Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Depression, Postpartum: Depression in POSTPARTUM WOMEN, usually within four weeks after giving birth (PARTURITION). The degree of depression ranges from mild transient depression to neurotic or psychotic depressive disorders. (From DSM-IV, p386)Cortical Spreading Depression: The decrease in neuronal activity (related to a decrease in metabolic demand) extending from the site of cortical stimulation. It is believed to be responsible for the decrease in cerebral blood flow that accompanies the aura of MIGRAINE WITH AURA. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)Depressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Antidepressive Agents: Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Long-Term Synaptic Depression: A persistent activity-dependent decrease in synaptic efficacy between NEURONS. It typically occurs following repeated low-frequency afferent stimulation, but it can be induced by other methods. Long-term depression appears to play a role in MEMORY.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Personality Inventory: Check list, usually to be filled out by a person about himself, consisting of many statements about personal characteristics which the subject checks.Psychotherapy: A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation: A structurally and mechanistically diverse group of drugs that are not tricyclics or monoamine oxidase inhibitors. The most clinically important appear to act selectively on serotonergic systems, especially by inhibiting serotonin reuptake.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Cognitive Therapy: A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit the reuptake of serotonin in the brain.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Dysthymic Disorder: Chronically depressed mood that occurs for most of the day more days than not for at least 2 years. The required minimum duration in children to make this diagnosis is 1 year. During periods of depressed mood, at least 2 of the following additional symptoms are present: poor appetite or overeating, insomnia or hypersomnia, low energy or fatigue, low self esteem, poor concentration or difficulty making decisions, and feelings of hopelessness. (DSM-IV)Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Depression, Chemical: The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Citalopram: A furancarbonitrile that is one of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS used as an antidepressant. The drug is also effective in reducing ethanol uptake in alcoholics and is used in depressed patients who also suffer from tardive dyskinesia in preference to tricyclic antidepressants, which aggravate this condition.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Interview, Psychological: A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.Sertraline: A selective serotonin uptake inhibitor that is used in the treatment of depression.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Life Change Events: Those occurrences, including social, psychological, and environmental, which require an adjustment or effect a change in an individual's pattern of living.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Psychological Tests: Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.Suicide: The act of killing oneself.Depressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant: Failure to respond to two or more trials of antidepressant monotherapy or failure to respond to four or more trials of different antidepressant therapies. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 9th ed.)Fluoxetine: The first highly specific serotonin uptake inhibitor. It is used as an antidepressant and often has a more acceptable side-effects profile than traditional antidepressants.Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic: Substances that contain a fused three-ring moiety and are used in the treatment of depression. These drugs block the uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin into axon terminals and may block some subtypes of serotonin, adrenergic, and histamine receptors. However the mechanism of their antidepressant effects is not clear because the therapeutic effects usually take weeks to develop and may reflect compensatory changes in the central nervous system.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Electroconvulsive Therapy: Electrically induced CONVULSIONS primarily used in the treatment of severe AFFECTIVE DISORDERS and SCHIZOPHRENIA.Suicidal Ideation: A risk factor for suicide attempts and completions, it is the most common of all suicidal behavior, but only a minority of ideators engage in overt self-harm.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Mood Disorders: Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic: A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Inbreeding: The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.Child of Impaired Parents: Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.Paroxetine: A serotonin uptake inhibitor that is effective in the treatment of depression.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.United StatesSuicide, Attempted: The unsuccessful attempt to kill oneself.Personality Assessment: The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.Geriatric Assessment: Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Mother-Child Relations: Interaction between a mother and child.Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of serotonergic neurons. They are different than SEROTONIN RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to SEROTONIN. They remove SEROTONIN from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. Regulates signal amplitude and duration at serotonergic synapses and is the site of action of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Somatoform Disorders: Disorders having the presence of physical symptoms that suggest a general medical condition but that are not fully explained by a another medical condition, by the direct effects of a substance, or by another mental disorder. The symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. In contrast to FACTITIOUS DISORDERS and MALINGERING, the physical symptoms are not under voluntary control. (APA, DSM-V)Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Cyclohexanols: Monohydroxy derivatives of cyclohexanes that contain the general formula R-C6H11O. They have a camphorlike odor and are used in making soaps, insecticides, germicides, dry cleaning, and plasticizers.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Mianserin: A tetracyclic compound with antidepressant effects. It may cause drowsiness and hematological problems. Its mechanism of therapeutic action is not well understood, although it apparently blocks alpha-adrenergic, histamine H1, and some types of serotonin receptors.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Adjustment Disorders: Maladaptive reactions to identifiable psychosocial stressors occurring within a short time after onset of the stressor. They are manifested by either impairment in social or occupational functioning or by symptoms (depression, anxiety, etc.) that are in excess of a normal and expected reaction to the stressor.Sleep Disorders: Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Affective Disorders, Psychotic: Disorders in which the essential feature is a severe disturbance in mood (depression, anxiety, elation, and excitement) accompanied by psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, gross impairment in reality testing, etc.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders: Disorders characterized by impairment of the ability to initiate or maintain sleep. This may occur as a primary disorder or in association with another medical or psychiatric condition.Long-Term Potentiation: A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Geriatric Psychiatry: A subspecialty of psychiatry concerned with the mental health of the aged.Nortriptyline: A metabolite of AMITRIPTYLINE that is also used as an antidepressive agent. Nortriptyline is used in major depression, dysthymia, and atypical depressions.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Caregivers: Persons who provide care to those who need supervision or assistance in illness or disability. They may provide the care in the home, in a hospital, or in an institution. Although caregivers include trained medical, nursing, and other health personnel, the concept also refers to parents, spouses, or other family members, friends, members of the clergy, teachers, social workers, fellow patients.Psychotherapy, Brief: Any form of psychotherapy designed to produce therapeutic change within a minimal amount of time, generally not more than 20 sessions.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Psychotherapy, Group: A form of therapy in which two or more patients participate under the guidance of one or more psychotherapists for the purpose of treating emotional disturbances, social maladjustments, and psychotic states.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Seasonal Affective Disorder: A syndrome characterized by depressions that recur annually at the same time each year, usually during the winter months. Other symptoms include anxiety, irritability, decreased energy, increased appetite (carbohydrate cravings), increased duration of sleep, and weight gain. SAD (seasonal affective disorder) can be treated by daily exposure to bright artificial lights (PHOTOTHERAPY), during the season of recurrence.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Neurotic Disorders: Disorders in which the symptoms are distressing to the individual and recognized by him or her as being unacceptable. Social relationships may be greatly affected but usually remain within acceptable limits. The disturbance is relatively enduring or recurrent without treatment.Grief: Normal, appropriate sorrowful response to an immediate cause. It is self-limiting and gradually subsides within a reasonable time.Anhedonia: Inability to experience pleasure due to impairment or dysfunction of normal psychological and neurobiological mechanisms. It is a symptom of many PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS (e.g., DEPRESSIVE DISORDER, MAJOR; and SCHIZOPHRENIA).Imipramine: The prototypical tricyclic antidepressant. It has been used in major depression, dysthymia, bipolar depression, attention-deficit disorders, agoraphobia, and panic disorders. It has less sedative effect than some other members of this therapeutic group.Helplessness, Learned: Learned expectation that one's responses are independent of reward and, hence, do not predict or control the occurrence of rewards. Learned helplessness derives from a history, experimentally induced or naturally occurring, of having received punishment/aversive stimulation regardless of responses made. Such circumstances result in an impaired ability to learn. Used for human or animal populations. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Affective Symptoms: Mood or emotional responses dissonant with or inappropriate to the behavior and/or stimulus.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Outpatients: Persons who receive ambulatory care at an outpatient department or clinic without room and board being provided.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Personality: Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Panic Disorder: A type of anxiety disorder characterized by unexpected panic attacks that last minutes or, rarely, hours. Panic attacks begin with intense apprehension, fear or terror and, often, a feeling of impending doom. Symptoms experienced during a panic attack include dyspnea or sensations of being smothered; dizziness, loss of balance or faintness; choking sensations; palpitations or accelerated heart rate; shakiness; sweating; nausea or other form of abdominal distress; depersonalization or derealization; paresthesias; hot flashes or chills; chest discomfort or pain; fear of dying and fear of not being in control of oneself or going crazy. Agoraphobia may also develop. Similar to other anxiety disorders, it may be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait.Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System: A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Therapy, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems utilized as adjuncts in the treatment of disease.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Problem Solving: A learning situation involving more than one alternative from which a selection is made in order to attain a specific goal.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Self-Assessment: Appraisal of one's own personal qualities or traits.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.Pituitary-Adrenal System: The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Resilience, Psychological: The human ability to adapt in the face of tragedy, trauma, adversity, hardship, and ongoing significant life stressors.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Internal-External Control: Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate: Cell surface proteins that bind glutamate and act through G-proteins to influence second messenger systems. Several types of metabotropic glutamate receptors have been cloned. They differ in pharmacology, distribution, and mechanisms of action.Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.Veterans: Former members of the armed services.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Psychotropic Drugs: A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Apathy: Lack of emotion or emotional expression; a disorder of motivation that persists over time.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Dementia: An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Antimanic Agents: Agents that are used to treat bipolar disorders or mania associated with other affective disorders.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Factor Analysis, Statistical: A set of statistical methods for analyzing the correlations among several variables in order to estimate the number of fundamental dimensions that underlie the observed data and to describe and measure those dimensions. It is used frequently in the development of scoring systems for rating scales and questionnaires.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Social Adjustment: Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)Parenting: Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT1A: A serotonin receptor subtype found distributed through the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM where they are involved in neuroendocrine regulation of ACTH secretion. The fact that this serotonin receptor subtype is particularly sensitive to SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS such as BUSPIRONE suggests its role in the modulation of ANXIETY and DEPRESSION.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Sick Role: Set of expectations that exempt persons from responsibility for their illness and exempt them from usual responsibilities.Child Abuse: Abuse of children in a family, institutional, or other setting. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.WashingtonAging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Temperament: Predisposition to react to one's environment in a certain way; usually refers to mood changes.Mental Status Schedule: Standardized clinical interview used to assess current psychopathology by scaling patient responses to the questions.Receptors, AMPA: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).Social Isolation: The separation of individuals or groups resulting in the lack of or minimizing of social contact and/or communication. This separation may be accomplished by physical separation, by social barriers and by psychological mechanisms. In the latter, there may be interaction but no real communication.Community Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Marital Status: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.Guilt: Subjective feeling of having committed an error, offense or sin; unpleasant feeling of self-criticism. These result from acts, impulses, or thoughts contrary to one's personal conscience.Presynaptic Terminals: The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Religion and Psychology: The interrelationship of psychology and religion.Fibromyalgia: A common nonarticular rheumatic syndrome characterized by myalgia and multiple points of focal muscle tenderness to palpation (trigger points). Muscle pain is typically aggravated by inactivity or exposure to cold. This condition is often associated with general symptoms, such as sleep disturbances, fatigue, stiffness, HEADACHES, and occasionally DEPRESSION. There is significant overlap between fibromyalgia and the chronic fatigue syndrome (FATIGUE SYNDROME, CHRONIC). Fibromyalgia may arise as a primary or secondary disease process. It is most frequent in females aged 20 to 50 years. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1494-95)Homebound Persons: Those unable to leave home without exceptional effort and support; patients (in this condition) who are provided with or are eligible for home health services, including medical treatment and personal care. Persons are considered homebound even if they may be infrequently and briefly absent from home if these absences do not indicate an ability to receive health care in a professional's office or health care facility. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p309)Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Adolescent Psychology: Field of psychology concerned with the normal and abnormal behavior of adolescents. It includes mental processes as well as observable responses.Gyrus Cinguli: One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.Self-Help Groups: Organizations which provide an environment encouraging social interactions through group activities or individual relationships especially for the purpose of rehabilitating or supporting patients, individuals with common health problems, or the elderly. They include therapeutic social clubs.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Phobic Disorders: Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Thinking: Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry): The co-existence of a substance abuse disorder with a psychiatric disorder. The diagnostic principle is based on the fact that it has been found often that chemically dependent patients also have psychiatric problems of various degrees of severity.

Meta-analysis of the reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase type A moclobemide and brofaromine for the treatment of depression. (1/9883)

The reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase type A (RIMAs) are a newer group of antidepressants that have had much less impact on clinical psychopharmacology than another contemporary class of medications, the selective serotonin reuptake-inhibitors (SSRIs). The RIMAs agents are distinguished from the older monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) by their selectivity and reversibility. As a result, dietary restrictions are not required during RIMA therapy, and hypertensive crises are quite rare. In this article, we describe a series of meta-analyses of studies of the two most widely researched RIMAs, moclobemide (MOC; Aurorex) and brofaromine (BRO). Our findings confirm that both BRO and MOC are as effective as the tricyclic antidepressants, and they are better tolerated. However, BRO is not being studied at present for reasons unrelated to efficacy or side effects. MOC, which is available throughout much of the world (but not the United States), is significantly more effective than placebo and, at the least, comparable to the SSRIs in both efficacy and tolerability. For MOC, higher dosages may enhance efficacy for more severe depressions. We also found evidence that supports clinical impressions that MOC is somewhat less effective, albeit better tolerated, than older MAOIs, such as phenelzine or tranylcypromine. Little evidence has yet emerged to suggest that the RIMAs share older MAOIs' utility for treatment of depressions characterized by prominent reverse neurovegetative features. Based on available evidence, the RIMAs appear to have a limited, but useful, role in the differential therapeutics of the depressive disorders.  (+info)

Individual and organizational predictors of depression in general practitioners. (2/9883)

BACKGROUND: High levels of stress and depression are seen in both general practitioners (GPs) and hospital doctors, and this has implications for patient care. It is therefore important to discover the individual and organizational causes of elevated symptoms so they can be tackled. AIM: To discover the relative importance of individual characteristics measured 10 years earlier compared with current organizational stressors in predicting depression in GPs. METHOD: Longitudinal questionnaire study, using data from those of the original cohort of 318 medical students who are now GPs (n = 131), considering perceptions of current stressors and comparing through regression analyses the relative strength of early personality and mood with current organizational factors of sleep, hours worked, and practice size in predicting current depression levels. RESULTS: There were 22 (17%) stressors scoring above threshold for depression. Relationships with senior doctors and patients are the main reported stressors, followed by making mistakes and conflict of career with personal life. The predictors of symptom levels varied for men and women. In men, depression and self-criticism as students, and current sleep levels; and in women, sibling rivalry and current alcohol use, were the main predictors: in men, 27% of the variance was accounted for by early dispositional factors alone compared with 14% in women. A model is suggested linking sleep loss with workplace stressors, self-critical cognitions, and depression. CONCLUSION: Interventions can be made throughout training, targeting self-criticism and recognizing early depression, while later addressing the organizational stressors, particularly work relationships and sleep patterns.  (+info)

Increased serotonin receptor density and platelet GPIIb/IIIa activation among smokers. (3/9883)

This study sought to determine whether depressive symptoms and/or platelet serotonin receptor (5HT2A) density are associated with increased platelet activation (PA) found among smokers. Flow cytometric detection of PA was used to study 36 smokers and 16 nonsmokers, aged 18 to 48 years. Subjects were tested at baseline and after either smoking 2 cigarettes (smokers) or a similar resting interval (nonsmokers). Assessment of PA included both platelet secretion and fibrinogen receptor (GPIIb/IIIa) binding. Platelet 5HT2A receptor binding and saturation were tested using [3H]LSD, and depressive symptoms were measured using the Beck Depression Inventory. Platelet 5HT2A receptor density was increased among smokers versus nonsmokers (82.7+/-67.7 versus 40.0+/-20.2 fmol/mg protein; P<0.005), and there was a dose-dependent relationship between receptor density and packs/d among smokers. Baseline wound-induced GPIIb/IIIa binding at 1 minute and GPIIb/IIIa binding in response to collagen stimulation in vitro was increased among smokers (P<0.05); there were no changes in PA among smokers after smoking, and platelet secretion was not elevated among smokers. Depressive symptoms were associated with 5HT2A receptor density among nonsmokers (P<0.005), but no such relationship was evident among smokers; PA was unrelated to 5HT2A receptor density in either group. The findings indicate that smoking is associated with increased platelet serotonin receptor density and with increased GPIIb/IIIa receptor binding, although these 2 factors are not related to each other or to depressive symptoms among smokers. Serotonergic dysfunction may be an important factor in the development of cardiovascular disease among smokers.  (+info)

The Montefiore community children's project: a controlled study of cognitive and emotional problems of homeless mothers and children. (4/9883)

OBJECTIVES: This study compares the prevalence of emotional, academic, and cognitive impairment in children and mothers living in the community with those living in shelters for the homeless. METHOD: In New York City, 82 homeless mothers and their 102 children, aged 6 to 11, recruited from family shelters were compared to 115 nonhomeless mothers with 176 children recruited from classmates of the homeless children. Assessments included standardized tests and interviews. RESULTS: Mothers in shelters for the homeless showed higher rates of depression and anxiety than did nonhomeless mothers. Boys in homeless shelters showed higher rates of serious emotional and behavioral problems. Both boys and girls in homeless shelters showed more academic problems than did nonhomeless children. CONCLUSION: Study findings suggest a need among homeless children for special attention to academic problems that are not attributable to intellectual deficits in either children or their mothers. Although high rates of emotional and behavioral problems characterized poor children living in both settings, boys in shelters for the homeless may be particularly in need of professional attention.  (+info)

Persistence of depressive symptoms in diabetic adults. (5/9883)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the level and pattern of persistent depressive symptoms among adults with diabetes and identify factors associated with increased risk of being persistently depressed. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A self-report depression symptom inventory was administered to 245 patients at two initial time points--the beginning and end of a comprehensive outpatient diabetes education program--and at 6-month follow-up. RESULTS: Only 13% of subjects were persistently depressed (i.e., exceeded the criterion for depression symptoms at all three time points). The rate of being depressed at follow-up was 10% for those negative for depression symptoms at either of the initial time points, 36% for those positive at one initial time point, and 73% for those positive at both initial time points (P < 0.0001). Those at increased risk for being persistently depressed were those who did not graduate from high school, had more than two complications of diabetes, and were not treated with insulin. CONCLUSIONS: Persistent depressive symptomatology is present in a substantial number of diabetic adults and can be effectively predicted using simple screening instruments during initial contacts. Risk factors for being persistently depressed only partly overlap those for transient depressive symptoms and represent a possible biological dimension.  (+info)

A cost-effective approach to the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in a Veterans Affairs Medical Center. (6/9883)

In light of the tremendous expansion in the number of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors available to the clinician, the Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee of the Denver Veterans Affairs Medical Center considered the advantages and disadvantages of fluoxethine, paroxetine, and sertraline, to determine which agent or agents would be carried on the formulary. The committed recommended sertraline as the preferred agent for the treatment of depression, panic disorders, and obsessive-compulsive disorders. The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess the economic outcome of that decision. The study population consisted of patients at the medical center who were receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors during January through March of 1994 and those were receiving these agents between September 1995 and January 1996. The expanded collection period in 1995-96 was due to a relatively new medical center policy to offer 90-day fills on medication to reduce costs. The extended collection period assured a 100% sample of patients receiving these agents. The 1994 fluoxetine to sertraline dosage equivalency ratio was 20 mg:55.6 mg, based on average daily doses of fluoxetine and sertraline of 32.7 and 90.9 mg, respectively. The cost to the medical center for an average daily dose of fluoxetine was $1.86; sertraline cost $1.22 per day. The 1996 fluoxetine to sertraline dosage equivalency ratio (20 mg:51.3 mg) had not changed significantly since 1994, indicating that the dose of 20 mg of fluoxetine remained very close to a 50-mg dose of sertraline. The average daily doses of fluoxetine and sertraline (34.9 mg and 89.7 mg, respectively) were not significantly different than the 1994 doses. Only 33 patients had been prescribed paroxetine (average daily dose, 32.4 mg). On the basis of these values, the average daily cost of fluoxetine to the medical center was $2.01, compared with $1.18 for sertraline and $1.24 for paroxetine. This $0.83 per patient per day drug acquisition cost difference between fluoxetine and sertraline results in a drug cost reduction of $302,674 per year.  (+info)

Alternative insurance arrangements and the treatment of depression: what are the facts? (7/9883)

Using insurance claims data from nine large self-insured employers offering 26 alternative health benefit plans, we examine empirically how the composition and utilization for the treatment of depression vary under alternative organizational forms of insurance (indemnity, preferred provider organization networks, and mental health carve-outs), and variations in patient cost-sharing (copayments for psychotherapy and for prescription drugs). Although total outpatient mental health and substance abuse expenditures per treated individual do not vary significantly across insurance forms, the depressed outpatient is more likely to receive anti-depressant drug medications is preferred provider organizations and carve-outs than when covered by indemnity insurance. Those individuals facing higher copayments for psychotherapy are more likely to receive anti-depressant drug medications. For those receiving treatment, increases in prescription drug copayments tend to increase the share of anti-depressant drug medication costs accounted for by the newest (and more costly) generation of drugs, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.  (+info)

Effectiveness and economic impact of antidepressant medications: a review. (8/9883)

This article reviews the existing literature on the pharmacoeconomics and effectiveness of antidepressant medications. Although selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have not proved to be more efficacious than the older tricyclics, and their prescription costs are significantly higher, they provide superior effectiveness; ie, patients are less likely to discontinue taking them or switch antidepressants. Pharmacoeconomic studies consistently demonstrate a relationship between this superior effectiveness and reductions in overall treatment costs, often through decreased utilization of medical and hospital services. The most conservative study found a cost offset that more than negated the extra cost of drugs, although the cost savings were not statistically significant. Other studies found statistically significant lowering of utilization costs by using SSRIs rather than tricyclics. Studies comparing SSRIs with each other present conflicting findings, although fluoxetine appears to have an edge over sertraline and paroxetine with regards to effectiveness and pharmacoeconomics. More studies employing a prospective outcome design and naturalistic study setting need to be conducted with SSRIs and other new antidepressants.  (+info)

  • CONCLUSIONS -These findings challenge the conceptualization of depression as a categorical risk factor for nonadherence and suggest that even low levels of depressive symptomatology are associated with nonadherence to important aspects of diabetes self-care. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Conclusions: Findings contribute to our understanding of how depression manifests globally and demonstrates initial evidence to support the usefulness of a measurement instrument created to reflect the global presentation of depression. (jhu.edu)
  • After 8.5 years, 1,550 people in the study reported being diagnosed with depression or using antidepressant drugs. (yahoo.com)
  • Pilot Study 2 is designed to complement Study 1 in providing additional support for the hypothesis that burst suppression is an important mechanism for antidepressant treatment effects of anesthesia in moderate to severe depression. (utah.edu)
  • Methods: The Chicago Multiscale Depression Inventory was employed to measure mood, negative evaluative, and neurovegetative symptom clusters in 53 MS patients who were also administered a battery of neuropsychological tests. (elsevier.com)
  • Results: At time point 1, Mood and Evaluative Chicago Multiscale Depression inventory scales were, significantly associated with tasks of complex speeded attention, planning, and working memory. (elsevier.com)
  • and 2) a quantitative analysis of existing datasets using item response theory (IRT) to identify how different symptom questions related to depression perform across settings. (jhu.edu)
  • Results from these investigations were used to inform the development of the International Depression Symptom Scale (IDSS), an instrument designed to reflect global presentations of depression. (jhu.edu)
  • Because neurovegetative depression symptoms overlap with MS symptoms, it may be that literature inconsistencies can partly be explained by the fact that only those depression symptom clusters unambiguously reflective of depression are associated with cognitive dysfunction. (elsevier.com)
  • Objective: To explore the relationship between different depression symptom clusters and a battery of tests measuring cognitive domains commonly impaired in MS and was examined at two time points 3 years apart. (elsevier.com)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS -We surveyed 879 type 2 diabetic patients from two primary care clinics using the Harvard Department of Psychiatry/National Depression Screening Day Scale (HANDS), the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities, and self-reported medication adherence. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Based on the STAR*D Trial 39 , a responder is a patient showing 50% reduction in depression score and full remission is defined as a score of 0-10 on the HRSD-24 scale and score of 0-5 on the QIDS-SR 16 . (utah.edu)
  • DESIGN: Prospective study of depressive symptoms as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale and identification of patients' outpatient health services use through an electronic medical record system. (ahrq.gov)
  • The Faces of Depression in Literature brings together some of the best-known specialists and scholars on the topic of depression in literature worldwide to offer a multidisciplinary approach concerning the philosophical, theological, and literary narratives of depression over time and their approximations to the current, clinical understanding of Major Depressive Disorder. (peterlang.com)
  • Although research has consistently established that depression and elevated depressive symptoms are associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) recurrence and mortality, clinical trials have failed to show that conventional depression interventions offset this risk. (columbia.edu)
  • Background: Existing measurement instruments for depression are most often based on symptoms observed in western clinical populations. (jhu.edu)
  • Methods: Following a cross-sectional study, 50 parents of children with chronic disease as target group & 50 parents of children with an acute disease as control group were selected randomly, they were asked to take part in a structured interview & their depression's score was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). (ac.ir)
  • To lower the risk of depression, "People can eat everything, but everything in moderation," as long as they try to eat lots of vegetables , fruits, nuts and fish, and avoid fast food and processed meats, said study author Almudena Sanchez-Villegas of the University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. (yahoo.com)
  • The researchers found that the people in the study who stuck to the healthy patterns to a moderate or a high extent had a lower risk of depression than those who did not follow these diets at all, or who adhered to them to a low degree. (yahoo.com)
  • For example, the risk of depression over the study period for the people who moderately adhered to the Mediterranean diet was about 25 to 30 percent lower than for those who did not adhere to the diet at all, or who adhered to it only to a very small extent, the researchers found. (yahoo.com)
  • Even a moderate adherence to these healthy dietary patterns … was associated with an important reduction in the risk of developing depression," Sanchez-Villegas told Live Science. (yahoo.com)
  • Moreover, the researchers saw no extra benefit for depression risk when participants followed the diets very closely, compared with moderate adherence, she said. (yahoo.com)
  • The researchers don't know for sure what may explain the link between these dietary patterns and people's risk of depression. (yahoo.com)
  • However, one potential mechanism is that people who follow these patterns may have a lower risk of depression because they get adequate levels of some micronutrients, such as B vitamins, folate or zinc - all of which are essential to brain health , Sanchez-Villegas said. (yahoo.com)
  • Conversely, the people who don't follow these patterns may have a higher risk of depression because of their nutrient deficits, she said. (yahoo.com)
  • Sanchez-Villegas' previous research, published in 2006 and 2009 , also showed a link between following a Mediterranean diet and a lower risk of depression. (yahoo.com)
  • Depression also increases the risk of poorer diabetes-specific outcomes such as hyperglycemia ( 3 ) and an increase in diabetes complications ( 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • According to a new study, early puberty in girls can increase the risk of depression in adulthood. (universaldrugstore.com)
  • As depression is a complex and heterogeneous syndrome, we believe that examining simpler, or intermediary, phenotypes rather than one complex phenotype may allow better identification of those at particular risk of CHD recurrence and mortality. (columbia.edu)
  • Although there are many possible intermediary phenotypes (IPs), specifiers and dimensions of depression, we will focus on only two when considering the relation between depression and risk of CHD recurrence and mortality: Incident Depression and Anhedonic Depression. (columbia.edu)
  • Future research on IPs of depression is needed to clarify which are associated with the greatest risk for CHD recurrence and mortality and which, if any, are benign. (columbia.edu)
  • Theoretical advances in depression phenotyping may also help elucidate the behavioural and biological mechanisms underlying the increased risk of CHD among patients with specific depression phenotypes. (columbia.edu)
  • This approach may further contribute to the development of specific depression treatments that would improve medical outcomes. (columbia.edu)
  • Do different depression phenotypes have different risks for recurrent coronary heart disease? (columbia.edu)
  • The Faces of Depression in Literature is for graduates and researchers on depression from a cultural and social point of view, including philosophers, historians, cultural theorists, literature and art experts and enthusiasts, as well as artists and writers themselves, specialists in mental health and cognitive psychology, and anyone interested in a better understanding of the human condition. (peterlang.com)
  • Conclusion: These results show that negative evaluative depression symptoms are most consistently predictive of cognitive dysfunction in MS. It may be that negative evaluative depression symptoms use up available cognitive capacity, thus compromising performance on cognitive capacity demanding tasks in MS patients. (elsevier.com)
  • Following a diet rich in produce and low in processed meats - even if you don't do it perfectly - may be helpful in preventing depression, according to a large new study. (yahoo.com)
  • At the start of the study, researchers asked 15,000 Spanish university graduates who had never had depression what they normally ate. (yahoo.com)
  • Therefore, Study 2 will be an open-label trial to provide preliminary data that propofol, an intravenous anesthetic with a favorable safety profile, administered for 10 treatment sessions at levels to induce 80% burst suppression, also is effective in producing depression remission in 50% or more of the pilot sample of 10 depressed patients. (utah.edu)
  • In this study, the researchers checked the data of about 8,000 women and focused on depression as well as antisocial behavior, like stealing and drug abuse. (universaldrugstore.com)
  • The overall goal of this study was to determine if there is a need for new instruments with global applicability to measure depression, and if so, to develop and test this new instrument. (jhu.edu)
  • Conclusion: When comparing psychopathology in parents of children with chronic disease with that of children with an acute disease, significant differences were observed in depression level. (ac.ir)
  • Depression among Parents of Children with Chronic and Disabling Disease', Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences , 29(2), pp. 90-93. (ac.ir)
  • People with depression also experience anxiety and feelings of isolation. (alzheimer.ca)
  • The number of people with depression rises over the age of 65. (alzheimer.ca)
  • Depression in Older Adults: a guide for seniors and their families by the Canadian Coalition for Seniors' Mental Health includes resources on depression and prevention of suicide in older adults. (alzheimer.ca)
  • Search our directory of ADAA mental health professional members who specialize in anxiety, depression and co-occurring disorders. (adaa.org)
  • Military members who visited a primary care clinic while suffering from PTSD and depression reported fewer symptoms and better mental health functioning a year after enrolling in a treatment program that included specially trained care managers and telephone therapy options. (rand.org)
  • Although depression is considered primarily a mental health disorder, it can also have physical features including headaches, other unexplained aches and pains, unusually slow or fast movements, and digestive problems. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Better insurance coverage of mental health services and the explosion of new medications for depression since the introduction of Prozac in 1987 have helped fuel the rise in treatment rates. (latimes.com)
  • In a 2005 study published in the New England Journal of Medicine, researchers assessed trends in prevalence and treatment of mental health (not just depression) from two large, national surveys -- 5,388 adult participants in 1990-92 and 4,319 in 2001-03. (latimes.com)
  • One 2005 study in the Journal of Health and Social Behavior found that volunteering had a beneficial effect on depression among older adults, and preliminary findings conducted at the Institute of Psychiatry at King's College, London, suggest a "strong link" between volunteering and recovery from mental health problems, with about 85% of participants reporting positive outcomes after volunteering. (amazonaws.com)
  • In this 4-part series, health expert Gary Null, Ph.D., examines the truths and misconceptions about mental health in America, and natural and healthy alternatives for overcoming depression and anxiety. (selfgrowth.com)
  • It also includes questionnaires that mental health professionals can use to help diagnose and treat potential patients with depression. (apple.com)
  • Medications for the treatment of symptoms of depression are listed, as well as correct dosages are listed to help aid the mental health professional. (apple.com)
  • An estimated 21 million adults and children in the United States experience depression each year, according to Mental Health America, a patient advocacy group. (newsday.com)
  • South Oaks and its partners, Eastern Long Island Hospital in Greenport, the town of Southold and the Mental Health Association in Suffolk County, are working with primary care physicians on the North Fork to improve efforts to identify older adults with depression. (newsday.com)
  • By integrating depression screening into doctor visits, the collaborators hope to catch more people who could benefit from a referral to a mental health practitioner, explained Kristie Golden, vice president of ambulatory and community services at South Oaks. (newsday.com)
  • Sign up for ADAA's Monthly Free e-Newsletter featuring helpful resources about anxiety, depression and co-occurring disorders. (adaa.org)
  • RAND research seeks to optimize the use of effective treatments for depression whether in a primary care setting or by psychiatric professionals, and to understand the impact of depressive disorders on various populations, including new mothers, teens, substance abusers, and those with other illnesses such as HIV/AIDS or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). (rand.org)
  • Major depression is one of the most common mental disorders in the United States. (slideshare.net)
  • Stressful life experiences, such as abuse or being bullied or an injury can be factors that lead to depression, and additionally medical or psychological factors--endocrine disorders, substance abuse, underlying anxiety or learning issues can all lead to major depression. (nih.gov)
  • Other illnesses-Some disorders can lead to or occur with depression. (acog.org)
  • Anxiety disorders often occur with depression. (acog.org)
  • But depression can also be precipitated by viral or bacterial infection, organic disease, or hormonal disorders. (healthy.net)
  • A complicating factor is that the effects of depression and sleep apnea can be difficult to distinguish, says psychiatrist Michael Weissberg, M.D., co-director of the insomnia and sleep disorders clinic at the University of Colorado School of Medicine, in Denver. (cnn.com)
  • Depression and anxiety disorders are the same. (medicinenet.com)
  • These compounds could be cross-referenced as molecules or compounds that are potentially implicated in psychiatric disorders like depression and could then become targets for treatment interventions in the future, whether it be from medications that are developed or from a dietary or nutritional point of view. (medscape.com)
  • The Great Depression began shortly after the Oct. 24, 1929, U.S. stock market crash known as Black Thursday. (investopedia.com)
  • The United States was already in a recession, and the following Tuesday, on Oct. 29, 1929, the Dow Jones Industrial Average fell 12% in another mass sell-off, triggering the start of the Great Depression. (investopedia.com)
  • Although the Great Depression began in the United States, the economic impact was felt worldwide for more than a decade. (investopedia.com)
  • The Great Depression was characterized by a drop in consumer spending and investment, and by catastrophic unemployment, poverty, hunger, and political unrest. (investopedia.com)
  • With the Great Depression that struck the U.S., some of the contributing issues included policies that, after the stock market crash, led to deflation that kept the dollar down and made some consumers refrain from spending because they believed even lower prices would be coming. (investopedia.com)
  • What Was the Great Depression? (investopedia.com)
  • The Great Depression was a devastating and prolonged economic recession that had several contributing factors. (investopedia.com)
  • The Emergency Banking Act 0f 1933 was a bill passed to restore investor confidence and stabilize banks in the wake of the Great Depression. (investopedia.com)
  • The New Deal was a series of domestic programs designed to help the United States economy emerge from the Great Depression. (investopedia.com)
  • The Great Depression was the worst financial event in US history. (wiktionary.org)
  • The Great Depression that began in 1929, for example, was the most widespread depression in the 20th century. (britannica.com)
  • For Mildred, a professional woman around sixty years of age, Great Depression II has started. (thenation.com)
  • The major effect of the Great Depression and the New Deal on America was expanded government intervention into new areas of social and economic affairs and the creation of more social assistance agencies at the national level. (answers.com)
  • The Great Depression and the New Deal measure led to the domestic programs of JFK's New Frontier, and LBJ's Great Society and War on Poverty. (answers.com)
  • Sweden having recovered in 1934 was however the first nation to fully recover from the Great Depression. (answers.com)
  • The great depression in the 1920's about the Utah farms being unable to pay the borrowed money from the bank therefore leading to many farms being morgaged. (answers.com)
  • Too help stop the bank failures in the US during the start of the Great Depression, Hoover's Secretary of the Treasury, Andrew Mellon, proposed that the major banks and financiers pool their private funds into a National Credit Corporation. (answers.com)
  • With the above said, there were several reasons that baseball was important to the economy of the United States during the Great Depression. (answers.com)
  • Cite this: Gut Bacteria Tied to Depression - Medscape - Feb 11, 2019. (medscape.com)
  • Depression can also occur among women with a healthy pregnancy and birth. (cdc.gov)
  • Dust storms from the Bodélé Depression occur on average about 100 days per year, one typical example being the massive dust storms that swept over West Africa and the Cape Verde Islands in February 2004. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike minor business contractions that may occur in one country independently of business cycles in other countries, severe depressions have usually been nearly worldwide in scope. (britannica.com)
  • This is known as antenatal depression and is less well-known than postnatal depression - the depression that can occur after baby has been born - because it is hard to identify and less well understood. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • To diagnose your depression, your health care professional will discuss your symptoms, how often they occur, and how severe they are. (acog.org)
  • Sometimes depression can start in the months leading up to the birth, in which case it is known as antenatal depression. (abc.net.au)
  • Psychotherapy of depression]. (nih.gov)
  • Specific psychotherapies for depression are in particular cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), to a less extent short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (STPP) and client centred psychotherapy (CCPT). (nih.gov)
  • The researchers analyzed data from the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2) between March 2014 and October 2017 to screen inpatients with HF with reduced ejection fraction - 45% or lower - and NYHA class II to IV symptoms of depression in eight Pittsburgh hospitals. (healio.com)
  • But Greece did emerge from its long-running depression in 2017, and indications so far are that growth will be maintained this year. (forbes.com)
  • Learn more: What are the different types of depression ? (psychcentral.com)
  • Some types of depression tend to run in families, suggesting there may be some genetic vulnerability to the disorder. (psychologytoday.com)
  • The findings help explain why some types of depression do not respond well to medication. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • New research may help explain why SSRIs are unable to fully tackle some types of depression. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Prof. Doya explains the motivation for the recent study, saying, 'It has always been speculated that different types of depression exist, and they influence the effectiveness of the drug. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Some types of depression tend to run in families. (csbsju.edu)
  • And while they're likely more effective for mild to moderate depression, I think it's fair to say that no one should write off the therapeutic benefits of healthy lifestyle measures for their overall treatment program. (marksdailyapple.com)
  • The symptoms of depression range from mild to severe. (www.nhs.uk)
  • If you have mild depression, your doctor may suggest waiting to see whether it improves on its own, while monitoring your progress. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Talking therapies, such as cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) , are often used for mild depression that is not improving, or moderate depression. (www.nhs.uk)
  • If you have experienced a mild, moderate, or severe injury to your brain due to a sudden trauma, this research-based guide that will help you understand your condition, risk of depression, and treatment choices. (healthfinder.gov)
  • books.google.com - The term 'depression' covers a wide spectrum of conditions ranging from mild despondency to melancholia, the very deepest form of depression. (google.com)
  • 10 on the measure, signifying mild to moderate depression. (medscape.com)
  • 10 indicated a high probability of mild to moderate depression. (medscape.com)
  • Depression can be mild, moderate, or severe. (acog.org)
  • If you have mild depression, it may take extra effort to do what you have to do, but often you can still do those things. (acog.org)
  • Some may have mild depression, while others might experience it more strongly. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Family history of depression. (cdc.gov)
  • After fully adjusting for a variety of confounders, including age, family history of depression, and religion, the OR was still 1.67 (95% CI, 1.14 - 2.44). (medscape.com)
  • Psychotic depression arises against a background of psychosis , which may involve symptoms of delusions , hallucinations, or paranoia . (britannica.com)
  • How Many Women Experience Depression? (cdc.gov)
  • According to a 2010 study external icon using data from 1993 to 2007, approximately 4% of fathers experience depression in the first year after their child's birth. (cdc.gov)
  • Younger fathers, those with a history of depression, and those experiencing difficulties affording items such as a home or car were most likely to experience depression. (cdc.gov)
  • In the United States, 36.1 percent of girls experience depression by age 17, compared with 13.6 percent of boys. (rand.org)
  • Women are twice as likely as men to experience depression. (familydoctor.org)
  • 6. "Referral rates for psychiatric help in young persons with depression seem to be increasing over the years," Associate Professor Leslie Lim Senior Consultant, Department Of Psychiatry, Singapore General Hospital(SGH) & A Member Of The Singhealth Group. (slideshare.net)
  • Depression is probably the most common psychiatric complaint and has been described by physicians since before the time of ancient Greek physician Hippocrates , who called it melancholia . (britannica.com)
  • The same researchers who in 2004 more accurately determined the speed of wind through the depression also published in 2006 work showing that more than half of the dust needed for fertilizing the Amazon Rainforest is provided by the Bodélé depression, depositing up to 50 million tonnes in South America per year. (wikipedia.org)
  • A new test for depression has been uncovered by researchers, who think it's possible to find physical traces of the signs of mental ill health in the blood. (amazonaws.com)
  • Previous research has shown that low levels of vitamin B12 and folate are associated with an increased risk for depression, and "one meta-analysis suggests that vitamin B12 intervention may prevent depressive symptoms in specialized populations," report the researchers. (medscape.com)
  • Researchers know that if depression runs in your family, you have a higher chance of becoming depressed. (webmd.com)
  • In fact, a number of studies have led researchers to suspect that stress produces changes in the brain similar to those caused by depression. (amazonaws.com)
  • Five percent of men and 8% of women had scores indicating "probable" depression, according to the researchers. (cnn.com)
  • The study shows only an association, not cause and effect, and the researchers can't rule out the possibility that an unidentified factor could contribute to both sleep apnea and depression. (cnn.com)
  • Researchers suspect that depression results from a combination of genetic, biochemical, environmental and psychological factors. (newsday.com)
  • Research published in the 25 March 2004 edition of Geophysical Research Letters , which used images taken by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), aboard NASA 's Terra and Aqua satellites, indicated that storms move across the Bodélé Depression at about 47 km/h (29 mi/h)-two times faster than previously believed. (wikipedia.org)
  • With moderate depression, you may not be able to do some of the things you need to do. (acog.org)
  • Depression can be triggered by stressful events in your life. (familydoctor.org)
  • Stress-Stressful circumstances such as trauma, loss of a loved one, a difficult relationship, unemployment, or abuse may trigger the onset of depression. (acog.org)
  • Nearly everyone experiences stressful situations that dredge up symptoms of depression, but those feelings often resolve on their own. (newsday.com)
  • Depression is also more likely if you are female, are under stress or experience a stressful life event such as the death of a loved one, a relationship ending or losing a job. (abc.net.au)
  • Seasonal affective disorder is a kind of depression that is related to light exposure. (kidshealth.org)
  • With this kind of depression, you may feel sad, hopeless, anxious, and/or disconnected from your baby for weeks or months. (plannedparenthood.org)
  • Fortunately, there is now a kind of depression therapy that will most likely help them get back their normal lives. (amazonaws.com)
  • Yeah well I had some kind of depression 2 years ago, I had the feeling that I was always doing everything wrong and I was always saying stupid things and stuff like that. (newgrounds.com)
  • If there was] certainty that an acute episode [of depression] will last only a week, a month, even a year, it would change everything. (psychcentral.com)
  • Vascular lesions may contribute to depression by disrupting the neural networks involved in emotion regulation-in particular, frontostriatal pathways that link the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, and dorsal cingulate. (nih.gov)
  • Feeling unsupported when facing the changes that parenthood will bring, coupled with social isolation can contribute to depression. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • However, research into the genetics of depression is in its early stages, and very little is known for certain about the genetic basis of the disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some evidence suggests that genetic factors play a lesser role in late-onset depression than in early-onset depression. (nih.gov)
  • Depression is thought to be caused by a complex combination of genetic, biological, psychological, and environmental factors. (medicinenet.com)
  • Family and twin studies have shown that some depressions can have a genetic component. (abc.net.au)
  • A full exam lets the doctor check your child for other health conditions that could cause depression-like symptoms. (kidshealth.org)
  • Problems with your thyroid or nutrient deficiencies can cause depression. (familydoctor.org)
  • Can giving birth cause depression? (familydoctor.org)
  • Trans fats cause depression, memory loss, and shrink your brain. (beliefnet.com)
  • Does sugar cause depression? (beliefnet.com)
  • But it's plausible to think that sleep apnea could directly cause depression. (cnn.com)
  • In addition, evidence is quickly accumulating that regular mindfulness meditation , on its own or combined with cognitive therapy, can stop depression before it starts by effectively disengaging attention from the repetitive negative thoughts that often set in motion the downward spiral of mood. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Traumatic events such as the death or loss of a loved one, lack or reduced social support, caregiver burden, financial problems, interpersonal difficulties, and conflicts are examples of stressors that can trigger depression. (nih.gov)
  • Although many factors can trigger depression, most often, depression is caused by the suppression of feelings. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Cristobal has been downgraded to a tropical depression with sustained winds of 35 mph, and located 40 miles north of Baton Rouge. (msn.com)
  • Helene weakened into a tropical depression Saturday after making landfall in Mexico, the National Hurricane Center said. (cnn.com)
  • The tropical depression was about 15 miles (25 km) south-southwest of Tampico, Mexico. (cnn.com)
  • Because depression can arise both before and after the birth, the term "perinatal depression" is often used. (abc.net.au)