Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Depression, Postpartum: Depression in POSTPARTUM WOMEN, usually within four weeks after giving birth (PARTURITION). The degree of depression ranges from mild transient depression to neurotic or psychotic depressive disorders. (From DSM-IV, p386)Cortical Spreading Depression: The decrease in neuronal activity (related to a decrease in metabolic demand) extending from the site of cortical stimulation. It is believed to be responsible for the decrease in cerebral blood flow that accompanies the aura of MIGRAINE WITH AURA. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)Depressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Antidepressive Agents: Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Long-Term Synaptic Depression: A persistent activity-dependent decrease in synaptic efficacy between NEURONS. It typically occurs following repeated low-frequency afferent stimulation, but it can be induced by other methods. Long-term depression appears to play a role in MEMORY.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Personality Inventory: Check list, usually to be filled out by a person about himself, consisting of many statements about personal characteristics which the subject checks.Psychotherapy: A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation: A structurally and mechanistically diverse group of drugs that are not tricyclics or monoamine oxidase inhibitors. The most clinically important appear to act selectively on serotonergic systems, especially by inhibiting serotonin reuptake.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Cognitive Therapy: A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit the reuptake of serotonin in the brain.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Dysthymic Disorder: Chronically depressed mood that occurs for most of the day more days than not for at least 2 years. The required minimum duration in children to make this diagnosis is 1 year. During periods of depressed mood, at least 2 of the following additional symptoms are present: poor appetite or overeating, insomnia or hypersomnia, low energy or fatigue, low self esteem, poor concentration or difficulty making decisions, and feelings of hopelessness. (DSM-IV)Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Depression, Chemical: The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Citalopram: A furancarbonitrile that is one of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS used as an antidepressant. The drug is also effective in reducing ethanol uptake in alcoholics and is used in depressed patients who also suffer from tardive dyskinesia in preference to tricyclic antidepressants, which aggravate this condition.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Interview, Psychological: A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.Sertraline: A selective serotonin uptake inhibitor that is used in the treatment of depression.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Life Change Events: Those occurrences, including social, psychological, and environmental, which require an adjustment or effect a change in an individual's pattern of living.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Psychological Tests: Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.Suicide: The act of killing oneself.Depressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant: Failure to respond to two or more trials of antidepressant monotherapy or failure to respond to four or more trials of different antidepressant therapies. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 9th ed.)Fluoxetine: The first highly specific serotonin uptake inhibitor. It is used as an antidepressant and often has a more acceptable side-effects profile than traditional antidepressants.Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic: Substances that contain a fused three-ring moiety and are used in the treatment of depression. These drugs block the uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin into axon terminals and may block some subtypes of serotonin, adrenergic, and histamine receptors. However the mechanism of their antidepressant effects is not clear because the therapeutic effects usually take weeks to develop and may reflect compensatory changes in the central nervous system.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Electroconvulsive Therapy: Electrically induced CONVULSIONS primarily used in the treatment of severe AFFECTIVE DISORDERS and SCHIZOPHRENIA.Suicidal Ideation: A risk factor for suicide attempts and completions, it is the most common of all suicidal behavior, but only a minority of ideators engage in overt self-harm.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Mood Disorders: Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic: A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Inbreeding: The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.Child of Impaired Parents: Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.Paroxetine: A serotonin uptake inhibitor that is effective in the treatment of depression.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.United StatesSuicide, Attempted: The unsuccessful attempt to kill oneself.Personality Assessment: The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.Geriatric Assessment: Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Mother-Child Relations: Interaction between a mother and child.Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of serotonergic neurons. They are different than SEROTONIN RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to SEROTONIN. They remove SEROTONIN from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. Regulates signal amplitude and duration at serotonergic synapses and is the site of action of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Somatoform Disorders: Disorders having the presence of physical symptoms that suggest a general medical condition but that are not fully explained by a another medical condition, by the direct effects of a substance, or by another mental disorder. The symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. In contrast to FACTITIOUS DISORDERS and MALINGERING, the physical symptoms are not under voluntary control. (APA, DSM-V)Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Cyclohexanols: Monohydroxy derivatives of cyclohexanes that contain the general formula R-C6H11O. They have a camphorlike odor and are used in making soaps, insecticides, germicides, dry cleaning, and plasticizers.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Mianserin: A tetracyclic compound with antidepressant effects. It may cause drowsiness and hematological problems. Its mechanism of therapeutic action is not well understood, although it apparently blocks alpha-adrenergic, histamine H1, and some types of serotonin receptors.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Adjustment Disorders: Maladaptive reactions to identifiable psychosocial stressors occurring within a short time after onset of the stressor. They are manifested by either impairment in social or occupational functioning or by symptoms (depression, anxiety, etc.) that are in excess of a normal and expected reaction to the stressor.Sleep Disorders: Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Affective Disorders, Psychotic: Disorders in which the essential feature is a severe disturbance in mood (depression, anxiety, elation, and excitement) accompanied by psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, gross impairment in reality testing, etc.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders: Disorders characterized by impairment of the ability to initiate or maintain sleep. This may occur as a primary disorder or in association with another medical or psychiatric condition.Long-Term Potentiation: A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Geriatric Psychiatry: A subspecialty of psychiatry concerned with the mental health of the aged.Nortriptyline: A metabolite of AMITRIPTYLINE that is also used as an antidepressive agent. Nortriptyline is used in major depression, dysthymia, and atypical depressions.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Caregivers: Persons who provide care to those who need supervision or assistance in illness or disability. They may provide the care in the home, in a hospital, or in an institution. Although caregivers include trained medical, nursing, and other health personnel, the concept also refers to parents, spouses, or other family members, friends, members of the clergy, teachers, social workers, fellow patients.Psychotherapy, Brief: Any form of psychotherapy designed to produce therapeutic change within a minimal amount of time, generally not more than 20 sessions.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Psychotherapy, Group: A form of therapy in which two or more patients participate under the guidance of one or more psychotherapists for the purpose of treating emotional disturbances, social maladjustments, and psychotic states.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Seasonal Affective Disorder: A syndrome characterized by depressions that recur annually at the same time each year, usually during the winter months. Other symptoms include anxiety, irritability, decreased energy, increased appetite (carbohydrate cravings), increased duration of sleep, and weight gain. SAD (seasonal affective disorder) can be treated by daily exposure to bright artificial lights (PHOTOTHERAPY), during the season of recurrence.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Neurotic Disorders: Disorders in which the symptoms are distressing to the individual and recognized by him or her as being unacceptable. Social relationships may be greatly affected but usually remain within acceptable limits. The disturbance is relatively enduring or recurrent without treatment.Grief: Normal, appropriate sorrowful response to an immediate cause. It is self-limiting and gradually subsides within a reasonable time.Anhedonia: Inability to experience pleasure due to impairment or dysfunction of normal psychological and neurobiological mechanisms. It is a symptom of many PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS (e.g., DEPRESSIVE DISORDER, MAJOR; and SCHIZOPHRENIA).Imipramine: The prototypical tricyclic antidepressant. It has been used in major depression, dysthymia, bipolar depression, attention-deficit disorders, agoraphobia, and panic disorders. It has less sedative effect than some other members of this therapeutic group.Helplessness, Learned: Learned expectation that one's responses are independent of reward and, hence, do not predict or control the occurrence of rewards. Learned helplessness derives from a history, experimentally induced or naturally occurring, of having received punishment/aversive stimulation regardless of responses made. Such circumstances result in an impaired ability to learn. Used for human or animal populations. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Affective Symptoms: Mood or emotional responses dissonant with or inappropriate to the behavior and/or stimulus.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Outpatients: Persons who receive ambulatory care at an outpatient department or clinic without room and board being provided.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Personality: Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Panic Disorder: A type of anxiety disorder characterized by unexpected panic attacks that last minutes or, rarely, hours. Panic attacks begin with intense apprehension, fear or terror and, often, a feeling of impending doom. Symptoms experienced during a panic attack include dyspnea or sensations of being smothered; dizziness, loss of balance or faintness; choking sensations; palpitations or accelerated heart rate; shakiness; sweating; nausea or other form of abdominal distress; depersonalization or derealization; paresthesias; hot flashes or chills; chest discomfort or pain; fear of dying and fear of not being in control of oneself or going crazy. Agoraphobia may also develop. Similar to other anxiety disorders, it may be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait.Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System: A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Therapy, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems utilized as adjuncts in the treatment of disease.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Problem Solving: A learning situation involving more than one alternative from which a selection is made in order to attain a specific goal.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Self-Assessment: Appraisal of one's own personal qualities or traits.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.Pituitary-Adrenal System: The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Resilience, Psychological: The human ability to adapt in the face of tragedy, trauma, adversity, hardship, and ongoing significant life stressors.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Internal-External Control: Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate: Cell surface proteins that bind glutamate and act through G-proteins to influence second messenger systems. Several types of metabotropic glutamate receptors have been cloned. They differ in pharmacology, distribution, and mechanisms of action.Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.Veterans: Former members of the armed services.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Psychotropic Drugs: A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Apathy: Lack of emotion or emotional expression; a disorder of motivation that persists over time.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Dementia: An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Antimanic Agents: Agents that are used to treat bipolar disorders or mania associated with other affective disorders.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Factor Analysis, Statistical: A set of statistical methods for analyzing the correlations among several variables in order to estimate the number of fundamental dimensions that underlie the observed data and to describe and measure those dimensions. It is used frequently in the development of scoring systems for rating scales and questionnaires.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Social Adjustment: Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)Parenting: Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT1A: A serotonin receptor subtype found distributed through the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM where they are involved in neuroendocrine regulation of ACTH secretion. The fact that this serotonin receptor subtype is particularly sensitive to SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS such as BUSPIRONE suggests its role in the modulation of ANXIETY and DEPRESSION.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Sick Role: Set of expectations that exempt persons from responsibility for their illness and exempt them from usual responsibilities.Child Abuse: Abuse of children in a family, institutional, or other setting. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.WashingtonAging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Temperament: Predisposition to react to one's environment in a certain way; usually refers to mood changes.Mental Status Schedule: Standardized clinical interview used to assess current psychopathology by scaling patient responses to the questions.Receptors, AMPA: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).Social Isolation: The separation of individuals or groups resulting in the lack of or minimizing of social contact and/or communication. This separation may be accomplished by physical separation, by social barriers and by psychological mechanisms. In the latter, there may be interaction but no real communication.Community Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Marital Status: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.Guilt: Subjective feeling of having committed an error, offense or sin; unpleasant feeling of self-criticism. These result from acts, impulses, or thoughts contrary to one's personal conscience.Presynaptic Terminals: The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Religion and Psychology: The interrelationship of psychology and religion.Fibromyalgia: A common nonarticular rheumatic syndrome characterized by myalgia and multiple points of focal muscle tenderness to palpation (trigger points). Muscle pain is typically aggravated by inactivity or exposure to cold. This condition is often associated with general symptoms, such as sleep disturbances, fatigue, stiffness, HEADACHES, and occasionally DEPRESSION. There is significant overlap between fibromyalgia and the chronic fatigue syndrome (FATIGUE SYNDROME, CHRONIC). Fibromyalgia may arise as a primary or secondary disease process. It is most frequent in females aged 20 to 50 years. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1494-95)Homebound Persons: Those unable to leave home without exceptional effort and support; patients (in this condition) who are provided with or are eligible for home health services, including medical treatment and personal care. Persons are considered homebound even if they may be infrequently and briefly absent from home if these absences do not indicate an ability to receive health care in a professional's office or health care facility. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p309)Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Adolescent Psychology: Field of psychology concerned with the normal and abnormal behavior of adolescents. It includes mental processes as well as observable responses.Gyrus Cinguli: One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.Self-Help Groups: Organizations which provide an environment encouraging social interactions through group activities or individual relationships especially for the purpose of rehabilitating or supporting patients, individuals with common health problems, or the elderly. They include therapeutic social clubs.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Phobic Disorders: Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Thinking: Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry): The co-existence of a substance abuse disorder with a psychiatric disorder. The diagnostic principle is based on the fact that it has been found often that chemically dependent patients also have psychiatric problems of various degrees of severity.
Meta-analysis of the reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase type A moclobemide and brofaromine for the treatment of depression. (1/9883)The reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase type A (RIMAs) are a newer group of antidepressants that have had much less impact on clinical psychopharmacology than another contemporary class of medications, the selective serotonin reuptake-inhibitors (SSRIs). The RIMAs agents are distinguished from the older monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) by their selectivity and reversibility. As a result, dietary restrictions are not required during RIMA therapy, and hypertensive crises are quite rare. In this article, we describe a series of meta-analyses of studies of the two most widely researched RIMAs, moclobemide (MOC; Aurorex) and brofaromine (BRO). Our findings confirm that both BRO and MOC are as effective as the tricyclic antidepressants, and they are better tolerated. However, BRO is not being studied at present for reasons unrelated to efficacy or side effects. MOC, which is available throughout much of the world (but not the United States), is significantly more effective than placebo and, at the least, comparable to the SSRIs in both efficacy and tolerability. For MOC, higher dosages may enhance efficacy for more severe depressions. We also found evidence that supports clinical impressions that MOC is somewhat less effective, albeit better tolerated, than older MAOIs, such as phenelzine or tranylcypromine. Little evidence has yet emerged to suggest that the RIMAs share older MAOIs' utility for treatment of depressions characterized by prominent reverse neurovegetative features. Based on available evidence, the RIMAs appear to have a limited, but useful, role in the differential therapeutics of the depressive disorders. (+info)
Individual and organizational predictors of depression in general practitioners. (2/9883)BACKGROUND: High levels of stress and depression are seen in both general practitioners (GPs) and hospital doctors, and this has implications for patient care. It is therefore important to discover the individual and organizational causes of elevated symptoms so they can be tackled. AIM: To discover the relative importance of individual characteristics measured 10 years earlier compared with current organizational stressors in predicting depression in GPs. METHOD: Longitudinal questionnaire study, using data from those of the original cohort of 318 medical students who are now GPs (n = 131), considering perceptions of current stressors and comparing through regression analyses the relative strength of early personality and mood with current organizational factors of sleep, hours worked, and practice size in predicting current depression levels. RESULTS: There were 22 (17%) stressors scoring above threshold for depression. Relationships with senior doctors and patients are the main reported stressors, followed by making mistakes and conflict of career with personal life. The predictors of symptom levels varied for men and women. In men, depression and self-criticism as students, and current sleep levels; and in women, sibling rivalry and current alcohol use, were the main predictors: in men, 27% of the variance was accounted for by early dispositional factors alone compared with 14% in women. A model is suggested linking sleep loss with workplace stressors, self-critical cognitions, and depression. CONCLUSION: Interventions can be made throughout training, targeting self-criticism and recognizing early depression, while later addressing the organizational stressors, particularly work relationships and sleep patterns. (+info)
Increased serotonin receptor density and platelet GPIIb/IIIa activation among smokers. (3/9883)This study sought to determine whether depressive symptoms and/or platelet serotonin receptor (5HT2A) density are associated with increased platelet activation (PA) found among smokers. Flow cytometric detection of PA was used to study 36 smokers and 16 nonsmokers, aged 18 to 48 years. Subjects were tested at baseline and after either smoking 2 cigarettes (smokers) or a similar resting interval (nonsmokers). Assessment of PA included both platelet secretion and fibrinogen receptor (GPIIb/IIIa) binding. Platelet 5HT2A receptor binding and saturation were tested using [3H]LSD, and depressive symptoms were measured using the Beck Depression Inventory. Platelet 5HT2A receptor density was increased among smokers versus nonsmokers (82.7+/-67.7 versus 40.0+/-20.2 fmol/mg protein; P<0.005), and there was a dose-dependent relationship between receptor density and packs/d among smokers. Baseline wound-induced GPIIb/IIIa binding at 1 minute and GPIIb/IIIa binding in response to collagen stimulation in vitro was increased among smokers (P<0.05); there were no changes in PA among smokers after smoking, and platelet secretion was not elevated among smokers. Depressive symptoms were associated with 5HT2A receptor density among nonsmokers (P<0.005), but no such relationship was evident among smokers; PA was unrelated to 5HT2A receptor density in either group. The findings indicate that smoking is associated with increased platelet serotonin receptor density and with increased GPIIb/IIIa receptor binding, although these 2 factors are not related to each other or to depressive symptoms among smokers. Serotonergic dysfunction may be an important factor in the development of cardiovascular disease among smokers. (+info)
The Montefiore community children's project: a controlled study of cognitive and emotional problems of homeless mothers and children. (4/9883)OBJECTIVES: This study compares the prevalence of emotional, academic, and cognitive impairment in children and mothers living in the community with those living in shelters for the homeless. METHOD: In New York City, 82 homeless mothers and their 102 children, aged 6 to 11, recruited from family shelters were compared to 115 nonhomeless mothers with 176 children recruited from classmates of the homeless children. Assessments included standardized tests and interviews. RESULTS: Mothers in shelters for the homeless showed higher rates of depression and anxiety than did nonhomeless mothers. Boys in homeless shelters showed higher rates of serious emotional and behavioral problems. Both boys and girls in homeless shelters showed more academic problems than did nonhomeless children. CONCLUSION: Study findings suggest a need among homeless children for special attention to academic problems that are not attributable to intellectual deficits in either children or their mothers. Although high rates of emotional and behavioral problems characterized poor children living in both settings, boys in shelters for the homeless may be particularly in need of professional attention. (+info)
Persistence of depressive symptoms in diabetic adults. (5/9883)OBJECTIVE: To determine the level and pattern of persistent depressive symptoms among adults with diabetes and identify factors associated with increased risk of being persistently depressed. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A self-report depression symptom inventory was administered to 245 patients at two initial time points--the beginning and end of a comprehensive outpatient diabetes education program--and at 6-month follow-up. RESULTS: Only 13% of subjects were persistently depressed (i.e., exceeded the criterion for depression symptoms at all three time points). The rate of being depressed at follow-up was 10% for those negative for depression symptoms at either of the initial time points, 36% for those positive at one initial time point, and 73% for those positive at both initial time points (P < 0.0001). Those at increased risk for being persistently depressed were those who did not graduate from high school, had more than two complications of diabetes, and were not treated with insulin. CONCLUSIONS: Persistent depressive symptomatology is present in a substantial number of diabetic adults and can be effectively predicted using simple screening instruments during initial contacts. Risk factors for being persistently depressed only partly overlap those for transient depressive symptoms and represent a possible biological dimension. (+info)
A cost-effective approach to the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in a Veterans Affairs Medical Center. (6/9883)In light of the tremendous expansion in the number of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors available to the clinician, the Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee of the Denver Veterans Affairs Medical Center considered the advantages and disadvantages of fluoxethine, paroxetine, and sertraline, to determine which agent or agents would be carried on the formulary. The committed recommended sertraline as the preferred agent for the treatment of depression, panic disorders, and obsessive-compulsive disorders. The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess the economic outcome of that decision. The study population consisted of patients at the medical center who were receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors during January through March of 1994 and those were receiving these agents between September 1995 and January 1996. The expanded collection period in 1995-96 was due to a relatively new medical center policy to offer 90-day fills on medication to reduce costs. The extended collection period assured a 100% sample of patients receiving these agents. The 1994 fluoxetine to sertraline dosage equivalency ratio was 20 mg:55.6 mg, based on average daily doses of fluoxetine and sertraline of 32.7 and 90.9 mg, respectively. The cost to the medical center for an average daily dose of fluoxetine was $1.86; sertraline cost $1.22 per day. The 1996 fluoxetine to sertraline dosage equivalency ratio (20 mg:51.3 mg) had not changed significantly since 1994, indicating that the dose of 20 mg of fluoxetine remained very close to a 50-mg dose of sertraline. The average daily doses of fluoxetine and sertraline (34.9 mg and 89.7 mg, respectively) were not significantly different than the 1994 doses. Only 33 patients had been prescribed paroxetine (average daily dose, 32.4 mg). On the basis of these values, the average daily cost of fluoxetine to the medical center was $2.01, compared with $1.18 for sertraline and $1.24 for paroxetine. This $0.83 per patient per day drug acquisition cost difference between fluoxetine and sertraline results in a drug cost reduction of $302,674 per year. (+info)
Alternative insurance arrangements and the treatment of depression: what are the facts? (7/9883)Using insurance claims data from nine large self-insured employers offering 26 alternative health benefit plans, we examine empirically how the composition and utilization for the treatment of depression vary under alternative organizational forms of insurance (indemnity, preferred provider organization networks, and mental health carve-outs), and variations in patient cost-sharing (copayments for psychotherapy and for prescription drugs). Although total outpatient mental health and substance abuse expenditures per treated individual do not vary significantly across insurance forms, the depressed outpatient is more likely to receive anti-depressant drug medications is preferred provider organizations and carve-outs than when covered by indemnity insurance. Those individuals facing higher copayments for psychotherapy are more likely to receive anti-depressant drug medications. For those receiving treatment, increases in prescription drug copayments tend to increase the share of anti-depressant drug medication costs accounted for by the newest (and more costly) generation of drugs, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. (+info)
Effectiveness and economic impact of antidepressant medications: a review. (8/9883)This article reviews the existing literature on the pharmacoeconomics and effectiveness of antidepressant medications. Although selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have not proved to be more efficacious than the older tricyclics, and their prescription costs are significantly higher, they provide superior effectiveness; ie, patients are less likely to discontinue taking them or switch antidepressants. Pharmacoeconomic studies consistently demonstrate a relationship between this superior effectiveness and reductions in overall treatment costs, often through decreased utilization of medical and hospital services. The most conservative study found a cost offset that more than negated the extra cost of drugs, although the cost savings were not statistically significant. Other studies found statistically significant lowering of utilization costs by using SSRIs rather than tricyclics. Studies comparing SSRIs with each other present conflicting findings, although fluoxetine appears to have an edge over sertraline and paroxetine with regards to effectiveness and pharmacoeconomics. More studies employing a prospective outcome design and naturalistic study setting need to be conducted with SSRIs and other new antidepressants. (+info)
The association between dietary patterns derived by reduced rank regression and depressive symptoms over time: the Invecchiare...
A diet typically consumed by the Tuscan population - high in vegetables, olive oil, fish, fruits, grains, potatoes, (tomato) sauces, eggs and moderate in wine, red meat and processed meat - was consistently associated with lower depressive symptoms over time in the InCHIANTI cohort. The association between the typical Tuscan dietary pattern and repeated measures of depressive symptoms attenuated after adjustment for confounding factors, but remained statistically significant.. Using RRR to identify dietary patterns and the prospective design of the study with its repeated assessment of depressive symptoms are major strengths of this study. In addition, our study is unique in using continuous scores for depressive symptoms instead of using a cut-off point. This is an advantage because continuous scores are more likely to reflect reality compared with using a cut-off point for depressive symptoms, as the latter could be considered arbitrary. It might be argued that interpreting continuous CES-D ...
GastroHep News Story
The team prospectively studied 101 patients with hepatobiliary carcinoma.. Depressive symptoms were measured at diagnosis using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale.. Sociodemographic and disease-specific data were gathered from the patients charts.. The team measured several factors in a subsample of patients that included stress, alcohol, tobacco, and drug use .. Sleep quality, physical activity, social support, natural killer cell number and cytotoxicity were also assessed.. The team then measured plasma levels of interleukin -4, interleukin-5, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interferon gamma.. Survival was measured from date of diagnosis to death.. The researchers found that at diagnosis, 37% of patients reported a Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale score of 16.. The team found that sociodemographic and disease-specific variables significantly predicted survival.. Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale score significantly predicted ...
Validating an American scale in Hong Kong: the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D)
The construct validity of a Chinese-language version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D; Radloff, 1977) was tested on a sample of 138 Hong Kong Chinese married couples. Confirmatory factor analysis identified 2 factors: (a) depressive symptom factors and (b) interperso …
Evaluation of a Diabetes-specific Cognitive Behavioural Treatment for Subthreshold Depression - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials...
Elevated rates for depression in diabetic patients are of clinical significance for diabetology. Depressive disorders are doubled compared to patients without diabetes. A meta-analysis showed that a proportion of 20% of diabetic patients showed subthreshold depression, defined as elevated depressive symptoms without meeting criteria for clinical depression. Depression in diabetes is associated with a reduced quality of life, more diabetes related distress, and higher health related costs. But besides this, depression in diabetes seems to be an independent negative prognostic factor for morbidity and mortality. Furthermore subthreshold depression is a major barrier of an effective self-management of the disease.. Until now antidepressive therapies are only evaluated in clinically depressed diabetic patients. For the majority of depressed diabetic patients suffering from subthreshold depression no evaluated specific intervention concept exists. Since subthreshold depression often is associated ...
Depression Rates Among Veterans Empty Nest Separation -- Depression Anac2 Understanding
Im sure my nervous system is taking a beating.. Often Depression Rates Among Veterans Empty Nest Separation times our depression can lead us to past regrets or worries of the future. Examples from external sources. To take photographs of scorpions under blacklight you must first be proficient at taking pictures of scorpions under regular light. I specialize in working with anxiety depression moving forward and childrens issues - including Stress - Valerian (AB) Elm (B).. What things helped you defeat depression/control your depression? 3. Discriminating between bipolar and unipolar depressive episodes remains a clinical challenge. He is the creator of the "Destroy Depression System" a simple 7 step guide to self-curing depression naturally Depression Rates Among Veterans Empty Nest Separation using an amalgamation of all the research done in the area together with his own Ron Paul This Is Much Bigger Than The Great Depression! People continue to hurt others when they are incapable of noticing ...
Factor Structure of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale in South Korea
1. Introduction. Managing depressive symptoms effectively has become an important social issue in South Korea. Cho, Nam, and Suh  studied the prevalence of depressive symptoms in Korean adults. They found that 25.3% of Korean adults had depression scores above the cutoff of 16 on the Korean version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and 8.6% of those had depression scores above 25  . Depressive symptoms refer to physical and mental states that are accompanied by a depressed mood  . In this study, depressive symptoms include negative affect, somatic symptoms, and anhedonia  . Negative affect is a depressed mood, which includes dysphoric mood or sadness. Somatic symptoms are somatic complaints such as sleep disturbance or fatigue. Anhedonia is lack of positive affect such as feeling good or happy. Individuals who have salient depressive symptoms usually have impaired psychosocial functioning  . Specifically, it has been suggested that differential ...
Vascular risk status as a predictor of later-life depressive symptoms: a cohort study. - Wellcome Centre for Integrative...
BACKGROUND: Common etiology of vascular diseases and later-life depression may provide important synergies for prevention. We examined whether standard clinical risk profiles developed for vascular diseases also predict depressive symptoms in older adults. METHODS: Data were drawn from the Whitehall II study with baseline examination in 1991; follow-up screenings in 1997, 2003, and 2008; and additional disease ascertainment from hospital data and registry linkage on 5318 participants (mean age 54.8 years, 31% women) without depressive symptoms at baseline. Vascular risk was assessed with the Framingham Cardiovascular, Coronary Heart Disease, and Stroke Risk Scores. New depressive symptoms at each follow-up screening were identified by General Health Questionnaire caseness, a Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score ≥16, and use of antidepressant medication. RESULTS: Diagnosed vascular disease (that is, coronary heart disease or stroke) was associated with an increased risk for
Dysfunction of the neural network associated with sustained attention in cancer patients with clinically significant depressive...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dysfunction of the neural network associated with sustained attention in cancer patients with clinically significant depressive symptoms. AU - Kim, Lee Su. AU - Hwang, Hee Sung. AU - Jon, Duk In. AU - Ham, Byoung Joo. AU - Seok, Jeong Ho. PY - 2008/12/5. Y1 - 2008/12/5. N2 - Introduction: A breast cancer diagnosis is a major stressor in women that might mediate disabling depressive symptoms. Dysfunction of the neural network associated with attentive processing of emotional information has been considered an important pathophysiologic mechanism of depression. Attention deficit and related brain abnormalities in patients with clinically significant depressive symptoms were investigated by comparing patients without clinically significant depressive symptoms when they were diagnosed with breast cancer. Methods: Twelve breast cancer patients with clinically significant depressive symptoms and 12 breast cancer patients without clinically significant depressive symptoms participated ...
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Do different depression phenotypes have different risks for recurrent coronary heart disease? | Academic Commons
Although research has consistently established that depression and elevated depressive symptoms are associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) recurrence and mortality, clinical trials have failed to show that conventional depression interventions offset this risk. As depression is a complex and heterogeneous syndrome, we believe that examining simpler, or intermediary, phenotypes rather than one complex phenotype may allow better identification of those at particular risk of CHD recurrence and mortality. This approach may further contribute to the development of specific depression treatments that would improve medical outcomes. Although there are many possible intermediary phenotypes (IPs), specifiers and dimensions of depression, we will focus on only two when considering the relation between depression and risk of CHD recurrence and mortality: Incident Depression and Anhedonic Depression. Future research on IPs of depression is needed to clarify which are associated with the
Factors associated with reported childhood depressive symptoms at age 8 and later self-reported depressive symptoms among boys...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Factors associated with reported childhood depressive symptoms at age 8 and later self-reported depressive symptoms among boys at age 18. AU - Ronning, John A.. AU - Haavisto, Antti. AU - Nikolakaros, Georgios. AU - Helenius, Hans. AU - Tamminen, Tuula. AU - Moilanen, Irma. AU - Kumpulainen, Kirsti. AU - Piha, Jorma. AU - Almqvist, Fredrik. AU - Sourander, Andre. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. KW - Depressive symptoms. KW - Child. KW - Adolescence. KW - Epidemiology. KW - Follow-up. KW - RISK-FACTORS. KW - PSYCHIATRIC-DISORDERS. KW - CHILDRENS DEPRESSION. KW - GENDER-DIFFERENCES. KW - MAJOR DEPRESSION. KW - 18-YEAR-OLD BOYS. KW - PUBERTAL STATUS. KW - ADOLESCENTS. KW - POPULATION. KW - INVENTORY. KW - 3124 Neurology and psychiatry. U2 - 10.1007/s00127-010-0182-6. DO - 10.1007/s00127-010-0182-6. M3 - Article. VL - 46. SP - 207. EP - 218. JO - Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. JF - Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. SN - 0933-7954. IS - 3. ER - ...
The course of depressive symptoms with decline in cognitive function - a longitudinal study of older adults receiving in-home...
Depressive symptoms in old age are common, but the prevalence, persistence, and incidence of depressive symptoms in older adults with and without dementia receiving in-home care is less well studied, and descriptions of the relationship between severity of cognitive decline and depressive symptoms over time is, to our knowledge, lacking. The aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence, incidence and persistence of depressive symptoms over a 36-month follow-up period among older adults receiving in-home care at baseline, and to explore the association between cognitive function and the course of depressive symptoms over time ...
Comparison of self-reported scales and structured interviews for the assessment of depression in an urban male working...
The present study aimed to analyze the association among depression, sleep quality, and quality of life using the Japanese version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders Non-Patient Edition (SCID-I/NP), and to compare these findings with those obtained using self-reported scales, in an urban male working population in Japan. The present study included 324 middle-aged participants (43.8 ± 8.37 years) (participation rate: 69.5%). The Japanese version of the SCID-I/NP was administered by a single physician. Self-reported scales, including the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Assessment (PSQI), and 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) were used to assess depression, sleepiness, sleep quality, and quality of life, respectively. Participants were then divided into a major depressive disorder (MDD) and control group based on the results of structured interviews, following which self-reported scale scores were
J Clin Psychiatry/A Prospective Study of Hormone Therapy and Depression in Community-Dwelling Elderly Women: The Three City...
Background: The potential benefits of hormone therapy (HT) in treating depressed postmenopausal women are controversial, and data on depression (re)emergence in the context of HT discontinuation are lacking.. Objective: To determine whether HT is associated with a modified risk of new-onset depressive symptoms in elderly women.. Method: Current depressive symptomatology was evaluated in 4,069 community-dwelling postmenopausal women aged 65 years and over who were randomly recruited from 3 French cities between 1999 and 2001. Depressive symptomatology was assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale at baseline and as part of the 2- and 4-year follow-up.. Results: Over the follow-up period, multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted for sociodemographic variables, measures of physical health, and cognitive impairment failed to find a significant association between HT at baseline and the incidence of depressive symptoms. However further analysis indicated an ...
Prospective associations between meth/amphetamine (speed) and MDMA (ecstasy) use and depressive symptoms in secondary school...
Methods A sample of 3880 adolescents from secondary schools in disadvantaged areas of Quebec, Canada, were followed over time (2003-2008). Logistic regression was used to test the association between meth/amphetamine and MDMA use in grade 10 (ages 15-16 years) and elevated depressive symptoms on an abridged Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale in grade 11, controlling for pre-existing individual and contextual characteristics.. ...
Prevalence Of Depression In Older Adults 2019 | Win Over Depression
Depression in older adults is often not recognized or treated. Yet, Estimates of the prevalence of depression among older adults range from 15-20 percent of.. Facts & Statistics. Nearly one-half of those diagnosed with depression are also diagnosed with an. is the most common anxiety disorder among older adults,. younger adults indicate prevalence results similar to. Prevalence of and Factors Associated With Current and Lifetime Depression in Older. Depression is associated with hyperglycemia and an increased risk for diabetic complications; relief of depression is associated with improved glycemic control. A more accurate estimate of depression prevalence than what is currently available is needed to gauge the potential impact of depression management in diabetes.. Depression is common in elderly adults, but it isnt normal. WebMD explains the signs of depression in your aging loved one and different treatment options.. Sep 28, 2011. Depression in older adults is associated with an increased ...
The One Thing to Do for Depression Alternative Therapies - Wellness Coaching For Life
Learn as much as possible about your depression. If youre attempting to control your depression with medication but you neednt found any luck in doing this, it may be time for you to speak with your psychiatrist about alternative depression treatment methods to find out if TMS is an alternative. The ideal way to deal with depression is to become as informed as possible concerning the treatment alternatives, and tailor them to fulfill your requirements. There arent any strategies to stop depression from the allopathy perspective. The vital point to keep in mind is that depression isnt as unremitting as we have a tendency to think. Postpartum depression isnt a joke. So if you discover yourself also experiencing postpartum depression, I urge you to find assist. When it has to do with depression, alternative treatments arent a replacement for medical care. Depression may be a significant disease. If youve got mild depression, these treatments might be recommended.. Depression is a rather ...
Depression Risk Factors Cdc Insomnia Nighttime - Marcompdesign Crmgp
Bipolar Disorder in Adults (BD) . ST depression and T-wave inversion in MCG not detected in simultaneous BSPM can possibly be explained by circular vortex currents (Brockmeier et al.. Fun Trivia.com - loaded with content submitted by users this site has a good selection of US History Quizzes - some are grade specific - good for a computer lab activity - create your own quiz. Basic Electrocardiography (ECG) Interpretation s a competency based educational program of didactic and practical instruction in basic ECG interpretation was developed. Lupus and Clinical Depression.. My point is that we are in a panic about the New Great Depression because were grown up with so much stuff. If i had herepes id be a little sad too Then id move on and continue to have sex. Depression From Relationship Problems. Aiding every single person suffering from depression in Liberal Missouri 64762 that seek Depression Rehab Microgynon 30 Depression Risk Factors Cdc Insomnia Nighttime SINGAPORE AIDS ...
Helping Others Is Gods Prescription for Depression … - One of our most popular blog pages is Scriptures Against Depression. Despair and heaviness is everywhere. It is in the news and it seems to be in the air….. Testimony Share » God Healed me from Anxiety and Depression - 215 Responses to "God Healed me from Anxiety and Depression" Joshua Says: March 2nd, 2009 at 2:34 pm. I love the armour of god! Amazing testomony, keep on truckin!…. Can Faith in God Help Alleviate Depression? - A recent study looking at the relationship between faith and effectiveness of treatment for depression found that those whose belief in God was stronger, regardless ……. Magnesium for Depression: A Cure for Depression … - Forward: Although this depression treatment by magnesium essay was written originally to address the role of magnesium as a depression treatment, the role of ……. Can Christians Have Depression? Even though the clinical depression has only been medically categorized and developed in ...
Lamictal depression >> Side effects of lamictal, Karplus Warehouse Promotional Video | Karplus...
This lamictal is a depression different mechanism than typical anti-depressants and lamictal more nearly akin to depression lithium, which also finds use as depression a depression stabilizer in depression bipolar patients. I depression cant handle everyday changes or lamictal nurse friend lamictal suggested that I need depression a mood stabilizer, like lamictal. The drug was first investigated for use in epileptic depression patients and it acts on depression nerve transmission in the lamictal brain. Lithium for Bipolar lamictal Disorder Lithium (brand names include lamictal Eskalith or Lithobid) is the most widely used and studied medication for treating bipolar disorder. Onset usually occurs lamictal within the first several weeks after starting therapy. To date, there are lamictal no known problems depression associated with long depression term use of depression lamotrigine. People who have depression taken this version because of pressure from their insurance provider have lamictal ...
Eating a High Fish Diet May Curb Depression Risk - Neuroscience News
Association equally significant among men and women, pooled data analysis shows.. Eating a lot of fish may help curb the risk of depression-at least in Europe-suggests a pooled analysis of the available evidence, published online in the Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health.. The association between a fishy diet and mental health appears to be equally significant among men and women, the first analysis of its kind indicates.. Depression affects an estimated 350 million people worldwide, and is projected to become the second leading cause of ill health by 2020.. Several previous studies have looked at the possible role of dietary factors in modifying depression risk, but the findings have been inconsistent and inconclusive.. The researchers therefore pooled the data from relevant studies published between 2001 and 2014 to assess the strength of the evidence on the link between fish consumption and depression risk. After trawling research databases, they found 101 suitable articles, of which ...
Comparison of Psychometric Properties of Three Depression Measures in Patients With Stroke - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.gov
This study is going to comprehensively examine the psychometric properties of the three depression scales (Hamilton depression scale (HAMD), Hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)) in stroke patients over a period of three years.. This study will be divided into two parts. In the first part, we will spend 3 years in recruiting 200 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of first stroke onset to compare the validity, responsiveness, and acceptability of the HAMD, HADS, and BDI. All patients will be assessed using the three depression scales and other functional measures at 14, 30, 90, 180, and 365 days after stroke.. In the second part, the inter-rater reliability of the three depression scales will be examined in the first year. Sixty chronic stroke patients will be recruited in the study.. Furthermore, the other 60 chronic stroke patients will be recruited in the second year for examining the test-retest reliability and measurement error of the three ...
Effect of age on geriatric depression scale performance in Parkinson's disease - Weintraub - 2007 - Movement Disorders - Wiley...
The purpose of this study was to compare the validity of the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) in nonelderly (,65 years), young-elderly (age, 65-75), and old-elderly (,75 years) patients with Parkinsons disease (PD). 57 nonelderly, 88 young-elderly, and 81 old-elderly PD patients were administered the GDS-15 and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV depression module. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted for GDS-15 scores against a DSM-IV diagnosis of major or minor depression. The discriminant validity of the GDS-15 was high for nonelderly, young-elderly, and old-elderly subjects (ROC area under curve = 0.92, 0.91, and 0.95, respectively), with optimal dichotomization at a cut-off of 4/5 (85% sensitivity and 84% specificity in nonelderly; 89% sensitivity and 82% specificity in young-elderly) and 5/6 (90% sensitivity and 90% specificity in old-elderly). In conclusion, the GDS-15 has comparable validity in younger and older PD patients, suggesting its ...
Depression and Anti-Depressants with Dr. Aviv Ouanounou - Oasis Discussions
Dr. Aviv Ouanounou comes back to speak about depression and anti-depressant medication and the main considerations in treating patients who are taking anti-depressants.. Highlights Depression is a common disease that affects the elderly and is the 4th highest cause of disability worldwide. The disease can affect not only the individual diagnosed with depression but, also his/her family and friends. Genetics, biochemical imbalances, stress, personality type, certain medications as well previous depressive episodes can predispose one to depression. Signs and symptoms vary from one individual to another but include suicidal thoughts, sadness, low self-esteem, disturbed sleep patterns and irritability.. Types of depression include: major depression, chronic depression (mild), atypical depression, bipolar disorder/manic depression, season affective depression (SAD). The general pathophysiology of depression involves the monoamine oxidase neurotransmission in the CNS as well as abnormalities in the ...
Factor structure and diagnostic efficiency of the Myanmar version BDI-II among substance users | Annals of General Psychiatry |...
The Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) has been accepted as one of the most commonly used self-report measures for depression. However, there is no study examining the psychometric properties of the BDI-II among substance users in low- and middle-income countries such as Myanmar. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the suitability of using this instrument in substance users and to examine the reliability and diagnostic efficiency to be compared with the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) among substance users in Northern Shan State of Myanmar. A respondent-driven sampling (RDS) method was applied for recruiting the participants in this study, and total 230 substance users were recruited. On the other hand, 50 participants who visited the drop-in center (DIC) were screened for depressive symptoms using ICD-10 during the days when one consultant psychiatrist doctor was presented. These participants were interviewed face-to-face by the consultant psychiatrist using a semi-structured
Depression in Heart Failure | JACC: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
The overall aggregated point estimate prevalence rate calculated in this study (21.6%) indicates that HF patients experience clinically significant depression at a rate similar to the 15% to 20% levels cited for CAD patients (71,72), and at 2 to 3 times the rate of the general population (73). Considering the typically worse prognosis for individuals with HF as opposed to CAD or myocardial infarction, this rate of depression may seem modest. However, this combined depression estimate is much lower than that suggested in a number of HF studies (48), a discrepancy that seems from this review to be a result of defining depression on the basis of elevated symptom severity from questionnaires rather than a diagnostic interview. Individual study prevalence estimates ranged from 9% to 60%, suggesting a considerable degree of heterogeneity.. Explaining the heterogeneity of reported depression rates was a secondary goal of this review. The moderators explored in association with depression prevalence ...
High Level of Depressive Symptoms at Repeated Study Visits and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke over 10 Years in Older...
BACKROUND: Baseline depressive symptoms have been consistently associated with the onset of cardiovascular disease (CVD). OBJECTIVES: Since depressive symptoms vary over time in elderly persons, and to help clarify whether or not depression is an etiological factor for CVD, we quantified the association between the course of depressive symptoms and occurrence of first coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke events in older adults. DESIGN: A population-based prospective observational study. SETTING: Participants were randomly selected from the electoral rolls of three large French cities. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 9,294 participants were examined at baseline between 1999 and 2001, and thereafter at repeated study visits over 10 years. MEASUREMENTS: High levels of depressive symptoms (HLDS) were defined as a score ≥16 on the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The number of study visits with HLDS was used as a time dependent variable in Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS:
Longitudinal consistency of the relationship between depression symptoms and cognitive functioning in multiple sclerosis<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Longitudinal consistency of the relationship between depression symptoms and cognitive functioning in multiple sclerosis. AU - Arnett, Peter A.. PY - 2005/5. Y1 - 2005/5. N2 - Background: Lifetime prevalence rates of cognitive dysfunction and depression in multiple sclerosis (MS) have typically been reported to be ∼50%. However, an inconsistent relationship between these two common features of MS has been reported in the literature. Because neurovegetative depression symptoms overlap with MS symptoms, it may be that literature inconsistencies can partly be explained by the fact that only those depression symptom clusters unambiguously reflective of depression are associated with cognitive dysfunction. Objective: To explore the relationship between different depression symptom clusters and a battery of tests measuring cognitive domains commonly impaired in MS and was examined at two time points 3 years apart. Methods: The Chicago Multiscale Depression Inventory was employed to ...
Frontiers | DSM-5 Criteria and Depression Severity: Implications for Clinical Practice | Psychiatry
Background: Depression diagnosis requires five or more symptoms (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-DSM-5). One of them must be either Depressed mood or Anhedonia, named main criteria. Although the secondary symptoms can be divided into somatic and non-somatic clusters, the DSM-5 identify depression in all or none fashion. In contrast, depression severity is a continuous variable. Therefore, it is commonly assessed with scales such as the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD). Previously, we reported that patients with moderate depression (MD) exhibit greater impairments in cardiac-autonomic modulation than severely depressed (SD) patients. However, clinicians usually do not use scales.Objective: To verify whether the DSM-5 symptoms would be able to discriminate SD from MD and MD from non-depressed (ND) subjects.Material and Methods: Depression was diagnosed based on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-5® Disorders. The HAMD evaluated depression severity. In depressed
Cbt Protocol For Depression 2020 | Win Over Depression
CBT competence framework. DEPRESSION. Beck model. Sources: Beck A.T., Rush A.J., Shaw B.F. & Emery, G. (1979) Cognitive Therapy of Depression. New.. The Anxiety and Depression Center is pleased to offer a time limited cognitive. in empirically validated cognitive behavior therapy (cbt/dbt) treatment protocols.. Mar 8, 2018. Self-Guided Internet-Based CBT May Help Ease Depression. By Gene. A study protocol, including an internal pilot study, has previously been.. Finally: An FDA-Cleared At-Home Non-Medicinal Treatment for Depression.. CBT-I presents a promising treatment for depression comorbid with insomnia. This study used an abbreviated CBT-I protocol (two short in-person sessions,. In this two-part series I present several clinically proven ways to treat depression without drugs.. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Depression. and application of CBT for the treatment of depression on the basis of the protocol described in this manual,. Price for viagra from pfizer with that these the once to ...
Major Depression Inventory - Wikipedia
The Major Depression Inventory (MDI) is a self-report mood questionnaire developed by the World Health Organisation. The instrument was constructed by a team led by Professor Per Bech, a psychiatrist based at Frederiksborg General Hospital in Denmark. The MDI differs from many other self-report inventories, such as the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), because it is able to generate an ICD-10 or DSM-IV diagnosis of clinical depression in addition to an estimate of symptom severity. Unlike many other similar instruments, the MDI is available free of charge and can be downloaded from the internet with a full manual and scoring instructions. This makes it an attractive option in epidemiological population surveys. It has also been translated into seven languages. To measure treatment outcome the sum of the ten items is used. A higher score signifies deeper depression. When using the scale to diagnose depression according to ICD-10, there are the following possibilities: Mild depression: A score of 4 ...
Depression, Self-Care, and Medication Adherence in Type 2 Diabetes | Diabetes Care
In a large sample of primary care patients with type 2 diabetes, we found evidence of probable major depressive disorder in 19% of patients surveyed. Major depression was significantly associated with poorer diabetes self-care behaviors, including lower adherence to general diet, consumption of fruits and vegetables, spacing carbohydrates, exercise recommendations, glucose monitoring, and prescribed medications over the previous 7 days. Analyses showed that depressive symptom severity was a better predictor of each of these self-care behaviors than probable major depression, except for glucose monitoring. When both depressive symptom severity and probable major depression were examined in the same model, only probable major depression was associated with significantly decreased monitoring. Two-thirds of patients surveyed reported at least some symptoms of depression but did not meet the screening criteria for major depression. Even among these patients, symptoms of depression were incrementally ...
Abstract selezionati | Bollettinoginendo
Objectives: There is evidence that menopausal symptoms manifested at peri-menopause occur less fre-quently when compared to the symptoms experienced at post-menopause. The aim of this study wasto investigate this and to test the hypothesis that depressive symptomatology mediates the relationshipbetween menopausal stage and symptom frequency.Methods: This cross-sectional study included 213 women (M age = 52 years), of whom 125 were peri-and 88 post-menopausal. Measures comprised the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale(CES-D) and the Womens Health Questionnaire (WHQ) vasomotor symptoms and somatic symptomssubscales.Results: Multiple mediated regression analyses provided evidence that somatic symptoms and vasomotorsymptoms were less frequent at post- compared to peri-menopause, and that these differences weremediated by depressive symptomatology. Multivariate effect sizes ranged from small to moderate, andunivariate effect sizes were uniformly small with wide confidence ...
Behavior OnLine - Cognitive aspects of Chronic Depression
Jim Pretzer · 03/12/03 at 8:49 PM ET Research into the role of cognition in depression has typically examined episodes of acute depression or the recurrence of depression with much less research into the role of cognition in chronic depression. Riso et al. (2003) examined the role of dysfunctional attitudes, attributional style, a ruminative response style, and maladaptive core beliefs in a sample of 42 chronically depressed outpatients, 27 outpatients with non-chronic major depression, and 24 control subjects without psychoatric problems. Both depressed groups scored higher that the control group on measures of these cognitive variables and the chronicallu depressed group generally scored higher than those with non-chronic depression even after controlling for mood state and personality disorder symptoms. It looks to me as though cognition plays the same role in chronic depression as in non-chronic depression, only more so. The authors of this study interpret their findings as supporting ...
KBT-I FÖR DEPRESSION : Är Kognitiv Beteendeterapi för Insomni (KBT-I) en effektiv behandling för depression - vid samtidig...
Insomnia and depression are two common mental health problems. This study investigated whether a proven effective treatment for insomnia CBT-I, would change the severity of depressive symptoms, for participants with comorbid insomnia and depression. It was controlled for, whether a reduction in depressive symptoms could be the result of increased physical activity. A single case experimental design, including daily measurements of sleep, depression and physical activity, was used as a means to answer the research questions. Symptoms of both depression and insomnia were significantly reduced for three out of six participants. Increased physical activity was not able to explain the decrease in depression scores. A correlation was observed, between depression and insomnia. The results shows that insomnia and depression can be affected by the same treatment, which implies existence of common perpetual mechanisms.. ...
Forget Being Free of Depression - Start Living Now! - HealingWell.com
A friend once remarked I was a wonderful role model for how to live a great life despite suffering from depression. At the time, I was unable to see the value in that since, the ultimate goal is to be depression free - isnt it? Suffering from depression means were flawed, right? It means theres something wrong with my life in which case, what is there to be proud of?. After several trips out of depression and then descending into the pit of despair over and over again I began to wonder whether or not Id ever be completely free of depression and, more importantly, whether or not it really matters.. Nowadays Im able to see that:. ~ Suffering or not suffering from depression is not whats important ~ How I respond to what occurs in my life (including depression) is. Given that 75% of depression sufferers cycle back into depression at some point, it makes more sense to learn to enjoy your life despite depression rather than endlessly waiting for this wonderful time when you will never be ...
Maternal Depressive Symptoms across Early Childhood and Asthma in School Children: Findings from a Longitudinal Australian...
There is a growing body of evidence attesting to links between early life exposure to stress and childhood asthma. However, available evidence is largely based on small, genetically high risk samples. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between the course of maternal depressive symptoms across early childhood and childhood asthma in a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study of Australian children. Participants were 4164 children and their biological mothers from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Latent class analysis identified three trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms across four biennial waves from the first postnatal year to when children were 6-7 years: minimal symptoms (74.6%), sub-clinical symptoms (20.8%), and persistent and increasing high symptoms (4.6%). Logistic regression analyses revealed that childhood asthma at age 6-7 years was associated with persistent and increasing high depressive symptoms after accounting for known risk factors
Poststroke Depression | Stroke
We found mild depressive symptoms to be frequent and with little change in prevalence during the 18-month follow-up after stroke. Our rates of depressive symptoms (from 23% to 29%) are similar to17 or, more often, lower than those in many other studies.1,3,19,24,40 This may be due to the inclusion criteria of the patients and measures of depression used. Our patients were younger, with a mean age of only 55 years, had experienced their first significant stroke, and had no other severe concomitant diseases. Most similar rates are in a study17 using a self-rating scale, and the greatest differences are when comparing studies using DSM-III-R criteria with older patients.2,3. Depressive symptoms were often persistent after stroke. Almost half of the patients who were depressive in the acute phase and/or at 2 months were also depressive at 12 and/or 18 months. This is in line with several other studies.4,17,22 Robinson et al41 claim that the continuity of depressive symptoms may be particularly ...
What is Clinical Depression? Symptoms, Causes, Treatment - Major Depression - Depression | HealthyPlace
Major Depression - Symptoms, Treatments and Resources for Major Depression
Monash School of Public Health Blog: Lifestyle risk factors and depression: a study in individuals living with multiple...
The researchers recruited 2459 participants via Web 2.0 platforms. All participants answered a survey which questioned their various lifestyle and health behaviours, depression, quality of life and numerous other factors. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted from this data. The results highlight that 19.4% of the sample were positive for depression. Through a bivariate analysis, it was evident that many lifestyle factors were linked with depression risk. These included smoking, lack of exercise and inadequate diet. Those who took omega3 supplements, a healthy diet and drank alcohol in moderation had a lesser risk of developing depression. The researchers conclude that the study indicates that there is a clear association between depression risk and modifiable demographic and lifestyle factors. They also suggest that health professionals and those living with multiple sclerosis can understand these factors are modifiable and depression can be managed by adopting changes into their existing ...
"Depressive symptoms, unemployment, and loss of income: The CARDIA Stud" by Mary A. Whooley, Catarina I. Kiefe et al.
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested an association between depression and low socioeconomic status, but few have empirically examined the effect of depressive symptoms on income and employment over time. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether depressive symptoms are associated with subsequent unemployment or loss of family income. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study of 5115 adults aged 18 to 30 years. These participants included approximately equal numbers of African Americans and whites and men and women from 4 cities in the United States who completed the 1990-1991 examination of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. For this analysis, we included 2334 participants who were employed full or part time and who reported an annual family income of $25 000 or more. Participants completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and were considered to have depressive symptoms if they scored 16 or higher on the 60-point scale. We evaluated self
Depression symptoms across settings: Development and validation of the International Depression Symptom Scale
Background: Existing measurement instruments for depression are most often based on symptoms observed in western clinical populations. It remains unclear whether these instruments are appropriate for use in epidemiologic, screening, intervention monitoring and evaluation, and clinical settings in non-western contexts. The overall goal of this study was to determine if there is a need for new instruments with global applicability to measure depression, and if so, to develop and test this new instrument. Methods: Two approaches were used in this process: 1) a systematic literature review of qualitative studies to identify common symptoms related to depression across populations; and 2) a quantitative analysis of existing datasets using item response theory (IRT) to identify how different symptom questions related to depression perform across settings. Results from these investigations were used to inform the development of the International Depression Symptom Scale (IDSS), an instrument designed ...
Association of Comorbidity with Depression Treatment Adequacy among Privately Insured Patients Initiating Depression Treatment
This study examined the association among comorbidity, type of depression treatment, and depression treatment adequacy among privately insured depression patients using claims data from 165,569 employees. Individuals newly diagnosed with depression (n = 2364) were identified using ICD-9 diagnosis codes. Logistic regression models were used to determine if certain medical and psychiatric comorbidities were associated with depression treatment type (medication only, psychotherapy only, or combined treatment) and treatment adequacy. Approximately half of the sample (56.7%) received medication only, 26.8% received psychotherapy and medication, and 16.5% received psychotherapy only. The medication only group had the highest rate (50.2%) of receiving minimally adequate treatment, while those who received the combined treatment had the lowest rate (21.0%). Patients with comorbid anxiety disorders were significantly more likely to receive combined treatment or psychotherapy alone. Those who had comorbid
Activities and Behaviors to Help Manage Depression in Gulf Shore, AL | Superb Articles
Depression is one of the most common mental health issues that plagues modern Americans. Often found hand-in-hand with anxiety disorders, depression is notorious for erecting severe roadblocks in peoples lives. Fortunately, there are several effective clinical treatments as well as a number of activities and behaviors that can be adopted to curb the negative effects of depression, also known as major depressive disorder. Check out these helpful behaviors and activities that prove effective in managing depression when added to depression counseling in Gulf Shores, AL. Exercise. Without going into too much clinical detail, depression is caused by an imbalance of chemicals in the brain known formally as neurotransmitters. The neurotransmitters affected by major depressive disorder are dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine. Exercise is proven to stimulate the release of all three of these neurotransmitters, which has a positive effect on people who suffer from depression. Maintain a Balanced, ...
Tips On How To Live A Depression Free Life - Night life in the capital
Many people who versant depression feel there is no way out, but with advances in medical technology, there is hope for a improved life with medication. If you know the prerogative medication to take, feeling good about yourself and life again is the first steps towards overcoming depression. This article contains a number regarding tips on managing your depression through medication that will help lead you to a normal life.. If you are dealing with depression, slowly work on trying to concentrate some of the problems in your life. Many times, a difficult situation in your living is the reason for the depression in the first. Even if your depression wasnt caused by the issues in your individual life, an easier life will make it simpler to deal near the depression.. If your depression is of the type that has an obvious cause, try cognitive behavioral therapy. This type of therapy focuses on creating measurable goals that, when met, will probably reduce the severity of the depression. Examples ...
Healthier Diets May Improve Quality of Life and Lower Depression After Colorectal Cancer - American Institute for Cancer...
Ultrasound to Treat Depression and Anxiety - Depression Alliance
Ultrasound for Depression and Anxiety. Its an unfortunate reality that many individuals with depression do not respond to common antidepressants or therapy. Because of this, researchers are currently seeking new methods of treating depression, including brain stimulation procedures and other neurotechnology. One of the biggest benefits of current neurotech such as ultrasound is their ability to potentially help in the treatment of depression without the invasive procedures that might have been required in the past.. We spoke with Sterling Cooley, an expert in the field of neurotechnology including ultrasound as a treatment for depression, to learn more about the potential of this treatment option for helping with both depression and anxiety. Cooley earned his reputation within the field after assembling a team that included experts in ultrasound, expert software engineers, neuroscientists, clinicians and doctors throughout the years of 2013 and 2014. Today, Cooley works in China helping in the ...
IJERPH | Free Full-Text | Evaluation of a School-Based Depression Prevention Program among Adolescents from Low-Income Areas:...
A randomized controlled trial was conducted among a potential high-risk group of 1,343 adolescents from low-income areas in The Netherlands to test the effectiveness of the depression prevention program Op Volle Kracht (OVK) as provided by teachers in a school setting. The results showed no main effect of the program on depressive symptoms at one-year follow-up. A moderation effect was found for parental psychopathology; adolescents who had parents with psychopathology and received the OVK program had less depressive symptoms compared to adolescents with parents with psychopathology in the control condition. No moderating effects on depressive symptoms were found for gender, ethnical background, and level of baseline depressive symptoms. An iatrogenic effect of the intervention was found on the secondary outcome of clinical depressive symptoms. Based on the low level of reported depressive symptoms at baseline, it seems that our sample might not meet the characteristics of a high-risk selective group
SAGE Reference - Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale
Investigation of anxiety and depression symptom co-morbidity in a community sample with type 2 diabetes: Associations with...
OBJECTIVES: Ascertain the association of elevated co-occurring anxiety and depression symptoms, elevated anxiety symptoms alone or elevated depression symptoms alone with indicators of self-care behaviours in people with type 2 diabetes.METHODS: Data from a community sample of 1,990 people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes for less than 10 years were assessed. All participants took part in a telephone interview. Questionnaires examined depression, anxiety, health, and indicators of self-care (physical activity, blood glucose monitoring, diet and smoking). Data were assessed with cross tabulations, ANOVA and logistic regression.RESULTS: Groups who met criteria for elevated co-occurring anxiety and depression symptoms, elevated anxiety symptoms and elevated depression symptoms were more likely to report poor eating habits. Meeting criteria for either elevated depression symptoms (with and without anxiety) was also associated with an increased likelihood of not meeting physical activity ...
Screening and managing depression in adolescents | AHMT
Screening and managing depression in adolescents Jami F Young, Michelle R Miller, Nida KhanDepartment of Clinical Psychology, Graduate School of Applied and Professional Psychology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ, USAAbstract: Approximately 10%–15% of adolescents will experience a major depressive episode. The risk factors associated with depression in adolescence include a family history of depression, being female, subthreshold depression, having a nonaffective disorder, negative cognitions, interpersonal conflict, low social support, and stressful life events. Despite the availability of measures to identify depressed adolescents and efficacious interventions to treat these adolescents, a large number of depressed adolescents go undetected and untreated. This review describes several screening measures that can be used to identify adolescents with elevated depression symptoms who would benefit from a comprehensive diagnostic evaluation. If an adolescent is diagnosed with a depressive
Abstract 1532: Combined Prognostic Value Of Self-rating Depression Scores And Plasma B-type Natriuretic Peptide In Hospitalized...
Depression is associated with high mortality and morbidity in chronic heart failure (CHF). We assessed the value of two widely used depression scores (Beck Depression Inventory-BDI, Zung Self-rating Depression Scale-Zung SDS) along with plasma B type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in predicting adverse outcomes in CHF patients.. Methods: 155 CHF patients (aged 65±12 years, mean NYHA 2.5±0.7, mean ejection fraction 27±6%) were studied. Six-minute walk test (6MWT) was also performed. Patients were subsequently followed for 6 months for major cardiovascular events defined as death or hospitalization due to cardiovascular causes.. Results: Seventy-six of 155 (49%) patients had a Zung SDS,40 and a BDI,10 and were characterized as having depressive symptoms. These patients had significantly higher levels of BNP (921±889 vs 439±267 pg/ml, p=0.001) and reduced exercise capacity (6MWT 238±121 vs 356±107 m, p,0.001). Significant correlations were observed between Zung SDS and BNP (p,0.05). Logistic ...
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a prospective cohort study of 4,446 men and women aged 65-91 years who were free of depression or depressive symptoms at baseline (the Three-City Study, France). MetS was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. New onset of depressive symptoms (the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score ≥16 and use of antidepressant treatment) was assessed at 2- and 4-year follow-ups. ...
Exercise Mitigates Risk for Depression, Even With Genetic Risk | Physician's Weekly
Karmel W. Choi, Ph.D., from Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, and colleagues integrated genomic data from 7,968 individuals with electronic health records and lifestyle survey responses. The authors sought to examine the correlation between physical activity and the risk for incident depression in the context of genetic vulnerability. Large-scale genomewide association results for major depression were used to derive polygenic risk scores.. The researchers found that polygenic risk correlated with increased odds of incident depression; even after adjustment for body mass index, employment status, educational attainment, and prior depression, physical activity had a protective effect of similar, but opposite, magnitude. Across all levels of genetic vulnerability, higher levels of physical activity correlated with reduced odds of incident depression, even among individuals at highest polygenic risk.. "The results of this study have potential to aid primary care and mental health providers ...
Directive and non-directive therapist styles: brief intervention for subsyndromal depression for Asian and European Americans :...
Subsyndromal depression (SSD) is a highly prevalent and disabling mood disorder. Research indicates no differences between SSD and major depressive disorder with regard to impairment and strain. This study evaluated the efficacy of a directive and non-directive intervention for SSD compared to a placebo control group using an Asian American and European American sample. Studies with Asians and Asian Americans suggest that using a directive approach to therapy promotes positive therapeutic process, which may lead to improved treatment outcomes. Participants in the directive and nondirective condition met with a therapist for a twenty minute session that focused on addressing symptoms of depression, providing psychoeducation, and offering feedback on coping strategies. Analyses indicate that the directive approach was generally more effective at improving depressive symptoms and coping strategies and strengthening working alliance compared to non-directive and placebo interventions. Additionally, ...
Depressive symptoms and smoking among young Turkish and Moroccan ethnic minority groups in the Netherlands: a cross-sectional...
Although evidence indicates a strong association between depressive symptoms and smoking among host and migrant adults, less is known about this relationship among young ethnic minority groups in Europe. This paper aims to assess the relationship between depressive symptoms and smoking among young Turkish and Moroccan migrants in the Netherlands. Multiple logistic regression analyses was used to analyze cross-sectional data from a sample of 364 Turkish and Moroccan migrants aged 15 to 24 years. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was used to measure the presence of clinically significant depressive symptoms. Smoking behavior was measured by a number of questions. Of the respondents, 22% were smokers and 33% had depressive symptoms. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was significantly higher in smokers (42.9%) than in nonsmokers (29.5%). Respondents with depressive symptoms had increased odds of smoking even after adjusting for socioeconomic and cultural factors (OR = 2.68,
Ob-Gyns Encouraged to Screen Women for Depression During and After Pregnancy - Healthcanal.com : Healthcanal.com
Clinical depression is common among reproductive-age women and is the leading cause of disability in women in the US each year. Between 14%-23% of pregnant women will experience depression symptoms during pregnancy and an estimated 5%-25% of women will have postpartum depression. Studies have shown that untreated maternal depression negatively affects an infants cognitive, neurologic, and motor skill development. A mothers untreated depression can also negatively impact older childrens mental health and behavior. During pregnancy, depression can lead to preeclampsia, preterm delivery, and low birth weight. "As ob-gyns, we recognize that postpartum depression is a serious health issue that we need to direct more attention toward," says Gerald F. Joseph, Jr, MD, president of The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Postpartum depression is the theme of Dr. Josephs 2009-2010 presidential initiative. "Screening for depression during pregnancy is also important to identify it ...
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Mild/Minor Depression is the least severe type of depression. Normally the signs are not so acute they have a significant effect in the life span of the victim, even though the despondency can nevertheless induce disruption and distress. A lot of men and women that suffer from mild depression never seek therapy - they do not feel the signs are acute enough.. Dysthymic Disorder is a long-term type of moderate depression. Like moderate melancholy, most victims never look for help since they dont think their symptoms are intense enough. Also like moderate depression, the signs of dysthymic depression do not usually have a massive effect on the victims daily life.. Moderate melancholy matches somewhere between moderate depression and major depression. The indicators of mild depression are more intense and numerous than moderate melancholy, and they start to have an influence on the job, social and home life of the victim.. Significant Depression is what the majority of men and women think about ...
Older first-time moms not at higher depression risk | Reuters
By Amy NortonNEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Women who have their first baby at an older age arent at greater risk of postpartum depression, according to a new report that contradicts earlier concerns.In a study of more than 500 first-time mothers, Australian researchers found that moms age 37 or older were no more likely to get postpartum depression than their younger counterparts -- whether they conceived naturally or had infertility treatment.Overall, eight percent of the women had major depression symptoms four months after giving birth. Thats at the lower end of whats seen among new mothers in general, the researchers say.And they found no evidence that age itself affected a womans risk of developing postpartum depression.The idea that older first-time mothers might face a higher depression risk has been largely based on speculation and popular culture anecdote, according to study leader Catherine A. McMahon, an associate professor of psychology at Macquarie University in Australia.Older mothers
Depression From Insomnia Older Treating Adults -- Depression Anac2 Understanding
Breastfeeding and Depression Postpartum depression is also referred to as postnatal depression. The relationship between obesity and depression varied by race and ethnicity only among women. Depression From Insomnia Older Treating Adults the intense scientific activity on the subject of DBS is underlined by the recent publication of a further case study with a new target area the inferior In almost all cases Tourette syndrome is comorbid with obsessive-compulsive disorder attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or depression (e25).. The syndrome of depression may be present when sadness has no apparent triggers is sustained Preschool age It was previously thought that younger children would express their depression indirectly through "masked" (ie nonaective) symptoms such as somatic complaints and behavioral disturbances. Our 11 faculties and 11 professional schools offer more than 300 programs to some 39500 graduate undergraduate and continuing studies students. Heres a mantra to ...
Convergent Validity Of The Internalizing Symptoms Scale For Children With Three Self-Report Measures Of Internalizing Problems,...
Abstract: Data that serve to support the convergent validity of the Internalizing Symptoms Scale for Children (ISSC), a new child self-report measure for assessing internalizing symptoms, are presented. The results of three studies are presented, wherein ISSC scores were correlated with three established internalizing comparison measures: the Youth Self-Report, the Childrens Depression Inventory, and the Revised Childrens Manifest Anxiety Scale. Correlations were in the desired direction and magnitude for demonstrating the convergent validity of the ISSC as a self-report measure of internalizing symptoms of children. Strong correlations were found between the ISSC and the Internalizing broad-band score of the Youth Self-Report, whereas moderate to moderately high correlations were found between the scores of the ISSC and those of the Childrens Depression Inventory and the Revised Childrens Manifest Anxiety Scale. The ISSC appears to measure the internalizing construct in children and to have ...
Depression among secondary school students: a comparison between urban and rural populations - IIUM Repository (IRep)
Introduction: Childhood depression is a debilitating psychiatric illness and has frequently been under-diagnosed. It is crucial to identify the condition early, as undetected cases may lead to detrimental psychosocial consequences in adulthood. Objective: The prevalence of depression among school children in Selangor and to compare it between urban and rural schools. Also to identify factors associated with depression in secondary school children. Method: 2 urban and 3 rural secondary schools were selected by 2-staged stratified random sampling to represent the population of secondary school children in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 2,048 school children were enrolled and the level of depression was measured by a self-rated scale, the Childrens Depression Inventory. Results: This study found that the prevalence of possible depressive students in Selangor was 10.3%. There was no difference in the prevalence of depression between rural and urban population. Factors associated with ...
Depression in survivors of burn injury: a systematic review<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Depression in survivors of burn injury. T2 - a systematic review. AU - Thombs, Brett D.. AU - Bresnick, Melissa G.. AU - Magyar-Russell, Gina. PY - 2006/11/1. Y1 - 2006/11/1. N2 - Background: The objective of this study was to systematically review the prevalence, persistence, and risk factors for depression postburn injury. Methods: A search of the MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases was conducted in June 2006 to identify studies that used a standardized interview or validated questionnaire to assess depression. The search was augmented by hand searching of selected journals and references of identified articles and reviews. Results: Major depression was identified in 4% to 10% of adult patients using structured interviews in hospital and in the year following discharge. The prevalence of significant depressive symptoms in studies that used the depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale post discharge was 4% to 13%, whereas studies that used the Beck ...
Risk Factors for Postpartum Depression: A Retrospective Investigation at 4-Weeks Postnatal and a Review of the Literature | The...
Objective: To describe possible correlations between incidence of postpartum depression and the following patient characteristics: age, breastfeeding status, tobacco use, marital status, history of depression, and method of delivery.. Study Design: Data gathered at routine 4-week postnatal visits were obtained from the patient records of 209 women who gave birth between June 1, 2001, and June 1, 2003, at three university medical clinics in Tulsa, Okla. Inclusion criteria required that the records of potential study subjects contain data on the characteristics noted as well as patient-completed Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale forms.. Results: Formula feeding in place of breastfeeding, a history of depression, and cigarette smoking were all significant risk factors for an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score of 13 or higher, indicating probable postpartum depression.. Conclusion: The authors findings corroborate the results of previous investigators. To facilitate prophylactic patient ...
A Systematic Analysis of Treatment Effects on Depressive Symptom Severity by Level of Coercion | SpringerLink
Depression and anxiety spiked after lockdown announcement, coronavirus mental health study shows - Latest - News - The...
There was a spike in the number of people reporting significant levels of depression and anxiety immediately following the Prime Ministers announcement of a lockdown on 23 March, a study has found. On Tuesday 24 March, 38 per cent of study participants reported significant depression and 36 per cent reported significant anxiety. On the day before the announcement, 16 per cent reported significant depression and 17 per cent reported significant anxiety.. Rates remained elevated later in the week, but not as high as immediately after the announcement, with just over 20 per cent on each subsequent day reporting significant levels of depression and anxiety, according to the large representative study of the pandemics impact on mental health.. The research, conducted by academics at the University of Sheffield and Ulster University, indicated that many people are nonetheless remaining resilient and faring well - and that almost everyone is following government advice to avoid spreading the ...
Levels of self-reported depression and anxiety among HIV-positive patients in Albania: a cross-sectional study - pdf descargar
Levels of self-reported depression and anxiety among HIV-positive patients in Albania: a cross-sectional study. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Depression, indirect clinical markers of cardiac disease severity, and mortality following myocardial infarction | Heart
Based on observational epidemiological research, depression following acute myocardial infarction (MI) is considered an independent risk for subsequent mortality.1 This is despite the fact that in the only large scale randomised control trial to date, the successful treatment of depression yielded no relative advantage in terms of survival.2 Furthermore, not all prospective observational studies have found an association between depression following MI and mortality.3 In such studies, depression would not appear to be related to conventional indices of disease severity. Thus, where associations between depression following MI and mortality appear, they could reflect the confounding of depression with disease severity.4 We have discussed elsewhere5 why depression and disease severity might be correlated in some studies but not in others; we have argued that it depends on the accuracy of patients perceptions about the severity of their condition.. Although some, but by no means all, observational ...
Post-Up Study: Postpartum Depression Screening in Well-Child Care and Maternal Outcomes | American Academy of Pediatrics
Postpartum depression is a common complication after childbirth, with a 7.1% period prevalence of major depression until 3 months postpartum.1 Most of those at risk are mothers with a history of depression, negative life events, and a lack of social support.2 Postpartum depression not only affects the well-being of the mother but may also have long-term consequences for her newborn child. Postpartum depression is associated with disturbed emotional regulation of infants, internalizing and externalizing behavioral difficulties of toddlers and schoolchildren, less developed social competences, and depression and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adolescence.3 Parental sensitivity in parenting seems to be an important mediator.3. Early detection, support, and treatment can promote fast recovery of the mother4,5 and may reduce the effects of postpartum depression on the childs development, but postpartum depression symptoms frequently remain unadressed.6 Implementing a structured ...
Asthma and Wheezing Are Associated with Depression and Anxiety in Adults: An Analysis from 54 Countries
|i|Background.|/i| Asthma and depression are important public-health concerns worldwide. While some epidemiologic studies have shown asthma and wheezing to be associated with depression and anxiety, the patterns are unclear at the multinational level due to the lack of cross-study comparability. Our study examined the associations of self-reported asthma diagnosis and current wheezing with self-reported depression diagnosis and 30-day anxiety using an international survey. |i|Methods.|/i| Using the 2002 World Health Survey, a standardized international survey conducted by the WHO, we estimated the associations between diagnosed asthma and current wheezing with diagnosed depression and 30-day anxiety via multiple logistic regressions for 54 countries worldwide. |i|Results.|/i| Diagnosed depression and 30-day anxiety were associated with diagnosed asthma in 65% and 40% of the countries, respectively. Diagnosed depression and 30-day anxiety were associated with current wheezing in 83% and 82
Psychosocial and obstetric determinants of women signalling distress during Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)...
The perinatal period presents a high-risk time for development of mood disorders. Australia-wide universal perinatal care, including depression screening, make this stage amenable to population-level preventative approaches. In a large cohort of women receiving public perinatal care in Sydney, Australia, we examined: (1) the psychosocial and obstetric determinants of women who signal distress on EPDS screening (scoring 10-12) compared with women with probable depression (scoring 13 or more on EPDS screening); and (2) the predictive ability of identifying women experiencing distress during pregnancy in classifying women at higher risk of probable postnatal depression. We analysed routinely collected perinatal data from all live-births within public health facilities from two health districts in Sydney, Australia (N = 53,032). Perinatal distress was measured using the EPDS (scores of 10-12) and probable perinatal depression was measured using the EPDS (scores of 13 or more). Logistic regression models
Clinical Depression Rates 2020 | Natural Remedy For Depression
48 Figure 2.2: Development of new cases of clinical depression, by age and sex Table 2.1: Outcomes for a group of clinically referred 8-13 year olds for health of veterans of World War II, although a study of former prisoners of war of the Japanese has found that they had very high rates of depression in … Get Doc. ...
Is cognitive lifestyle associated with depressive thoughts and self-reported depressive symptoms in later life - pdf descargar
Is cognitive lifestyle associated with depressive thoughts and self-reported depressive symptoms in later life. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Diethylstilbestrol Exposure in Utero and Depression in Women
The association between in utero DES exposure and depression was assessed among participants in the Nurses Health Study II who first reported their history of antidepressant use in 1993 and lifetime history of depressive symptoms in 2001. DES exposure was reported by 1,612 (2.2%) women. A history of depression at baseline was higher among women exposed to DES in utero compared with those not exposed (age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.47, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.26, 1.72) (P , 0.001). Incident depression (first use of antidepressants among women who also reported depressive symptoms) during follow-up (1995-2005) was reported by 19.7% of women exposed to DES and 15.9% unexposed (age-adjusted OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.22, 1.63) (P , 0.001). Adjustment for risk factors of depression and correlates of DES exposure moderately attenuated the association (multivariable-adjusted OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.13, 1.51) (P = 0.0004).. These results suggest that the neurophysiologic effects of in utero exposure ...
Infant outcomes following treatment of antenatal depression: Findings from a pilot randomized controlled trial. - Department of...
INTRODUCTION: Maternal antenatal depression is associated with an increased risk of emotional and behavioural problems in children. More recently antenatal depression has been associated with shorter sleep duration, higher number of awakenings and sleep problems in infants. Examining the effect of treatment of depression on child development is the next step in unravelling the complex association between antenatal depression and offspring development. METHODS: We used data from a pilot RCT of women with antenatal depression who received either Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) or Treatment as Usual (TAU), to examine infant sleep duration and temperament two months postpartum. Data was available for n=14 in the CBT group and n=11 in the TAU group. RESULTS: No differences by treatment arm were evident. Improvement in depression scores during pregnancy was associated with easier temperament (β=-.45, p=.024) and shorter nocturnal sleep duration (β=-.58, p=.003). The findings were more pronounced in the
The role of cytokines and hot flashes in perimenopausal depression | Annals of General Psychiatry | Full Text
An imbalance in the production of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines may play a role in the pathophysiology of perimenopausal depression. The aim of this study was to examine serum levels of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, in perimenopausal women suffering from depression. Furthermore, to assess whether serum cytokine levels are associated with the presence of hot flashes or the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). We also evaluated the possible association of hot flashes and perimenopausal depression. Serum samples from 65 perimenopausal women, 41 with depression and 24 without depression, were assessed for serum IL-6, TNFα and IL-10 by conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Depression was evaluated by the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D 17) and a psychiatric interview. The presence and severity of hot flashes were examined using the Menopause
Mediterranean dietary pattern and depression: the PREDIMED randomized trial | BMC Medicine | Full Text
We did not find a significant decrease in depression risk among participants at high risk of CVD assigned to MD supplemented with either nuts or EVOO in this randomized controlled primary prevention trial. However, when the analysis was restricted to subjects with DM2, participants assigned to MD-nuts had a 40% reduction in depression risk compared with the control group, which was significant.. To our knowledge, this is the first randomized field trial that has ascertained the effect of an intervention with an overall dietary pattern on depression risk in adults. Only a few prospective observational studies have inversely related healthy dietary patterns to the risk of developing adult depression [7-15]. Although some of these studies were based only on cross-sectional assessments [8, 9, 11-13], their results were consistent with those obtained after several years of follow-up in prospective cohorts [7, 10].. Regarding the MD, a very recent cohort study, the Australian Longitudinal Study on ...
The effectiveness of depression management for improving HIV care outcomes in Malawi: protocol for a quasi-experimental study |...
Depression, prevalent among people living with HIV (PLWH) in Malawi, is associated with negative HIV patient outcomes and likely affects HIV medical management. Despite the high prevalence of depression, its management has not been integrated into HIV care in Malawi or most low-income countries. This study employs a pre-post design in two HIV clinics in Lilongwe, Malawi, to evaluate the effect of integrating depression management into routine HIV care on both mental health and HIV outcomes. Using a multiple baseline design, this study is examining mental health and HIV outcome data of adult (≥18 years) patients newly initiating ART who also have depression, comparing those entering care before and after the integration of depression screening and treatment into HIV care. The study is also collecting cost information to estimate the cost-effectiveness of the program in improving rates of depression remission and HIV treatment engagement and success. We anticipate that the study will generate evidence
Journal of Global Oral Health - Prevalence of depressive symptoms and associated factors among dental students: A cross...
Background: Depression is a common mental health problem which affects all strata of life. As a result of the increase in competitiveness, there is a need to pay attention toward the presence and level of depression among students. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the depressive symptoms and its associated factors among clinical dental students in Bengaluru city. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted among third and final years dental students (n = 200) randomly selected from four dental colleges in Bengaluru city. Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess depressive symptoms using Becks Depression Inventory. Statistical Analysis Used: Association of depression with non-academic and academic factors was assessed using the Chi-square test. Students t-test was used to compare mean depression scores among study years. P | 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The prevalence of depression was found to be 49%. Significantly higher
Depression, APOE genotype and subjective memory impairment: a cross-sectional study in an African-Caribbean population. -...
BACKGROUND: Subjective memory impairment (SMI) is common in older populations but its aetiology and clinical significance is uncertain. Depression has been reported to be strongly associated with SMI. Associations with objective cognitive impairment are less clear cut. Other factors suggested to be associated with SMI include poor physical health and the apolipoprotein E (APOE) epsilon4 allele. Studies of SMI have been predominantly confined to white Caucasian populations. METHOD: A community study was carried out in a UK African-Caribbean population aged 55-75, sampled from primary care lists. Twenty-three per cent were classified with SMI. Depression was defined using the 10-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Other aetiological factors investigated were education, objective cognitive function, APOE genotype, disablement and vascular disease/risk. The principal analysis was restricted to 243 participants scoring | 20 on the Mini-Mental State Examination (85%). A second analysis included all 290
Mental depression an economic concern too | Calgary Herald
The word depression is a familiar one that is used to describe an economic meltdown.. But its a word used to describe a mental meltdown as well.. Either way you look at it, depression is a business issue.. Thats the point the Calgary Chamber of Commerce wants to get across to people and companies. The Chamber teamed up with the Calgary Counselling Centre today to promote Oct. 6 as National Depression Screening Day.. Robbie Babins-Wagner, chief executive of the Counselling Centre, says depression affects 8.2 per cent of Calgarys population every year and 46 per cent of Albertans will experience depression personally.. Thats a staggering number.. Its economic impact is also staggering.. Adam Legge, president and chief executive of the Chamber, says that on average 30 work days are lost per person every year from those experiencing depression and depression has an annual economic impact in Canada of about $8 billion.. "Depression is a business issue," says Legge. "The loss of productivity, ...
A randomised, controlled study on the effects of a short-term endurance training programme in patients with major depression |...
Objective: To evaluate the short-term effects of exercise in patients with major depression.. Design: Prospective, randomised, controlled study.. Setting: A university hospital.. Patients: A consecutive series of 38 inpatients with a major depression episode undergoing standard clinical antidepressant drug treatment.. Interventions: Patients were randomly assigned to an exercise (walking, n = 20) or placebo (low-intensity stretching and relaxation exercises, n = 18) group. Training was carried out for 10 days.. Main outcome measurements: Severity of depression assessed with the Bech-Rafaelsen Melancholy Scale (BRMS) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D).. Results: After 10 days, reduction of depression scores in the exercise group was significantly larger than in the placebo group (BRMS: 36% v 18%; CES-D: 41% v 21%; p for both = 0.01); the proportion of patients with a clinical response (reduction in the BRMS scores by more than six points) was also larger for the ...
Change in Neighborhood Characteristics and Change in Coronary Artery CalciumClinical Perspective | Circulation
Our study found that increases in the density of healthy food stores around the home were related to simultaneous decreases in subclinical atherosclerosis as characterized by coronary calcium after adjustment for age, marital status, income, working status, and CT scanner type. These associations were reduced slightly but persisted after additional adjustment for changes in moderate/vigorous physical activity, cigarette smoking status, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale score, ratio of total to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, BMI, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and any lipid-lowering medication. The effect size associated with a 1-SD increase in density was similar to the effect on CAC of a 1-year increase in age (17- to 20-point increase in CAC). Although a number of studies have linked neighborhood characteristics to coronary heart disease incidence and mortality,6,7,30,31 we are aware of no studies that have investigated associations of changes in neighborhood factors ...
Anxiety Depression Treatment: Anxiety, Depression, Stress and Panic Attacks Disorder
Anxiety and depression often occur together and, until the last part of the nineteenth century, anxiety disorders were not classified separately.. When we are physically ill few of us hesitate to seek treatment but the case is very different if we become mentally ill. Most people find it very hard to accept that they have a mental health problem. However, disorders such as depression, anxiety and phobias are commonplace and in most cases readily treatable. It is important not to suffer alone and to seek medical help if you are suffering from a depressive illness. Anxiety is a normal reaction to fear. It is abnormal when its severity is out of proportion to the threat of fear or when it outlasts the threat. Depression is a your normal reaction for any loss or is a cause of misfortune. It is abnormal when it is out of proportion to the misfortune or unduly prolonged.. Mild depression disorders are sometimes difficult to distinguish from anxiety disorders. Accurate diagnosis depends on assessment ...
Depression among hemodialysis patients: a cross-sectional study in southeast of Iran - Shahrekord University Of Medical...
Background and aims: Mental disorders may negatively affect on the quality of life in hemodialysis patients and their response to treatment. The aim of present study was to examine the prevalence of depression and related risk factors in hemodialysis patients. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, during June 2013 to September 2013, 217 patients with hemodialysis whom were admitted to Kerman hemodialysis center were examined. The depression level of patients was assessed using Iranian version of Beck Depression Inventory. Results: The mean score of depression was 24.2±12.6 (range: from 2-59). Totally, 29, 30 and 27.4 were reported as suffering from mild, moderate and severe level of depression, respectively. The results of the present study also showed that diabetic patients and patients with hypertension were significantly at a higher risk of depression. Conclusion: Results of the present study indicates that depression is highly prevalent in hemodialysis patients. It is important that all ...
Late-life depression: structural brain abnormalities, treatment and risk factors
Major depression is a prevalent disease among the elderly, significantly decreasing the quality of life. The age of first onset of depression can be early in life, so called early-onset depression (EOD), as well as first occur in old age, i.e. late-onset depression (LOD). Some previous studies have suggested aetiological ... read more differences between EOD and LOD in the elderly. However, the number of these studies investigating elderly EOD and LOD patients is small. Therefore the importance of age of onset in the aetiology of late-life depression remains unclear. We used Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to examine hippocampal volume and subcortical white matter lesions in elderly patients with EOD and LOD and healthy elderly subjects. Both the hippocampus and subcortical white matter lesions have been implicated in the aetiology and treatment outcome of late-life depression. Hippocampal volume decrease and increased prevalence of subcortical white matter lesions in depressed patients might ...
Burden and depressive symptoms associated with adult-child caregiving for individuals with heart failure
Background. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate adult-child caregiver burden in heart failure (HF) patients. Secondary purpose of the study was to identify the possible influencing factors for caregiver burden and depressive symptoms in a young adult-child caregiver group. Methods. A total of 138 adult-child caregivers and 138 patients with HF participated in this study. Caregivers burden, depressive symptoms, and anxiety levels were assessed by using Zarit Caregiver Burden Scale (ZCBS), Beck Depression Inventory, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, respectively. Results. The mean ZCBS scores of the female caregivers were significantly higher than male caregivers. Approximately one-third of the adult-child caregivers had at least mild depressive symptoms. Caregivers with higher depressive symptoms had higher levels of caregiver burden. There were positive correlations between caregiving time, severity of depressive symptoms, and perceived caregiver burden. There was a negative ...
Depressive symptoms predict incident stroke independently of memory impairments - LSE Research Online
Background: We evaluated whether depressive symptoms predict the onset of first stroke independently of memory impairment. We conceptualized memory impairment as a marker of preexisting cerebrovascular disease. We hypothesized that if depressive symptoms are causally related to stroke through mechanisms unrelated to cerebrovascular disease, depressive symptoms should predict stroke independently of memory impairment. Methods: Incidence of first stroke was assessed with self or proxy reports from 19,087 participants in the Health and Retirement Study cohort (1,864 events). Elevated depressive symptoms (3+ on an 8-item Centers for the Epidemiologic Study of Depression scale) and memory impairment (score of ≤6 on a combined immediate and delayed recall of a 10-word list) were used as predictors of incident stroke in Cox survival models with adjustment for sociodemographic and cardiovascular risk factors. Results: After adjustment for sociodemographic and cardiovascular risk factors, elevated ...
Depressed or Not Depressed: Untangling Symptoms of Depression in Patients Hospitalized With Coronary Heart Disease | American...
Secondary analyses of 3 similar data sets for hospitalized patients with coronary heart disease who had diagnostic screening for depression (99 depressed, 224 not depressed) were done. Depressive symptoms were assessed by using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale or the Beck Depression Inventory. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on 11 symptom variables: anhedonia, dysphoria, loss of appetite, sleep disturbance, fatigue, guilt, suicidal symptoms, hypochondriasis, loss of libido, psychomotor impairment, and nervous irritability. Associations between symptom clusters and presence or absence of clinical depression were estimated by using logistic regression. ...
Depression in adults: drug and physical treatments. - Oxford Neuroscience
INTRODUCTION: Depression may affect up to 10% of the population, with half of affected people having recurrence of their symptoms. In mild to moderate depression, there is no reliable evidence that any one treatment is superior in improving symptoms of depression, but the strength of evidence supporting different treatments varies. In severe depression, only prescription antidepressants and electroconvulsive therapy are known to improve symptoms. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments in mild to moderate and severe depression, and in treatment-resistant depression? Which interventions reduce relapse rates? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food
Post-stroke depression and functional independence : a conundrum
Objectives People who suffer a stroke are at risk of developing post-stroke depression (PSD). Not only does this lower their quality of life but it also increases their risk of another stroke or death. This study aimed to investigate the factors associated with PSD in order to better direct rehabilitation efforts aimed at cutting the incidence of PSD.. Material and methods This study was based on all patients admitted to the stroke unit of a hospital in southern Sweden from 1 October 2003 to 30 November 2005. The total number of patients involved was 181. Measures were collected at 2 +/- 1 weeks after discharge from hospital, 3 +/- 0.5 months after the occurrence of the stroke and 12 +/- 1 months after the occurrence of the stroke. Information collected was results from the Center of Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and the Barthel Index together with demographic data including age, sex, time since stroke and relationship status.. Results Those patients involved in the study were mainly ...
Risk factors for depression following traumatic injury : An epidemiological study from a scandinavian trauma center
INTRODUCTION: A significant proportion of patients suffer depression following traumatic injuries. Once manifested, major depression is challenging to overcome and its presence risks impairing the potential for physical rehabilitation and functional recovery. Risk stratification for early detection and intervention in these instances is important. This study aims to investigate patient and injury characteristics associated with an increased risk for depression.. METHODS: All patients with traumatic injuries were recruited from the trauma registry of an urban university hospital between 2007 and 2012. Patient and injury characteristics as well as outcomes were collected for analysis. Patients under the age of eighteen, prescribed antidepressants within one year of admission, in-hospital deaths and deaths within 30days of trauma were excluded. Pre- and post-admission antidepressant data was requested from the national drugs registry. Post-traumatic depression was defined as the prescription of ...
Pain and Depression: A Neurobiological Perspective of Their Relationship
However, recently, in a number of clinical trials with dopaminergic agents have also been conducted and their beneficial effects for controlling pain51 and depression19 have been demonstrated. A recent study investigated whether or not pain-related behavioural depression is mediated by activation of endogenous κ-opioid systems and subsequent depression of mesolimbic dopamine release.52 That study found a crucial role of dopamine neurotransmission in terms of pain-related depression of behaviour, pain-related depression of mesolimbic dopamine release and role of endogenous dynorphin/κ-opioid receptor systems: 1) the acid noxious stimulus also depressed extracellular levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine in nucleus accumbens; supporting the fact that depression of mesolimbic dopamine release may contribute to negative affective dimensions of pain; 2) acid-induced depression of dopamine release was blocked by both NSAID and opioid analgesics, indicating the potential relationship of opioid with ...
White matter lesions as a predictor of depression in the elderly: the 3C-Dijon study.
BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence for a link between cerebrovascular disease and depression in the elderly but the mechanisms are still unknown. This study examines the longitudinal relationship between depression and white matter lesions (WML) in a sample of elderly aged 65 years and older. METHODS: Three City (3C)-Dijon is a 4-year follow-up population-based prospective study of 1658 subjects. At baseline, lifetime major depressive episode diagnosis was established using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. At each study wave, severity of depressive symptoms was assessed using Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D), and antidepressants intake was recorded. At baseline, lifetime major depression (LMD) was defined as lifetime major depressive episode or antidepressant medication intake. At follow-up, subjects were classified incident depression if scoring high at CES-D or antidepressant users. At baseline, cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed to
Occupational health psychology
Depression. Main article: Major depressive disorder. Using data from the ECA study, Eaton, Anthony, Mandel, and Garrison ... 2017). Job strain as a risk factor for clinical depression: Systematic review and meta-analysis with additional individual ... depression or coronary heart disease: A prospective cohort study of 69,842 employees. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ... showed elevated rates of DSM-III major depression, adjusting for social demographic factors. The ECA study involved ...
GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator
Depression. GABA ergic hypothesis for depression has been proposed. This hypothesis places the GABA system in a central ... The mice also had increased corticosterone concentration which is a symptom in major depression in humans. The y2 subunit is ... Other studies with α2 knockout mice have displayed increased anxiety and depression-like symptoms in conflict based feeding ... role in the pathophysiology of depression and in addition to that clinical studies have shown that alprazolam and adinazolam ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor
Depression. See also: Epigenetics of depression § Brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Exposure to stress and the stress ... "Depression and Anxiety. 33 (10): 907-16. doi:10.1002/da.22497. PMC 5089164. PMID 27699937.. ... Various studies have shown possible links between BDNF and conditions, such as depression, schizophrenia, obsessive ... Atrophy of the hippocampus and other limbic structures has been shown to take place in humans suffering from chronic depression ...
Anxiety disorders and depression are the most common mental health issues for women. Depression is reported among lesbians at a ... The Great Depression. The primary component necessary to encourage lesbians to be public and seek other women was economic ... Lesbian and bisexual women are also more likely to report symptoms of multiple disorders that include major depression, panic ... These communes passed because of the Great Depression and were subsequently discouraged by the communist government for being a ...
History of Australia (1851-1900)
The 1890s depression (the most severe Australia had ever faced) made the inefficiencies of the six colonies seem ever more ... The Great Boom could not last forever, and in 1891 it gave way to the Great Crash, a decade-long depression which created high ... The gold rushes occurred hard on the heels of a major worldwide economic depression. As a result, about two per cent of the ... as Australia faced its 1890s economic Depression. ... Booms, depressions and trade unions. Shearing the Rams ( ...
Depression. Epigenetic inheritance of depression-related phenotypes has also been reported in a preclinical study. ... Caspi, A. (18 July 2003). "Influence of Life Stress on Depression: Moderation by a Polymorphism in the 5-HTT Gene". Science. ... or two copies of the short allele of the serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism exhibited higher rates of adult depression ...
Anatomical terms of motion
Elevation and depression. See also: List of elevators of the human body and List of depressors of the human body ... Depression refers to movement in an inferior direction, the opposite of elevation. ... Other terms, such as elevation and depression, describe movement above or below the horizontal plane. Many anatomical terms ... The terms elevation and depression refer to movement above and below the horizontal. They derive from the Latin terms with ...
Generalized anxiety disorder
GAD and depression. In the National Comorbidity Survey (2005), 58 percent of patients diagnosed with major depression ... Generalized Anxiety and Depression Impact Survey II)". Depression and Anxiety. 25 (6): 506-513. doi:10.1002/da.20306.. ... Rif S. El-Mallakh; S. Nassir Ghaemi (2 April 2007). Bipolar Depression: A Comprehensive Guide. American Psychiatric Pub. p. 158 ... High rates in comorbidity of GAD and major depression led many commentators to suggest that GAD would be better conceptualized ...
The Denial of Death
Depression. Social anhedonia is observed in both depression and schizophrenia. However, social anhedonia is a state ... Whether or not anhedonia is related to the high rates of depression in Parkinson's disease is unknown. ... Rey G.; Jouvent R.; Dubal S. (2009). "Schizotypy, depression, and anxiety in physical and social anhedonia". Journal of ... People suffering from anhedonia in association with depression generally feel suicidal in the morning and better in the ...
Depression. Studies show that sleep restriction has some potential in the treatment of depression. Those who suffer ... The study also found that rapid eye movement sleep (REM) deprivation may alleviate clinical depression because it mimics ... Wirz-Justice A, Van den Hoofdakker RH; Van Den Hoofdakker (August 1999). "Sleep deprivation in depression: what do we know, ... Riemann D, Berger M, Voderholzer U; Berger; Voderholzer (July-August 2001). "Sleep and depression - results from ...
For anxiety and depression. In Canada, the LEAF (Living Effectively with Anxiety and Fear) Program is a peer-led support ... These findings suggest that peer support interventions have the potential to be effective components of depression care, and ... peer support interventions were found to improve depression symptoms more than usual care alone and results may be comparable ... "Efficacy of peer support interventions for depression: a meta-analysis" (PDF). General Hospital Psychiatry. 2011 (33): 29-36. ...
Mood and depression. Oxytocin produces antidepressant-like effects in animal models of depression, and a deficit of ... McQuaid RJ, McInnis OA, Abizaid A, Anisman H (September 2014). "Making room for oxytocin in understanding depression". ... it may be involved in the pathophysiology of depression in humans. The antidepressant-like effects of oxytocin are not ...
1999 Pacific typhoon season
Tropical depression. Not specified. 1004 hPa (29.65 inHg). None. None. None. Gening. June 3 - 6. Tropical depression. 55 km/h ( ... Tropical depression. Not specified. 1000 hPa (29.53 inHg). None. None. None. TD. August 11. Tropical depression. Not specified ... Tropical depression. Not specified. 1000 hPa (29.53 inHg). Japan. None. None. 15W. August 14 - 20. Tropical depression. Not ... Tropical depression. Not specified. 1002 hPa (29.59 inHg). Vietnam. None. None. 28W. November 5 - 8. Tropical depression. 55 km ...
Inbreeding depression caused by overdominance cannot be purged, but seems to be a minor cause of overall inbreeding depression ... The example of inbreeding depression due to recessive lethals. Average population fitness (. W. ) against number of ... increases (the inbreeding depression rate δ) depends on the frequencies and deleterious effects of the alleles present in the ... Then inbreeding depression occurs at a rate δ. , due to (partially) recessive deleterious alleles that were present at low ...
Pre-1975 North Indian Ocean cyclone seasons
Tropical Depression Vae. Typhoon Vae crossed over into the Indian Ocean in 1952. ... Fifteen depressions developed during the course of the 1960 season, with five becoming cyclonic storms. The majority of ... This system formed as a tropical depression in the southern Bay on December 5, strengthening into a tropical storm as it turned ... On October 27 a tropical depression formed in the Bay of Bengal. It tracked northward, steadily strengthening until reaching a ...
Depression. See also: List of investigational antidepressants. A few small trials have found benefits in people with ... Finzi E, Rosenthal NE (May 2014). "Treatment of depression with onabotulinumtoxinA: a randomized, double-blind, placebo ... depression. Research is based on the facial feedback hypothesis. ...
Depression. Part of this section is transcluded from Neurobiological effects of physical exercise. (edit , history) ... Dinas PC, Koutedakis Y, Flouris AD (2011). "Effects of exercise and physical activity on depression". Ir J Med Sci. 180 (2): ... Cooney GM, Dwan K, Greig CA, Lawlor DA, Rimer J, Waugh FR, McMurdo M, Mead GE (September 2013). "Exercise for depression". ... A 2015 review of clinical evidence which included a medical guideline for the treatment of depression with exercise noted that ...
2004 Atlantic hurricane season
The remnants traversed the Caribbean Sea, and re-developed into Tropical Depression Two on August 8. The depression ... Tropical depression 35 (55) 1009 None None None Jeanne September 13 - September 28 Category 3 hurricane 120 (195) 950 Leeward ... The depression headed westward between 21 and 29 mph (34 and 47 km/h) due to a strong subtropical ridge located to its north. ... The depression moved westward under a subtropical ridge and became Tropical Storm Karl later that day. On September 17, the ...
Psilocybin for Depression 2016. Based on the Beckley/Imperial Research Programme's psilocybin study brain imaging results ... LSD, psilocybin, and MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for conditions such as depression, anxiety, addiction, and post-traumatic ... Results from the study, published in the Lancet Psychiatry Journal, showed that two doses of psilocybin lifted depression in ... "Psilocybin with psychological support for treatment-resistant depression: An open-label feasibility study". The Lancet ...
... Dust storm in the Bodele Depression. This particular storm was blowing on the afternoon of 18 November 2004 ... a b c "Dust Storms from Africa's Bodélé Depression Archived October 5, 2006, at the Wayback Machine". Natural Hazards, Earth ... it is channeled across the depression. The dry bowl that forms the depression is marked by a series of ephemeral lakes, many of ... The Bodélé Depression (pronounced [bɔ.de.le]), located at the southern edge of the Sahara Desert in north central Africa, is ...
1961 Pacific typhoon season
Early on January 14 the system organized itself enough to be classified as a tropical depression. The next day the depression ... and became a depression on January 17. It remained a depression for the next three days. On January 19 Rita weakened to a ... The depression completed an elongated clockwise loop and continued to the southeast. The depression gradually deepened and by ... The storm had organized enough that by October 25 it was classified as a tropical depression by the JMA. Gradually intensifying ...
Inbreeding depression. Inbreeding depression is the reduced fitness and survival of offspring from closely related ... Outbreeding depression. Outbreeding depression is the reduced biological fitness in the offspring of distantly related ... Lynch, Michael (1991). "The genetic interpretation of inbreeding depression and outbreeding depression". Evolution. 1991 (3): ... Unlike inbreeding depression, outbreeding depression places emphasis on interactions between loci rather than within them. ...
Great Depression. In 1929 Anaconda Copper Mining Co. issued new stock and used some of the money to buy shares of ... The Great Depression took a toll in the mining industry; decline in demand led to the company making massive layoffs in both ... The end of World War II brought another depression in the copper industry because of a decline in demand after war production ... During the winter of 1932-33, as the Depression expanded, copper prices dropped to 10.3 cents per pound, down from an average ...
Depression. See also: Depressive realism. Clinically depressed patients tend to show less of a self-serving bias than ... Greenberg, Jeff; Pyszczynski, Tom; Burling, John; Tibbs, Karyn (1992). "Depression, self-focused attention, and the self- ... depression) considerations within the bias. Much of the research on the self-serving bias has used participant self- ... "Neural correlates of depressive realism - An fMRI study on causal attribution in depression". Journal of Affective Disorders ...
Postpartum depression. Postpartum depression (also known as post-natal depression) is recognized in some countries as a ... Depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and medication side-effects are examples of conditions that may be taken into ... in the murder rates of major developed countries circa 1960 can be attributed to low birth rates during the Great Depression ...
1, depression, and conducting debut, 1894-1900. Rachmaninoff entered a decline following Tchaikovsky's death. He lacked ... 29. Despite occasional periods of depression, apathy, and little faith in any of his work, Rachmaninoff started on his ... Rachmaninoff's depression worsened in late 1899 following an unproductive summer; he composed one song, "Fate", which later ... Rachmaninoff fell into a depression that lasted for three years, during which he had writer's block and composed almost nothing ...
Eating Healthy Foods May Lower Depression Risk
... may be helpful in preventing depression, according to a large new study. To lower the risk of depression, People can eat ... To lower the risk of depression, "People can eat everything, but everything in moderation," as long as they try to eat lots of ... For example, the risk of depression over the study period for the people who moderately adhered to the Mediterranean diet was ... However, one potential mechanism is that people who follow these patterns may have a lower risk of depression because they get ...
The Faces of Depression in Literature
... Edited By Josefa Ros Velasco. The Faces of Depression in Literature brings together some ... The Faces of Depression in Literature is for graduates and researchers on depression from a cultural and social point of view, ... 4 Depression in the Literature of the Health Reform and Mental Hygiene Movement: An Example of Ellen G. White Writings (Pawel ... 8 Broken Promise: Depression as Ex-Gifted Girl Identity in Elizabeth Wurtzels Prozac Nation (Nora Augustine (The University of ...
Depression | Alzheimer Society of Canada
... depression) OR title:causes, (title:depression)^2, what is depression, causes of depression, coping with depression, depression ... What is depression?. Depression is a condition in which people feel sad, hopeless or irritable most of the time. People with ... The symptoms of depression can be similar to symptoms of dementia. Therefore, it is often difficult to identify depression in ... Possible causes of depression. *In the early stages of dementia, the person may experience depression after hearing his ...
Depression Treatment - Reproductive Health | CDC
Depression is treatable. Learn about seeking treatment for yourself or a loved one. ... Find out if what you are experiencing may be depression. ... For additional resources on depression or postpartum depression ... How to Help a Friend or Family Member Experiencing Depression. To support someone who has depression, help her get appropriate ... Can you help me find out if I have depression?". "I dont feel like myself. Could it be depression?" ...
Depression Among Women | Depression | Reproductive Health | CDC
If you think you have depression or postpartum depression, seek treatment from your health care provider as soon as possible. ... Postpartum Depression. Postpartum depression is depression that occurs after having a baby. Feelings of postpartum depression ... See CDCs depression treatment to learn about seeking treatment for depression.. How Depression Affects Fathers. According to a ... Depression is common and treatable. If you think you have depression or postpartum depression, seek treatment from your health ...
... youll want to learn more about what depression is, what causes it, and what you can do to help. ... Depression is the most common mental health disorder in the U.S. If you think your child is depressed, ... Bipolar disorder (also called manic depression or bipolar depression) is a condition that includes episodes of major depression ... When kids have depression, its hard for them to make an effort, even when doing things they used to enjoy. Depression can make ...
Tips to Manage Anxiety and Stress | Anxiety and Depression Association of America, ADAA
Sign up for ADAAs Monthly Free e-Newsletter featuring helpful resources about anxiety, depression and co-occurring disorders. ... Proceeds for all merchandise purchases directly supports our mission to help prevent, treat, and cure anxiety, depression, OCD ... Search our directory of ADAA mental health professional members who specialize in anxiety, depression and co-occurring ... depression, OCD, PTSD, and co-occurring disorders through education, practice, and research. ...
7 Alternative Therapies for Depression | Mark's Daily Apple
... depression is the yin to anxietys yang. Between these two troublemakers, theyve got dark clouds hanging over both the past ... Did not know there were so many ways that could help with depression Best thing i found for treating depression was martial ... 42 thoughts on "7 Alternative Therapies for Depression" Leave a Reply Cancel reply. Your email address will not be published. ... Depression hits me in waves, but Im mostly drowning in anxiety. Im doing several of the above anyway, but Im somewhat ...
Depression: Symptoms, Types & Treatments
Depression is a serious mental illness characterized by a low mood, loneliness, lack of energy, and sleep problems. It is ... A science-based guide to depression symptoms, resources, quizzes, and treatment information. ... What is Depression?. Clinical depression goes by many names, such as "the blues," biological or clinical depression, and a ... Whats Depression Feel Like?. "[If there was] certainty that an acute episode [of depression] will last only a week, a month, ...
Depression (geology) - Wikipedia
Glacial valley: a depression carved by erosion by a glacier.. *River valley: a depression carved by fluvial erosion by a river. ... In geology, a depression is a landform sunken or depressed below the surrounding area. Depressions form by various mechanisms. ... Sinkhole: a depression formed as a result of the collapse of rocks lying above a hollow. This is common in karst regions. ... Blowout: a depression created by wind erosion typically in either a partially vegetated sand dune ecosystem or dry soils (such ...
The Greatest Depression
The Greek people have just lived through a Depression as deep as the Great Depression and considerably longer. It is now the ... The Greek people have just lived through a Depression as deep as the Great Depression and considerably longer. It is now the ... Fortunately, the Greatest Depression may now have run its course. The Greek economy grew by 1.4% in 2017, and the IMF projects ... Fortunately, the Greatest Depression may now have run its course. The Greek economy grew by 1.4% in 2017, and the IMF projects ...
Teenagers and Depression
... Depression is a medical condition which effects 10 percent of people in Britain at some time of their ... Depression can be a very isolating condition and I know that it can be very difficult to find the nerve to seek out help. If ... It is an all too common myth that Depression is simply all in the mind and if you feel low you just need to snap out of it, ... Depression is defined as:. "Psychol. a state of extreme dejection or morbidly excessive melancholy; a mood of hopelessness and ...
Bodélé Depression - Wikipedia
Bodélé Depression. Dust storm in the Bodele Depression. This particular storm was blowing on the afternoon of 18 November 2004 ... a b c "Dust Storms from Africas Bodélé Depression Archived October 5, 2006, at the Wayback Machine". Natural Hazards, Earth ... it is channeled across the depression. The dry bowl that forms the depression is marked by a series of ephemeral lakes, many of ... The Bodélé Depression (pronounced [bɔ.de.le]), located at the southern edge of the Sahara Desert in north central Africa, is ...
... to understand the symptoms of postpartum depression and reach out to family, friends, and medical professionals for help. ... deeper clinical depression known as postpartum depression.. Feelings of sadness and depression are more common after childbirth ... Postpartum depression can affect any woman - but some may be more at risk for developing it. Women who have battled depression ... Like all forms of depression, postpartum depression creates a cloud of negative feelings and thoughts over a womans view of ...
Depression refers to a period of sustained economic decline and contraction where employment and production plummet ... What Is a Depression? A depression is a severe and prolonged downturn in economic activity. In economics, a depression is ... Depression Explained A depression is a sustained and severe recession. Whereas a recession is a normal part of the business ... How a Depression Affected the United States Economy The Great Depression began shortly after the Oct. 24, 1929, U.S. stock ...
Depression | SpringerLink
Hamilton, M. (1986). The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. In N. Sartorius & T. A. Ban (Eds.), Assessment of depression. ... Abramson, L. H., Metalsky, G. I., & Alloy, L. B. (1989). Hopelessness depression: A theory based subtype of depression. ... Hickie, C., & Snowdon, J. (1987). Depression scales in the elderly: Geriatric Depression Scale Gilleard, Zung. Clinical ... Zung, W. W. K. (1965). A self-rating depression scale. Archives of General Psychiatry, 12 63-70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
Current: Postpartum Depression Postpartum Depression. What is postpartum depression?. Postpartum depression is depression that ... Like all kinds of depression, postpartum depression is treatable.. What are the signs of postpartum depression?. Someone with ... How is postpartum depression treated?. The good news is that postpartum depression is treatable. Your doctor or nurse can help ... About 1 in 9 postpartum people experience symptoms of postpartum depression. With this kind of depression, you may feel sad, ...
depression - Wiktionary
depression (countable and uncountable, plural depressions) *(psychology) In psychotherapy and psychiatry, a state of mind ... depression c (singular definite depressionen, plural indefinite depressioner) *This term needs a translation to English. Please ... Depression of the lever starts the machine.. *(biology, physiology) A lowering, in particular a reduction in a particular ... It was not far from the house; but the ground sank into a depression there, and the ridge of it behind shut out everything ...
Depression | RAND
RAND research seeks to optimize the use of effective treatments for depression whether in a primary care setting or by ... Untreated clinical depression and other mental illnesses can result in serious consequences for individuals, families, and ... Depression. Featured. Untreated clinical depression and other mental illnesses can result in serious consequences for ... Complexity in Redesigning Depression Care: Comparing Intention Versus Implementation of an Automated Depression Screening and ...
Depression Checklist for Parents
Sue's Harmony Hypnotherapy - depression
Many different things can trigger depression. Medical studies estimate that 1 in 4 women and 1 in 10 men suffer from depression ... Your Depression can be successfully treated with hypnosis, by changing our perception of life or the events that caused us to ... In fact most of us have experienced some of the symptoms of depression due to the ever demanding society that we now live in, ... Also about 5% of children have had symptoms suffer symptoms of depression. ...
Depression's wiring diagram | WIRED
... of depression. As he notes, he was hoping for real lesions, from people whod had psychosurgery years ago, but had to settle ... Depressions wiring diagram. The ever-excellent Neurocritic has an interesting post looking at lesion studies of depression. ... intractable depression in roughly 2 of every 3 patients. This is a high high efficacy for depression, and the relief was ... The ever-excellent Neurocritic has an interesting post looking at lesion studies of depression. As he notes, he was hoping ...
Depression | Psychology Today
Depression is an illness that increasingly afflicts people worldwide, interfering with concentration, motivation, and many ... an illness that comes in many forms-from major depression and seasonal affective disorder, to dysthymia and bipolar disorder. ... Some 15 million Americans a year struggle with depression, ... Seeing Beyond Depression Theres new evidence that depression ... Varieties of Depression. Depression generally takes one of two major forms. Unipolar depression is what most people mean when ...
Depression | Psychology Today
What Is Depression?. Some 15 million Americans a year struggle with depression, an illness that comes in many forms-from major ... Depression is increasingly common in children.. Everyone experiences an occasional blue mood; depression is a more pervasive ... Emotion Rules When There is Depression By Margaret Wehrenberg Psy.D. on November 14, 2017 in Depression Management Techniques ... Find a Depression Therapist Get the help you need from a therapist near you-a FREE service from Psychology Today. ...
Depression | The BMJ
But just as he was about to qualify, he was overwhelmed by a major bout of depression, the first and worst of the depressive ... Helen Crane, a journalist who has been hospitalised with severe depression three times, spoke to him about how being a patient ... The world of a person with depression can be shrouded in despair, forcing retreats from humanity, so for someone with a ... A bout of depression left Mike Shooter on the brink of committing suicide ...
Primary Care | Depression
Mens Guide to Depression Spanish Womens Guide to DepressionSpanish Latino Americans and Depression ... Living With Depression. The Personal Experience. "Self Portrait" - Frida Kahlo. Patients living with depression have enormous ... The Arts and Depression. The arts have long explored the experience of living with depression and its effects on others. Film ... Recognizing in oneself the symptoms and signs of depression can be difficult. People who suffer from depression describe the ...
Depression: MedlinePlus Genetics
... also known as major depression or major depressive disorder) is a psychiatric disorder that affects mood, behavior, and overall ... Depression (also known as major depression or major depressive disorder) is a psychiatric disorder that affects mood, behavior ... Several health conditions are closely related to depression or have depression as a characteristic feature. These include ... Depression does not have a clear pattern of inheritance in families. People who have a first-degree relative. (for example, a ...
Mental Health / Depression
Raise student awareness of the impact of anxiety and depression on their ability to learn, function, and succeed.. Depression ... Mental Health / Depression Students who suffer from depression or anxiety can experience many adverse effects on their academic ... Educate university staff and faculty about the impact of anxiety and depression on learning outcomes, ability to function, and ... b) Depression interfering with ability to function *Data Source: ACHA #30F. *Survey Question: Have you ever felt so depressed ...
Depression - healthfinder.gov
Depression in Older Adults Many of the changes faced by older adults can lead to depression. However, depression is not a ... Depression-Screening Test If you think you are experiencing symptoms of clinical depression, this confidential depression ... Talk to a Doctor About Depression Depression is a real illness. Most people with depression feel better when they get treatment ... NIH SeniorHealth: Depression FAQ How are older adults affected by depression? What should I do if I think I am depressed? How ...
Teen depression awareness
These slides depicts all about adolescent depression and its prevalence that widely spreads across our little red dot and ... What Is Teen Depression? How Do We Address The Stigma Attached To Teen Depression? What Are The Symptoms Of Teen Depression? ... What Is Teen Depression? How Do We Address The Stigma Attached To Teen Depression? What are the symptoms of teen depression? ... What Is Teen Depression? How Do We Address The Stigma Attached To Teen Depression? What are the symptoms of teen depression? ...
Depression - familydoctor.org
A person who has depression cant control his or her feelings. ... Depression is a mood disorder that affects people of all ages ... What is depression?. When doctors talk about depression, they mean the medical illness called major depression. Someone who has ... Left untreated, depression can last for weeks, months, or even years.. Is depression more common in women than in men?. Yes. ... Depression in Older Adults. Depression is a common problem in older adults, but it is not part of the aging process. Learn how… ...
Postnatal depression - NHS
Postnatal depression is a type of depression that many parents experience after having a baby. Its a common problem, affecting ... postnatal depression is less severe than other types of depression - in fact, its as serious as other types of depression ... Postnatal depression is a type of depression that many parents experience after having a baby. ... postnatal depression will soon pass - unlike the baby blues, postnatal depression can persist for months if left untreated ...
Depression test uk
... depression test uk, can tinnitus be cured naturally, download free ebook pdf, pulsatile tinnitus sinus, cause of insomnia, is ... Comments to "Depression test uk". * Joker. : 31.10.2014 at 10:59:28 Group, the cyclical recurrence of manic and less time than ... A new test for depression has been uncovered by researchers, who think its possible to find physical traces of the signs of ... Using eye-tracking, they found that women with a past history of depression paid more attention to the angry faces.More ...
Symptoms of depressionPrevalenceSeverityConclusionsAntidepressantMoodSymptomScaleClinicalDiagnosisLevels of depressionBeck DepressioRiskSevere depressionOutcomesRecurrentMajorPatients with depressionCognitiveDementiaStudyChronicPeople with depreMentalPostpartumSadnessTreatableManic depressionAnxiety and DepressionSuicideMood disordersMental healthPeopleDisordersSufferTreatmentsGreat DepressionEmotionalMedications2019OccurKnown as antenatal depressionPsychotherapy2017Types of depressionTreatment of DepressionMildFamily history of depressionPsychoticExperience depressionPsychiatricPostnatal Depression ScaleResearchersAdultsModerateStressfulIncrease the risk of developingInterferes with daily lifeStressInterfereKind of depressionEpisode of depressionContribute to depressionPregnancyDepressiveGeneticCause depressionCognitive therapyTrigger depressionTropical depressionPerinatal Depression
Symptoms of depression2
- The symptoms of depression can be similar to symptoms of dementia. (alzheimer.ca)
- However, although depression is clinically conceptualized as a discrete comorbid illness, few researchers have investigated the possibility of a dose-response relationship between symptoms of depression and poorer self-care, favoring instead a conceptualization of depression as a discrete comorbid illness when examining its relationship to diabetes self-care behaviors. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Major depression is a significant problem among patients with diabetes, with an estimated prevalence of 15-20%, compared with 2-9% in the general population ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence and 9-month incidence of depressive symptoms among a cohort of elderly primary care patients and to determine whether different patterns of depression are associated with different patterns of health services use. (ahrq.gov)
- Objective: The present study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of depression in parents of disabled children. (ac.ir)
- OBJECTIVE -We examined the association between depression, measured as either a continuous symptom severity score or a clinical disorder variable, with self-care behaviors in type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Continuous depressive symptom severity scores were better predictors of nonadherence to diet, exercise, and medications than categorically defined probable major depression. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The aim of the current study was to extend previous research by examining the relationships between depression and the full range of diabetes self-care behaviors (including diet, exercise, glucose monitoring, foot care, and medication adherence), using an analytical approach that would compare depression measured as a clinical categorical variable versus a continuous symptom severity variable. (diabetesjournals.org)
- We hypothesized that major depression would be associated with poorer self-care, that depressive symptom severity would be a better predictor of poorer self-care than major depression, and that even subclinical increases in depressive symptoms would be associated with significant decrements in diabetes self-care behaviors. (diabetesjournals.org)
- CONCLUSIONS -These findings challenge the conceptualization of depression as a categorical risk factor for nonadherence and suggest that even low levels of depressive symptomatology are associated with nonadherence to important aspects of diabetes self-care. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Conclusions: Findings contribute to our understanding of how depression manifests globally and demonstrates initial evidence to support the usefulness of a measurement instrument created to reflect the global presentation of depression. (jhu.edu)
- After 8.5 years, 1,550 people in the study reported being diagnosed with depression or using antidepressant drugs. (yahoo.com)
- Pilot Study 2 is designed to complement Study 1 in providing additional support for the hypothesis that burst suppression is an important mechanism for antidepressant treatment effects of anesthesia in moderate to severe depression. (utah.edu)
- Methods: The Chicago Multiscale Depression Inventory was employed to measure mood, negative evaluative, and neurovegetative symptom clusters in 53 MS patients who were also administered a battery of neuropsychological tests. (elsevier.com)
- Results: At time point 1, Mood and Evaluative Chicago Multiscale Depression inventory scales were, significantly associated with tasks of complex speeded attention, planning, and working memory. (elsevier.com)
- and 2) a quantitative analysis of existing datasets using item response theory (IRT) to identify how different symptom questions related to depression perform across settings. (jhu.edu)
- Results from these investigations were used to inform the development of the International Depression Symptom Scale (IDSS), an instrument designed to reflect global presentations of depression. (jhu.edu)
- Because neurovegetative depression symptoms overlap with MS symptoms, it may be that literature inconsistencies can partly be explained by the fact that only those depression symptom clusters unambiguously reflective of depression are associated with cognitive dysfunction. (elsevier.com)
- Objective: To explore the relationship between different depression symptom clusters and a battery of tests measuring cognitive domains commonly impaired in MS and was examined at two time points 3 years apart. (elsevier.com)
- RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS -We surveyed 879 type 2 diabetic patients from two primary care clinics using the Harvard Department of Psychiatry/National Depression Screening Day Scale (HANDS), the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities, and self-reported medication adherence. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Based on the STAR*D Trial 39 , a responder is a patient showing 50% reduction in depression score and full remission is defined as a score of 0-10 on the HRSD-24 scale and score of 0-5 on the QIDS-SR 16 . (utah.edu)
- DESIGN: Prospective study of depressive symptoms as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale and identification of patients' outpatient health services use through an electronic medical record system. (ahrq.gov)
- The Faces of Depression in Literature brings together some of the best-known specialists and scholars on the topic of depression in literature worldwide to offer a multidisciplinary approach concerning the philosophical, theological, and literary narratives of depression over time and their approximations to the current, clinical understanding of Major Depressive Disorder. (peterlang.com)
- Although research has consistently established that depression and elevated depressive symptoms are associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) recurrence and mortality, clinical trials have failed to show that conventional depression interventions offset this risk. (columbia.edu)
- Background: Existing measurement instruments for depression are most often based on symptoms observed in western clinical populations. (jhu.edu)
Levels of depression2
- The available literature suggests that clinically significant levels of depression are associated with a range of poorer self-care behaviors including adherence to diet ( 5 - 8 ), exercise ( 6 , 7 ), and prescribed medications ( 5 , 7 , 9 , 10 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- They also had significantly lower levels of depression. (aicr.org)
- Methods: Following a cross-sectional study, 50 parents of children with chronic disease as target group & 50 parents of children with an acute disease as control group were selected randomly, they were asked to take part in a structured interview & their depression's score was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). (ac.ir)
- To lower the risk of depression, "People can eat everything, but everything in moderation," as long as they try to eat lots of vegetables , fruits, nuts and fish, and avoid fast food and processed meats, said study author Almudena Sanchez-Villegas of the University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. (yahoo.com)
- The researchers found that the people in the study who stuck to the healthy patterns to a moderate or a high extent had a lower risk of depression than those who did not follow these diets at all, or who adhered to them to a low degree. (yahoo.com)
- For example, the risk of depression over the study period for the people who moderately adhered to the Mediterranean diet was about 25 to 30 percent lower than for those who did not adhere to the diet at all, or who adhered to it only to a very small extent, the researchers found. (yahoo.com)
- Even a moderate adherence to these healthy dietary patterns … was associated with an important reduction in the risk of developing depression," Sanchez-Villegas told Live Science. (yahoo.com)
- Moreover, the researchers saw no extra benefit for depression risk when participants followed the diets very closely, compared with moderate adherence, she said. (yahoo.com)
- The researchers don't know for sure what may explain the link between these dietary patterns and people's risk of depression. (yahoo.com)
- However, one potential mechanism is that people who follow these patterns may have a lower risk of depression because they get adequate levels of some micronutrients, such as B vitamins, folate or zinc - all of which are essential to brain health , Sanchez-Villegas said. (yahoo.com)
- Conversely, the people who don't follow these patterns may have a higher risk of depression because of their nutrient deficits, she said. (yahoo.com)
- Sanchez-Villegas' previous research, published in 2006 and 2009 , also showed a link between following a Mediterranean diet and a lower risk of depression. (yahoo.com)
- Depression also increases the risk of poorer diabetes-specific outcomes such as hyperglycemia ( 3 ) and an increase in diabetes complications ( 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- According to a new study, early puberty in girls can increase the risk of depression in adulthood. (universaldrugstore.com)
- As depression is a complex and heterogeneous syndrome, we believe that examining simpler, or intermediary, phenotypes rather than one complex phenotype may allow better identification of those at particular risk of CHD recurrence and mortality. (columbia.edu)
- Although there are many possible intermediary phenotypes (IPs), specifiers and dimensions of depression, we will focus on only two when considering the relation between depression and risk of CHD recurrence and mortality: Incident Depression and Anhedonic Depression. (columbia.edu)
- Future research on IPs of depression is needed to clarify which are associated with the greatest risk for CHD recurrence and mortality and which, if any, are benign. (columbia.edu)
- Theoretical advances in depression phenotyping may also help elucidate the behavioural and biological mechanisms underlying the increased risk of CHD among patients with specific depression phenotypes. (columbia.edu)
- RESULTS -Of the patients, 19% met the criteria for probable major depression (HANDS score ≥9), and an additional 66.5% reported at least some depressive symptoms. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Major depression was a better predictor of glucose monitoring. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Among patients with type 2 diabetes, major depression is associated with a 2.3-fold increase in mortality, and minor or "subclinical" depression is associated with a 1.7-fold increase ( 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
Patients with depression1
- The Faces of Depression in Literature is for graduates and researchers on depression from a cultural and social point of view, including philosophers, historians, cultural theorists, literature and art experts and enthusiasts, as well as artists and writers themselves, specialists in mental health and cognitive psychology, and anyone interested in a better understanding of the human condition. (peterlang.com)
- Conclusion: These results show that negative evaluative depression symptoms are most consistently predictive of cognitive dysfunction in MS. It may be that negative evaluative depression symptoms use up available cognitive capacity, thus compromising performance on cognitive capacity demanding tasks in MS patients. (elsevier.com)
- Up to 40 to 50 per cent of people with dementia experience depression at some point. (alzheimer.ca)
- It is important to diagnose depression in people with dementia because depression may respond to treatment. (alzheimer.ca)
- Therefore, it is often difficult to identify depression in people with dementia. (alzheimer.ca)
- Social isolation may also cause depression in some people with dementia. (alzheimer.ca)
- Following a diet rich in produce and low in processed meats - even if you don't do it perfectly - may be helpful in preventing depression, according to a large new study. (yahoo.com)
- At the start of the study, researchers asked 15,000 Spanish university graduates who had never had depression what they normally ate. (yahoo.com)
- Therefore, Study 2 will be an open-label trial to provide preliminary data that propofol, an intravenous anesthetic with a favorable safety profile, administered for 10 treatment sessions at levels to induce 80% burst suppression, also is effective in producing depression remission in 50% or more of the pilot sample of 10 depressed patients. (utah.edu)
- In this study, the researchers checked the data of about 8,000 women and focused on depression as well as antisocial behavior, like stealing and drug abuse. (universaldrugstore.com)
- The overall goal of this study was to determine if there is a need for new instruments with global applicability to measure depression, and if so, to develop and test this new instrument. (jhu.edu)
- Conclusion: When comparing psychopathology in parents of children with chronic disease with that of children with an acute disease, significant differences were observed in depression level. (ac.ir)
- Depression among Parents of Children with Chronic and Disabling Disease', Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences , 29(2), pp. 90-93. (ac.ir)
People with depre2
- If you think you have depression or postpartum depression, seek treatment from your health care provider as soon as possible. (cdc.gov)
- Postpartum depression is depression that occurs after having a baby. (cdc.gov)
- Feelings of postpartum depression are more intense and last longer than those of "baby blues," a term used to describe the worry, sadness, and tiredness many women experience after having a baby. (cdc.gov)
- Using the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), CDC research shows that nationally, about 1 in 8 women experience symptoms of postpartum depression. (cdc.gov)
- Estimates of the number of women affected by postpartum depression differ by age and race/ethnicity. (cdc.gov)
- Additionally, postpartum depression estimates vary by state, and can be as high as 1 in 5 women. (cdc.gov)
- How often postpartum depression symptoms occur, how long they last, and how intense they feel can be different for each person. (cdc.gov)
- Many women experience major mood shifts after childbirth, ranging from brief, mild baby blues to the longer-lasting, deeper clinical depression known as postpartum depression. (kidshealth.org)
- It's important for new mothers - and those who love them - to understand the symptoms of postpartum depression and to reach out to family, friends, and medical professionals for help. (kidshealth.org)
- With the proper support and treatment, mothers who are experiencing any degree of postpartum depression can go on to be healthy, happy parents. (kidshealth.org)
- If baby blues linger longer than a week or two, talk to your doctor to discuss whether postpartum depression may be the cause of your emotional lows. (kidshealth.org)
- About 10% of new mothers experience postpartum depression , which is a true clinical depression triggered by childbirth. (kidshealth.org)
- Postpartum depression usually begins 2 to 3 weeks after giving birth, but can start any time during the first few days, weeks, or months post-delivery. (kidshealth.org)
- But postpartum depression is a medical condition that requires attention and treatment. (kidshealth.org)
- Postpartum depression can affect any woman - but some may be more at risk for developing it. (kidshealth.org)
- Women who have battled depression at another time in their lives or have one or more relatives who have had depression might have a genetic tendency to develop postpartum depression. (kidshealth.org)
- Most postpartum depression is thought to be related to fluctuating hormone levels that affect mood and energy. (kidshealth.org)
- What is postpartum depression? (plannedparenthood.org)
- Postpartum depression is depression that happens after you have a baby. (plannedparenthood.org)
- About 1 in 9 postpartum people experience symptoms of postpartum depression. (plannedparenthood.org)
- Postpartum depression lasts longer and is more intense than the "baby blues. (plannedparenthood.org)
- How is postpartum depression different from the "baby blues? (plannedparenthood.org)
- Postpartum depression lasts for weeks or months and tends to be more intense. (plannedparenthood.org)
- Lots of people deal with postpartum depression - it's a very common experience. (plannedparenthood.org)
- Like all kinds of depression, postpartum depression is treatable. (plannedparenthood.org)
- What are the signs of postpartum depression? (plannedparenthood.org)
- How is postpartum depression treated? (plannedparenthood.org)
- The good news is that postpartum depression is treatable. (plannedparenthood.org)
- Your doctor or nurse can help you manage your postpartum depression. (plannedparenthood.org)
- If you think you may be experiencing postpartum depression, talk with your nurse or doctor, and ask for support from family and friends. (plannedparenthood.org)
- Planned Parenthood health centers don't provide treatment for postpartum depression, but they may be able to help you find treatment and other support in your area. (plannedparenthood.org)
- These include dysthymia (which has long-lasting signs and symptoms that are similar to, but not as severe as, those of depression), perinatal or postpartum depression (which occurs around or following the birth of a child), seasonal affective disorder (which is triggered by the changing of the seasons), bipolar disorder (which can include both "highs," or manic episodes, and depressive episodes), and generalized anxiety disorder. (medlineplus.gov)
- The symptoms of postpartum depression last longer and are more severe. (medlineplus.gov)
- Postpartum depression can begin anytime within the first year after childbirth. (medlineplus.gov)
- If you think you have postpartum depression, tell your health care provider. (medlineplus.gov)
- Additionally, recent CDC research shows that about 1 in 8 women experience symptoms of postpartum depression. (cdc.gov)
- Other types of depression include postpartum depression, psychotic depression, and seasonal affective disorder, each of which develops under specific circumstances. (britannica.com)
- Postpartum depression develops in women in the period following childbirth . (britannica.com)
- Postpartum depression is longer-lasting and more severe than the "baby blues," a common condition among women after childbirth that typically involves mood swings, feelings of sadness, and crying spells. (britannica.com)
- Good evidence exists that episodes of postpartum depression are missed or misdiagnosed. (bmj.com)
- When depression occurs after childbirth, it is called postpartum depression (see FAQ091 Postpartum Depression ). (acog.org)
- Postpartum depression is depression that occurs after childbirth. (medicinenet.com)
- Postnatal depression can be classed among other postnatal psychiatric conditions, ranging from the blues to postpartum traumatic neuroses (Bydlowski and Raoul-Duval, 1978) and the acute postpartum psychoses that have been described since the nineteenth century (Marc é , L.-V., 1858). (encyclopedia.com)
- 1997). Postpartum blues: A clinical syndrome and predictor of postnatal depression. (encyclopedia.com)
- Postpartum depression, which is much more serious than the "baby blues" that many women experience after giving birth, when hormonal and physical changes and the new responsibility of caring for a newborn can be overwhelming. (csbsju.edu)
- It is estimated that 10 to 15 percent of women experience postpartum depression after giving birth. (csbsju.edu)
- Because depression can show up in different ways and might be hard to see, it helps to let a doctor know if feelings of sadness or bad moods seem to go on for a few weeks. (kidshealth.org)
- Clinical depression is different from normal sadness - like when you lose a loved one, experience a relationship breakup, or get laid off from work - as it usually consumes a person in their day-to-day living. (psychcentral.com)
- Feelings of sadness and depression are more common after childbirth than many people may realize. (kidshealth.org)
- Getting proper rest, nutrition, and support are quite important - since being exhausted or sleep deprived or feeling stressed can reinforce and fuel feelings of sadness and depression. (kidshealth.org)
- These rapid hormone shifts affect the brain's mood chemistry in a way that can lead to sadness, low mood, and depression that lingers. (kidshealth.org)
- If feelings of sadness or depression are strong, if they linger throughout most of the day for days in a row, or if they last longer that a week or two, talk to your doctor. (kidshealth.org)
- Even though many kids don't "qualify" for the clinical diagnosis of depression, they have some of the problems that "truly depressed" people have--such as sadness, self-criticism, and the inability to enjoy their lives. (huffingtonpost.com)
- Depression has human costs that we all know of: sadness, sense of isolation, feeling like a burden, inability to enjoy life, and--for 35,000 people every year--suicide (Joiner, 2010). (huffingtonpost.com)
- First, a definition: People suffering from clinical depression experience feelings of overwhelming sadness, guilt and worthlessness and don't find pleasure in their daily lives. (latimes.com)
- The most important thing to remember is that, unlike with normal sadness, there doesn't need to be a "reason"to have clinical depression . (webmd.com)
- Depression is a mood disorder that causes a persistent feeling of sadness and loss of interest. (nih.gov)
- In reality, depression is more akin to a feeling of numbness than a feeling of sadness. (abc.net.au)
- Depression is treatable. (cdc.gov)
- Depression is treatable and most people get better with treatment. (cdc.gov)
- Even in the most severe cases, depression is highly treatable. (psychologytoday.com)
- The important point is to make that first contact since this type of depression is readily treatable. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- As well, many do not recognize that depression is treatable. (psychcentral.com)
- Bipolar disorder (also called manic depression or bipolar depression) is a condition that includes episodes of major depression and, at other times, episodes of mania (emotional highs). (kidshealth.org)
- A charity helping people living with manic depression or bipolar disorder. (www.nhs.uk)
- Music Downloads Not Rated by the ESRB) Build your Rock Band library by purchasing this song game track: 'Manic Depression'-- The Jimi Hendrix Experience. (xbox.com)
- Bipolar disorder, once referred to as manic depression, consists of episodes of depression that alternate with periods of intensely elevated mood known as mania. (medicinenet.com)
- If someone in your immediate family has been diagnosed with depression or bipolar disorder (manic depression), you are two to three times more likely to have a similar diagnosis yourself. (abc.net.au)
Anxiety and Depression4
- Raise student awareness of the impact of anxiety and depression on their ability to learn, function, and succeed. (nyu.edu)
- Educate university staff and faculty about the impact of anxiety and depression on learning outcomes, ability to function, and student success. (nyu.edu)
- What's more, stressful experiences can make the symptoms of anxiety and depression additionally severe. (amazonaws.com)
- At the end of the summer, Selena Gomez announced she would be taking a break from music to deal with problems with anxiety and depression, as they can sometimes come together. (bbc.co.uk)
- When depression is severe, it can lead kids to think about self-harm or suicide . (kidshealth.org)
- books.google.com - Two dozen papers trace threads through the maze of questions surrounding patients whose depression does not respond to therapy, and who therefore contribute substantially to physicians' cases of morbidity and attempted and accomplished suicide. (google.com)
- People with depression have a higher risk of substance abuse problems and dying by suicide than the general population. (medlineplus.gov)
- This wallet card lists the warning signs of depression and suicide that may occur after a traumatic event. (healthfinder.gov)
- This brief summary describes the causes and treatment of depression and risk factors and prevention of suicide in adults and children who have cancer. (healthfinder.gov)
- Thoughts of suicide are common in people with depression. (familydoctor.org)
- The risk of suicide is higher if you don't get help for your depression. (familydoctor.org)
- When depression is successfully treated, the thoughts of suicide will go away. (familydoctor.org)
- Support for those dealing with suicide, depression or emotional distress - particularly teenagers and young adults. (itv.com)
- Arango V, Underwood MD, Mann JJ (2002) Serotonin brain circuits involved in major depression and suicide. (springer.com)
- Bach-Mizrachi H, Underwood MD, Kassir SA, Bakalian MJ, Sibille E, Tamir H, Mann JJ, Arango V (2006) Neuronal tryptophan hydroxylase mRNA expression in the human dorsal and median raphe nuclei: major depression and suicide. (springer.com)
- Understanding Depression: The Suicide Connection" will air in the Twin Cities on Saturdays at 12:30 p.m. on KSTP-TV beginning Feb. 28. (minnpost.com)
- When diagnosing depression and similar mood disorders, doctors and mental health professionals use different categories. (kidshealth.org)
- Depression and other mood disorders can get better with the right attention and care. (kidshealth.org)
- According to the National Institute of Mental Health, risk factors for depression can include a family history of mood disorders, major life changes, trauma, other physical diseases (such as cancer), and even certain medications. (psychcentral.com)
- If I remember correctly, Mayberg's long analysis did not find so - and other efforts to treat OCD, depression, and other mood disorders by sending deep-brain stimulators elsewhere have not fared as well. (wired.com)
- Part 2 examines the development of at-risk behaviors relating to dysfunctional family dynamics, low self-esteem, depression, mood disorders, and stress and trauma. (counseling.org)
- These symptoms of depression are similar to those of other depression-related mood disorders, such as major depressive disorder. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The next step will be to identify if the bacteria that are changed are playing a causal role in depression and whether they can be harnessed for psych biotic-based interventions for mood disorders," he added. (medscape.com)
- In the last decade there has been a significant effort to boost public awareness of mood disorders especially depression and provide support for those affected by the illness. (abc.net.au)
- Search our directory of ADAA mental health professional members who specialize in anxiety, depression and co-occurring disorders. (adaa.org)
- Military members who visited a primary care clinic while suffering from PTSD and depression reported fewer symptoms and better mental health functioning a year after enrolling in a treatment program that included specially trained care managers and telephone therapy options. (rand.org)
- Although depression is considered primarily a mental health disorder, it can also have physical features including headaches, other unexplained aches and pains, unusually slow or fast movements, and digestive problems. (medlineplus.gov)
- Better insurance coverage of mental health services and the explosion of new medications for depression since the introduction of Prozac in 1987 have helped fuel the rise in treatment rates. (latimes.com)
- In a 2005 study published in the New England Journal of Medicine, researchers assessed trends in prevalence and treatment of mental health (not just depression) from two large, national surveys -- 5,388 adult participants in 1990-92 and 4,319 in 2001-03. (latimes.com)
- One 2005 study in the Journal of Health and Social Behavior found that volunteering had a beneficial effect on depression among older adults, and preliminary findings conducted at the Institute of Psychiatry at King's College, London, suggest a "strong link" between volunteering and recovery from mental health problems, with about 85% of participants reporting positive outcomes after volunteering. (amazonaws.com)
- In this 4-part series, health expert Gary Null, Ph.D., examines the truths and misconceptions about mental health in America, and natural and healthy alternatives for overcoming depression and anxiety. (selfgrowth.com)
- It also includes questionnaires that mental health professionals can use to help diagnose and treat potential patients with depression. (apple.com)
- Medications for the treatment of symptoms of depression are listed, as well as correct dosages are listed to help aid the mental health professional. (apple.com)
- An estimated 21 million adults and children in the United States experience depression each year, according to Mental Health America, a patient advocacy group. (newsday.com)
- South Oaks and its partners, Eastern Long Island Hospital in Greenport, the town of Southold and the Mental Health Association in Suffolk County, are working with primary care physicians on the North Fork to improve efforts to identify older adults with depression. (newsday.com)
- By integrating depression screening into doctor visits, the collaborators hope to catch more people who could benefit from a referral to a mental health practitioner, explained Kristie Golden, vice president of ambulatory and community services at South Oaks. (newsday.com)
- Most people, even those with the most severe forms of depression, can get better with treatment . (cdc.gov)
- The result is a suite of antidepressant drugs that may be effective in treating certain aspects of depression in certain people, but which also present a suite of their own often-debilitating problems. (marksdailyapple.com)
- The Greek people have just lived through a Depression as deep as the Great Depression and considerably longer. (forbes.com)
- Depression is an illness that increasingly afflicts people worldwide, interfering with concentration , motivation , and many other aspects of everyday functioning. (psychologytoday.com)
- Research with brain-imaging technologies, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), shows that the brains of people who have depression look different than those of people without depression. (psychologytoday.com)
- People with depression cannot merely "pull themselves together" and get better. (psychologytoday.com)
- There is some evidence that, painful as depression is, it serves a positive purpose, bringing with it ways of thinking that force people to focus on problems as a prelude to solving them. (psychologytoday.com)
- People who suffer from depression describe the experience as a feeling of isolation, a feeling of being cut off from the people around them, almost of being "emotionally underwater", of losing interest in physical contact and in sexual relationships, and of excessive worry. (columbia.edu)
- People with depression may also have changes in appetite (leading to overeating or not eating enough), changes in sleeping patterns (sleeping too much or not being able to sleep), loss of energy, and difficulty concentrating. (medlineplus.gov)
- Researchers suspect that studies with many more people will be required to pinpoint the genetic variations that influence the risk of depression. (medlineplus.gov)
- Some people think depression is trivial and not a genuine health condition. (www.nhs.uk)
- The good news is that with the right treatment and support, most people with depression can make a full recovery. (www.nhs.uk)
- Many people with depression also have symptoms of anxiety . (www.nhs.uk)
- Many people wait a long time before seeking help for depression, but it's best not to delay. (www.nhs.uk)
- People with a family history of depression are more likely to experience it themselves. (www.nhs.uk)
- Many people with depression benefit by making lifestyle changes, such as getting more exercise , cutting down on alcohol , giving up smoking and eating healthily . (www.nhs.uk)
- 59% of NYU students demonstrating symptoms of depression reported that problems resulting from these symptoms had made it difficult forthem to do their schoolwork, take care of things at home, or get along with other people. (nyu.edu)
- Most people with depression feel better when they get treatment. (healthfinder.gov)
- 9. Depression is the No. 1 cause of disability worldwide Approximately 350 million people from all ages suffer from depression. (slideshare.net)
- Depression can affect people of all ages and is different for every person. (familydoctor.org)
- More than 20 million people in the United States have depression each year. (breastcancer.org)
- Most people do recover from depression. (warwick.ac.uk)
- People with symptoms of depression are 2.17 times more likely to take sick days (Adler, et al. (huffingtonpost.com)
- People who suffer from depression end up with six-tenths of a year less schooling, an 11 percent decrease in the probability of getting married, and a loss (on average) of $10,400 per year in income by age 50 (Smith & Smith, 2010). (huffingtonpost.com)
- Depression is a lifelong vulnerability for millions of people. (huffingtonpost.com)
- In this short webinar, I'll be talking a little bit about major depression-what it is, how frequently we see it in young people, signs and symptoms, and next steps if you think someone you care about may be experiencing depression. (nih.gov)
- People who are elderly are at higher risk of depression. (webmd.com)
- Trauma such as violence or physical or emotional abuse -- whether it's early in life or more recent -- can trigger depression in people who are biologically vulnerable to it. (webmd.com)
- Unfortunately, 50% of people who have one major episode of depression will relapse, and the likelihood goes up if you've had more than one episode, says Eve A. Feeling overwhelmed creates stress, and stress is a risk factor for depression, says Nancy Irwin, PsyD, author of You-Turn: Changing Direction in Midlife. (amazonaws.com)
- In fact, a 2005 study published in the journal American Psychologist found that people who performed daily gratitude exercises, such as making a list of three good things in their life, had lower levels of depression. (amazonaws.com)
- In fact, a 2009 study published in The American Journal of Psychiatry found that people 65 and older with a history of depression were at greatest risk of developing major depression if they believed they had poor social support. (amazonaws.com)
- Many people don't want to talk about depression because they think they should be able to handle it on their own, or don't want to burden others. (amazonaws.com)
- Provides information and support to people affected by depression in Ireland and Northern Ireland. (itv.com)
- Because of false perceptions, nearly 60% of people with depression do not seek medical help. (nih.gov)
- however, depression can occur in people without family histories of depression. (nih.gov)
- Are there people in your life who don´t take your depression seriously? (bellaonline.com)
- This group, too, had a threefold higher risk of depression compared to people who had no trouble breathing at night. (cnn.com)
- Sleep disruption, particularly insomnia, can be a risk factor for developing depression, and a lot of symptoms of people who have sleep apnea -- they feel lousy, they can't think straight -- are similar to symptoms people have in depression. (cnn.com)
- Studies have shown that people with higher levels of antioxidant carotenoids were less likely to have symptoms of depression. (medicinenet.com)
- People who have higher total intakes of vitamin B12 from foods were found less likely to have depression. (medicinenet.com)
- Persistent negative thoughts and feelings are common for people with depression. (medicinenet.com)
- Not all people with depression experience all of these symptoms. (medicinenet.com)
- Depression is different from anxiety disorders, but some people have symptoms of both conditions. (medicinenet.com)
- Many people suffer from depression - it's nothing to be ashamed of. (healthfinder.gov)
- For some people, bipolar disorder can cause episodes of depression. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- People can manage bipolar-related depression using medications, therapies, and other treatments. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Bipolar disorder is a lifelong condition, but people can manage the symptoms of depression and mania and prevent complications with treatment. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Over 60 percent of U.S. individuals living with depression have experienced severe impairment as a result, and up to 30 percent of people living with depression do not find relief in existing treatments. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- In analyzing data from 1054 individuals enrolled in the Flemish Gut Flora Project (FGFP), investigators found two groups of bacteria - Coprococcus and Dialister - were consistently depleted in people diagnosed with depression, regardless of antidepressant treatment. (medscape.com)
- It means people often fail to recognise the symptoms of depression, and don't get treatment for it. (abc.net.au)
- For example, having an under-active thyroid gland can contribute to depression, and research shows that people who've had a heart attack, stroke, cancer, or diabetes, for example, have higher than average rates of depression. (abc.net.au)
- A history of abuse or childhood deprivation can also predispose people to depression. (abc.net.au)
- People who are prone to worrying and feeling anxious, the extremely shy, those who engage in negative self-talk or people who are extremely sensitive are all more likely to experience depression. (abc.net.au)
- The Great Depression in the 1920's about the US, many unemployed workers due to many soldiers arriving back from the war and taking over the jobs, tighter expectations and afterdamage from the wars and left many people unemployed. (answers.com)
- Medications, psychotherapies, and other methods can effectively treat people with depression. (csbsju.edu)
- People with dysthymia may also experience one or more episodes of major depression during their lifetimes. (csbsju.edu)
- Without treatment, people with minor depression are at high risk for developing major depressive disorder. (csbsju.edu)
- Brain-imaging technologies, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), have shown that the brains of people who have depression look different than those of people without depression. (csbsju.edu)
- Scientists are studying certain genes that may make some people more prone to depression. (csbsju.edu)
- Sign up for ADAA's Monthly Free e-Newsletter featuring helpful resources about anxiety, depression and co-occurring disorders. (adaa.org)
- RAND research seeks to optimize the use of effective treatments for depression whether in a primary care setting or by psychiatric professionals, and to understand the impact of depressive disorders on various populations, including new mothers, teens, substance abusers, and those with other illnesses such as HIV/AIDS or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). (rand.org)
- Major depression is one of the most common mental disorders in the United States. (slideshare.net)
- Stressful life experiences, such as abuse or being bullied or an injury can be factors that lead to depression, and additionally medical or psychological factors--endocrine disorders, substance abuse, underlying anxiety or learning issues can all lead to major depression. (nih.gov)
- Other illnesses-Some disorders can lead to or occur with depression. (acog.org)
- Anxiety disorders often occur with depression. (acog.org)
- But depression can also be precipitated by viral or bacterial infection, organic disease, or hormonal disorders. (healthy.net)
- A complicating factor is that the effects of depression and sleep apnea can be difficult to distinguish, says psychiatrist Michael Weissberg, M.D., co-director of the insomnia and sleep disorders clinic at the University of Colorado School of Medicine, in Denver. (cnn.com)
- Depression and anxiety disorders are the same. (medicinenet.com)
- These compounds could be cross-referenced as molecules or compounds that are potentially implicated in psychiatric disorders like depression and could then become targets for treatment interventions in the future, whether it be from medications that are developed or from a dietary or nutritional point of view. (medscape.com)
- I used to suffer from depression , but now I'm mostly content with my life. (wiktionary.org)
- Medical studies estimate that 1 in 4 women and 1 in 10 men suffer from depression at some time in their lives. (google.com)
- Also about 5% of children have had symptoms suffer symptoms of depression. (google.com)
- Students who suffer from depression or anxiety can experience many adverse effects on their academic and social lives and, consequently, are more likely to drop out of school or achieve lower grade-point averages. (nyu.edu)
- Nineteen percent of Americans will suffer from depression at some time during their lives. (huffingtonpost.com)
- Children or adults who suffer from depression have lower incomes, lower educational attainment and fewer days working each year. (huffingtonpost.com)
- We believe our members are helped when they share their problems with fellow sufferers, because they understand, better than any non-depressed professional or carer can ever do, what it really feels like to suffer from depression. (itv.com)
- A person who experiences alternating states of depression and mania (abnormal elevation of mood) or hypomania (distinct, though not necessarily abnormal, elevation of mood) is said to suffer from bipolar disorder. (britannica.com)
- Most employees that suffer untreated depression are doing so because they fear retribution or loss of their job if they report their problems. (psychcentral.com)
- Comparative effectiveness of social problem-solving therapy and reminiscence therapy as treatments for depression in older adults. (springer.com)
- Depression is complicated and different for everyone, we explore the range of effective strategies and treatments to help you manage or recover. (beyondblue.org.au)
- The Improving Access to Psychological Treatments (IAPT) initiative mandates access to effective treatments for depression and other psychological problems. (huffingtonpost.com)
- In fact, certain depression treatments, such as CBT, can help you develop a more upbeat outlook-although this treatment doesn't work for everyone. (amazonaws.com)
- What are the treatments for bipolar depression? (medicalnewstoday.com)
- This article will discuss the symptoms of and treatments for bipolar depression. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The Great Depression began shortly after the Oct. 24, 1929, U.S. stock market crash known as Black Thursday. (investopedia.com)
- The United States was already in a recession, and the following Tuesday, on Oct. 29, 1929, the Dow Jones Industrial Average fell 12% in another mass sell-off, triggering the start of the Great Depression. (investopedia.com)
- Although the Great Depression began in the United States, the economic impact was felt worldwide for more than a decade. (investopedia.com)
- The Great Depression was characterized by a drop in consumer spending and investment, and by catastrophic unemployment, poverty, hunger, and political unrest. (investopedia.com)
- With the Great Depression that struck the U.S., some of the contributing issues included policies that, after the stock market crash, led to deflation that kept the dollar down and made some consumers refrain from spending because they believed even lower prices would be coming. (investopedia.com)
- What Was the Great Depression? (investopedia.com)
- The Great Depression was a devastating and prolonged economic recession that had several contributing factors. (investopedia.com)
- The Emergency Banking Act 0f 1933 was a bill passed to restore investor confidence and stabilize banks in the wake of the Great Depression. (investopedia.com)
- The New Deal was a series of domestic programs designed to help the United States economy emerge from the Great Depression. (investopedia.com)
- The Great Depression was the worst financial event in US history. (wiktionary.org)
- The Great Depression that began in 1929, for example, was the most widespread depression in the 20th century. (britannica.com)
- For Mildred, a professional woman around sixty years of age, Great Depression II has started. (thenation.com)
- The major effect of the Great Depression and the New Deal on America was expanded government intervention into new areas of social and economic affairs and the creation of more social assistance agencies at the national level. (answers.com)
- The Great Depression and the New Deal measure led to the domestic programs of JFK's New Frontier, and LBJ's Great Society and War on Poverty. (answers.com)
- Sweden having recovered in 1934 was however the first nation to fully recover from the Great Depression. (answers.com)
- The great depression in the 1920's about the Utah farms being unable to pay the borrowed money from the bank therefore leading to many farms being morgaged. (answers.com)
- Too help stop the bank failures in the US during the start of the Great Depression, Hoover's Secretary of the Treasury, Andrew Mellon, proposed that the major banks and financiers pool their private funds into a National Credit Corporation. (answers.com)
- With the above said, there were several reasons that baseball was important to the economy of the United States during the Great Depression. (answers.com)
- Depression is a mood disorder affecting emotional, somatic, and cognitive domains. (springer.com)
- Depression , in psychology , a mood or emotional state that is marked by feelings of low self-worth or guilt and a reduced ability to enjoy life. (britannica.com)
- Depression differs from simple grief or mourning, which are appropriate emotional responses to the loss of loved persons or objects. (britannica.com)
- Depression, anxiety, and other emotional problems can nearly always be helped with a combination of medicines, support groups , or psychotherapy. (cancer.org)
- First lets discuss the holidays and their effect on your emotional state, and then give you some possible directions you can take in reaction to your depression. (thebody.com)
- Get the emotional support you need from others like you, get practical tips to manage your life with depression, and insights about treatment or therapies. (apple.com)
- Depression frees anxiety and fear inside you, so you explode at the slightest emotional pressure. (beliefnet.com)
- Depression can be treated with counseling, medications, or both. (cdc.gov)
- Some pain medications, especially opiates, can cause depression. (breastcancer.org)
- Steer clear of alcohol and especially illegal drugs, which can interfere with depression medications and alter your mood-and not in a good way. (amazonaws.com)
- Certain medications and health conditions, such as an infection or a thyroid disorder, can cause symptoms similar to depression. (acog.org)
- Depression is treated with psychotherapy , medications called antidepressants , or both. (acog.org)
- Information is provided about medications, side effects and resistant depression. (apple.com)
- Some prescription medications can increase the risk of depression. (abc.net.au)
- Depression can also occur among women with a healthy pregnancy and birth. (cdc.gov)
- Dust storms from the Bodélé Depression occur on average about 100 days per year, one typical example being the massive dust storms that swept over West Africa and the Cape Verde Islands in February 2004. (wikipedia.org)
- Unlike minor business contractions that may occur in one country independently of business cycles in other countries, severe depressions have usually been nearly worldwide in scope. (britannica.com)
- This is known as antenatal depression and is less well-known than postnatal depression - the depression that can occur after baby has been born - because it is hard to identify and less well understood. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- To diagnose your depression, your health care professional will discuss your symptoms, how often they occur, and how severe they are. (acog.org)
Known as antenatal depression1
- Sometimes depression can start in the months leading up to the birth, in which case it is known as antenatal depression. (abc.net.au)
- The researchers analyzed data from the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2) between March 2014 and October 2017 to screen inpatients with HF with reduced ejection fraction - 45% or lower - and NYHA class II to IV symptoms of depression in eight Pittsburgh hospitals. (healio.com)
- But Greece did emerge from its long-running depression in 2017, and indications so far are that growth will be maintained this year. (forbes.com)
Types of depression6
- Learn more: What are the different types of depression ? (psychcentral.com)
- Some types of depression tend to run in families, suggesting there may be some genetic vulnerability to the disorder. (psychologytoday.com)
- The findings help explain why some types of depression do not respond well to medication. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- New research may help explain why SSRIs are unable to fully tackle some types of depression. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Prof. Doya explains the motivation for the recent study, saying, 'It has always been speculated that different types of depression exist, and they influence the effectiveness of the drug. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Some types of depression tend to run in families. (csbsju.edu)
Treatment of Depression3
- Group cognitive therapy and Alprazolam in the treatment of depression in older adults. (springer.com)
- Although the significance of these associations is yet to be defined, the link between depression, disordered REM sleep, and abnormalities of the amygdala has led to new avenues of research into the neurobiology and treatment of depression. (britannica.com)
- Early treatment of depression and anxiety is the most effective path to recovery. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- And while they're likely more effective for mild to moderate depression, I think it's fair to say that no one should write off the therapeutic benefits of healthy lifestyle measures for their overall treatment program. (marksdailyapple.com)
- The symptoms of depression range from mild to severe. (www.nhs.uk)
- If you have mild depression, your doctor may suggest waiting to see whether it improves on its own, while monitoring your progress. (www.nhs.uk)
- Talking therapies, such as cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) , are often used for mild depression that is not improving, or moderate depression. (www.nhs.uk)
- If you have experienced a mild, moderate, or severe injury to your brain due to a sudden trauma, this research-based guide that will help you understand your condition, risk of depression, and treatment choices. (healthfinder.gov)
- books.google.com - The term 'depression' covers a wide spectrum of conditions ranging from mild despondency to melancholia, the very deepest form of depression. (google.com)
- 10 on the measure, signifying mild to moderate depression. (medscape.com)
- 10 indicated a high probability of mild to moderate depression. (medscape.com)
- Depression can be mild, moderate, or severe. (acog.org)
- If you have mild depression, it may take extra effort to do what you have to do, but often you can still do those things. (acog.org)
- Some may have mild depression, while others might experience it more strongly. (bbc.co.uk)
Family history of depression2
- How Many Women Experience Depression? (cdc.gov)
- According to a 2010 study external icon using data from 1993 to 2007, approximately 4% of fathers experience depression in the first year after their child's birth. (cdc.gov)
- Younger fathers, those with a history of depression, and those experiencing difficulties affording items such as a home or car were most likely to experience depression. (cdc.gov)
- In the United States, 36.1 percent of girls experience depression by age 17, compared with 13.6 percent of boys. (rand.org)
- Women are twice as likely as men to experience depression. (familydoctor.org)
- 6. "Referral rates for psychiatric help in young persons with depression seem to be increasing over the years," Associate Professor Leslie Lim Senior Consultant, Department Of Psychiatry, Singapore General Hospital(SGH) & A Member Of The Singhealth Group. (slideshare.net)
- Depression is probably the most common psychiatric complaint and has been described by physicians since before the time of ancient Greek physician Hippocrates , who called it melancholia . (britannica.com)
Postnatal Depression Scale3
- The men also completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) between weeks 18 and 20 of their partner's gestation. (medscape.com)
- The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), a questionnaire for mothers developed and validated by John Cox et al. (encyclopedia.com)
- 1994). Perinatal psychiatry: Use and misuse of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale . (encyclopedia.com)
- The same researchers who in 2004 more accurately determined the speed of wind through the depression also published in 2006 work showing that more than half of the dust needed for fertilizing the Amazon Rainforest is provided by the Bodélé depression, depositing up to 50 million tonnes in South America per year. (wikipedia.org)
- A new test for depression has been uncovered by researchers, who think it's possible to find physical traces of the signs of mental ill health in the blood. (amazonaws.com)
- Previous research has shown that low levels of vitamin B12 and folate are associated with an increased risk for depression, and "one meta-analysis suggests that vitamin B12 intervention may prevent depressive symptoms in specialized populations," report the researchers. (medscape.com)
- Researchers know that if depression runs in your family, you have a higher chance of becoming depressed. (webmd.com)
- In fact, a number of studies have led researchers to suspect that stress produces changes in the brain similar to those caused by depression. (amazonaws.com)
- Five percent of men and 8% of women had scores indicating "probable" depression, according to the researchers. (cnn.com)
- The study shows only an association, not cause and effect, and the researchers can't rule out the possibility that an unidentified factor could contribute to both sleep apnea and depression. (cnn.com)
- Researchers suspect that depression results from a combination of genetic, biochemical, environmental and psychological factors. (newsday.com)
- Depression can appear differently in children than in adults. (psychcentral.com)
- In 2016, 6.7 percent of adults and 12.8 percent of adolescents reported having at least one episode of depression. (medlineplus.gov)
- Signs of depression can appear differently in men, women, children and older adults. (healthfinder.gov)
- Many of the changes faced by older adults can lead to depression. (healthfinder.gov)
- Fifty percent of children and adolescents and 20 percent of adults report some symptoms of depression. (huffingtonpost.com)
- Most adults with depression in the United States are not receiving treatment for the disorder, according to new research published in the journal JAMA International Medicine. (minnpost.com)
- Whether children and teens with depression should be given SSRIs, however, remains in question, Upadhyay noted, because some studies have linked use of these drugs to an increased risk for suicidal thoughts or attempts in children, adolescents and young adults. (newsday.com)
- Research published in the 25 March 2004 edition of Geophysical Research Letters , which used images taken by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), aboard NASA 's Terra and Aqua satellites, indicated that storms move across the Bodélé Depression at about 47 km/h (29 mi/h)-two times faster than previously believed. (wikipedia.org)
- With moderate depression, you may not be able to do some of the things you need to do. (acog.org)
- Depression can be triggered by stressful events in your life. (familydoctor.org)
- Stress-Stressful circumstances such as trauma, loss of a loved one, a difficult relationship, unemployment, or abuse may trigger the onset of depression. (acog.org)
- Nearly everyone experiences stressful situations that dredge up symptoms of depression, but those feelings often resolve on their own. (newsday.com)
- Depression is also more likely if you are female, are under stress or experience a stressful life event such as the death of a loved one, a relationship ending or losing a job. (abc.net.au)
Increase the risk of developing1
Interferes with daily life1
- Exercise can reduce stress and help ease depression. (breastcancer.org)
- Extra bills with little budget to pay them can lead to further stress and depression . (webmd.com)
- From the site you are able to print off various self-help guides covering conditions such as depression, anxiety, stress, panic and sleep problems. (itv.com)
- Certain workplaces can lead to more depression than others because of stress, exposure to toxins, social isolation, and lack of social support (such as counselling services). (beliefnet.com)
- This site provides PDF files with general information about stress and depression. (merlot.org)
- Every phase of life has its own potential for stress and depression. (healthy.net)
- Depression is an overreaction to stress in life. (medicinenet.com)
Kind of depression4
- Seasonal affective disorder is a kind of depression that is related to light exposure. (kidshealth.org)
- With this kind of depression, you may feel sad, hopeless, anxious, and/or disconnected from your baby for weeks or months. (plannedparenthood.org)
- Fortunately, there is now a kind of depression therapy that will most likely help them get back their normal lives. (amazonaws.com)
- Yeah well I had some kind of depression 2 years ago, I had the feeling that I was always doing everything wrong and I was always saying stupid things and stuff like that. (newgrounds.com)
Episode of depression1
- If there was] certainty that an acute episode [of depression] will last only a week, a month, even a year, it would change everything. (psychcentral.com)
Contribute to depression2
- Vascular lesions may contribute to depression by disrupting the neural networks involved in emotion regulation-in particular, frontostriatal pathways that link the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, and dorsal cingulate. (nih.gov)
- Feeling unsupported when facing the changes that parenthood will bring, coupled with social isolation can contribute to depression. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- Depression during pregnancy does not mean that you will have postnatal depression. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- This means that therapy during pregnancy can reduce the chance of postnatal depression developing. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- Hormonal changes-Depression in women may be related to hormonal changes that happen during the menstrual cycle, during pregnancy, after childbirth, and at menopause . (acog.org)
- Depression Scales The severity of depression was assessed by the clinician-rated, 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology QIDS-CS16 or QIDS-SR16(the self report version) and Hamilton Depression Scale HAM-D17 score. (slideshare.net)
- Unfavourable life events can increase a person's vulnerability to depression or trigger a depressive episode. (britannica.com)
- UNDOING DEPRESSION teaches us how to replace depressive patterns with a new and more effective set of skills. (selfgrowth.com)
- Postnatal depression differs from a depressive state in the strict sense, in that anxiety and the mother's feelings of inadequacy it produces often dominate the picture. (encyclopedia.com)
- However, research into the genetics of depression is in its early stages, and very little is known for certain about the genetic basis of the disease. (medlineplus.gov)
- Some evidence suggests that genetic factors play a lesser role in late-onset depression than in early-onset depression. (nih.gov)
- Depression is thought to be caused by a complex combination of genetic, biological, psychological, and environmental factors. (medicinenet.com)
- Family and twin studies have shown that some depressions can have a genetic component. (abc.net.au)
- A full exam lets the doctor check your child for other health conditions that could cause depression-like symptoms. (kidshealth.org)
- Problems with your thyroid or nutrient deficiencies can cause depression. (familydoctor.org)
- Can giving birth cause depression? (familydoctor.org)
- Trans fats cause depression, memory loss, and shrink your brain. (beliefnet.com)
- Does sugar cause depression? (beliefnet.com)
- But it's plausible to think that sleep apnea could directly cause depression. (cnn.com)
- In addition, evidence is quickly accumulating that regular mindfulness meditation , on its own or combined with cognitive therapy, can stop depression before it starts by effectively disengaging attention from the repetitive negative thoughts that often set in motion the downward spiral of mood. (psychologytoday.com)
- Traumatic events such as the death or loss of a loved one, lack or reduced social support, caregiver burden, financial problems, interpersonal difficulties, and conflicts are examples of stressors that can trigger depression. (nih.gov)
- Although many factors can trigger depression, most often, depression is caused by the suppression of feelings. (selfgrowth.com)
- Cristobal has been downgraded to a tropical depression with sustained winds of 35 mph, and located 40 miles north of Baton Rouge. (msn.com)
- Helene weakened into a tropical depression Saturday after making landfall in Mexico, the National Hurricane Center said. (cnn.com)
- The tropical depression was about 15 miles (25 km) south-southwest of Tampico, Mexico. (cnn.com)
- Because depression can arise both before and after the birth, the term "perinatal depression" is often used. (abc.net.au)