, the small gap between two neurons.

Abnormal levels of serotonin have been linked to a variety of disorders, including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and migraines. Medications that affect serotonin levels, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are commonly used to treat these conditions.

A "Veteran" is not a medical term per se, but rather a term used to describe individuals who have served in the military. Specifically, in the United States, a veteran is defined as a person who has served in the armed forces of the country and was discharged or released under conditions other than dishonorable. This definition can include those who served in war time or peace time. The term "veteran" does not imply any specific medical condition or diagnosis. However, veterans may have unique health needs and challenges related to their military service, such as exposure to hazardous materials, traumatic brain injury, post-traumatic stress disorder, and other physical and mental health conditions.

Anti-anxiety agents, also known as anxiolytics, are a class of medications used to manage symptoms of anxiety disorders. These drugs work by reducing the abnormal excitement in the brain and promoting relaxation and calmness. They include several types of medications such as benzodiazepines, azapirone, antihistamines, and beta-blockers.

Benzodiazepines are the most commonly prescribed anti-anxiety agents. They work by enhancing the inhibitory effects of a neurotransmitter called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain, which results in sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, and muscle relaxant properties. Examples of benzodiazepines include diazepam (Valium), alprazolam (Xanax), lorazepam (Ativan), and clonazepam (Klonopin).

Azapirones are a newer class of anti-anxiety agents that act on serotonin receptors in the brain. Buspirone (Buspar) is an example of this type of medication, which has fewer side effects and less potential for abuse compared to benzodiazepines.

Antihistamines are medications that are primarily used to treat allergies but can also have anti-anxiety effects due to their sedative properties. Examples include hydroxyzine (Vistaril, Atarax) and diphenhydramine (Benadryl).

Beta-blockers are mainly used to treat high blood pressure and heart conditions but can also help manage symptoms of anxiety such as rapid heartbeat, tremors, and sweating. Propranolol (Inderal) is an example of a beta-blocker used for this purpose.

It's important to note that anti-anxiety agents should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as they can have side effects and potential for dependence or addiction. Additionally, these medications are often used in combination with psychotherapy and lifestyle modifications to manage anxiety disorders effectively.

Childhood behavior disorders are a group of disruptive behaviors that are more frequent or severe than is typical for the child's age and development. These behaviors can cause significant impairment in the child's life, including their relationships with family, friends, and at school. Common examples of childhood behavior disorders include:

1. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A chronic condition characterized by difficulty paying attention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity.
2. Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD): A pattern of negative, hostile, and defiant behavior towards authority figures.
3. Conduct Disorder: A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior that violates the rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules.
4. Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED): A disorder characterized by recurrent impulsive aggressive behavior disproportionate to the situation.
5. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): A neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by difficulties in social interaction, communication, and repetitive behaviors.
6. Tourette Syndrome: A neurological disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements and vocalizations called tics.

It's important to note that children with behavior disorders often have other conditions such as learning disabilities, mood disorders, or anxiety disorders. Early identification and treatment of these disorders can significantly improve the child's outcome.

Social behavior, in the context of medicine and psychology, refers to the ways in which individuals interact and engage with others within their social environment. It involves various actions, communications, and responses that are influenced by cultural norms, personal values, emotional states, and cognitive processes. These behaviors can include but are not limited to communication, cooperation, competition, empathy, altruism, aggression, and conformity.

Abnormalities in social behavior may indicate underlying mental health conditions such as autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, or personality disorders. Therefore, understanding and analyzing social behavior is an essential aspect of diagnosing and treating various psychological and psychiatric conditions.

The occipital lobe is the portion of the cerebral cortex that lies at the back of the brain (posteriorly) and is primarily involved in visual processing. It contains areas that are responsible for the interpretation and integration of visual stimuli, including color, form, movement, and recognition of objects. The occipital lobe is divided into several regions, such as the primary visual cortex (V1), secondary visual cortex (V2 to V5), and the visual association cortex, which work together to process different aspects of visual information. Damage to the occipital lobe can lead to various visual deficits, including blindness or partial loss of vision, known as a visual field cut.

The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is a standardized system for classifying and coding mortality and morbidity data, established by the World Health Organization (WHO). It provides a common language and framework for health professionals, researchers, and policymakers to share and compare health-related information across countries and regions.

The ICD codes are used to identify diseases, injuries, causes of death, and other health conditions. The classification includes categories for various body systems, mental disorders, external causes of injury and poisoning, and factors influencing health status. It also includes a section for symptoms, signs, and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings.

The ICD is regularly updated to incorporate new scientific knowledge and changing health needs. The most recent version, ICD-11, was adopted by the World Health Assembly in May 2019 and will come into effect on January 1, 2022. It includes significant revisions and expansions in several areas, such as mental, behavioral, neurological disorders, and conditions related to sexual health.

In summary, the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is a globally recognized system for classifying and coding diseases, injuries, causes of death, and other health-related information, enabling standardized data collection, comparison, and analysis across countries and regions.

Dibenzothiazepines are a class of heterocyclic chemical compounds that contain a dibenzothiazepine ring structure. This structure is composed of a benzene ring fused to a thiazepine ring, which is itself formed by the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring (a seven-membered ring containing two nitrogen atoms).

In the medical field, dibenzothiazepines are known for their pharmacological properties and have been used in the development of various drugs. Some dibenzothiazepine derivatives exhibit antipsychotic, anxiolytic, and anticonvulsant activities. However, due to their potential for adverse effects and the availability of safer alternatives, they are not widely used in clinical practice today.

It is important to note that specific dibenzothiazepine compounds may have unique properties and uses beyond their general classification as a chemical class. Always consult medical literature or healthcare professionals for accurate information on specific drugs or compounds.

Psychotherapeutic processes refer to the methods and techniques used in psychotherapy to help individuals understand and overcome their emotional, cognitive, or behavioral issues. These processes involve various elements such as:

1. Establishing a therapeutic relationship: Building trust and rapport between the therapist and the client is crucial for successful therapy. This relationship provides a safe and supportive environment where the client can explore their thoughts and feelings.

2. Assessment and diagnosis: The psychotherapist evaluates the client's mental health status, identifies any underlying issues or disorders, and develops an individualized treatment plan based on this information.

3. Psychological interventions: These are specific techniques used to address the client's concerns, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), psychodynamic therapy, or humanistic therapy. Each approach has its own unique focus, goals, and methods for helping clients change negative patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving.

4. Collaborative goal setting: Both the therapist and client work together to establish clear, realistic goals for treatment that align with the client's needs and values.

5. Self-exploration and self-understanding: Through various therapeutic techniques, clients gain insights into their thoughts, emotions, and behaviors, allowing them to better understand themselves and their motivations.

6. Emotional regulation and coping skills development: Clients learn strategies to manage their emotions more effectively and cope with stressors in healthier ways.

7. Problem-solving and decision-making: Therapists help clients develop critical thinking skills and problem-solving abilities, enabling them to make better choices and navigate challenges in their lives.

8. Personal growth and change: As clients progress through therapy, they may experience positive changes in their self-concept, relationships, and overall well-being.

9. Termination and relapse prevention: At the end of treatment, therapists and clients review progress made, discuss any remaining concerns, and develop a plan to maintain gains and prevent future relapses.

A Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) is an analytical approach used in genetic research to identify associations between genetic variants, typically Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs), and specific traits or diseases across the entire genome. This method involves scanning the genomes of many individuals, usually thousands, to find genetic markers that occur more frequently in people with a particular disease or trait than in those without it.

The goal of a GWAS is to identify genetic loci (positions on chromosomes) associated with a trait or disease, which can help researchers understand the underlying genetic architecture and biological mechanisms contributing to the condition. It's important to note that while GWAS can identify associations between genetic variants and traits/diseases, these studies do not necessarily prove causation. Further functional validation studies are often required to confirm the role of identified genetic variants in the development or progression of a trait or disease.

"Self-assessment" in the context of medicine and healthcare generally refers to the process by which an individual evaluates their own health status, symptoms, or healthcare needs. This can involve various aspects such as:

1. Recognizing and acknowledging one's own signs and symptoms of a potential health issue.
2. Assessing the severity and impact of these symptoms on daily life.
3. Determining whether medical attention is needed and, if so, deciding the urgency of such care.
4. Monitoring the effectiveness of treatment plans and making adjustments as necessary.

Self-assessment tools in healthcare can include questionnaires, surveys, or other structured methods to guide patients in evaluating their health status. These tools can be particularly useful in managing chronic conditions, promoting preventive care, and supporting patient autonomy and engagement in their own healthcare. However, self-assessment should not replace regular check-ups and consultations with healthcare professionals, who can provide more comprehensive assessments, diagnoses, and treatment recommendations based on their clinical expertise and access to additional information and resources.

A nerve net, also known as a neural net or neuronal network, is not a medical term per se, but rather a concept in neuroscience and artificial intelligence (AI). It refers to a complex network of interconnected neurons that process and transmit information. In the context of the human body, the nervous system can be thought of as a type of nerve net, with the brain and spinal cord serving as the central processing unit and peripheral nerves carrying signals to and from various parts of the body.

In the field of AI, artificial neural networks are computational models inspired by the structure and function of biological nerve nets. These models consist of interconnected nodes or "neurons" that process information and learn patterns through a process of training and adaptation. They have been used in a variety of applications, including image recognition, natural language processing, and machine learning.

Tobacco Use Disorder is a clinical diagnosis described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), used by healthcare professionals to diagnose mental health conditions. It is defined as a problematic pattern of tobacco use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by at least two of the following, occurring within a 12-month period:

1. Tobacco is often taken in larger amounts or over a longer period than was intended.
2. There is a persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control tobacco use.
3. A great deal of time is spent on activities necessary to obtain or use tobacco, or recover from its effects.
4. Craving, or a strong desire or urge to use tobacco, occurs.
5. Recurrent tobacco use results in a failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school, or home.
6. Important social, occupational, or recreational activities are given up or reduced because of tobacco use.
7. Tobacco use is continued despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent physical or psychological problem that is likely to have been caused or exacerbated by tobacco.
8. Tolerance, as defined by either of the following:
a. A need for markedly increased amounts of tobacco to achieve intoxication or desired effect.
b. Markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount of tobacco.
9. Characteristic withdrawal syndrome for tobacco, or tobacco is taken to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms.

The diagnosis excludes nicotine withdrawal that is a normal response to the cessation of tobacco use, intoxication, or substance/medication-induced disorders. Tobacco Use Disorder can be further specified as mild, moderate, or severe based on the number of criteria met.

The odds ratio (OR) is a statistical measure used in epidemiology and research to estimate the association between an exposure and an outcome. It represents the odds that an event will occur in one group versus the odds that it will occur in another group, assuming that all other factors are held constant.

In medical research, the odds ratio is often used to quantify the strength of the relationship between a risk factor (exposure) and a disease outcome. An OR of 1 indicates no association between the exposure and the outcome, while an OR greater than 1 suggests that there is a positive association between the two. Conversely, an OR less than 1 implies a negative association.

It's important to note that the odds ratio is not the same as the relative risk (RR), which compares the incidence rates of an outcome in two groups. While the OR can approximate the RR when the outcome is rare, they are not interchangeable and can lead to different conclusions about the association between an exposure and an outcome.

Imipramine is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) medication that is primarily used to treat depression. It works by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and norepinephrine, in the brain. Imipramine has been found to be effective in treating various types of depression, including major depressive disorder, dysthymia, and depression that is resistant to other treatments.

In addition to its antidepressant effects, imipramine is also used off-label for the treatment of several other conditions, such as anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), enuresis (bedwetting), and chronic pain.

Imipramine was first synthesized in the 1950s and has been widely used since then. It is available in various forms, including immediate-release tablets, extended-release capsules, and liquid solutions. As with all medications, imipramine can have side effects, which may include dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, dizziness, and sedation. In rare cases, it can cause more serious side effects, such as cardiac arrhythmias or seizures.

It is important to use imipramine under the close supervision of a healthcare provider, as dosages may need to be adjusted based on individual patient needs and responses to treatment. Additionally, imipramine should not be stopped abruptly, as doing so can lead to withdrawal symptoms or a recurrence of depression.

I am not aware of a medical definition for "Internal-External Control." However, the term "locus of control" is commonly used in psychology and medicine to describe an individual's belief about the degree to which they have control over events and outcomes in their life.

Locus of control can be categorized as either internal or external:

* Internal locus of control refers to the belief that one has control over their own life outcomes, and that these outcomes are determined by their own efforts, abilities, and choices.
* External locus of control, on the other hand, refers to the belief that events and outcomes in one's life are controlled by external factors such as luck, chance, or powerful others.

Both internal and external locus of control can have implications for health behaviors and medical outcomes. For example, individuals with an internal locus of control may be more likely to engage in healthy behaviors such as exercise and healthy eating, while those with an external locus of control may be more likely to engage in risky behaviors such as smoking or substance abuse. Similarly, a strong internal locus of control has been associated with better medical outcomes, including improved mental health and reduced symptoms of chronic illness.

Absenteeism is a term used in the medical and occupational health fields to describe the habitual pattern of absence from work or school. It refers to an employee or student's repeated failure to show up for scheduled work or classes without a valid reason or excuse. Absenteeism can have various causes, including physical illness or injury, mental health issues, stress, burnout, disengagement, and poor job or school satisfaction. Chronic absenteeism can lead to negative consequences such as decreased productivity, increased healthcare costs, and reduced academic performance.

In the context of medicine, particularly in behavioral neuroscience and psychology, "reward" is not typically used as a definitive medical term. However, it generally refers to a positive outcome or incentive that reinforces certain behaviors, making them more likely to be repeated in the future. This can involve various stimuli such as food, water, sexual activity, social interaction, or drug use, among others.

In the brain, rewards are associated with the activation of the reward system, primarily the mesolimbic dopamine pathway, which includes the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). The release of dopamine in these areas is thought to reinforce and motivate behavior linked to rewards.

It's important to note that while "reward" has a specific meaning in this context, it is not a formal medical diagnosis or condition. Instead, it is a concept used to understand the neural and psychological mechanisms underlying motivation, learning, and addiction.

A Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve is a graphical representation used in medical decision-making and statistical analysis to illustrate the performance of a binary classifier system, such as a diagnostic test or a machine learning algorithm. It's a plot that shows the tradeoff between the true positive rate (sensitivity) and the false positive rate (1 - specificity) for different threshold settings.

The x-axis of an ROC curve represents the false positive rate (the proportion of negative cases incorrectly classified as positive), while the y-axis represents the true positive rate (the proportion of positive cases correctly classified as positive). Each point on the curve corresponds to a specific decision threshold, with higher points indicating better performance.

The area under the ROC curve (AUC) is a commonly used summary measure that reflects the overall performance of the classifier. An AUC value of 1 indicates perfect discrimination between positive and negative cases, while an AUC value of 0.5 suggests that the classifier performs no better than chance.

ROC curves are widely used in healthcare to evaluate diagnostic tests, predictive models, and screening tools for various medical conditions, helping clinicians make informed decisions about patient care based on the balance between sensitivity and specificity.

A biological marker, often referred to as a biomarker, is a measurable indicator that reflects the presence or severity of a disease state, or a response to a therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers can be found in various materials such as blood, tissues, or bodily fluids, and they can take many forms, including molecular, histologic, radiographic, or physiological measurements.

In the context of medical research and clinical practice, biomarkers are used for a variety of purposes, such as:

1. Diagnosis: Biomarkers can help diagnose a disease by indicating the presence or absence of a particular condition. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a biomarker used to detect prostate cancer.
2. Monitoring: Biomarkers can be used to monitor the progression or regression of a disease over time. For instance, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels are monitored in diabetes patients to assess long-term blood glucose control.
3. Predicting: Biomarkers can help predict the likelihood of developing a particular disease or the risk of a negative outcome. For example, the presence of certain genetic mutations can indicate an increased risk for breast cancer.
4. Response to treatment: Biomarkers can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a specific treatment by measuring changes in the biomarker levels before and after the intervention. This is particularly useful in personalized medicine, where treatments are tailored to individual patients based on their unique biomarker profiles.

It's important to note that for a biomarker to be considered clinically valid and useful, it must undergo rigorous validation through well-designed studies, including demonstrating sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and clinical relevance.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

"Marital status" is not a medical term, but it is often used in medical records and forms to indicate whether a person is single, married, divorced, widowed, or in a civil union. It is a social determinant of health that can have an impact on a person's access to healthcare, health behaviors, and health outcomes. For example, research has shown that people who are unmarried, divorced, or widowed may have worse health outcomes than those who are married. However, it is important to note that this relationship is complex and influenced by many other factors, including socioeconomic status, age, and overall health.

Social support in a medical context refers to the resources and assistance provided by an individual's social network, including family, friends, peers, and community groups. These resources can include emotional, informational, and instrumental support, which help individuals cope with stress, manage health conditions, and maintain their overall well-being.

Emotional support involves providing empathy, care, and encouragement to help an individual feel valued, understood, and cared for. Informational support refers to the provision of advice, guidance, and knowledge that can help an individual make informed decisions about their health or other aspects of their life. Instrumental support includes practical assistance such as help with daily tasks, financial aid, or access to resources.

Social support has been shown to have a positive impact on physical and mental health outcomes, including reduced stress levels, improved immune function, better coping skills, and increased resilience. It can also play a critical role in promoting healthy behaviors, such as adherence to medical treatments and lifestyle changes.

Binge-Eating Disorder (BED) is a type of eating disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of consuming large amounts of food in a short period of time, often to the point of discomfort or pain. These episodes are accompanied by a loss of control over eating and are not followed by compensatory behaviors such as purging or excessive exercise.

To be diagnosed with BED, an individual must experience these binge-eating episodes at least once a week for three months or more, along with feelings of distress, shame, or guilt about their eating habits. Additionally, the binge eating must occur on average at least once a week for three months.

BED is different from overeating and can cause significant emotional and physical problems, including depression, anxiety, obesity, and other health issues related to weight gain. It is important to seek professional help if you suspect that you or someone you know may have BED.

Cinanserin is a serotonin antagonist, which is a type of drug that blocks the action of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain. Cinanserin has been investigated for its potential use as a treatment for various conditions, including anxiety, depression, and schizophrenia. However, it is not currently approved for use in clinical practice.

Serotonin antagonists like cinanserin work by blocking the action of serotonin at certain receptors in the brain. This can help to reduce the symptoms of various conditions, such as anxiety and depression, by altering the way that neurons communicate with each other. However, the exact mechanism of action of cinanserin is not fully understood, and more research is needed to determine its potential therapeutic uses.

While cinanserin has shown promise in some studies, it has also been associated with a number of side effects, including dizziness, drowsiness, and dry mouth. Additionally, there is some evidence to suggest that cinanserin may increase the risk of certain types of heart problems, such as irregular heart rhythms. As a result, further research is needed to determine the safety and efficacy of this drug before it can be approved for use in clinical practice.

An allele is a variant form of a gene that is located at a specific position on a specific chromosome. Alleles are alternative forms of the same gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same locus or position on homologous chromosomes.

Each person typically inherits two copies of each gene, one from each parent. If the two alleles are identical, a person is said to be homozygous for that trait. If the alleles are different, the person is heterozygous.

For example, the ABO blood group system has three alleles, A, B, and O, which determine a person's blood type. If a person inherits two A alleles, they will have type A blood; if they inherit one A and one B allele, they will have type AB blood; if they inherit two B alleles, they will have type B blood; and if they inherit two O alleles, they will have type O blood.

Alleles can also influence traits such as eye color, hair color, height, and other physical characteristics. Some alleles are dominant, meaning that only one copy of the allele is needed to express the trait, while others are recessive, meaning that two copies of the allele are needed to express the trait.

In a medical or physiological context, "arousal" refers to the state of being awake and responsive to stimuli. It involves the activation of the nervous system, particularly the autonomic nervous system, which prepares the body for action. Arousal levels can vary from low (such as during sleep) to high (such as during states of excitement or stress). In clinical settings, changes in arousal may be assessed to help diagnose conditions such as coma, brain injury, or sleep disorders. It is also used in the context of sexual response, where it refers to the level of physical and mental awareness and readiness for sexual activity.

Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) is a complex of symptoms that occur in the latter part of the luteal phase (the second half) of the menstrual cycle, typically starting 5-11 days before the onset of menses, and remitting shortly after the onset of menstruation. The symptoms can be physical, psychological, or behavioral and vary from mild to severe. They include but are not limited to: bloating, breast tenderness, cramps, headaches, mood swings, irritability, depression, anxiety, fatigue, changes in appetite, and difficulty concentrating.

The exact cause of PMS is not known, but it appears to be related to hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle, particularly fluctuations in estrogen and progesterone levels. Some women may be more susceptible to these hormonal shifts due to genetic factors, neurotransmitter imbalances, or other health conditions.

Treatment for PMS often involves a combination of lifestyle changes (such as regular exercise, stress management, and dietary modifications), over-the-counter pain relievers, and, in some cases, hormonal medications or antidepressants. It's important to consult with a healthcare provider for an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan.

Family therapy, also known as family systems therapy, is a type of psychological counseling that involves all members of a nuclear or extended family. Its primary goal is to promote understanding and improve communication between family members in order to resolve conflicts and foster healthy relationships. It is based on the belief that the family system is an interconnected unit and that changes in one part of the system affect the other parts as well.

Family therapy can be used to address a wide range of issues, including behavioral problems in children and adolescents, mental health disorders such as depression and anxiety, substance abuse, marital conflicts, and chronic illness or disability. The therapist will typically observe the family's interaction patterns and communication styles during sessions and provide feedback and guidance on how to make positive changes.

Family therapy can be conducted with the entire family present in the same room, or it may involve individual sessions with different family members. The number of sessions required will depend on the severity and complexity of the issues being addressed. It is important for all family members to be open and willing to participate in the therapy process in order for it to be effective.

Multivariate analysis is a statistical method used to examine the relationship between multiple independent variables and a dependent variable. It allows for the simultaneous examination of the effects of two or more independent variables on an outcome, while controlling for the effects of other variables in the model. This technique can be used to identify patterns, associations, and interactions among multiple variables, and is commonly used in medical research to understand complex health outcomes and disease processes. Examples of multivariate analysis methods include multiple regression, factor analysis, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Linear Models" is actually a term from the field of statistics and machine learning, rather than medicine. A linear model is a type of statistical model that is used to analyze the relationship between two or more variables. In a linear model, the relationship between the dependent variable (the outcome or result) and the independent variable(s) (the factors being studied) is assumed to be linear, meaning that it can be described by a straight line on a graph.

The equation for a simple linear model with one independent variable (x) and one dependent variable (y) looks like this:

y = β0 + β1*x + ε

In this equation, β0 is the y-intercept or the value of y when x equals zero, β1 is the slope or the change in y for each unit increase in x, and ε is the error term or the difference between the actual values of y and the predicted values of y based on the linear model.

Linear models are widely used in medical research to study the relationship between various factors (such as exposure to a risk factor or treatment) and health outcomes (such as disease incidence or mortality). They can also be used to adjust for confounding variables, which are factors that may influence both the independent variable and the dependent variable, and thus affect the observed relationship between them.

A control group, in the context of medical research or clinical trials, is a group of participants in a study who do not receive the experimental intervention or treatment that is being tested. Instead, they typically receive standard of care, a placebo, or no treatment at all. The control group serves as a comparison group to help researchers evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the new intervention or treatment being studied. By comparing the outcomes of the experimental group (those who received the new intervention) to the control group, researchers can determine whether any observed differences in outcomes are likely due to the intervention itself, rather than other factors.

"Family Health" is not a term that has a single, widely accepted medical definition. However, in the context of healthcare and public health, "family health" often refers to the physical, mental, and social well-being of all members of a family unit. It includes the assessment, promotion, and prevention of health conditions that affect individual family members as well as the family as a whole.

Family health may also encompass interventions and programs that aim to strengthen family relationships, communication, and functioning, as these factors can have a significant impact on overall health outcomes. Additionally, family health may involve addressing social determinants of health, such as poverty, housing, and access to healthcare, which can affect the health of families and communities.

Overall, family health is a holistic approach to healthcare that recognizes the importance of considering the needs and experiences of all family members in promoting and maintaining good health.

"Sex characteristics" refer to the anatomical, chromosomal, and genetic features that define males and females. These include both primary sex characteristics (such as reproductive organs like ovaries or testes) and secondary sex characteristics (such as breasts or facial hair) that typically develop during puberty. Sex characteristics are primarily determined by the presence of either X or Y chromosomes, with XX individuals usually developing as females and XY individuals usually developing as males, although variations and exceptions to this rule do occur.

Gene frequency, also known as allele frequency, is a measure in population genetics that reflects the proportion of a particular gene or allele (variant of a gene) in a given population. It is calculated as the number of copies of a specific allele divided by the total number of all alleles at that genetic locus in the population.

For example, if we consider a gene with two possible alleles, A and a, the gene frequency of allele A (denoted as p) can be calculated as follows:

p = (number of copies of allele A) / (total number of all alleles at that locus)

Similarly, the gene frequency of allele a (denoted as q) would be:

q = (number of copies of allele a) / (total number of all alleles at that locus)

Since there are only two possible alleles for this gene in this example, p + q = 1. These frequencies can help researchers understand genetic diversity and evolutionary processes within populations.

Genetic association studies are a type of epidemiological research that aims to identify statistical associations between genetic variations and particular traits or diseases. These studies typically compare the frequency of specific genetic markers, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), in individuals with a given trait or disease to those without it.

The goal of genetic association studies is to identify genetic factors that contribute to the risk of developing common complex diseases, such as diabetes, heart disease, or cancer. By identifying these genetic associations, researchers hope to gain insights into the underlying biological mechanisms of these diseases and develop new strategies for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.

It's important to note that while genetic association studies can identify statistical associations between genetic markers and traits or diseases, they cannot prove causality. Further research is needed to confirm and validate these findings and to understand the functional consequences of the identified genetic variants.

I'm not aware of any medical definition for the term "Baltimore." The term Baltimore is most commonly associated with a city in the state of Maryland, USA. It may also refer to various other unrelated things, such as a type of hound or a surname. If you could provide more context, I might be able to give a more helpful response.

The term "family" in a medical context often refers to a group of individuals who are related by blood, marriage, or adoption and who consider themselves to be a single household. This can include spouses, parents, children, siblings, grandparents, and other extended family members. In some cases, the term may also be used more broadly to refer to any close-knit group of people who provide emotional and social support for one another, regardless of their biological or legal relationship.

In healthcare settings, understanding a patient's family dynamics can be important for providing effective care. Family members may be involved in decision-making about medical treatments, providing care and support at home, and communicating with healthcare providers. Additionally, cultural beliefs and values within families can influence health behaviors and attitudes towards medical care, making it essential for healthcare professionals to take a culturally sensitive approach when working with patients and their families.

Myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs) are a group of rare, chronic blood cancers that originate from the abnormal proliferation or growth of one or more types of blood-forming cells in the bone marrow. These disorders result in an overproduction of mature but dysfunctional blood cells, which can lead to serious complications such as blood clots, bleeding, and organ damage.

There are several subtypes of MPDs, including:

1. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML): A disorder characterized by the overproduction of mature granulocytes (a type of white blood cell) in the bone marrow, leading to an increased number of these cells in the blood. CML is caused by a genetic mutation that results in the formation of the BCR-ABL fusion protein, which drives uncontrolled cell growth and division.
2. Polycythemia Vera (PV): A disorder characterized by the overproduction of all three types of blood cells - red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets - in the bone marrow. This can lead to an increased risk of blood clots, bleeding, and enlargement of the spleen.
3. Essential Thrombocythemia (ET): A disorder characterized by the overproduction of platelets in the bone marrow, leading to an increased risk of blood clots and bleeding.
4. Primary Myelofibrosis (PMF): A disorder characterized by the replacement of normal bone marrow tissue with scar tissue, leading to impaired blood cell production and anemia, enlargement of the spleen, and increased risk of infections and bleeding.
5. Chronic Neutrophilic Leukemia (CNL): A rare disorder characterized by the overproduction of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell) in the bone marrow, leading to an increased number of these cells in the blood. CNL can lead to an increased risk of infections and organ damage.

MPDs are typically treated with a combination of therapies, including chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, and stem cell transplantation. The choice of treatment depends on several factors, including the subtype of MPD, the patient's age and overall health, and the presence of any comorbidities.

Sexual child abuse is a form of abuse in which a child is engaged in sexual activities or exposed to sexual situations that are inappropriate and harmful for their age. This can include:

1. Sexual contact or intercourse with a child.
2. Exposing a child to pornography or using a child to produce pornographic materials.
3. Engaging in sexual acts in front of a child.
4. Inappropriately touching or fondling a child.
5. Using a child for sexual exploitation, including prostitution.

Sexual child abuse can have serious and long-lasting effects on a child's emotional, psychological, and physical well-being. It is important to report any suspected cases of sexual child abuse to the appropriate authorities immediately.

Community Mental Health Services (CMHS) refer to mental health care services that are provided in community settings, as opposed to traditional hospital-based or institutional care. These services are designed to be accessible, comprehensive, and coordinated, with the goal of promoting recovery, resilience, and improved quality of life for individuals with mental illnesses.

CMHS may include a range of services such as:

1. Outpatient care: Including individual and group therapy, medication management, and case management services provided in community clinics or healthcare centers.
2. Assertive Community Treatment (ACT): A team-based approach to providing comprehensive mental health services to individuals with severe and persistent mental illnesses who may have difficulty engaging in traditional outpatient care.
3. Crisis intervention: Including mobile crisis teams, emergency psychiatric evaluations, and short-term residential crisis stabilization units.
4. Supported housing and employment: Services that help individuals with mental illnesses to live independently in the community and to obtain and maintain competitive employment.
5. Prevention and early intervention: Programs that aim to identify and address mental health issues before they become more severe, such as suicide prevention programs, bullying prevention, and early psychosis detection and treatment.
6. Peer support: Services provided by individuals who have personal experience with mental illness and can offer support, guidance, and advocacy to others who are struggling with similar issues.
7. Family education and support: Programs that provide information, resources, and support to family members of individuals with mental illnesses.

The goal of CMHS is to provide accessible, comprehensive, and coordinated care that meets the unique needs of each individual and helps them to achieve their recovery goals in the community setting.

Psychology is not a medical discipline itself, but it is a crucial component in the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of many medical conditions. It is a social science that deals with the scientific study of behavior and mental processes such as perception, cognition, emotion, personality, and motivation. In a medical context, psychology can be applied to help understand how biological, psychological, and social factors interact to influence an individual's health and well-being, as well as their response to illness and treatment. Clinical psychologists often work in healthcare settings to evaluate, diagnose, and treat mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders, using various therapeutic interventions based on psychological principles and research.

Nortriptyline is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) that is primarily used in the treatment of depression. It works by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and norepinephrine, in the brain. These neurotransmitters are involved in regulating mood, and increasing their levels can help to alleviate symptoms of depression.

Nortriptyline is available in oral form and is typically taken two or three times a day. It may take several weeks of treatment before the full benefits of the medication are felt. Common side effects of nortriptyline include dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, and dizziness. In rare cases, it can cause more serious side effects such as heart rhythm problems, seizures, or increased suicidal thoughts or behavior.

Nortriptyline is generally considered to be safe and effective for the treatment of depression, but it should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider due to its potential for serious side effects. It may also interact with other medications, so it is important to inform your doctor of all medications you are taking before starting nortriptyline.

Tryptophan hydroxylase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the synthesis of neurotransmitters and hormones, including serotonin and melatonin. It catalyzes the conversion of the essential amino acid tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), which is then further converted to serotonin. This enzyme exists in two isoforms, TPH1 and TPH2, with TPH1 primarily located in peripheral tissues and TPH2 mainly found in the brain. The regulation of tryptophan hydroxylase activity has significant implications for mood, appetite, sleep, and pain perception.

Health status is a term used to describe the overall condition of an individual's health, including physical, mental, and social well-being. It is often assessed through various measures such as medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and self-reported health assessments. Health status can be used to identify health disparities, track changes in population health over time, and evaluate the effectiveness of healthcare interventions.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Genetic polymorphism refers to the occurrence of multiple forms (called alleles) of a particular gene within a population. These variations in the DNA sequence do not generally affect the function or survival of the organism, but they can contribute to differences in traits among individuals. Genetic polymorphisms can be caused by single nucleotide changes (SNPs), insertions or deletions of DNA segments, or other types of genetic rearrangements. They are important for understanding genetic diversity and evolution, as well as for identifying genetic factors that may contribute to disease susceptibility in humans.

Impulsive behavior can be defined medically as actions performed without proper thought or consideration of the consequences, driven by immediate needs, desires, or urges. It often involves risky or inappropriate behaviors that may lead to negative outcomes. In a clinical context, impulsivity is frequently associated with certain mental health conditions such as ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder), bipolar disorder, borderline personality disorder, and some neurological conditions. It's important to note that everyone can exhibit impulsive behavior at times, but when it becomes a persistent pattern causing distress or functional impairment, it may indicate an underlying condition requiring professional assessment and treatment.

Cyclopropanes are a class of organic compounds that contain a cyclic structure consisting of three carbon atoms joined by single bonds, forming a three-membered ring. The strain in the cyclopropane ring is due to the fact that the ideal tetrahedral angle at each carbon atom (109.5 degrees) cannot be achieved in a three-membered ring, leading to significant angular strain.

Cyclopropanes are important in organic chemistry because of their unique reactivity and synthetic utility. They can undergo various reactions, such as ring-opening reactions, that allow for the formation of new carbon-carbon bonds and the synthesis of complex molecules. Cyclopropanes have also been used as anesthetics, although their use in this application has declined due to safety concerns.

A single-blind method in medical research is a study design where the participants are unaware of the group or intervention they have been assigned to, but the researchers conducting the study know which participant belongs to which group. This is done to prevent bias from the participants' expectations or knowledge of their assignment, while still allowing the researchers to control the study conditions and collect data.

In a single-blind trial, the participants do not know whether they are receiving the active treatment or a placebo (a sham treatment that looks like the real thing but has no therapeutic effect), whereas the researcher knows which participant is receiving which intervention. This design helps to ensure that the participants' responses and outcomes are not influenced by their knowledge of the treatment assignment, while still allowing the researchers to assess the effectiveness or safety of the intervention being studied.

Single-blind methods are commonly used in clinical trials and other medical research studies where it is important to minimize bias and control for confounding variables that could affect the study results.

In epidemiology, the incidence of a disease is defined as the number of new cases of that disease within a specific population over a certain period of time. It is typically expressed as a rate, with the number of new cases in the numerator and the size of the population at risk in the denominator. Incidence provides information about the risk of developing a disease during a given time period and can be used to compare disease rates between different populations or to monitor trends in disease occurrence over time.

Dissociative disorders are a group of mental health conditions characterized by disruptions or dysfunctions in memory, consciousness, identity, or perception. These disturbances can be sudden or ongoing and can interfere significantly with a person's ability to function in daily life. The main types of dissociative disorders include:

1. Dissociative Amnesia: This disorder is characterized by an inability to recall important personal information, usually due to trauma or stress.
2. Dissociative Identity Disorder (formerly known as Multiple Personality Disorder): In this disorder, a person exhibits two or more distinct identities or personalities that recurrently take control of their behavior.
3. Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder: This disorder involves persistent or recurring feelings of detachment from one's self (depersonalization) or the environment (derealization).
4. Other Specified Dissociative Disorder and Unspecified Dissociative Disorder: These categories are used for disorders that do not meet the criteria for any of the specific dissociative disorders but still cause significant distress or impairment.

Dissociative disorders often develop as a way to cope with trauma, stress, or other overwhelming life experiences. Treatment typically involves psychotherapy, including cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), as well as medication for co-occurring conditions such as anxiety or depression.

The placebo effect is a psychological or psychophysiological phenomenon in which a person's symptoms improve following a treatment but this improvement is not attributable to the properties of the treatment itself. Instead, it is believed to be due to the mind's belief in the effectiveness of the treatment, often influenced by positive expectations and the ritualistic aspects of the therapy itself.

Placebos are often used in clinical trials as a control group to compare against the actual treatment. The placebo effect can make it challenging to determine whether an observed improvement is truly due to the treatment or other factors.

Convalescence is the period of recovery following a serious illness, injury, or medical treatment. During this time, the body gradually returns to its normal state of health and functioning. The length and intensity of the convalescent period can vary widely depending on the individual and the severity of the condition that required treatment.

During convalescence, it is important for individuals to take care of themselves and allow their bodies to heal properly. This may involve getting plenty of rest, eating a healthy diet, engaging in gentle exercise or physical therapy as recommended by a healthcare provider, and avoiding strenuous activities or stressors that could hinder recovery.

Convalescence is an essential part of the healing process, and it is important to allow oneself enough time to fully recover before returning to normal activities. Rushing the convalescent period can lead to setbacks, complications, or a prolonged recovery time. By taking the time to focus on self-care and healing during convalescence, individuals can help ensure a full and speedy recovery.

'Animal behavior' refers to the actions or responses of animals to various stimuli, including their interactions with the environment and other individuals. It is the study of the actions of animals, whether they are instinctual, learned, or a combination of both. Animal behavior includes communication, mating, foraging, predator avoidance, and social organization, among other things. The scientific study of animal behavior is called ethology. This field seeks to understand the evolutionary basis for behaviors as well as their physiological and psychological mechanisms.

Nonparametric statistics is a branch of statistics that does not rely on assumptions about the distribution of variables in the population from which the sample is drawn. In contrast to parametric methods, nonparametric techniques make fewer assumptions about the data and are therefore more flexible in their application. Nonparametric tests are often used when the data do not meet the assumptions required for parametric tests, such as normality or equal variances.

Nonparametric statistical methods include tests such as the Wilcoxon rank-sum test (also known as the Mann-Whitney U test) for comparing two independent groups, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for comparing two related groups, and the Kruskal-Wallis test for comparing more than two independent groups. These tests use the ranks of the data rather than the actual values to make comparisons, which allows them to be used with ordinal or continuous data that do not meet the assumptions of parametric tests.

Overall, nonparametric statistics provide a useful set of tools for analyzing data in situations where the assumptions of parametric methods are not met, and can help researchers draw valid conclusions from their data even when the data are not normally distributed or have other characteristics that violate the assumptions of parametric tests.

A research design in medical or healthcare research is a systematic plan that guides the execution and reporting of research to address a specific research question or objective. It outlines the overall strategy for collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data to draw valid conclusions. The design includes details about the type of study (e.g., experimental, observational), sampling methods, data collection techniques, data analysis approaches, and any potential sources of bias or confounding that need to be controlled for. A well-defined research design helps ensure that the results are reliable, generalizable, and relevant to the research question, ultimately contributing to evidence-based practice in medicine and healthcare.

Temporomandibular Joint Disorders (TMD) refer to a group of conditions that cause pain and dysfunction in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and the muscles that control jaw movement. The TMJ is the hinge joint that connects the lower jaw (mandible) to the skull (temporal bone) in front of the ear. It allows for movements required for activities such as eating, speaking, and yawning.

TMD can result from various causes, including:

1. Muscle tension or spasm due to clenching or grinding teeth (bruxism), stress, or jaw misalignment
2. Dislocation or injury of the TMJ disc, which is a small piece of cartilage that acts as a cushion between the bones in the joint
3. Arthritis or other degenerative conditions affecting the TMJ
4. Bite problems (malocclusion) leading to abnormal stress on the TMJ and its surrounding muscles
5. Stress, which can exacerbate existing TMD symptoms by causing muscle tension

Symptoms of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders may include:
- Pain or tenderness in the jaw, face, neck, or shoulders
- Limited jaw movement or locking of the jaw
- Clicking, popping, or grating sounds when moving the jaw
- Headaches, earaches, or dizziness
- Difficulty chewing or biting
- Swelling on the side of the face

Treatment for TMD varies depending on the severity and cause of the condition. It may include self-care measures (like eating soft foods, avoiding extreme jaw movements, and applying heat or cold packs), physical therapy, medications (such as muscle relaxants, pain relievers, or anti-inflammatory drugs), dental work (including bite adjustments or orthodontic treatment), or even surgery in severe cases.

Sleep is a complex physiological process characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, reduced voluntary muscle activity, and decreased interaction with the environment. It's typically associated with specific stages that can be identified through electroencephalography (EEG) patterns. These stages include rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, associated with dreaming, and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, which is further divided into three stages.

Sleep serves a variety of functions, including restoration and strengthening of the immune system, support for growth and development in children and adolescents, consolidation of memory, learning, and emotional regulation. The lack of sufficient sleep or poor quality sleep can lead to significant health problems, such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and even cognitive decline.

The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) defines sleep as "a period of daily recurring natural rest during which consciousness is suspended and metabolic processes are reduced." However, it's important to note that the exact mechanisms and purposes of sleep are still being researched and debated among scientists.

Mianserin is a tetracyclic antidepressant (TCA) that is primarily used to treat major depressive disorders. It functions by inhibiting the reuptake of neurotransmitters such as serotonin and noradrenaline, thereby increasing their availability in the brain and helping to alleviate symptoms of depression.

Mianserin also has additional properties, including antihistamine and anti-cholinergic effects, which can help reduce some side effects commonly associated with other antidepressants, such as insomnia and agitation. However, these same properties can also lead to side effects such as drowsiness, dry mouth, and orthostatic hypotension (a drop in blood pressure upon standing).

It's important to note that mianserin is not commonly prescribed due to its narrow therapeutic index and the risk of serious side effects, including agranulocytosis (a severe decrease in white blood cells), which can increase the risk of infection. As with any medication, it should only be taken under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Factor analysis is a statistical technique used to identify patterns or structures in a dataset by explaining the correlations between variables. It is a method of simplifying complex data by reducing it to a smaller set of underlying factors that can explain most of the variation in the data. In other words, factor analysis is a way to uncover hidden relationships between multiple variables and group them into meaningful categories or factors.

In factor analysis, each variable is represented as a linear combination of underlying factors, where the factors are unobserved variables that cannot be directly measured but can only be inferred from the observed data. The goal is to identify these underlying factors and determine their relationships with the observed variables. This technique is commonly used in various fields such as psychology, social sciences, marketing, and biomedical research to explore complex datasets and gain insights into the underlying structure of the data.

There are two main types of factor analysis: exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). EFA is used when there is no prior knowledge about the underlying factors, and the goal is to discover the potential structure in the data. CFA, on the other hand, is used when there is a theoretical framework or hypothesis about the underlying factors, and the goal is to test whether the observed data support this framework or hypothesis.

In summary, factor analysis is a statistical method for reducing complex datasets into simpler components called factors, which can help researchers identify patterns, structures, and relationships in the data.

Amitriptyline is a type of medication known as a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA). It is primarily used to treat depression, but it also has other therapeutic uses such as managing chronic pain, migraine prevention, and treating anxiety disorders. Amitriptyline works by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters (chemical messengers) in the brain, such as serotonin and norepinephrine, which help to regulate mood and alleviate pain.

The medication is available in various forms, including tablets and liquid solutions, and it is typically taken orally. The dosage of amitriptyline may vary depending on the individual's age, medical condition, and response to treatment. It is essential to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully when taking this medication.

Common side effects of amitriptyline include drowsiness, dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, and weight gain. In some cases, it may cause more severe side effects such as orthostatic hypotension (low blood pressure upon standing), cardiac arrhythmias, and seizures. It is crucial to inform the healthcare provider of any pre-existing medical conditions or current medications before starting amitriptyline therapy, as these factors can influence its safety and efficacy.

Amitriptyline has a well-established history in clinical practice, but it may not be suitable for everyone due to its potential side effects and drug interactions. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare professional before using this medication.

The cerebral cortex is the outermost layer of the brain, characterized by its intricate folded structure and wrinkled appearance. It is a region of great importance as it plays a key role in higher cognitive functions such as perception, consciousness, thought, memory, language, and attention. The cerebral cortex is divided into two hemispheres, each containing four lobes: the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. These areas are responsible for different functions, with some regions specializing in sensory processing while others are involved in motor control or associative functions. The cerebral cortex is composed of gray matter, which contains neuronal cell bodies, and is covered by a layer of white matter that consists mainly of myelinated nerve fibers.

A serotonin receptor, specifically the 5-HT2A subtype (5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptor), is a type of G protein-coupled receptor found in the cell membrane. It is activated by the neurotransmitter serotonin and plays a role in regulating various physiological processes, including mood, cognition, sleep, and sensory perception.

The 5-HT2A receptor is widely distributed throughout the central nervous system and has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and migraine. It is also the primary target of several psychoactive drugs, including hallucinogens like LSD and psilocybin, as well as atypical antipsychotics used to treat conditions like schizophrenia.

The 5-HT2A receptor signals through a G protein called Gq, which activates a signaling cascade that ultimately leads to the activation of phospholipase C and the production of second messengers such as inositol trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG). These second messengers then go on to modulate various cellular processes, including the release of neurotransmitters and the regulation of gene expression.

Epidemiologic methods are systematic approaches used to investigate and understand the distribution, determinants, and outcomes of health-related events or diseases in a population. These methods are applied to study the patterns of disease occurrence and transmission, identify risk factors and causes, and evaluate interventions for prevention and control. The core components of epidemiologic methods include:

1. Descriptive Epidemiology: This involves the systematic collection and analysis of data on the who, what, when, and where of health events to describe their distribution in a population. It includes measures such as incidence, prevalence, mortality, and morbidity rates, as well as geographic and temporal patterns.

2. Analytical Epidemiology: This involves the use of statistical methods to examine associations between potential risk factors and health outcomes. It includes observational studies (cohort, case-control, cross-sectional) and experimental studies (randomized controlled trials). The goal is to identify causal relationships and quantify the strength of associations.

3. Experimental Epidemiology: This involves the design and implementation of interventions or experiments to test hypotheses about disease prevention and control. It includes randomized controlled trials, community trials, and other experimental study designs.

4. Surveillance and Monitoring: This involves ongoing systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health-related data for early detection, tracking, and response to health events or diseases.

5. Ethical Considerations: Epidemiologic studies must adhere to ethical principles such as respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. This includes obtaining informed consent, ensuring confidentiality, and minimizing harm to study participants.

Overall, epidemiologic methods provide a framework for investigating and understanding the complex interplay between host, agent, and environmental factors that contribute to the occurrence of health-related events or diseases in populations.

"Patient dropouts" is a term used in clinical research and medical settings to refer to participants who withdraw or discontinue their participation in a treatment plan, clinical trial, or study before its completion. The reasons for patient dropouts can vary widely and may include factors such as adverse effects of the treatment, lack of efficacy, financial constraints, relocation, loss of interest, or personal reasons. High patient dropout rates can impact the validity and generalizability of research findings, making it challenging to assess the long-term safety and effectiveness of a particular intervention or treatment. Therefore, understanding and addressing the factors that contribute to patient dropouts is an important consideration in clinical research and practice.

The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) is a widely used clinician-rated scale for assessing the severity of psychopathology in individuals with mental illness. It consists of 18 items, each rated on a 7-point scale (1=not present to 7=extremely severe), that measure various symptoms such as depression, anxiety, hostility, hallucinations, and unusual thoughts. The BPRS is often used in research and clinical settings to monitor treatment response and symptom changes over time.

Conversion disorder is a mental health condition that is characterized by the presence of neurological symptoms, such as blindness, paralysis, or difficulty swallowing, that cannot be explained by a medical condition. These symptoms are thought to be caused by psychological factors, such as stress or trauma, and may be a way for the individual to express emotional distress or avoid certain situations.

The symptoms of conversion disorder are typically dramatic and can interfere significantly with a person's daily life. They may include:

* Loss of or alteration in physical senses (such as blindness, deafness, or loss of touch)
* Weakness or paralysis in a part or all of the body
* Difficulty swallowing or speaking
* Seizures or convulsions
* Inability to move certain parts of the body
* Tremors or shaking
* Loss of consciousness

It is important to note that conversion disorder is not a fake or intentional condition. Rather, it is a genuine medical condition that requires treatment. Treatment typically involves addressing any underlying psychological issues and helping the individual develop more effective ways of coping with stress and emotional distress.

Anger is a normal and adaptive human emotion, which can be defined as a negative emotional state that involves feelings of annoyance, irritation, hostility, and aggression towards someone or something that has caused harm, injury, or unfair treatment. It is a complex emotional response that can have physical, mental, and behavioral components.

Physiologically, anger triggers the release of stress hormones such as adrenaline, which prepares the body for a fight-or-flight response. This can result in symptoms such as increased heart rate, rapid breathing, and heightened sensory perception.

In terms of mental and behavioral components, anger can manifest as thoughts of revenge, verbal or physical aggression, or passive-aggressive behaviors. Chronic or uncontrolled anger can have negative impacts on one's health, relationships, and overall quality of life.

It is important to note that while anger is a normal emotion, it becomes a problem when it leads to harmful behaviors or interferes with daily functioning. In such cases, seeking professional help from a mental health provider may be necessary to learn healthy coping mechanisms and manage anger effectively.

'Behavior' is a term used in the medical and scientific community to describe the actions or reactions of an individual in response to internal or external stimuli. It can be observed and measured, and it involves all the responses of a person, including motor responses, emotional responses, and cognitive responses. Behaviors can be voluntary or involuntary, adaptive or maladaptive, and normal or abnormal. They can also be influenced by genetic, physiological, environmental, and social factors. In a medical context, the study of behavior is often relevant to understanding and treating various mental health conditions, such as anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and personality disorders.

In a medical or psychological context, attention is the cognitive process of selectively concentrating on certain aspects of the environment while ignoring other things. It involves focusing mental resources on specific stimuli, sensory inputs, or internal thoughts while blocking out irrelevant distractions. Attention can be divided into different types, including:

1. Sustained attention: The ability to maintain focus on a task or stimulus over time.
2. Selective attention: The ability to concentrate on relevant stimuli while ignoring irrelevant ones.
3. Divided attention: The capacity to pay attention to multiple tasks or stimuli simultaneously.
4. Alternating attention: The skill of shifting focus between different tasks or stimuli as needed.

Deficits in attention are common symptoms of various neurological and psychiatric conditions, such as ADHD, dementia, depression, and anxiety disorders. Assessment of attention is an essential part of neuropsychological evaluations and can be measured using various tests and tasks.

A learning disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects an individual's ability to acquire, process, and use information in one or more academic areas despite normal intelligence and adequate instruction. It can manifest as difficulties with reading (dyslexia), writing (dysgraphia), mathematics (dyscalculia), or other academic skills. Learning disorders are not the result of low intelligence, lack of motivation, or environmental factors alone, but rather reflect a significant discrepancy between an individual's cognitive abilities and their academic achievement. They can significantly impact a person's ability to perform in school, at work, and in daily life, making it important to diagnose and manage these disorders effectively.

Patient acceptance of health care refers to the willingness and ability of a patient to follow and engage in a recommended treatment plan or healthcare regimen. This involves understanding the proposed medical interventions, considering their potential benefits and risks, and making an informed decision to proceed with the recommended course of action.

The factors that influence patient acceptance can include:

1. Patient's understanding of their condition and treatment options
2. Trust in their healthcare provider
3. Personal beliefs and values related to health and illness
4. Cultural, linguistic, or socioeconomic barriers
5. Emotional responses to the diagnosis or proposed treatment
6. Practical considerations, such as cost, time commitment, or potential side effects

Healthcare providers play a crucial role in facilitating patient acceptance by clearly communicating information, addressing concerns and questions, and providing support throughout the decision-making process. Encouraging shared decision-making and tailoring care plans to individual patient needs and preferences can also enhance patient acceptance of health care.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "swimming" is not typically considered a medical term. It refers to the act of moving through water using your arms and legs in a rhythmic pattern, often as a form of exercise, recreation, or competition. However, if you're referring to a medical condition related to swimming, such as "swimmer's ear" (otitis externa), I would be happy to provide a definition for that.

Swimmer's ear is a type of outer ear infection caused by water remaining in the ear after swimming or bathing, creating a moist environment that can lead to bacterial growth. It can also be caused by scratching or damaging the lining of the ear canal through the use of cotton swabs or other objects. Symptoms may include itching, redness, pain, and sometimes discharge from the ear. If left untreated, swimmer's ear can lead to more serious complications, such as hearing loss or damage to the inner ear.

Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is a systematic process used to compare the costs and benefits of different options to determine which one provides the greatest net benefit. In a medical context, CBA can be used to evaluate the value of medical interventions, treatments, or policies by estimating and monetizing all the relevant costs and benefits associated with each option.

The costs included in a CBA may include direct costs such as the cost of the intervention or treatment itself, as well as indirect costs such as lost productivity or time away from work. Benefits may include improved health outcomes, reduced morbidity or mortality, and increased quality of life.

Once all the relevant costs and benefits have been identified and quantified, they are typically expressed in monetary terms to allow for a direct comparison. The option with the highest net benefit (i.e., the difference between total benefits and total costs) is considered the most cost-effective.

It's important to note that CBA has some limitations and can be subject to various biases and assumptions, so it should be used in conjunction with other evaluation methods to ensure a comprehensive understanding of the value of medical interventions or policies.

Reference values, also known as reference ranges or reference intervals, are the set of values that are considered normal or typical for a particular population or group of people. These values are often used in laboratory tests to help interpret test results and determine whether a patient's value falls within the expected range.

The process of establishing reference values typically involves measuring a particular biomarker or parameter in a large, healthy population and then calculating the mean and standard deviation of the measurements. Based on these statistics, a range is established that includes a certain percentage of the population (often 95%) and excludes extreme outliers.

It's important to note that reference values can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, race, and other demographic characteristics. Therefore, it's essential to use reference values that are specific to the relevant population when interpreting laboratory test results. Additionally, reference values may change over time due to advances in measurement technology or changes in the population being studied.

I must clarify that there is no such thing as "Schizophrenic Psychology." The term schizophrenia is used to describe a specific and serious mental disorder that affects how a person thinks, feels, and behaves. It's important not to use the term casually or inaccurately, as it can perpetuate stigma and misunderstanding about the condition.

Schizophrenia is characterized by symptoms such as hallucinations (hearing or seeing things that aren't there), delusions (false beliefs that are not based on reality), disorganized speech, and grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior. These symptoms can impair a person's ability to function in daily life, maintain relationships, and experience emotions appropriately.

If you have any questions related to mental health conditions or psychology, I would be happy to provide accurate information and definitions.

Reaction time, in the context of medicine and physiology, refers to the time period between the presentation of a stimulus and the subsequent initiation of a response. This complex process involves the central nervous system, particularly the brain, which perceives the stimulus, processes it, and then sends signals to the appropriate muscles or glands to react.

There are different types of reaction times, including simple reaction time (responding to a single, expected stimulus) and choice reaction time (choosing an appropriate response from multiple possibilities). These measures can be used in clinical settings to assess various aspects of neurological function, such as cognitive processing speed, motor control, and alertness.

However, it is important to note that reaction times can be influenced by several factors, including age, fatigue, attention, and the use of certain medications or substances.

In a medical context, efficiency generally refers to the ability to achieve a desired outcome with minimal waste of time, effort, or resources. It can be applied to various aspects of healthcare, including the delivery of clinical services, the use of medical treatments and interventions, and the operation of health systems and organizations. High levels of efficiency can help to improve patient outcomes, increase access to care, and reduce costs.

A matched-pair analysis is a type of statistical analysis used in epidemiological or clinical research to reduce or control confounding and increase the power of a study. In this approach, pairs of subjects are created who are similar to each other with respect to certain covariates or potential confounders, such as age, sex, race, or disease severity. One member of the pair is then exposed to the factor of interest (e.g., a treatment or risk factor), while the other member is not. By comparing outcomes between the exposed and non-exposed members of each pair, researchers can better isolate the effects of the exposure from the influence of confounding variables.

This technique is particularly useful in observational studies where random assignment to exposure groups is not possible or ethical. However, it's important to note that matching on too many variables or selecting inappropriate matching criteria can actually reduce the generalizability and power of the study. Therefore, careful consideration should be given when designing a matched-pair analysis.

I am not aware of a specific medical definition for the term "China." Generally, it is used to refer to:

1. The People's Republic of China (PRC), which is a country in East Asia. It is the most populous country in the world and the fourth largest by geographical area. Its capital city is Beijing.
2. In a historical context, "China" was used to refer to various dynasties and empires that existed in East Asia over thousands of years. The term "Middle Kingdom" or "Zhongguo" (中国) has been used by the Chinese people to refer to their country for centuries.
3. In a more general sense, "China" can also be used to describe products or goods that originate from or are associated with the People's Republic of China.

If you have a specific context in which you encountered the term "China" related to medicine, please provide it so I can give a more accurate response.

In the context of medicine and healthcare, "individuality" refers to the unique characteristics, traits, and needs that distinguish one person from another. This concept recognizes that each patient is a distinct individual with their own genetic makeup, lifestyle factors, personal history, and social circumstances, all of which can influence their health status and response to medical interventions.

Individuality in healthcare emphasizes the importance of tailoring medical treatments and care plans to meet the specific needs and preferences of each patient, rather than relying on a one-size-fits-all approach. This personalized approach can lead to better outcomes, improved patient satisfaction, and reduced healthcare costs.

Factors that contribute to an individual's medical individuality include their genetic makeup, epigenetic factors, environmental exposures, lifestyle choices (such as diet, exercise, and substance use), and social determinants of health (such as income, education, and access to care). All of these factors can interact in complex ways to influence a person's health status and risk for disease.

Recognizing and respecting individuality is essential for providing high-quality, patient-centered care. Healthcare providers who take the time to understand their patients' unique needs and preferences are better able to build trust, promote adherence to treatment plans, and achieve positive outcomes.

Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage. It is a complex phenomenon that can result from various stimuli, such as thermal, mechanical, or chemical irritation, and it can be acute or chronic. The perception of pain involves the activation of specialized nerve cells called nociceptors, which transmit signals to the brain via the spinal cord. These signals are then processed in different regions of the brain, leading to the conscious experience of pain. It's important to note that pain is a highly individual and subjective experience, and its perception can vary widely among individuals.

Schizotypal Personality Disorder is defined by the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as a pervasive pattern of social and interpersonal deficits marked by acute discomfort with, and reduced capacity for, close relationships, as well as by cognitive or perceptual distortions and eccentricities of behavior. The disorder is often characterized by individuals having difficulty with expressing emotions and relating to others. They may also experience unusual perceptions, such as hearing voices or seeing things that aren't there, but these are not as severe as in Schizophrenia. It is important to note that this disorder can cause significant distress and impairment in social, occupational, and other areas of functioning.

Executive function is a term used to describe a set of cognitive processes that are necessary for the control and regulation of thought and behavior. These functions include:

1. Working memory: The ability to hold and manipulate information in mind over short periods of time.
2. Cognitive flexibility: The ability to switch between tasks or mental sets, and to adapt to new rules and situations.
3. Inhibitory control: The ability to inhibit or delay automatic responses, and to resist impulses and distractions.
4. Planning and organization: The ability to plan and organize actions, and to manage time and resources effectively.
5. Problem-solving: The ability to analyze problems, generate solutions, and evaluate the outcomes of actions.
6. Decision-making: The ability to weigh risks and benefits, and to make informed choices based on available information.
7. Emotional regulation: The ability to manage and regulate emotions, and to respond appropriately to social cues and situations.

Executive functions are primarily controlled by the frontal lobes of the brain, and they play a critical role in goal-directed behavior, problem-solving, decision-making, and self-regulation. Deficits in executive function can have significant impacts on daily life, including difficulties with academic performance, work productivity, social relationships, and mental health.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "parents" is not a term that has a medical definition. In general usage, parents are the two people (typically) who bring up and care for a child, or who have given birth to or adopted a child. They are responsible for the child's housing, food, clothing, education, and medical care. Is there a specific medical or healthcare-related context you had in mind? I would be happy to help further if I can.

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of drugs that work by blocking the action of monoamine oxidase, an enzyme found in the brain and other organs of the body. This enzyme is responsible for breaking down certain neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, which are chemicals that transmit signals in the brain.

By inhibiting the action of monoamine oxidase, MAOIs increase the levels of these neurotransmitters in the brain, which can help to alleviate symptoms of depression and other mood disorders. However, MAOIs also affect other chemicals in the body, including tyramine, a substance found in some foods and beverages, as well as certain medications. As a result, MAOIs can have serious side effects and interactions with other substances, making them a less commonly prescribed class of antidepressants than other types of drugs.

MAOIs are typically used as a last resort when other treatments for depression have failed, due to their potential for dangerous interactions and side effects. They require careful monitoring and dosage adjustment by a healthcare provider, and patients must follow strict dietary restrictions while taking them.

Combination drug therapy is a treatment approach that involves the use of multiple medications with different mechanisms of action to achieve better therapeutic outcomes. This approach is often used in the management of complex medical conditions such as cancer, HIV/AIDS, and cardiovascular diseases. The goal of combination drug therapy is to improve efficacy, reduce the risk of drug resistance, decrease the likelihood of adverse effects, and enhance the overall quality of life for patients.

In combining drugs, healthcare providers aim to target various pathways involved in the disease process, which may help to:

1. Increase the effectiveness of treatment by attacking the disease from multiple angles.
2. Decrease the dosage of individual medications, reducing the risk and severity of side effects.
3. Slow down or prevent the development of drug resistance, a common problem in chronic diseases like HIV/AIDS and cancer.
4. Improve patient compliance by simplifying dosing schedules and reducing pill burden.

Examples of combination drug therapy include:

1. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV treatment, which typically involves three or more drugs from different classes to suppress viral replication and prevent the development of drug resistance.
2. Chemotherapy regimens for cancer treatment, where multiple cytotoxic agents are used to target various stages of the cell cycle and reduce the likelihood of tumor cells developing resistance.
3. Cardiovascular disease management, which may involve combining medications such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, beta-blockers, diuretics, and statins to control blood pressure, heart rate, fluid balance, and cholesterol levels.
4. Treatment of tuberculosis, which often involves a combination of several antibiotics to target different aspects of the bacterial life cycle and prevent the development of drug-resistant strains.

When prescribing combination drug therapy, healthcare providers must carefully consider factors such as potential drug interactions, dosing schedules, adverse effects, and contraindications to ensure safe and effective treatment. Regular monitoring of patients is essential to assess treatment response, manage side effects, and adjust the treatment plan as needed.

Adolescent psychology is a branch of psychology that focuses on the study of adolescents, their behavior, thoughts, and emotions. This field examines the cognitive, social, and emotional development of adolescents, as well as any challenges or mental health issues they may face during this stage of life. It also involves the application of psychological theories and principles to promote positive adolescent development and address adolescent mental health concerns. Adolescent psychologists work in various settings, including schools, clinics, hospitals, and private practices, providing assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and counseling services to adolescents and their families.

"Age distribution" is a term used to describe the number of individuals within a population or sample that fall into different age categories. It is often presented in the form of a graph, table, or chart, and can provide important information about the demographic structure of a population.

The age distribution of a population can be influenced by a variety of factors, including birth rates, mortality rates, migration patterns, and aging. Public health officials and researchers use age distribution data to inform policies and programs related to healthcare, social services, and other areas that affect the well-being of populations.

For example, an age distribution graph might show a larger number of individuals in the younger age categories, indicating a population with a high birth rate. Alternatively, it might show a larger number of individuals in the older age categories, indicating a population with a high life expectancy or an aging population. Understanding the age distribution of a population can help policymakers plan for future needs and allocate resources more effectively.

Genetic linkage is the phenomenon where two or more genetic loci (locations on a chromosome) tend to be inherited together because they are close to each other on the same chromosome. This occurs during the process of sexual reproduction, where homologous chromosomes pair up and exchange genetic material through a process called crossing over.

The closer two loci are to each other on a chromosome, the lower the probability that they will be separated by a crossover event. As a result, they are more likely to be inherited together and are said to be linked. The degree of linkage between two loci can be measured by their recombination frequency, which is the percentage of meiotic events in which a crossover occurs between them.

Linkage analysis is an important tool in genetic research, as it allows researchers to identify and map genes that are associated with specific traits or diseases. By analyzing patterns of linkage between markers (identifiable DNA sequences) and phenotypes (observable traits), researchers can infer the location of genes that contribute to those traits or diseases on chromosomes.

A haplotype is a group of genes or DNA sequences that are inherited together from a single parent. It refers to a combination of alleles (variant forms of a gene) that are located on the same chromosome and are usually transmitted as a unit. Haplotypes can be useful in tracing genetic ancestry, understanding the genetic basis of diseases, and developing personalized medical treatments.

In population genetics, haplotypes are often used to study patterns of genetic variation within and between populations. By comparing haplotype frequencies across populations, researchers can infer historical events such as migrations, population expansions, and bottlenecks. Additionally, haplotypes can provide information about the evolutionary history of genes and genomic regions.

In clinical genetics, haplotypes can be used to identify genetic risk factors for diseases or to predict an individual's response to certain medications. For example, specific haplotypes in the HLA gene region have been associated with increased susceptibility to certain autoimmune diseases, while other haplotypes in the CYP450 gene family can affect how individuals metabolize drugs.

Overall, haplotypes provide a powerful tool for understanding the genetic basis of complex traits and diseases, as well as for developing personalized medical treatments based on an individual's genetic makeup.

In the context of medicine, risk is the probability or likelihood of an adverse health effect or the occurrence of a negative event related to treatment or exposure to certain hazards. It is usually expressed as a ratio or percentage and can be influenced by various factors such as age, gender, lifestyle, genetics, and environmental conditions. Risk assessment involves identifying, quantifying, and prioritizing risks to make informed decisions about prevention, mitigation, or treatment strategies.

Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) is a type of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that allows for the measurement and visualization of water diffusion in biological tissues, particularly in the brain. DTI provides information about the microstructural organization and integrity of nerve fibers within the brain by measuring the directionality of water diffusion in the brain's white matter tracts.

In DTI, a tensor is used to describe the three-dimensional diffusion properties of water molecules in each voxel (three-dimensional pixel) of an MRI image. The tensor provides information about the magnitude and direction of water diffusion, which can be used to calculate various diffusion metrics such as fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD). These metrics provide insights into the structural properties of nerve fibers, including their orientation, density, and integrity.

DTI has numerous clinical applications, such as in the diagnosis and monitoring of neurological disorders like multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, and neurodegenerative diseases. It can also be used for presurgical planning to identify critical white matter tracts that need to be preserved during surgery.

Fear is a basic human emotion that is typically characterized by a strong feeling of anxiety, apprehension, or distress in response to a perceived threat or danger. It is a natural and adaptive response that helps individuals identify and respond to potential dangers in their environment, and it can manifest as physical, emotional, and cognitive symptoms.

Physical symptoms of fear may include increased heart rate, rapid breathing, sweating, trembling, and muscle tension. Emotional symptoms may include feelings of anxiety, worry, or panic, while cognitive symptoms may include difficulty concentrating, racing thoughts, and intrusive thoughts about the perceived threat.

Fear can be a normal and adaptive response to real dangers, but it can also become excessive or irrational in some cases, leading to phobias, anxiety disorders, and other mental health conditions. In these cases, professional help may be necessary to manage and overcome the fear.

"Motor activity" is a general term used in the field of medicine and neuroscience to refer to any kind of physical movement or action that is generated by the body's motor system. The motor system includes the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and muscles that work together to produce movements such as walking, talking, reaching for an object, or even subtle actions like moving your eyes.

Motor activity can be voluntary, meaning it is initiated intentionally by the individual, or involuntary, meaning it is triggered automatically by the nervous system without conscious control. Examples of voluntary motor activity include deliberately lifting your arm or kicking a ball, while examples of involuntary motor activity include heartbeat, digestion, and reflex actions like jerking your hand away from a hot stove.

Abnormalities in motor activity can be a sign of neurological or muscular disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, cerebral palsy, or multiple sclerosis. Assessment of motor activity is often used in the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

In the context of medicine, problem-solving refers to the cognitive process by which healthcare professionals identify, analyze, and address clinical issues or challenges in order to provide optimal care for their patients. This may involve gathering relevant information, generating potential solutions, evaluating their feasibility and risks, selecting the most appropriate course of action, and implementing and monitoring the chosen intervention. Effective problem-solving skills are essential for making informed decisions, improving patient outcomes, and reducing medical errors.

Ambulatory care is a type of health care service in which patients are treated on an outpatient basis, meaning they do not stay overnight at the medical facility. This can include a wide range of services such as diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up care for various medical conditions. The goal of ambulatory care is to provide high-quality medical care that is convenient, accessible, and cost-effective for patients.

Examples of ambulatory care settings include physician offices, community health centers, urgent care centers, outpatient surgery centers, and diagnostic imaging facilities. Patients who receive ambulatory care may have a variety of medical needs, such as routine checkups, chronic disease management, minor procedures, or same-day surgeries.

Overall, ambulatory care is an essential component of modern healthcare systems, providing patients with timely and convenient access to medical services without the need for hospitalization.

Riluzole is a prescription medication that is primarily used in the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig's disease. It is a benzothiazole derivative that acts as a glutamate antagonist, reducing the release of the neurotransmitter glutamate in the brain and spinal cord.

Glutamate is an important excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, but excessive levels of glutamate can lead to neuronal damage and death, which is believed to contribute to the progression of ALS. By reducing glutamate levels, Riluzole may help slow down the degeneration of motor neurons and prolong survival in people with ALS.

Riluzole is available as a tablet or liquid formulation and is typically taken twice daily. Common side effects include dizziness, gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea and vomiting, and liver enzyme elevations. Riluzole should be used with caution in patients with liver impairment and should not be used in those with a history of hypersensitivity to the drug or its components.

I am not a medical professional, but I can provide you with some general information about parenting from a psychological and sociological perspective. Parenting is the process of promoting and supporting the physical, emotional, social, and intellectual development of a child or children. It involves caring for their daily needs, providing a safe and nurturing environment, setting boundaries and expectations, modeling appropriate behavior, and fostering healthy relationships and communication skills. Parents also help their children develop coping strategies, resilience, and self-esteem by encouraging them to explore their interests, express their feelings, and learn from their mistakes. Effective parenting often requires patience, consistency, empathy, and adaptability, as the needs and developmental stages of children can vary widely.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Urban Population" is not a medical term. It is a demographic term used to describe the portion of a country's population that lives in areas classified as urban. The United Nations defines an urban area as a city, town, or other agglomeration with a population of 20,000 or more. However, the specific definition can vary by country and organization.

In contrast, medical terms typically refer to conditions, diseases, symptoms, treatments, or healthcare-related concepts. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to help if I can!

Neurons, also known as nerve cells or neurocytes, are specialized cells that constitute the basic unit of the nervous system. They are responsible for receiving, processing, and transmitting information and signals within the body. Neurons have three main parts: the dendrites, the cell body (soma), and the axon. The dendrites receive signals from other neurons or sensory receptors, while the axon transmits these signals to other neurons, muscles, or glands. The junction between two neurons is called a synapse, where neurotransmitters are released to transmit the signal across the gap (synaptic cleft) to the next neuron. Neurons vary in size, shape, and structure depending on their function and location within the nervous system.

**Referral:**
A referral in the medical context is the process where a healthcare professional (such as a general practitioner or primary care physician) sends or refers a patient to another healthcare professional who has specialized knowledge and skills to address the patient's specific health condition or concern. This could be a specialist, a consultant, or a facility that provides specialized care. The referral may involve transferring the patient's care entirely to the other professional or may simply be for a consultation and advice.

**Consultation:**
A consultation in healthcare is a process where a healthcare professional seeks the opinion or advice of another professional regarding a patient's medical condition. This can be done in various ways, such as face-to-face meetings, phone calls, or written correspondence. The consulting professional provides their expert opinion to assist in the diagnosis, treatment plan, or management of the patient's condition. The ultimate decision and responsibility for the patient's care typically remain with the referring or primary healthcare provider.

Hindlimb suspension is a commonly used animal model in biomedical research, particularly in the study of muscle atrophy and disuse osteoporosis. In this model, the hindlimbs of rodents (such as rats or mice) are suspended using a tape or a harness system, which elevates their limbs off the ground and prevents them from bearing weight. This state of disuse leads to significant changes in the musculoskeletal system, including muscle atrophy, bone loss, and alterations in muscle fiber type composition and architecture.

The hindlimb suspension model is often used to investigate the mechanisms underlying muscle wasting and bone loss in conditions such as spinal cord injury, bed rest, and spaceflight-induced disuse. By understanding these mechanisms, researchers can develop potential therapeutic interventions to prevent or mitigate the negative effects of disuse on the musculoskeletal system.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "object attachment" is not a term that has a specific medical definition in the way that a term like "myocardial infarction" (heart attack) or "major depressive disorder" does. It may be used in various ways in different contexts, such as in psychology or psychiatry to describe a phenomenon where an individual becomes excessively attached to an object or items, but it is not a widely recognized or standardized term in medical terminology. If you are referring to a specific concept or diagnosis and could provide more context, I would be happy to help further!

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), "disabled persons" are those who have long-term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairments which may hinder their participation in society on an equal basis with others. The term "disability" is not meant to be understood as a 'personal tragedy' but rather as a complex interaction between the features of a person's body and mind, the activities they wish to perform and the physical and social barriers they encounter in their environment.

It's important to note that the term 'disabled persons' has been largely replaced by 'people with disabilities' or 'persons with disabilities' in many contexts, as it is considered more respectful and empowering to put the person first, rather than focusing on their disability. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) uses the term "persons with disabilities" throughout its text.

Remission induction is a treatment approach in medicine, particularly in the field of oncology and hematology. It refers to the initial phase of therapy aimed at reducing or eliminating the signs and symptoms of active disease, such as cancer or autoimmune disorders. The primary goal of remission induction is to achieve a complete response (disappearance of all detectable signs of the disease) or a partial response (a decrease in the measurable extent of the disease). This phase of treatment is often intensive and may involve the use of multiple drugs or therapies, including chemotherapy, immunotherapy, or targeted therapy. After remission induction, patients may receive additional treatments to maintain the remission and prevent relapse, known as consolidation or maintenance therapy.

The Medical Definition of 'Mental Status Schedule' is:

A standardized interview and examination tool used by mental health professionals to assess an individual's cognitive, behavioral, and emotional status. The schedule typically covers areas such as orientation, attention, memory, language, visuospatial abilities, executive functions, and mood and affect. It is often used in research, clinical settings, and epidemiological studies to evaluate psychiatric and neurological conditions, as well as the effects of treatments or interventions. The specific version of the Mental Status Schedule may vary, but it generally includes a structured format with clear questions and response options to ensure standardization and reliability in the assessment process.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Estonia" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country located in Northern Europe. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try and help answer them.

Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH) is a hormone that is produced and released by the hypothalamus, a small gland located in the brain. CRH plays a critical role in the body's stress response system.

When the body experiences stress, the hypothalamus releases CRH, which then travels to the pituitary gland, another small gland located at the base of the brain. Once there, CRH stimulates the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary gland.

ACTH then travels through the bloodstream to the adrenal glands, which are located on top of the kidneys. ACTH stimulates the adrenal glands to produce and release cortisol, a hormone that helps the body respond to stress by regulating metabolism, immune function, and blood pressure, among other things.

Overall, CRH is an important part of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which regulates many bodily functions related to stress response, mood, and cognition. Dysregulation of the HPA axis and abnormal levels of CRH have been implicated in various psychiatric and medical conditions, including depression, anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and Cushing's syndrome.

The basal ganglia are a group of interconnected nuclei, or clusters of neurons, located in the base of the brain. They play a crucial role in regulating motor function, cognition, and emotion. The main components of the basal ganglia include the striatum (made up of the caudate nucleus, putamen, and ventral striatum), globus pallidus (divided into external and internal segments), subthalamic nucleus, and substantia nigra (with its pars compacta and pars reticulata).

The basal ganglia receive input from various regions of the cerebral cortex and other brain areas. They process this information and send output back to the thalamus and cortex, helping to modulate and coordinate movement. The basal ganglia also contribute to higher cognitive functions such as learning, decision-making, and habit formation. Dysfunction in the basal ganglia can lead to neurological disorders like Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and dystonia.

Clinical protocols, also known as clinical practice guidelines or care paths, are systematically developed statements that assist healthcare professionals and patients in making decisions about the appropriate healthcare for specific clinical circumstances. They are based on a thorough evaluation of the available scientific evidence and consist of a set of recommendations that are designed to optimize patient outcomes, improve the quality of care, and reduce unnecessary variations in practice. Clinical protocols may cover a wide range of topics, including diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and disease prevention, and are developed by professional organizations, government agencies, and other groups with expertise in the relevant field.

Health care costs refer to the expenses incurred for medical services, treatments, procedures, and products that are used to maintain or restore an individual's health. These costs can be categorized into several types:

1. Direct costs: These include payments made for doctor visits, hospital stays, medications, diagnostic tests, surgeries, and other medical treatments and services. Direct costs can be further divided into two subcategories:
* Out-of-pocket costs: Expenses paid directly by patients, such as co-payments, deductibles, coinsurance, and any uncovered medical services or products.
* Third-party payer costs: Expenses covered by insurance companies, government programs (like Medicare, Medicaid), or other entities that pay for health care services on behalf of patients.
2. Indirect costs: These are the expenses incurred as a result of illness or injury that indirectly impact an individual's ability to work and earn a living. Examples include lost productivity, absenteeism, reduced earning capacity, and disability benefits.
3. Non-medical costs: These are expenses related to caregiving, transportation, home modifications, assistive devices, and other non-medical services required for managing health conditions or disabilities.

Health care costs can vary significantly depending on factors such as the type of medical service, geographic location, insurance coverage, and individual health status. Understanding these costs is essential for patients, healthcare providers, policymakers, and researchers to make informed decisions about treatment options, resource allocation, and health system design.

In the context of healthcare and medical psychology, motivation refers to the driving force behind an individual's goal-oriented behavior. It is the internal or external stimuli that initiate, direct, and sustain a person's actions towards achieving their desired outcomes. Motivation can be influenced by various factors such as biological needs, personal values, emotional states, and social contexts.

In clinical settings, healthcare professionals often assess patients' motivation to engage in treatment plans, adhere to medical recommendations, or make lifestyle changes necessary for improving their health status. Enhancing a patient's motivation can significantly impact their ability to manage chronic conditions, recover from illnesses, and maintain overall well-being. Various motivational interviewing techniques and interventions are employed by healthcare providers to foster intrinsic motivation and support patients in achieving their health goals.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Finland" is not a medical term. It is a country located in Northern Europe, known officially as the Republic of Finland. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

I must clarify that the term "pedigree" is not typically used in medical definitions. Instead, it is often employed in genetics and breeding, where it refers to the recorded ancestry of an individual or a family, tracing the inheritance of specific traits or diseases. In human genetics, a pedigree can help illustrate the pattern of genetic inheritance in families over multiple generations. However, it is not a medical term with a specific clinical definition.

Behavior therapy is a type of psychotherapy that focuses on modifying harmful or unhealthy behaviors, thoughts, and emotions by applying learning principles derived from behavioral psychology. The goal of behavior therapy is to reinforce positive behaviors and eliminate negative ones through various techniques such as systematic desensitization, aversion therapy, exposure therapy, and operant conditioning.

Systematic desensitization involves gradually exposing the individual to a feared situation or stimulus while teaching them relaxation techniques to reduce anxiety. Aversion therapy aims to associate an undesirable behavior with an unpleasant stimulus to discourage the behavior. Exposure therapy exposes the individual to a feared situation or object in a controlled and safe environment to help them overcome their fear. Operant conditioning uses reinforcement and punishment to encourage desirable behaviors and discourage undesirable ones.

Behavior therapy has been found to be effective in treating various mental health conditions, including anxiety disorders, phobias, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and substance use disorders. It is often used in combination with other forms of therapy and medication to provide a comprehensive treatment plan for individuals seeking help for mental health concerns.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

In a medical or occupational health context, "work" is often used to refer to physical or mental activities that require energy expenditure and are performed as part of a job, daily routine, or exercise. However, there is also a specific medical concept called "work" that is used in the field of ergonomics and musculoskeletal disorders.

In this context, work is defined as the product of force and distance, measured in joules (J) or newton-meters (Nm). It can be used to describe the amount of physical effort required to perform a specific task or activity, such as lifting an object or operating a machine.

For example, if a worker lifts a box that weighs 10 kilograms (kg) and raises it to a height of 0.5 meters (m), the work done can be calculated as follows:

Work = Force x Distance
Force = weight of the object (mass x gravity)
Distance = height raised

Force = 10 kg x 9.8 m/s^2 (acceleration due to gravity) = 98 N (newtons)
Work = 98 N x 0.5 m = 49 J or 49 Nm

This measurement of work can help assess the physical demands of a job and identify potential risk factors for musculoskeletal injuries, such as overexertion or repetitive strain.

... persistent depressive disorder, and minor depressive disorder. Dysthymic disorder was a subsection in the DSM-IV-TR under mood ... "Persistent Depressive Disorder (Dysthymia)". There are differences between persistent depressive disorder and minor depressive ... Minor depressive disorder is very similar to major depressive disorder in the symptoms present. Generally, a person's mood is ... Minor depressive disorder differs from major depressive disorder in the number of symptoms present with 5 or more symptoms ...
Under mood disorders, ICD-11 classifies major depressive disorder as either single episode depressive disorder (where there is ... 6A70 Single episode depressive disorder and 6A71 Recurrent depressive disorder "Diagnostic Criteria for Major Depressive ... These two disorders are classified as "Depressive disorders", in the category of "Mood disorders". According to DSM-5, there ... Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known as clinical depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of ...
Many researchers believe that depressive personality disorder is so highly comorbid with other depressive disorders, manic- ... Any individual depressive may exhibit none, or one or more of the following: Not all patients with a depressive disorder fall ... Dysthymic disorder is diagnosed by looking at the somatic senses, the more tangible senses. Depressive personality disorder is ... Depressive personality disorder (also known as melancholic personality disorder) is a psychiatric diagnosis that denotes a ...
"Mixed Anxiety-Depressive Disorder". Disorders.org. "Mixed Anxiety-Depressive Disorder: Definition, Causes, and Treatment". ... Around 60% of individuals with major depressive disorder also experience a form of anxiety disorder, so the disorders are often ... mixed anxiety-depressive disorder is often not as severe or with less symptoms than comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders. ... Mixed anxiety-depressive disorder (MADD) is a diagnostic category defining patients who have both anxiety and depressive ...
... (DD-NOS) is designated by the code 311 in the DSM-IV for depressive disorders that ... A diagnosis of the disorder will look like: "Depressive Disorder NOS 311". Accurately assessing for a specific Depressive ... Examples of disorders in this category include those sometimes described as minor depressive disorder and recurrent brief ... According to the DSM-IV, DD-NOS encompasses "any depressive disorder that does not meet the criteria for a specific disorder." ...
... s are a class of medications used to treat major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, chronic pain, and ... Work Group on Major Depressive Disorder (October 2010). "Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients With Major Depressive ... Antidepressants are prescribed to treat major depressive disorder (MDD), anxiety disorders, chronic pain, and some addictions. ... "Depressive Disorders". Merck Manual. Archived from the original on 5 December 2013. Retrieved 30 November 2012. Taylor D, Carol ...
Ting EY, Yang AC, Tsai SJ (March 2020). "Role of Interleukin-6 in Depressive Disorder". International Journal of Molecular ... Slavich GM, Irwin MR (May 2014). "From stress to inflammation and major depressive disorder: a social signal transduction ... Belmaker RH, Agam G (January 2008). "Major depressive disorder". The New England Journal of Medicine. 358 (1): 55-68. doi: ... "Anti-inflammatory treatment for major depressive disorder: implications for patients with an elevated immune profile and non- ...
Belmaker RH, Agam G (January 2008). "Major depressive disorder". New England Journal of Medicine. 358 (1): 55-68. doi:10.1056/ ... Cottingham C, Wang Q (November 2012). "α2 Adrenergic receptor dysregulation in depressive disorders: implications for the ... This release of noradrenaline has a potential value in the treatment of disorders which are associated with a deficiency of ... adrenoceptors to increase brain levels of noradrenalin is insufficient as a neurobiological basis for depressive disorders, ...
... and a symptom of some mood disorders such as major depressive disorder or dysthymia. Physical causes are ruled out with a ... A round of ECT is effective for about 50% of people with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder, whether it is unipolar ... TMS was approved by the FDA for treatment-resistant major depressive disorder in 2008 and as of 2014 clinical evidence supports ... Hausenblas HA, Saha D, Dubyak PJ, Anton SD (November 2013). "Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and major depressive disorder: a meta- ...
There is some evidence to suggest that the under-functioning of CREB is associated with major depressive disorder. Depressed ... From post-mortem examinations it has also been shown that the cortices of patients with untreated major depressive disorder ... Dysfunction of these neurotransmitters is also implicated in major depressive disorder. CREB is also thought to be involved in ... Belmaker, R. H.; Agam, Galila (2008). "Major depressive disorder". New England Journal of Medicine. 358 (1): 55-68. doi:10.1056 ...
Turecki leads the Depressive Disorders Program, a clinical group that treats patients affected with major depression and ... He holds a Tier 1 Canada Research Chair Tier in Major Depressive Disorder and Suicide. He is the sitting Chair of the ... "Depressive Disorders Program". Retrieved 15 April 2020. "The Brain Bank , The Douglas Bell Canada Brain Bank". douglasbrainbank ... where he heads both the McGill Group for Suicide Studies and the Depressive Disorders Program, and is the co-director of the ...
"Major Depressive Disorder". "Data science award advisory committee". MQ: Transforming Mental Health. "Basic Science Interview ... Shen, X; Howard, DM; Adams, MJ; Hill, WD; Clarke, TK; Major Depressive Disorder Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics, ... Major Depressive Disorder Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium; Trzaskowski, M; Byrne, EM; Ripke, S; Smith, DJ ... Fellowship and a Scottish Funding Council Senior Clinical Fellowship McIntosh is co-chair of the Major Depressive Disorder ...
ISBN 0-8018-7156-5. Sekhon S, Marwaha R (2020). "Depressive Cognitive Disorders (Pseudodementia)". Stat Pearls. PMID 32644682 ... "Everyday false memories in older persons with depressive disorder." Psychiatry Research 261 (2018): 456-463. https://doi.org/ ... Berrios GE (May 1985). ""Depressive pseudodementia" or "Melancholic dementia": a 19th century view". J. Neurol. Neurosurg. ... Warrell, David; Timothy, Cox; John, Firth (2010). "Neuropsychiatric disorders". Oxford Textbook of Medicine. pp. 5268-5283. doi ...
Taylor, M. J.; Wilder, H.; Bhagwagar, Z.; Geddes, J. (2004). "Inositol for depressive disorders". The Cochrane Database of ... Obsessive-compulsive disorder, Inositol, Biology of bipolar disorder, Biology of obsessive-compulsive disorder, Chemopreventive ... Inositol has been found to have modest to moderate effects in patients with panic disorder or obsessive-compulsive disorder. ... Hair-Pulling Disorder), Excoriation (Skin-picking) Disorder, and Nail-biting (Onychophagia)". Current Neuropharmacology. 17 (8 ...
"FAQs". Hall-Flavin, Daniel K. (19 January 2016). "Depression (major depressive disorder)". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 1 September ...
"Depressive disorders in childhood. III. A longitudinal study of comorbidity with and risk for conduct disorders". Journal of ... Childhood depression is often comorbid with mental disorders outside of other mood disorders, most commonly anxiety disorder ... Lopez Molina MA, Jansen K, Drews C, Pinheiro R, Silva R, Souza L (7 May 2013). "Major depressive disorder symptoms in male and ... Research suggests that the prevalence of children with major depressive disorder in Western cultures ranges from 1.9% to 3.4% ...
LPIN2 Major depressive disorder 1; 608516; MDD1 Major depressive disorder 2; 608516; MDD2 Male infertility with large-headed, ... CTDP1 Congenital disorder of glycosylation, type Ia; 212065; PMM2 Congenital disorder of glycosylation, type Ic; 603147; ALG6 ... ALG3 Congenital disorder of glycosylation, type Ie; 608799; DPM1 Congenital disorder of glycosylation, type If; 609180; MPDU1 ... ALG12 Congenital disorder of glycosylation, type Ih; 608104; ALG8 Congenital disorder of glycosylation, type Ii; 607906; ALG2 ...
Bianchi R, Schonfeld IS, Laurent E (2014). "Is burnout a depressive disorder? A re-examination with special focus on atypical ... The two main classification systems of psychological disorders are the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ( ... found that a number of work environment factors could affect the risk of developing exhaustion disorder or depressive symptoms ... "dysthymic disorder" (a long-term and relatively mild form of depression), and the latter to "dependent personality disorder". ...
Bianchi, R., Schonfeld, I. S., & Laurent, E. (2014). Is burnout a depressive disorder? A reexamination with special focus on ... Ahola, K.; Hakenen, J. (2007). "Job strain, burnout, and depressive symptoms: A prospective study among dentists". Journal of ... Affective Disorders. 104 (1-3): 103-110. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2007.03.004. PMID 17448543. Gil-Monte, P. R. (2005). "Factorial ... should not be confused with the same term used in psychiatry and clinical psychology as a hallmark of dissociative disorder. ...
His diagnosis was major depressive disorder. Dora Leplin, a seamstress, raised Leplin, then called "Manny", by herself. Daniel ...
November 2021). "Global prevalence and burden of depressive and anxiety disorders in 204 countries and territories in 2020 due ... July 2014). "Temporal discounting in major depressive disorder". Psychological Medicine. 44 (9): 1825-1834. doi:10.1017/ ... treatment of associated disorders and lost productivity cost the U.S. more than $400 billion every year. About 40 percent of ...
Major depressive disorder, Mood disorders, Anatomy, Causes of mental disorders, Biological psychiatry, Behavioral neuroscience) ... "Subcortical brain alterations in major depressive disorder: findings from the ENIGMA Major Depressive Disorder working group". ... a meta-analysis of structural and functional alterations in major depressive disorder". Journal of Affective Disorders. 140 (2 ... In major depressive disorder, anxiety is often a part of the emotional state that characterizes depression. The Mind Fixers ...
"Depressive disorders: toward a unified hypothesis". Science. 182 (4107): 20-9. Bibcode:1973Sci...182...20A. doi:10.1126/science ... His focus on subthreshold mood disorders enlarged the boundaries of bipolar disorders. He received the gold medal for Pioneer ... He has received a number of honors for his work on temperament and bipolar spectrum disorders. Akiskal died of natural causes ... Akiskal has pioneered in the study of outpatient mood disorders. At the University of Tennessee, he established mood clinics ...
Jakobsen, JC; Gluud, C; Kirsch, I (25 September 2019). "Should antidepressants be used for major depressive disorder?". BMJ ... The Case of Major Depressive Disorders". Depression and Anxiety. 31 (5): 374-378. doi:10.1002/da.22249. PMID 24677535. S2CID ... The theory has been applied to understanding pain, depression, anxiety disorders, asthma, addictions, and psychogenic illnesses ...
... also known as persistent depressive disorder (PDD), is a mental and behavioral disorder, specifically a disorder primarily of ... antidepressants are at least as effective for persistent depressive disorder as for major depressive disorder. The first line ... dysthymia is replaced by persistent depressive disorder. This new condition includes both chronic major depressive disorder and ... anxiety disorders (up to 50%), personality disorders (up to 40%), somatoform disorders (up to 45%) and substance use disorders ...
Chen, J. P.; Chen, H.; Chung, H. (2002). "Depressive disorders in Asian American adults". The Western Journal of Medicine. 176 ... Female immigrants were more likely to have long-term disorders. Males are more susceptible to disorders that lead them to ... For example, living in a larger household reported a higher score of depressive symptoms in mid-life Filipina women, due to ... In cases where Filipino-Americans report higher rates of depressive symptoms than other Asians, this could be because Chinese- ...
Major depressive disorder 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MDD2 gene. "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center ... "Entrez Gene: Major depressive disorder 2". Retrieved 2017-09-15. v t e (Articles with short description, Short description ...
Llaneza P, García-Portilla MP, Llaneza-Suárez D, Armott B, Pérez-López FR (February 2012). "Depressive disorders and the ... It is not a disease or a disorder. Therefore, it does not automatically require any kind of medical treatment. However, in ... Hurst BS (2011). Disorders of menstruation. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 9781444391817. McNamara M, Batur P, ... The menopausal transition, and postmenopause itself, is a natural change, not usually a disease state or a disorder. The main ...
About 10% develop major depressive disorder; others experience an adjustment disorder. In young adult cancer survivors, one ... Twombly R (February 2001). "Post-traumatic stress disorder in childhood cancer survivors: how common is it?". Journal of the ... Being married reduces the cancer survivor's risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder or other psychological ... small study found that 20% of participants met the full clinical diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and 45% to ...
In a study regarding cognitive assessment measures and major depressive disorders, his research indicated the existence of ... Dobson, Keith S.; Shaw, Brian F. (February 1, 1986). "Cognitive assessment with major depressive disorders". Cognitive Therapy ... "Complementarity patterns in cognitive therapy for major depressive disorder". Counselling and Psychotherapy Research. 18 (3): ... Szeto, Andrew C. H.; Dobson, Keith S. (June 1, 2010). "Reducing the stigma of mental disorders at work: A review of current ...
Depression is a mood disorder that causes a persistent feeling of sadness and loss of interest and can interfere with your ... History of other mental health disorders, such as anxiety disorder, eating disorders or post-traumatic stress disorder ... Depressive disorders. In: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-5. 5th ed. Arlington, Va.: American ... Also called major depressive disorder or clinical depression, it affects how you feel, think and behave and can lead to a ...
... persistent depressive disorder, and minor depressive disorder. Dysthymic disorder was a subsection in the DSM-IV-TR under mood ... "Persistent Depressive Disorder (Dysthymia)". There are differences between persistent depressive disorder and minor depressive ... Minor depressive disorder is very similar to major depressive disorder in the symptoms present. Generally, a persons mood is ... Minor depressive disorder differs from major depressive disorder in the number of symptoms present with 5 or more symptoms ...
Pooled data show ECT has a small advantage over ketamine for major depressive episodes. ... Cite this: ECT vs Ketamine for Major Depressive Disorder: New Data - Medscape - Apr 12, 2023. ... appears to have a small advantage over ketamine for improving depressive symptoms in adults with a major depressive episode, ... "Although ECT is superior to ketamine for patients with a major depressive episode (MDE), our findings suggest that the ...
Dysthymic disorder may be diagnosed in pediatric patients, either children or adolescents, when a pervasive depressed or ... If a child has a parent with a depressive disorder-children whose parents have depressive disorders are as much as 3 times ... Much of the following discussion applies to many depressive disorders, including persistent depressive disorder. Persistent ... encoded search term (Pediatric Persistent Depressive Disorder (Dysthymia)) and Pediatric Persistent Depressive Disorder ( ...
Zuranolone, a drug for the treatment of major depressive disorder and postpartum disorder, is on a rolling submission of a new ... Expert Perspectives on the Unmet Needs in the Management of Major Depressive DisorderEmpowering Advanced Practice Providers to ... ALTO-203 for Major Depressive Disorder and Anhedonia: Phase 2 Study Initiated. By Leah Kuntz ... Dextromethorphan HBr -bupropion HCl extended-release tablets for the treatment of major depressive disorder just became FDA ...
We reviewed the hospital charts of consecutively admitted adolescents with a depressive disorder and insomnia, … ... chart review examined the relative effectiveness of fluoxetine and trazodone in relieving insomnia associated with depressive ... Trazodone is only slightly faster than fluoxetine in relieving insomnia in adolescents with depressive disorders J Child ... We reviewed the hospital charts of consecutively admitted adolescents with a depressive disorder and insomnia, who received one ...
... adults with recent symptoms of an anxiety or depressive disorder increased from 36% to 42%. Increases were largest among adults ... adults with recent symptoms of an anxiety or depressive disorder increased from 36% to 42%. Increases were largest among adults ... Percentage of adults aged ≥18 years with symptoms of anxiety disorder, depressive disorder, or anxiety or depressive disorder ... a depressive disorder (7.0% to 6.7%); or an anxiety disorder, a depressive disorder, or both (11.0% to 11.3%) (10). Finally, ...
This is what a psychiatry specialist wants you to understand about major depressive disorder and the stigma that surrounds it. ... Major depressive disorder doesnt merely mean you feel sad all the time-it can also mean you can experience a lack of interest ... Major depressive disorder is one of the leading causes of disability in the US, which is why board-certified psychiatric mental ... Losing interest in the things a person once loved or the inability to feel pleasure is a symptom of major depressive disorder, ...
The presence of major depressive disorder (MDD) in people with diabetes may be up to three times more common than in the ... Effect of interventions for major depressive disorder and significant depressive symptoms in patients with diabetes mellitus: a ... Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating chronic condition that may affect every aspect of life. Studies have shown ... The presence of major depressive disorder (MDD) in people with diabetes may be up to three times more common than in the ...
How much do you know about major depressive disorder? Test your knowledge with this quick quiz. ... New Mechanisms in Major Depressive Disorder: What the Busy Clinician Needs to Know 0.75 CME / ABIM MOC Credits ... New Mechanisms in Major Depressive Disorder: What the Busy Clinician Needs to Know ... Fast Five Quiz: Major Depressive Disorder Management * Fast Five Quiz: Pharmacologic Therapy for Major Depressive Disorder ...
Methods for the Epidemiology of Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders Study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and ... Psychiatric Disorders in Adolescents in Primary Care. British Journal of Psychiatry 173: 508-13. ... One-Year Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorder in Ontarians 15-64 Years of Age. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 41: 559-63. ... Depression is typically a recurring disorder with serious morbidity and mortality that commonly begins in adolescence (Leaf et ...
Asher Center for the Study and Treatment of Depressive Disorders. 676 N. St. Clair St.. Arkes Pavilion, Suite 1000. Chicago, IL ... Below is a list of all members of the Asher Center for the Study and Treatment of Depressive Disorders at Northwestern ...
... depressive disorder will be the illness with the highest burden of disease. Especi ... The Role of Oxidative Stress in Depressive Disorders. Author(s): Tanja Maria Michel, Dietrich Pulschen and Johannes Thome ... Abstract: Studies of the World Health Organization suggest that in the year 2020, depressive disorder will be the illness with ... These findings are in line with post-mortem studies of patients with depressive disorder and they point to a significant ...
High Frequency of Residual Depressive Symptoms in Bipolar II Disorder: The Need for a Better Treatment. Franco Benazzi ... Balancing Psychiatric Stability and Cardiometabolic Health in Bipolar I Disorder Dr Goldberg takes viewers through two case ... Baclofen, a French Exception, Seriously Harms Alcohol Use Disorder Patients Without Benefit To the Editor: Dr Andrades ... of bipolar disorder was present in 54.0% of patients, and that 64% of the patients were unemployed (indicating severe ...
... current depressive and anxiety disorders at age 15 and predicted subsequent first onsets of depressive and anxiety disorders ... appraisals of the negative impact of recent LEs were examined in relationship to depressive and anxiety disorders in a sample ... A Risk Factor for Depressive and Anxiety Disorders. ... among those experiencing both a depressive and anxiety disorder ... as having high negative impact may be a predisposing factor for the development of depression and anxiety disorders. In the ...
bipolar II disorders. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2003;6:127-37. [ Links ]. 8. Judd LL, Akiskal HS. Depressive episodes and ... Subsyndromal depressive symptoms are associated with functional impairment in patients with bipolar disorder: results of a ... Subsyndromal depressive symptoms in patients with bipolar and unipolar disorder during clinical remission. J Affect Disord. ... In prior studies, the two disorders showed similar features, i.e. largely characterized by moderate or subsyndromal depressive ...
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is common in youth and among the most frequent comorbid disorders in pediatric obsessive- ... Major depressive disorder (MDD) is common in youth and among the most frequent comorbid disorders in pediatric obsessive- ... The clinical presentation of major depressive disorder in youth with co-occurring obsessive-compulsive disorder. *Mark ... Major depressive disorder (MDD) is common in youth and among the most frequent comorbid disorders in pediatric obsessive- ...
BACKGROUND: Depressive disorders are common in young people and are associated with significant negative impacts. Selective ... abstract = "BACKGROUND: Depressive disorders are common in young people and are associated with significant negative impacts. ... N2 - BACKGROUND: Depressive disorders are common in young people and are associated with significant negative impacts. ... AB - BACKGROUND: Depressive disorders are common in young people and are associated with significant negative impacts. ...
Rumination in major depressive and bipolar disorder - a meta-analysis. In: Journal of Affective Disorders (JAD). 2020 ; Vol. ... Rumination in major depressive and bipolar disorder - a meta-analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders (JAD), 276, 1131-1141. ... Rumination in major depressive and bipolar disorder - a meta-analysis, Journal of Affective Disorders (JAD), vol. 276, pp. ... Rumination in major depressive and bipolar disorder - a meta-analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders (JAD). 2020 Nov 1;276: ...
YANO, Luciane Patrícia. The clinic in gestalt-therapy: the gestalt of calls in depressive disorders. Rev. NUFEN [online]. 2015 ... Thus, this article presents conceptual and descriptively, a structuration of a psychotherapy within people with depressive ...
... of smoking and nicotine dependence with severity and course of symptoms in patients with depressive or anxiety disorder. Title ... of smoking and nicotine dependence with severity and course of symptoms in patients with depressive or anxiety disorder. ...
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Depressive Disorders - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - Medical ... Major depressive disorder Major depressive disorder (unipolar depressive disorder) Depressive disorders are characterized by ... Persistent depressive disorder Persistent depressive disorder Depressive disorders are characterized by sadness severe enough ... Other specified or unspecified depressive disorder Other depressive disorder Depressive disorders are characterized by sadness ...
Xavier, M. (2012). Differential impact of risk factors for women and men on the risk of major depressive disorder. Annals Of ... Differential impact of risk factors for women and men on the risk of major depressive disorder. / Xavier, Miguel . In: Annals ... Xavier, M 2012, Differential impact of risk factors for women and men on the risk of major depressive disorder., Annals Of ... Differential impact of risk factors for women and men on the risk of major depressive disorder. In: Annals Of Epidemiology. ...
Palavras-chave : Depressive Disorder, Major; Substance-Related Disorders; Epidemiology; Rehabilitation. · resumo em Português , ... PEREIRA, Pablo Michel Barcelos e BITENCOURT, Rafael Mariano de. Prevalence of major depressive disorder in people with chemical ... OBJECTIVE: to verify the prevalence of Major Depressive Disorder in people with chemical dependence. METHOD: cross-sectional ... the diagnosis of depressive disorder should be consolidated as an important variable for the effectiveness of treatment, since ...
... *Depression. Major Depressive Disorder: Symptoms, Causes and Treatment. Depressionals. 3 ... What are Psychological Disorders. *Personality DisordersPersonality disorders comprise a wide variety of mental health ... The condition of Major Depressive Disorder involves the presence of an overwhelming sense of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of ... Sleep DisordersThere are many sleep disorders that affect a persons ability to sleep well on a regular basis. Health problems ...
However, most studies regarding miR-132 in major depressive disorder are based on post-mortem, animal models or genetic ... However, most studies regarding miR-132 in major depressive disorder are based on post-mortem, animal models or genetic ... However, most studies regarding miR-132 in major depressive disorder are based on post-mortem, animal models or genetic ... However, most studies regarding miR-132 in major depressive disorder are based on post-mortem, animal models or genetic ...
Both genetic and environmental factors play crucial roles in the development of major depressive disorder (MDD) and suicide ... Major depressive disorder (MDD) and suicide attempts (SA) are significant public health issues worldwide due to their high ... Interaction between HTR2A rs3125 and negative life events in suicide attempts among patients with major depressive disorder: a ... Interaction between HTR2A rs3125 and negative life events in suicide attempts among patients with major depressive disorder: a ...
Depressive symptoms (DepS) associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) are influenced by affective temperaments (ATs), ... the Interaction between Affective Temperaments and BIS/BAS on Depressive Symptoms in Individuals with Major Depressive Disorder ... the Interaction between Affective Temperaments and BIS/BAS on Depressive Symptoms in Individuals with Major Depressive Disorder ... The interaction (beta = 0.199, p , 0.05) between depressive temperament (DepT) (beta = 0.319, p , 0.01) and BIS scores (beta = ...
... significant depressive disorder. A diagnosis of persistent depressive disorder demands getting knowledgeable a mixture of ... When persistent depressive disorder starts ahead of age 21, it is referred to as early onset if it begins at age 21 or older, ... Persistent depressive disorder is characterized by chronic low-level depression that is not as extreme, but might be longer ... Persistent Depressive Disorder Pdd. Last updated: May 27, 2022 2:40 am. ...
  • Minor depressive disorder, also known as minor depression, is a mood disorder that does not meet the full criteria for major depressive disorder but at least two depressive symptoms are present for a long time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Persistent depressive disorder and depression likely arise from a complex relationship among elements such as genetic predisposition, disrupted attachments, internal psychological representations and attributions, dysfunctional social interactions, risk and protective factors, and melancholic endocrine changes. (medscape.com)
  • Some temperamental patterns are likely to make individual children more vulnerable to depression and other disorders. (medscape.com)
  • A s the country continues to grapple with a mental health crisis, it may not be a surprise to learn that according to the National Institute of Mental Health, more than 21 million American adults have major depressive disorder, commonly referred to as clinical depression. (wellandgood.com)
  • Despite how common major depressive disorder is, there are still many misperceptions about depression symptoms and treatment. (wellandgood.com)
  • Depression is typically a recurring disorder with serious morbidity and mortality that commonly begins in adolescence (Leaf et al. (longwoods.com)
  • Especially unipolar depression is the psychiatric disorder with the highest prevalence and incidence, it is cost-intensive and has a relatively high morbidity. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The tendency to appraise naturally occurring life events (LEs) as having high negative impact may be a predisposing factor for the development of depression and anxiety disorders. (safetylit.org)
  • The findings suggest that systematically elevated appraisals of the negative impact of LEs are a predisposing factor for depression and anxiety disorders and may represent a specific risk factor for co-morbid depression and anxiety in mid-adolescence and early adulthood. (safetylit.org)
  • Clinical stability was assessed at baseline and week 16 with the Clinical Global Impression scale for BD (CGI-BP-M), depressive symptoms at baseline with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), the Montgomery-Asberg Scale (MADRS) and the self-applied Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). Functional status was evaluated with the Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS) and Social Adaptation Self-evaluation Scale (SASS). (scielo.org.co)
  • The term depression is often used to refer to any of several depressive disorders. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Persistent depressive disorder is characterized by chronic low-level depression that is not as extreme, but might be longer lasting than, significant depressive disorder. (expertsguys.com)
  • However, when depression sets in, even without understanding why the risk factors of high stress and trauma can lead to an increased risk of developing a major depressive disorder, it can be devastating. (theforgerecovery.com)
  • Depressive disorders have various factors that undermine the different types of depression. (theforgerecovery.com)
  • A few major depressive disorders include psychotic depression, seasonal affective disorder, melancholic depression, and postpartum depression. (theforgerecovery.com)
  • Those with major depressive disorders feel impaired when handling and dealing with daily activities, and they may find means to cope with depression through addiction. (theforgerecovery.com)
  • The limitations between health disorders and addiction can vary from individual to individual, and not every individual with depression will need accommodations to help find a solution. (theforgerecovery.com)
  • The disorder is a complicated mix of anxiety and depression symptoms , and people who have it often feel like their emotions are going all over the place. (welevelupfl.com)
  • The National Institute of Mental Health says that depression, which is also called Major Depressive Illness or Clinical Depression, is a relatively common but severe mood condition. (welevelupfl.com)
  • this work, which focused primarily on assessing individual-level interventions for clinical management of psychosis, bipolar disorder and depression, has been published in peer-reviewed literature and widely disseminated. (who.int)
  • The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and the impact of subclinical depressive symptoms (SDS) on the functional outcome of bipolar II (BD) outpatients in remission. (scielo.org.co)
  • The self-applied questionnaire identified additional cases with depressive symptoms at baseline, showing a SDS-Total prevalence of 51% identified by any method. (scielo.org.co)
  • to verify the prevalence of Major Depressive Disorder in people with chemical dependence. (bvsalud.org)
  • the diagnosis of depressive disorder should be consolidated as an important variable for the effectiveness of treatment, since its prevalence is high and has repercussions on the quality of treatment and time of institutionalization. (bvsalud.org)
  • Major depressive disorder (MDD) and suicide attempts (SA) are significant public health issues worldwide due to their high prevalence and incidence rates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Past year prevalence of persistent depressive disorder amongst adults larger for females (1.9%) than for males (1. (expertsguys.com)
  • People with serious mental disorders have a greater prevalence of major cardiovascular risk factors compared to the general population. (who.int)
  • Therefore, research on increased oxidative stress in unipolar depressive disorder, mediated by elevated concentrations of free radicals, has been undertaken. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Dysthymia was replaced in the DSM-5 by persistent depressive disorder, which combined dysthymia with chronic major depressive disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Persistent depressive disorder (PDD) represents the DSM-5 consolidation of previously defined DSM-IV-TR diagnoses (persistent depressive disorder and chronic major depressive disorder). (medscape.com)
  • Much of the following discussion applies to many depressive disorders, including persistent depressive disorder. (medscape.com)
  • they are implicated in persistent depressive disorder and are modified by the current antidepressant drugs. (medscape.com)
  • Depressive disorders are characterized by sadness severe enough or persistent enough to interfere with function and often by decreased interest or pleasure in activities. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Depressive Disorders in Children and Adolescents Depressive disorders are characterized by sadness or irritability that is severe or persistent enough to interfere with functioning or cause considerable distress. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A diagnosis of persistent depressive disorder demands getting knowledgeable a mixture of depressive symptoms for two years or additional. (expertsguys.com)
  • When persistent depressive disorder starts ahead of age 21, it is referred to as early onset if it begins at age 21 or older, it is known as late onset. (expertsguys.com)
  • If you are asking yourself irrespective of whether you qualify for a clinical diagnosis of persistent depressive disorder , right here are the symptoms. (expertsguys.com)
  • The primary sign of Mixed Anxiety and Depressive Disorder is often a persistent low, depressed, or hopeless mood. (welevelupfl.com)
  • New phase 2 study initiated to determine the potential of ALTO-203 as an antidepressant in patients with major depressive disorder and anhedonia. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • Initial treatment for adults with major depressive disorder is antidepressant therapy. (wellandgood.com)
  • I've found that some patients who are having unresolved depressive symptoms with their current antidepressant may be hesitant to speak up to their health care professional because they are feeling somewhat better than they did before," Dr. Simmons-Becil says. (wellandgood.com)
  • Most guidelines for major depressive disorder recommend initial treatment with either a second-generation antidepressant (SGA) or cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). (bvsalud.org)
  • Minor depressive disorder differs from major depressive disorder in the number of symptoms present with 5 or more symptoms necessary for a diagnosis of major depressive disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr Goldberg takes viewers through two case profiles of patients with bipolar I disorder, including assessment, diagnosis, and treatment, with a focus on cardiometabolic safety. (psychiatrist.com)
  • 17.5% of lawyers in this study were experiencing symptoms equivalent to a diagnosis of a major depressive disorder. (cdc.gov)
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy and adverse outcomes, including definitive suicidal behaviour and suicidal ideation, of SSRIs compared to placebo in the treatment of depressive disorders in children and adolescents. (monash.edu)
  • Dysthymia consists of the same depressive symptoms, but its main differentiable feature is its longer-lasting nature as compared to minor depressive disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Losing interest in the things a person once loved or the inability to feel pleasure is a symptom of major depressive disorder, also known as anhedonia, which may often be seen in people living with major depressive disorder. (wellandgood.com)
  • Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) appears to have a small advantage over ketamine for improving depressive symptoms in adults with a major depressive episode, results of a new review show. (medscape.com)
  • This retrospective chart review examined the relative effectiveness of fluoxetine and trazodone in relieving insomnia associated with depressive disorders in adolescents (aged 13-17 years). (nih.gov)
  • We reviewed the hospital charts of consecutively admitted adolescents with a depressive disorder and insomnia, who received one of three treatments: fluoxetine (20 +/- 2.2 mg), trazodone (71 +/- 32 mg), or a fluoxetine-trazodone combination (fluoxetine 29 +/- 2.2 mg, trazodone 68 +/- 29 mg). (nih.gov)
  • This difference between trazodone and fluoxetine, although statistically significant, was generally not clinically significant in the management of insomnia associated with depressive disorders in adolescents. (nih.gov)
  • In the current study, appraisals of the negative impact of recent LEs were examined in relationship to depressive and anxiety disorders in a sample of 653 adolescents who were administered diagnostic and life stress interviews at ages 15 and 20. (safetylit.org)
  • Mood disorders can occur in adults, adolescents, or children. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A Blood Test to Diagnose Bipolar Disorder? (medscape.com)
  • The authors reported that the median age at onset was 17.5 years, that family history (not using research-level family history methodology) of bipolar disorder was present in 54.0% of patients, and that 64% of the patients were unemployed (indicating severe impairment). (psychiatrist.com)
  • 1 Bipolar Disorder Unit. (scielo.org.co)
  • 7 Bipolar Disorder Program. (scielo.org.co)
  • However, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting the importance of rumination in bipolar disorder (BD) as well. (ed.ac.uk)
  • However, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting the importance of rumination in bipolar disorder (BD) as well.Methods: we searched for studies that investigated rumination in both BD and MDD in four databases. (ed.ac.uk)
  • After we stratified for a history of depressive symptoms, we found that the impact of risk factors across sex was generally stronger on possible recurrent MDD than on a first onset of MDD. (unl.pt)
  • She had a history of depressive disorder and alcohol abuse. (cdc.gov)
  • These symptoms can be seen in many different psychiatric and mental disorders, which can lead to more specific diagnoses of an individual's condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Minor depressive disorder is an example of one of these nonspecific diagnoses, as it is a disorder classified in the DSM-IV-TR under the category Depressive Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (DD-NOS). (wikipedia.org)
  • The most com- atric team in a Saudi Arabian hospital, what monly encountered diagnoses were epilep- psychiatric disorders were found and what sy, drug overdose, ambiguous genitalia, treatment approaches were used by the orthopaedic injuries and diabetes mellitus. (who.int)
  • These findings are in line with post-mortem studies of patients with depressive disorder and they point to a significant decrease of neuronal and glial cells in cortico-limbic regions which can be seen as a consequence of alterations in neuronal plasticity in this disorder. (eurekaselect.com)
  • However, most studies regarding miR-132 in major depressive disorder are based on post-mortem, animal models or genetic comparisons. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • A person is considered to have minor depressive disorder if they experience 2 to 4 depressive symptoms, with one of them being either depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure, during a 2-week period. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depressed mood most of the day and/or loss of interest or pleasure in normal activities must be experienced by the individual to be considered to have minor depressive disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both disorders require either depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in normal activities to be one of the symptoms and the symptoms need to be present for two weeks or longer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating chronic condition that may affect every aspect of life. (springer.com)
  • Addiction is a chronic brain disorder and needs to be addressed as such. (cdc.gov)
  • This report describes trends in the percentage of adults with symptoms of an anxiety disorder or a depressive disorder and those who sought mental health services. (cdc.gov)
  • Target Population Adults with newly diagnosed major depressive disorder in the United States . (bvsalud.org)
  • Studies of the World Health Organization suggest that in the year 2020, depressive disorder will be the illness with the highest burden of disease. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Although not all cases of minor depressive disorder are deemed in need of treatment, some cases are treated similarly to major depressive disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment of minor depressive disorder has not been studied as extensively as major depressive disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although there are often similarities in the treatments used, there are also differences in what may work better for the treatment of minor depressive disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some third-party payers do not pay to cover treatment for minor depressive disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • The leading treatment techniques for minor depressive disorder are the use of antidepressants and therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is evidence that ketamine with ECT may add little extra benefit but much more work needs to be done to fully understand how these treatments fit best into the treatment pathway for major depressive episodes. (medscape.com)
  • The biologic substrate for mood disorders is the basis of pharmacologic treatment. (medscape.com)
  • Below is a list of all members of the Asher Center for the Study and Treatment of Depressive Disorders at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. (northwestern.edu)
  • Learn about major depressive disorders, addiction, and how recovery treatment facilities can treat both effectively. (theforgerecovery.com)
  • Implementing healthy habits and professional and clinical treatment can help individuals who struggle with major depressive disorders and addiction. (theforgerecovery.com)
  • When an individual is diagnosed with a major depressive disorder, treatment options are adjusted to fit each situation precisely. (theforgerecovery.com)
  • The Cost-Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Versus Second-Generation Antidepressants for Initial Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder in the United States: A Decision Analytic Model. (bvsalud.org)
  • For the 109 patients under 18 years old, the study noted both the medical or surgical diseases diagnosed as well as psychiatric disorders and the treatment approaches used by psychiatrists. (who.int)
  • The loss of sadness : how psychiatry transformed normal sorrow into depressive disorder / Allan V. Horwitz and Jerome C. Wakefield. (who.int)
  • The FDA has cleared the first prescription digital therapeutic for major depressive disorder, Rejoyn. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • cross-sectional study with the application of the structured interview for the DSM-V disorders in 183 individuals admitted to therapeutic communities for chemical dependents, located in the south of Santa Catarina, during the year 2019. (bvsalud.org)
  • Fast Five Quiz: Major Depressive Disorder - Medscape - Jun 16, 2023. (medscape.com)
  • Other depressive symptoms include significant weight loss or weight gain without trying to diet (an increase/decrease in appetite can provide clues as well), insomnia or hypersomnia, psychomotor agitation or psychomotor retardation, fatigue or loss of energy, and feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt. (wikipedia.org)
  • Significant depressive symptoms occur in approximately 1 in 4 people with T1DM or T2DM [ 3 ]. (springer.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Depressive disorders are common in young people and are associated with significant negative impacts. (monash.edu)
  • There were no significant differences in terms of depressive rumination, however, BD patients reported more rumination on positive affect. (ed.ac.uk)
  • this review demonstrates that rumination is a significant process in both MDD and BD, highlighting the importance of interventions to reduce rumination in mood disorders. (ed.ac.uk)
  • The burden of mental disorders continues to grow with significant impacts on Faculty of Medicine and health. (who.int)
  • However, those who suffer from severe major depressive disorders may be more at risk of suicidal ideation or other harmful behaviors to help them cope. (theforgerecovery.com)
  • Depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation among lawyers and other law professionals. (cdc.gov)
  • Lawyers were more likely reported mild (OR=3.89, 95% CI 3.04-4.96) moderate (OR=5.29, 95% CI 3.61-7.76), moderately severe (OR=9.71, 95% CI 5.50-17.14), and severe (OR=18.34, 95% CI 6.00- 56.11) depressive symptoms. (cdc.gov)
  • Diabetes Distress or Major Depressive Disorder? (springer.com)
  • This work will be the first attempt to investigate how miR-132 dysregulation may impact covariation of multimodal brain imaging data in 81 unmedicated major depressive patients and 123 demographically-matched healthy controls, as well as in a medication-naïve subset of major depressive patients. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • Higher appraisals of the negative impact of LEs were associated with both past and current depressive and anxiety disorders at age 15 and predicted subsequent first onsets of depressive and anxiety disorders occurring between ages 15 and 20. (safetylit.org)
  • Anxiety disorders come in many forms, such as generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and several disorders linked to phobias. (welevelupfl.com)
  • rumination, defined as repetitive thoughts about emotionally relevant experiences, has been linked extensively with mood disorders, especially major depressive disorder (MDD). (ed.ac.uk)
  • Major depressive disorder is one of the leading causes of disability in the US, which is why board-certified psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner (PMHNP) and graduate educator Bethanie Simmons-Becil, DNP, MSN, is so passionate about raising awareness about major depressive disorder. (wellandgood.com)
  • Depressive and adjustment disorders were the most often diagnosed psychiatric illnesses. (who.int)
  • Psychiatric disorders suspected, abuse or neglect [ 4,5 ]. (who.int)
  • recognize psychiatric disorders [ 11 ]. (who.int)
  • However, some of the situations might not fall under specific categories listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders lists the major depressive symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depressive disorders are serious mental illnesses that affect individuals throughout their lives. (theforgerecovery.com)
  • Depressive disorder, like other mental disorders , can contribute to substance abuse as well. (theforgerecovery.com)
  • Additionally, individuals with serious mental illnesses such as PTSD can also develop major depressive disorders. (theforgerecovery.com)
  • The connections between co-occurring mental health disorders and addiction can influence dependency on various substances, leading to substance abuse. (theforgerecovery.com)
  • High psychological disturbance rates and statistical manual of mental disorders, have been observed in children admitted to DSM3R and later DSM4 [ 12,13 ]. (who.int)
  • Conversely, people with Auteur correspondant cardiovascular diseases more frequently suffer from serious mental disorders. (who.int)
  • In addition, those that struggle with major depressive disorders have significantly higher risks of developing a co-occurring addiction with the major depressive disorder. (theforgerecovery.com)
  • Addiction centers want to help improve the odds of every individual who suffers from a major depressive disorder. (theforgerecovery.com)
  • How the addiction and depressive disorder are addressed depends on the severity of symptoms and the addiction. (theforgerecovery.com)
  • Major depressive disorder (MDD) is common in youth and among the most frequent comorbid disorders in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but it is unclear whether the presence of OCD affects the symptom presentation of MDD in youth. (lu.se)
  • Depressive symptoms (DepS) associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) are influenced by affective temperaments (ATs), behavioral inhibition system (BIS), and behavioral activation system (BAS). (hokudai.ac.jp)
  • All of these signs can compound on each other to create the last major symptom group of minor depressive disorder: thoughts of death, suicidal thoughts, plans to commit suicide, or a suicide attempt. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both genetic and environmental factors play crucial roles in the development of major depressive disorder (MDD) and suicide attempts (SA). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Having a major depressive disorder is a difficult challenge and can make an individual suffer in silence. (theforgerecovery.com)
  • A lot of research supports the notion that minor depressive disorder is an early stage of major depressive disorder, or that it is simply highly predictive of subsequent major depressive disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Major depressive disorders can make individuals feel inadequate and are just as serious as a medical health concern like diabetes. (theforgerecovery.com)
  • Genetic factors are considered to account for approximately 50% of the variance in the transmission of depressive disorders. (medscape.com)
  • Differential impact of risk factors for women and men on the risk of major depressive disorder. (unl.pt)
  • PURPOSE Our aim is to examine which risk factors have a greater impact in women than in men on the risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) and whether factors differ between a possible recurrent MDD and a first onset of MDD. (unl.pt)
  • Dive into the research topics of 'Differential impact of risk factors for women and men on the risk of major depressive disorder. (unl.pt)
  • I want people experiencing depressive symptoms to know that they can and should talk about it with those they love and trust," Dr. Simmons-Becil says. (wellandgood.com)
  • The presence of major depressive disorder (MDD) in people with diabetes may be up to three times more common than in the general population. (springer.com)
  • People with diabetes and major depressive disorder have worse health outcomes and higher mortality rates. (springer.com)
  • Major depressive disorder is a complex, debilitating condition that affects millions of people worldwide. (springer.com)
  • Thus, this article presents conceptual and descriptively, a structuration of a psychotherapy within people with depressive complaints in an existential- phenomenological perspective of Gestalt therapy. (bvsalud.org)
  • People who have Mixed Anxiety and Depressive Disorder, or MADD, can find it very hard to deal with things. (welevelupfl.com)
  • Overview of Mood Disorders Mood disorders are emotional disturbances consisting of prolonged periods of excessive sadness, excessive elevated mood, or both. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The condition of Major Depressive Disorder involves the presence of an overwhelming sense of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest. (depressionals.com)
  • Using a data-driven, supervised-learning method, we determined that miR-132 dysregulation in major depressive disorder is associated with multi-facets of brain function and structure in fronto-limbic network (the key network for emotional regulation and memory), which deepens our understanding of how miR-132 dysregulation in major depressive disorders contribute to the loss of specific brain areas and is linked to relevant cognitive impairments. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • Having a depressive disorder is not a sign of an individual's weakness in their character, but rather a link between the changes in their brain biochemistry. (theforgerecovery.com)