X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Y Chromosome: The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)TritiumChromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Genetics, Microbial: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.ThymineThymidineSulfenic Acids: Oxy acids of sulfur with the general formula RSOH, where R is an alkyl or aryl group such as CH3. They are often encountered as esters and halides. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nucleic Acid Denaturation: Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.Radiation Effects: The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Extrachromosomal Inheritance: Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.Phosphorus Isotopes: Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Coliphages: Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Deoxyribonucleases: Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.Cesium: A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Chromosome Banding: Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.DNA, Circular: Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)DNA Nucleotidyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides into a chain of DNA. EC 2.7.7.-.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cytosine: A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.UracilBacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Lysogeny: The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Sex Chromosomes: The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Mitomycins: A group of methylazirinopyrroloindolediones obtained from certain Streptomyces strains. They are very toxic antibiotics used as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS in some solid tumors. PORFIROMYCIN and MITOMYCIN are the most useful members of the group.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Chromosomes, Human: Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Chromosome Segregation: The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.UridineGenes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Nalidixic Acid: A synthetic 1,8-naphthyridine antimicrobial agent with a limited bacteriocidal spectrum. It is an inhibitor of the A subunit of bacterial DNA GYRASE.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Geminiviridae: A family of plant viruses where the VIRION possesses an unusual morphology consisting of a pair of isometric particles. Transmission occurs via leafhoppers or whitefly. Some viruses cause economically important diseases in cultivated plants. There are four genera: Mastrevirus, Curtovirus, Topocuvirus, and BEGOMOVIRUS.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.GuanineChromosomes, Human, Pair 6: A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Clorgyline: An antidepressive agent and monoamine oxidase inhibitor related to PARGYLINE.Manihot: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE that is perennial with conspicuous, almost palmate leaves like those of RICINUS but more deeply parted into five to nine lobes. It is a source of a starch after removal of the cyanogenic glucosides. The common name of Arrowroot is also used with Maranta (MARANTACEAE). The common name of yuca is also used for YUCCA.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Chromosomes, Fungal: Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.NitrosoguanidinesCentrifugation, Zonal: Centrifugation using a rotating chamber of large capacity in which to separate cell organelles by density-gradient centrifugation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Micrococcus: A genus of gram-positive, spherical bacteria found in soils and fresh water, and frequently on the skin of man and other animals.Chromosomes, Human, 6-12 and X: The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.Nucleic Acid Renaturation: The reformation of all, or part of, the native conformation of a nucleic acid molecule after the molecule has undergone denaturation.AcridinesRadiation Genetics: A subdiscipline of genetics that studies RADIATION EFFECTS on the components and processes of biological inheritance.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Pairing: The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Chromosomes, Mammalian: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 13: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Ethidium: A trypanocidal agent and possible antiviral agent that is widely used in experimental cell biology and biochemistry. Ethidium has several experimentally useful properties including binding to nucleic acids, noncompetitive inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and fluorescence among others. It is most commonly used as the bromide.Streptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4: A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Genetics: The branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biological inheritance. (Stedman, 26th ed)R Factors: A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.Chromosomes, Human, Y: The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Transformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Culture Techniques: Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Begomovirus: A genus of plant viruses in the family GEMINIVIRIDAE that are transmitted in nature by whitefly Bemisia tabaci.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.Chromosomes, Human, X: The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.Chromosomes, Human, 1-3: The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Painting: A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 5: One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).Densitometry: The measurement of the density of a material by measuring the amount of light or radiation passing through (or absorbed by) the material.DNA, Single-Stranded: A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Phosphorylase b: The inactive form of GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE that is converted to the active form PHOSPHORYLASE A via phosphorylation by PHOSPHORYLASE KINASE and ATP.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Cucumis melo: A plant species of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae known for the melon fruits with reticulated (net) surface including cantaloupes, honeydew, casaba, and Persian melons.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Chromosomes, Human, 16-18: The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.Haplorhini: A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).Micropore Filters: A membrane or barrier with micrometer sized pores used for separation purification processes.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.DNA, Satellite: Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 20: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Cytosine NucleotidesChromosomes, Artificial, Yeast: Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Rifampin: A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)Bacteriolysis: Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.Phosphorylases: A class of glucosyltransferases that catalyzes the degradation of storage polysaccharides, such as glucose polymers, by phosphorolysis in animals (GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE) and in plants (STARCH PHOSPHORYLASE).Chromosomes, Human, 13-15: The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Hydroxyapatites: A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Formamides: A group of amides with the general formula of R-CONH2.Genetic Code: The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).Chromosome Breakage: A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.Chromosomes, Human, 21-22 and Y: The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.Bromouracil: 5-Bromo-2,4(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione. Brominated derivative of uracil that acts as an antimetabolite, substituting for thymine in DNA. It is used mainly as an experimental mutagen, but its deoxyriboside (BROMODEOXYURIDINE) is used to treat neoplasms.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Exonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the release of mononucleotides by the hydrolysis of the terminal bond of deoxyribonucleotide or ribonucleotide chains.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Spores: The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.Ring Chromosomes: Aberrant chromosomes with no ends, i.e., circular.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Proteus: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.Thymine Nucleotides: Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)Colicins: Bacteriocins elaborated by strains of Escherichia coli and related species. They are proteins or protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes lethal to other strains of the same species.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Chromosome Inversion: An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.Deoxyribonucleotides: A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.Diatrizoate: A commonly used x-ray contrast medium. As DIATRIZOATE MEGLUMINE and as Diatrizoate sodium, it is used for gastrointestinal studies, angiography, and urography.PolynucleotidesCell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Monoamine Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. It is a flavin-containing enzyme that is localized in mitochondrial membranes, whether in nerve terminals, the liver, or other organs. Monoamine oxidase is important in regulating the metabolic degradation of catecholamines and serotonin in neural or target tissues. Hepatic monoamine oxidase has a crucial defensive role in inactivating circulating monoamines or those, such as tyramine, that originate in the gut and are absorbed into the portal circulation. (From Goodman and Gilman's, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p415) EC 126.96.36.199.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Alkanesulfonates: Organic esters or salts of sulfonic acid derivatives containing an aliphatic hydrocarbon radical.Molecular Biology: A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.Endonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the internal bonds and thereby the formation of polynucleotides or oligonucleotides from ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide chains. EC 3.1.-.Chromosome Positioning: The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.Nucleosides: Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Chromosomes, Human, 4-5: The large, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group B in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 4 and 5.Chromatography, Paper: An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Phosphotungstic Acid: Tungsten hydroxide oxide phosphate. A white or slightly yellowish-green, slightly efflorescent crystal or crystalline powder. It is used as a reagent for alkaloids and many other nitrogen bases, for phenols, albumin, peptone, amino acids, uric acid, urea, blood, and carbohydrates. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Floxuridine: An antineoplastic antimetabolite that is metabolized to fluorouracil when administered by rapid injection; when administered by slow, continuous, intra-arterial infusion, it is converted to floxuridine monophosphate. It has been used to treat hepatic metastases of gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas and for palliation in malignant neoplasms of the liver and gastrointestinal tract.Cesium Isotopes: Stable cesium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cesium, but differ in atomic weight. Cs-133 is a naturally occurring isotope.Templates, Genetic: Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Haemophilus influenzae: A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Trichloroacetic Acid: A strong acid used as a protein precipitant in clinical chemistry and also as a caustic for removing warts.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Pharmacology: The study of the origin, nature, properties, and actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms.Ultracentrifugation: Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Chemical Precipitation: The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.X Chromosome Inactivation: A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.Spheroplasts: Cells, usually bacteria or yeast, which have partially lost their cell wall, lost their characteristic shape and become round.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Sex: The totality of characteristics of reproductive structure, functions, PHENOTYPE, and GENOTYPE, differentiating the MALE from the FEMALE organism.Acriflavine: 3,6-Diamino-10-methylacridinium chloride mixt. with 3,6-acridinediamine. Fluorescent dye used as a local antiseptic and also as a biological stain. It intercalates into nucleic acids thereby inhibiting bacterial and viral replication.
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) itself is arranged in complex chromosomes. Mitochondria are organelles vital in metabolism as ... The word microorganism (/ˌmaɪkroʊˈɔːrɡənɪzəm/) uses combining forms of micro- (from the Greek: μικρός, mikros, "small") and ... Organic acids produced on a large industrial scale by microbial fermentation include acetic acid produced by acetic acid ... lactic acid made by Lactobacillus and other lactic acid bacteria, and citric acid produced by the mould fungus Aspergillus ...
Genetic traits are contained within the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of chromosomes-by combining one of each type of chromosomes ... in which regions of DNA are exchanged between matched types of chromosomes, to form a new pair of mixed chromosomes. Crossing ... an organism is formed containing a doubled set of chromosomes. This double-chromosome stage is called "diploid", while the ... Chromosomes are passed on from one generation to the next in this process. Each cell in the offspring has half the chromosomes ...
... of genetic information from one cellular generation to the next heavily relies on the duplication of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA ... Chromatin bridges may form by any number of processes wherein chromosomes remain topologically entangled during mitosis. One ... Chromatin bridges are easiest and most readily visible when observing chromosomes stained with DAPI. DNA bridges appear to be a ... After the formation of individual daughter cells, the DNA bridge connecting homologous chromosomes remains fixed. As the ...
Chromosomes are linear arrangements of condensed deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and histone proteins, which form a complex called ... Therefore, when two chromosomes of the exact structure exist, they are able to pair together to form homologous chromosomes. ... In prophase I of meiosis I, each chromosome is aligned with its homologous partner and pairs completely. In prophase I, the DNA ... The 22 pairs of homologous chromosomes contain the same genes but code for different traits in their allelic forms since one ...
The nucleus contains DNA otherwise known as Deoxyribonucleic acid, a long spiral shaped molecule that stores the genes that ... the DNA is packaged very tightly in each cell. These packages of DNA are called chromosomes, and each cell has 46 of them. Each ... Another milder form is called Hbh Disease. HB Bart syndrome is characterized by hydrops fetalis, a condition in which excess ... When a child has alpha thalassemia, there is a change in chromosome 16. Alpha globin is made on chromosome 16, so if any gene ...
The chromosomes get split into its two chromatids. Chromatids are the two strands of DNA (deoxyribo-nucleic acid) that make up ... forms of the gene) on the two chromosomes. Think about each pair of chromosomes, one set from each parent. From each pair, only ... begin forming spindle fibres that envelop the chromosomes.. At this stage each chromosome is split into two sister chromatids, ... a nucleic envelope forms and the chromosomes become less visible. There are 23 chromosomes in each of these cells.. Meiosis II[ ...
... a type of DNA which is in a transient state, that is in some cases associated with DNA transcription. The Z-DNA form is more ... Bernstein, C (1981). "Deoxyribonucleic acid repair in bacteriophage". Microbiol. Rev. 45: 72-98. PMC 281499 . PMID 6261109. ... In the 1940s and early 1950s, experiments pointed to DNA as the portion of chromosomes (and perhaps other nucleoproteins) that ... Stanford University constructed Recombinant DNA which can be formed by using restriction Endonuclease to cleave the DNA and DNA ...
Deoxyribonucleic acid (/diˈɒksiˌraɪboʊnjʊˌkliːɪk, -ˌkleɪɪk/ ( listen); DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the ... The most common form of chromosomal crossover is homologous recombination, where the two chromosomes involved share very ... DNA exists in many possible conformations that include A-DNA, B-DNA, and Z-DNA forms, although, only B-DNA and Z-DNA have been ... acid simulation software Meiosis Mitochondrial DNA Nuclear DNA Nucleic acid double helix Nucleic acid notation Nucleic acid ...
DNA - Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and ... to form chromosomes. Nucleoplasm - Viscous fluid, inside the nuclear envelope, similar to cytoplasm. Nucleolus - Where ... DNA helicase DNA polymerase DNA ligase RNA - Ribonucleic acid is a nucleic acid made from a long chain of nucleotide, in a cell ... Chromatin - All DNA and its associated proteins in the nucleus. Chromosome - A single DNA molecule with attached proteins. ...
The DNA of a chromosome is associated with structural proteins that organize, compact, and control access to the DNA, forming a ... The molecular basis for genes is deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). DNA is composed of a chain of nucleotides, of which there are ... while the X chromosome is similar to the other chromosomes and contains many genes. The X and Y chromosomes form a strongly ... 2002), II.4. DNA and chromosomes: Chromosomal DNA and Its Packaging in the Chromatin Fiber Griffiths, Anthony J. F.; Miller, ...
... , or nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid (nDNA), is the DNA contained within the nucleus of a eukaryotic organism. Nuclear ... The structure of nuclear DNA chromosomes is linear with open ends and includes 46 chromosomes containing 3 billion nucleotides ... meiosis is a form of eukaryotic cell division. Meiosis gives rise to four unique daughter cells, each of which has half the ... The DNA single strand template serves to guide the synthesis of a complementary strand of DNA. DNA replication begins at a ...
In contrast, when the circular chromosomes of such organisms as the replicative form (RF) of the bacteriophage φX174, or the ... Crick, Francis & James D. Watson (1954). "The Complementary Structure of Deoxyribonucleic Acid" (PDF). Proceedings of the Royal ... DNA and DNA:DNA duplexes at high concentrations of formamide". Nucleic Acids Res. 4 (5): 1539-52. doi:10.1093/nar/4.5.1539. PMC ... This dealt a death blow to the idea that other forms of DNA, particularly double helical DNA, exist as anything other than ...
"Molecular forms in human serum of enzymes synthesizing DNA precursors and DNA". Mol. Cell. Biochem. 92 (1): 23-35. doi:10.1007/ ... Weissman SM, Smellie RM, Paul J (1960). "Studies on the biosynthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid by extracts of mammalian cells. ... Molecular combing of DNA fibers can be used to monitor the structure of chromosomes in the budding yeast Saccharomyces ... The triphosphate is included in a DNA molecule, a reaction catalyzed by a DNA polymerase and a complementary DNA molecule (or ...
The ITRs were also shown to be required for both integration of the AAV DNA into the host cell genome (19th chromosome in ... For example, AAV4 and AAV5 transduction can be inhibited by soluble sialic acids (of different form for each of these serotypes ... The AAV genome is built of single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (ssDNA), either positive- or negative-sensed, which is about ... In dividing cells, AAV DNA is lost through cell division, since the episomal DNA is not replicated along with the host cell DNA ...
The vast majority of living organisms encode their genes in long strands of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). DNA consists of a ... The chromosomes are packed within the nucleus in complex with storage proteins called histones to form a unit called a ... DNA and Chromosomes 4.1: The Structure and Function of DNA 4.2: Chromosomal DNA and Its Packaging in the Chromatin Fiber Ch 5: ... Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was shown to be the molecular repository of genetic information by experiments in the 1940s to ...
... and poor in acidic amino acids like aspartic acid and glutamic acid. In an aqueous solution, the transit sequence forms a ... Deoxyribonucleic acid. Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and the Environment. eds. S.Draggan and C.Cleveland ... It further contends that only a minority of the genetic material is kept in circular chromosomes while the rest is in branched ... DNA becomes susceptible to deamination events when it is single stranded. When replication forks form, the strand not being ...
... which are polymers of amino acids using instructions encoded by deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Protein synthesis entails ... Most DNA molecules consist of two biopolymer strands coiled around each other to form a double helix. The two DNA strands are ... Within cells, DNA is organized into long structures called chromosomes. During cell division these chromosomes are duplicated ... DNA and RNA are nucleic acids; alongside proteins and complex carbohydrates, they are one of the three major types of ...
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a molecule that cairies the genetic instructions uised in the growthe, development, functionin ... Within eukaryotic cells DNA is organised intae lang structures cried chromosomes. In cell diveesion thir chromosomes are ... Maist DNA molecules conseest o twa biopolymer strands coiled aroond ilk ither tae form a dooble helix. ... DNA an RNA are nucleic acids; alongside proteins, lipids an complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides), thay are ane o the fower ...
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid containing the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of ... For example, bacterial chromosomes, plasmids, mitochondrial DNA, and chloroplast DNA are usually circular double-stranded DNA ... Along with RNA and proteins, DNA is one of the three major macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life. DNA ... the polymer is DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). Nucleic acids are the most important of all biomolecules. They are found in ...
... exonuclease activity in deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase". ResearchGate. Retrieved 2016-04-25. Reha-Krantz LJ (May 2010). "DNA ... Meng X, Zhou Y, Zhang S, Lee EY, Frick DN, Lee MY (February 2009). "DNA damage alters DNA polymerase delta to a form that ... Goldsby RE, Singh M, Preston BD (January 1998). "Mouse DNA polymerase delta gene (Pold1) maps to chromosome 7". Mammalian ... "Multiple forms of human DNA polymerase delta sub-assembling in cellular DNA transactions". Current Protein & Peptide Science. ...
DNA - deoxyribonucleic acid, the hereditary material of the genome Drosophila - a kind of fruit fly used for genetic ... locus (gene or chromosome) - the specific location of a gene or DNA sequence or position on a chromosome ... TCA cycle - TriCarboxylic Acid cycle is a series of enzyme-catalyzed chemical reactions that form a key part of aerobic ... of the β-globin gene replacing the amino acid glutamic acid with the less polar amino acid valine at the sixth position of the ...
DNA becomes susceptible to deamination events when it is single stranded. When replication forks form, the strand not being ... Hogan, C. Michael (2010). Deoxyribonucleic acid. Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and the Environment. eds. ... It further contends that only a minority of the genetic material is kept in circular chromosomes while the rest is in branched ... Chloroplasts synthesize all the fatty acids in a plant cell-linoleic acid, a fatty acid, is a precursor to jasmonate. One of ...
... in the early 1960s with the experimental use of medications that interfered with viral replication called deoxyribonucleic acid ... The double-stranded DNA of the virus is incorporated into the cell physiology by infection of the nucleus of a nerve's cell ... An area of human chromosome 21 that includes six genes has been linked to frequent oral herpes outbreaks. An immunity to the ... ASHA was founded in 1914 in New York City, formed out of early 20th century social reform movements focused on fighting ...
... a tendency to suffer from a particular medical condition DNA - deoxyribonucleic acid, the hereditary material of the genome ... gene or chromosome) - the specific location of a gene or DNA sequence or position on a chromosome macrophage - a large white ... TriCarboxylic Acid cycle is a series of enzyme-catalyzed chemical reactions that form a key part of aerobic respiration in ... of nucleic acids like DNA and RNA nucleic acid - a complex organic molecule present in living cells, esp. DNA or RNA, which ...
It is a nucleoside analogue, a modified form of deoxyuridine, similar enough to be incorporated into viral DNA replication, but ... "Introduction of the 5-Halogenated Uracil Moiety into Deoxyribonucleic Acid of Mammalian Cells in Culture". J. Biol. Chem. 235: ... Fauth E, Zankl H (1999). "Comparison of spontaneous and idoxuridine-induced micronuclei by chromosome painting". Mutat Res. 440 ...
... (also called lyonization) is a process by which one of the copies of the X chromosome present in female mammals is inactivated. The inactive X chromosome is silenced by its being packaged in such a way that it has a transcriptionally inactive structure called heterochromatin. As nearly all female mammals have two X chromosomes, X-inactivation prevents them from having twice as many X chromosome gene products as males, who only possess a single copy of the X chromosome (see dosage compensation). The choice of which X chromosome will be inactivated is random in placental mammals such as humans, but once an X chromosome is inactivated it will remain inactive throughout the lifetime of the cell and its descendants in the organism. Unlike the random X-inactivation in placental mammals, inactivation in marsupials applies exclusively to the paternally derived X chromosome. In 1959 Susumu Ohno showed that the two X-chromosomes of mammals were different: one appeared similar to ...
... is one of the most widely used methods to determine the clonal origin of a tumor. The method is based on X chromosome inactivation and it takes the advantage of having different methylation status of a gene called HUMARA (short for Human Androgen receptor) that is located on X chromosome. Considering the fact that once one X chromosome is inactivated in a cell, all other cells derived from it will have the same X chromosome inactivated, this approach becomes a great tool to differentiate a monoclonal population from a polyclonal one in a female tissue. HUMARA gene, in particular, has three important features that make it highly convenient for the purpose. 1-) The gene is located on X chromosome and it goes through inactivation by methylation in normal embryogenesis of a female infant. The fact that most-but not all-genes on X chromosome undergo inactivation, this feature becomes an important one. 2-) Human Androgen Receptor gene alleles have varying numbers of CAG repeats. Thus, ...
A single X chromosome can have either a black allele of the coloration gene or an orange version, but not both. However, a female cat has two X chromosomes, so it can have both versions, black on one chromosome and orange on the other, making the cat a calico. A male cat usually has one X chromosome and one Y chromosome. A Y chromosome does not have a color gene, so the cat can have either an orange or a black gene, but not both. Calico cats are often used as an example in biology classes when discussing sex chromosomes. During the early stages of development, when the cat is still an embryo, in each cell one of the X chromosomes (either the black one or the orange one) deactivates. It is called X-inactivation. All cells that were copied from a cell with a deactivated X chromosome will also have the same X chromosome deactivated. This is what leads to formation of the spots. The earlier in development the X ...
The X chromosome is ane o the twa sex-determinin chromosomes (allosomes) in mony organisms, includin mammals (the ither is the Y chromosome), an is foind in bauth males an females. It is a pairt o the XY sex-determination seestem an X0 sex-determination seestem. The X chromosome wis named for its unique properties bi early researchers, that resultit in the namin o its coonterpairt Y chromosome, for the next letter in the alphabet, efter it wis diskivered later. ...
... (XLA) is a rare genetic disorder discovered in 1952 that affects the body's ability to fight infection. As the form of agammaglobulinemia that is X-linked, it is much more common in males. In people with XLA, the white blood cell formation process does not generate mature B cells, which manifests as a complete or near-complete lack of proteins called gamma globulins, including antibodies, in their bloodstream. B cells are part of the immune system and normally manufacture antibodies (also called immunoglobulins), which defend the body from infections by sustaining a humoral immunity response. Patients with untreated XLA are prone to develop serious and even fatal infections. A mutation occurs at the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) gene that leads to a severe block in B cell development (at the pre-B cell to immature B cell stage) and a reduced immunoglobulin production in the serum. Btk is particularly responsible for mediating B cell ...
X-linked thrombocytopenia, also referred to as XLT or thrombocytopenia 1, is an inherited clotting disorder that primarily affects males. It is a WAS-related disorder, meaning it is caused by a mutation in the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome (WAS) gene, which is located on the short arm of the X chromosome. WAS-related disorders include Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, XLT, and X-linked congenital neutropenia (XLN). Of the WAS-related disorders, X-linked thrombocytopenia is considered to be the milder phenotype. Between 1 and 10 per million males worldwide are affected with this disorder. Females may be affected with this disorder but this is very rare since females have two X chromosomes and are therefore typically carriers of the mutation. X-linked thrombocytopenia is typically diagnosed in infancy. The disease presents as a bleeding disorder with easy bruising, mucosal bleeding, such as nosebleeds, and mild to severe anemia. Anemia is a condition in which there is an insufficient number of red blood ...
An allosome (also referred to as a sex chromosome, heterotypical chromosome, heterochromosome, or idiochromosome) is a chromosome that differs from an ordinary autosome in form, size, and behavior. The human sex chromosomes, a typical pair of mammal allosomes, determine the sex of an individual created in sexual reproduction. Autosomes differ from allosomes because autosomes appear in pairs whose members have the same form but differ from other pairs in a diploid cell, whereas members of an allosome pair may differ from one another and thereby determine sex. In humans, each cell nucleus contains 23 pairs of chromosomes, a total of 46 chromosomes. The first 22 pairs are called autosomes. Autosomes are homologous chromosomes i.e. chromosomes which contain the same genes (regions of DNA) in the same order along their chromosomal arms. The ...
3.0.CO;2-5. PMID 10710235. Dawson SJ, White LA (1992). "Treatment of Haemophilus aphrophilus endocarditis with ciprofloxacin". J. Infect. 24 (3): 317-20. doi:10.1016/S0163-4453(05)80037-4. PMID 1602151. Angel TA, Faust CJ, Gonzales JC, et al. (1993). "Genetic mapping of the X-linked dominant mutations striated (Str) and bare patches (Bpa) to a 600-kb region of the mouse X chromosome: implications for mapping human disorders in Xq28". Mamm. Genome. 4 (3): 171-6. doi:10.1007/BF00352233. PMID 8439729. Levin ML, Chatterjee A, Pragliola A, et al. (1996). "A comparative transcription map of the murine bare patches (Bpa) and striated (Str) critical regions and human Xq28". Genome Res. 6 (6): 465-77. doi:10.1101/gr.6.6.465. PMID 8828036. Heiss NS, Rogner UC, Kioschis P, et al. (1996). "Transcription mapping in a 700-kb region around the DXS52 locus in Xq28: isolation of six novel transcripts and a novel ATPase isoform (hPMCA5)". Genome Res. 6 (6): 478-91. doi:10.1101/gr.6.6.478. ...
The chromosomes of a cell are in the cell nucleus. They carry the genetic information. Chromosomes are made up of DNA and protein combined as chromatin. Each chromosome contains many genes. Chromosomes come in pairs: one set from the mother; the other set from the father. Cytologists label chromosomes with numbers.. Chromosomes are present in every cell nucleus with very few and special exceptions. This means they are found in all eukaryotes, since only eukaryotes have cell nuclei. When eukaryote cells divide, the chromosomes also divide. When a somatic (body) cell (such as a muscle cell) divides, the process is called mitosis. Before mitosis, the cell copies all the chromosomes and then it can divide. When they duplicate, chromosomes look like the letter "X". When they are doubled, the two halves are called chromatids ...
The chromosomes of a cell are in the cell nucleus. They carry the genetic information. Chromosomes are made up of DNA and protein combined as chromatin. Each chromosome contains many genes. Chromosomes come in pairs: one set from the mother; the other set from the father. Cytologists label chromosomes with numbers. Chromosomes are present in every cell nucleus with very few and special exceptions. This means they are found in all eukaryotes, since only eukaryotes have cell nuclei. When eukaryote cells divide, the chromosomes also divide. When a somatic (body) cell (such as a muscle cell) divides, the process is called mitosis. Before mitosis, the cell copies all the chromosomes and then it can divide. When they duplicate, chromosomes look like the letter "X". When they are doubled, the two halves are called chromatids ...
... [glo-mer″u-lop´ah-the] (SHG) is an hereditary noninflammatory disease of the renal glomeruli, occurring in the Samoyed breed of dog. The disease has been shown to be a model for hereditary nephritis (HN) in humans in that the disease resembles that of the human disease. Because of this, it is sometimes referred to by the name given to the disease in humans when referring to the conditions in Samoyed dogs. Alternatively, it may also be known as X-linked hereditary nephritis. Genetically, the trait is inherited as a sex-linked, genetically dominant disease, and thus affects male dogs to a greater degree than female dogs, since males only have one X chromosome. Samoyed Hereditary Glomerulopathy is caused by a nonsense mutation in codon 1027 of the COL4A5 gene on the X chromosome (glycine to stop codon), which is similar to Alport's syndrome in humans. The disease is simply inherited, X-linked dominant, with males generally having more severe symptoms than ...
இவ்வகையான மரபணுப் பிறழ்வுகளும் X நிறமூர்த்தத்தில் இணைந்த பரம்பரையலகுகளிலேற்படும் விகாரங்களால் ஏற்படுகின்றன. இங்கும் ஆண்களே பெண்களைவிட அதிகளவில் பாதிப்புக்கு உள்ளாகின்றனர். X நிறமூர்த்தத்தில் இணைந்த பரம்பரையலகில் ஏற்படும் பாதிப்பு ஆகையால், தொடர்ந்த சந்ததிக்கு கடத்தப்படுவதும் ஆணுக்கும் பெண்ணுக்கும் வேறுபடுகின்றது. பிறக்கும் ஒவ்வொரு ஆண்குழந்தையும், தனக்கான X ...
Chromosomes -The structures that carry genetic information in the form of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). Chromosomes are located ... Chromosomes -The structures that carry genetic information in the form of DNA. Chromosomes are located within every cell and ... The gene for the trait is located on the X chromosome . Men have one X chromosome and women have two. If a man inherits the ... "Homozygosity Mapping of Achromatopsia to Chromosome 2 Using DNA Pooling." Human Molecular Genetics 1997 May; 6(5): 689-694. ...
DNA is needed as it is the blueprint of life. Every species of plants and animals contains a genetic substance called DNA that ... Without DNA, life would not be able to perpetuate itself. ... DNA, which stands for deoxyribonucleic acid, is found in every ... DNA contains all information that tells a cell how to grow, elongate, and form tissues, organs and organ systems. ... The two ends of the chromosomes attached to the centromere are called chromatids. Inside the chromatids are strands of DNA. ...
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) is a chemical structure that forms chromosomes. Structurally, DNA is a double helix made up of two ... It searches for the correct sequence by sliding along the DNA until it can bind with a specific DNA sequence and form a complex ... a specific DNA sequence. More important, they illustrated in detail how proteins single out their partner DNA out of millions ... Single-stranded DNA and RNA origami go live 15.12.2017 , Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard ...
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) itself is arranged in complex chromosomes. Mitochondria are organelles vital in metabolism as ... The word microorganism (/ˌmaɪkroʊˈɔːrɡənɪzəm/) uses combining forms of micro- (from the Greek: μικρός, mikros, "small") and ... Organic acids produced on a large industrial scale by microbial fermentation include acetic acid produced by acetic acid ... lactic acid made by Lactobacillus and other lactic acid bacteria, and citric acid produced by the mould fungus Aspergillus ...
... about deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), where its found, what it is made of and what it does as well as the DNA double helix. ... each DNA molecule must be tightly packaged. This packaged form of the DNA is called a chromosome.. During DNA replication, DNA ... But during cell division, DNA is in its compact chromosome form to enable transfer to new cells.. Researchers refer to DNA ... The answer lies in a molecule called deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), which contains the biological instructions that make each ...
Gene: A segment of a DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecule contained in the nucleus of a cell that acts as a kind of code for ... Humans have forty-six chromosomes, which are coiled structures in the nucleus of a cell that carry DNA. DNA is the genetic ... DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid): Large, complex molecules found in the nuclei of cells that carry genetic information for an ... The projects official goals are to identify all of the approximately 50,000 genes in human deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and to ...
Make research projects and school reports about Circular DNA easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... and pictures about Circular DNA at Encyclopedia.com. ... Genes are encoded in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), which is made ... Chromosome. A chromosome is a threadlike structure found in the nucleus of most cells. It carries genetic material in the form ... see also Cell Cycle; Chromosome, Eukaryotic; Chromosome, Prokaryotic; DNA; DNA Polymerases; DNA Repair; Mutation; Nucleases; ...
The nucleus of a cell contains chromatin molecules and chromosomes; these are the important genetic material that the body uses ... Chromatin is made of long strands of deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, that form chromosomes. DNA controls most of the functions ... Nucleotides contain the actual DNA information in the cell. They are molecules based around the amino acids known as adenine, ... How much DNA is in a typical human cell?. A: The human genome present in the nucleus of nearly all cells within the body is ...
Chromatids consist of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Two identical chromatids make up one chromosome. Microtubules, part of the ... During mitosis two daughter nuclei are formed from one parent nucleus. At anaphase, sister chromatids (white) are moved to ... cells cytoskeleton, grow from either pole of the cell and attach to centromeres at the centre of each chromosome. The ...
A human being has an estimated 25,000 genes, encoded in molecules of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). These molecules, which form a ... DNA Makes Up Only Half Of Every Human Chromosome, Study Reveals. ...
major molecule that forms a chromosome. deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). several different forms that play key roles in protein ... carbs, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. glucose(blood), fructose(fruit), galactose(milk), deoxyribose(dna), ribose)rna). ... forms when two or more atoms share electrons. molecule. substance formed from different elements binding together that can be ... groups of chemical compoounds t hat can convert a strong acid or a strong base into a weak acid or a weak base.. buffer systems ...
In alternative embodiments of the invention only one type of nucleotide 218 is exposed at a time to the nucleic acids 214, 220 ... The present methods and apparatus 100 concern nucleic acid 214 sequencing by incorporation of nucleotides 218 into nucleic acid ... Genetic information is stored in the form of very long molecules of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), organized into chromosomes. ... DNA polymerase 222, Taquenase™ DNA polymerase 222, ThermoSequenase™ 222, Taq DNA polymerase 222, Qbeta™ replicase 222, T4 DNA ...
... or DNA, contains the genetic code that describes the physical characteristics of every known life form. Find out how it works ... The nucleotides are cross-linked into double-stranded chains and packaged neatly into chromosomes. Nucleotide bases form ... All about DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid). FACTS: Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is the amazing molecular double helix that ... Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, contains the genetic code that describes the physical characteristics of every known life form. ...
Genes are made of a chemical called DNA, which is short for deoxyribonucleic acid. The DNA molecule is a double helix: that ... Chromosomes. If you took the DNA from all the cells in your body and lined it up, end to end, it would form a strand 6000 ... The packaging of DNA into chromosomes. Human beings have 23 pairs of chromosomes in every cell, which makes 46 chromosomes in ... The largest chromosome, chromosome 1, contains about 8000 genes. The smallest chromosome, chromosome 21, contains about 300 ...
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is the stuff that our genes are made of. DNA is primarily found in the chromosomes contained within ... A portion of DNA that codes for a protein is called a gene. We inherit particular forms of each of our genes from our parents. ... This is done by using a genes DNA as a template to make RNA (ribonucleic acid), and this RNA is the template from which ... For example, research has shown that all forms of weight loss in dogs are not equal. In one study, a group of overweight dogs ...
Chromosomes are present in the nucleus of every cell of the body. They consist of genetic material, DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid ... One chromosome of each pair has replicated during cell division to form an identical copy, or chromatid. The chromatids of a ... Most human cells contain 46 chromosomes, 23 inherited from the mother and 23 from the father. Magnification unknown. - Stock ... Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of pairs of human chromosomes. ...
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) is a chemical structure that forms chro...,Rutgers,chemist,uses,NMR,to,elucidate,protein-DNA, ... DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) is a chemical structure that forms chromosomes. Structurally, DNA is a double helix made up of two ... slide along the lengthy strands forming the helix structure of DNA until they reach their intended destination a specific DNA ... known about how proteins located and connected with a specific pattern of DNA to allow genes to express themselves in the form ...
The DNA is made of two strands and forms a double helix. In sexual reproduction, one set of chromosomes (large segments of DNA ... Mutations are primarily permanent changes in the DNA strand. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is the information storage unit for ... The DNA strand contains instructions on how to make proteins. Every three "letters" code for a specific amino acid, such as TGC ... Many amino acids together compose a protein. For simplicitys sake, to illustrate concepts with the DNA strand, we will use ...
Both DNA and chromosomes lie behind our basic understanding of the human body. However, there are subtle differences between ... The main difference between DNA and chromosome is regarding the role of genes. DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid. The DNA is ... while DNA is a part of the chromosome.. 3. When proteins add to DNA, a chromosome is formed. ... These chromosomes are further divided into pieces of DNA. Chromosomes are basically pieces of DNA. If we looked at a chromosome ...
Chromosomes are linear arrangements of condensed deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and histone proteins, which form a complex called ... Therefore, when two chromosomes of the exact structure exist, they are able to pair together to form homologous chromosomes. ... In prophase I of meiosis I, each chromosome is aligned with its homologous partner and pairs completely. In prophase I, the DNA ... The 22 pairs of homologous chromosomes contain the same genes but code for different traits in their allelic forms since one ...
and one pair of sex chromosomes. 68. Genes Our Biological Blueprint*DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) ... information that makes up the chromosomes *has two strands-forming a double helix- held together by bonds between pairs of ... DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) Four major varieties of nitrogen-containing bases can contribute to nucleotide structure ... chromosomes (46) consisting of 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes *Two of this set are X and Y (the sex chromosomes) and the ...
Each chromosome is made up of fine strands of deoxyribonucleic acids, or DNA. The information carried on the DNA determines the ... "the structure of a DNA molecule or combination of DNA molecules determines the shape, form, and function of the organisms ... which makes up a DNA molecule. Now that the desired portion of the DNA is cut out, it can be joined to another strand of DNA by ... Genes are made up of sections of DNA. DNA makes up the structural parts of an organism. This is the building blocks of life. ...
The genetic code is carried by an amazing molecule called Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA to its friends. DNA is an amazingly ... The DNA is found in the nucleus of all cells. It is formed into X-shaped bundles called chromosomes. In human cells, except for ... One chromosome comes from each homologous pair of chromosomes. So these offspring cells are haploid not diploid. ... This DNA strand looks a bit like a ladder twisted into a double helix. The rungs of the ladder are made up of pairs of base ...
Chromosomes are a packaged form of the genetic material DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), and form during cell replication. Each ... This is chromosome 16, which carries between 850 and 1200 genes. Gene defects on this chromosome are related to diseases such ... chromosome consists of two identical, parallel strands (chromatids, left and right), joined at an area called a centromere ( ... Chromosomes are a packaged form of the genetic material DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), and form during cell replication. Each ...
Also called deoxyribonucleic acid.. Enlarge Structure of DNA. Most DNA is found inside the nucleus of a cell, where it forms ... Chromosomes have proteins called histones that bind to DNA. DNA has two strands that twist into the shape of a spiral ladder ... to form chemical bonds called base pairs, which connect the two DNA strands. Genes are short pieces of DNA that carry specific ... DNA The molecules inside cells that carry genetic information and pass it from one generation to the next. ...
OrganismsHumansGeneticTraitsParentIdenticalHeredityStands for deoxyribonucleic acidGenomeSequencesMeans deoxyribonucleic acidCytosineGeneticsAmino acidThymineHumansBasesBody'sHumanStructures calledSegmentsInheritanceStructureSalivary glandPolymeraseHereditaryStrandCarriesSequenceNucleotidesCell's geneticParticular chromosomeCellular20,000Thousands of genesHistonesAutosomesSpermMale and female gamFoundAbnormalitiesCharacteristicsDouble strandedRefersMolecularBiological
- In diploid (2n) organisms, the genome is composed of one set of each homologous chromosome pair, as compared to tetraploid organisms which may have two sets of each homologous chromosome pair. (wikipedia.org)
- So humans have two homologous chromosome sets in each cell, meaning humans are diploid organisms. (wikipedia.org)
- Humans have a total of 46 chromosomes, but there are only 22 pairs of homologous autosomal chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
- Among humans and other mammals, males typically carry XY chromosomes, whereas females typically carry XX chromosomes, which are a part of the XY sex-determination system. (wikipedia.org)
- The process of meiosis I is generally longer than meiosis II because it takes more time for the chromatin to replicate and for the homologous chromosomes to be properly oriented and segregated by the processes of pairing and synapsis in meiosis I. During meiosis, genetic recombination (by random segregation) and crossing over produces daughter cells that each contain different combinations of maternally and paternally coded genes. (wikipedia.org)
- Sexual reproduction involves the combining and mixing of genetic traits: specialized cells known as gametes combine to form offspring that inherit traits from each parent. (wikipedia.org)
- This mixing of maternal and paternal traits is enhanced by crossing over during meiosis, wherein lengths of chromosomal arms and the DNA they contain within a homologous chromosome pair are exchanged with one another. (wikipedia.org)
- The 22 pairs of homologous chromosomes contain the same genes but code for different traits in their allelic forms since one was inherited from the mother and one from the father. (wikipedia.org)
- Some of the many plausible theories include: that sex creates variation among offspring, sex helps in the spread of advantageous traits, that sex helps in the removal of disadvantageous traits, and that sex facilitates repair of germ-line DNA. (wikipedia.org)
- Using test cross experiments, he revealed that, for a single parent, the alleles of genes near to one another along the length of the chromosome move together. (wikipedia.org)
- Meiosis is a round of two cell divisions that results in four haploid daughter cells that each contain half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. (wikipedia.org)
- Since homologous chromosomes are not identical and do not originate from the same organism, they are different from sister chromatids. (wikipedia.org)
- Sister chromatids result after DNA replication has occurred, and thus are identical, side-by-side duplicates of each other. (wikipedia.org)
- Gametes can be identical in form and function (known as isogamy), but in many cases an asymmetry has evolved such that two sex-specific types of gametes (heterogametes) exist (known as anisogamy). (wikipedia.org)
- The physical units of heredity: long linear strands of DNA. (ibdna.com)
- Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance The chromosomal theory of inheritance is the idea that genes, the units of heredity, are physical in nature and are found in the chromosomes. (bookrags.com)
- In 1910, Thomas Hunt Morgan performed an experiment at Columbia University, in New York City, New York, that helped identify the role chromosomes play in heredity. (asu.edu)
- Genes are the smallest element of DNA and are the basis of heredity. (whitebiocentrism.com)
- The very large chromosomes in the salivary gland cells of Drosophila and other insects have furnished valuable material for the study of genetics genetics, scientific study of the mechanism of heredity. (thefreedictionary.com)
- For example, a 2017 study published in the journal Science found that random mistakes in DNA, not heredity or environmental factors, accounts for two-thirds of cancer mutations in cells . (livescience.com)
- This idea, when added to what was already known about the cellular mechanisms of heredity (especially the knowledge that DNA is localized in chromosomes), appeared to establish a molecular basis for inheritance. (800score.com)
- To determine the repair capacity of Kc cells (proficient repair) to remove UV induced thymidine dimers from deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of the complete genome, several experiments were performed using alkaline sucrose gradients. (europa.eu)
- It has been shown that in mammalian cells and also in the lower eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae UV induced DNA repair is not randomly distributed over the genome. (europa.eu)
- For example, a common variation in the genome is for some forms of the sequence to have Cytosine (C) while other forms have Thymidine (T). Thus, since we have two copies of each chromosome, there are three genotypes at this position CC, CT, and TT. (ibdna.com)
- Integrated unit formed by union of the provirus into the bacterial genome. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The Human Genome Project (HGP) was an international scientific effort to sequence the entire human genome, that is, to produce a map of the base pairs of DNA in the human chromosomes, most of which do not vary among individuals. (asu.edu)
- The technology can be used to determine the order of bases in genes, chromosomes, or an entire genome. (livescience.com)
- A furor developed when researchers working with government money applied for patents on data that merely reports knowledge of what already exists in nature - knowledge of existing DNA sequences - and this led to the 1992 resignation of James Watson (b. 1928) from the directorship of NIH's National Center for Human Genome Research (NCHGR). (encyclopedia.com)
- Genome sequencing step 1: Chromosome mapping. (biochemtuition.com)
- The DNA contains the approximately 30,000 to 100,000 genes that make up the human genome . (genetherapynet.com)
- Termination of mammalian DNA replication is thought to be dependent on physical barriers within the replication factories, as opposed to actual termination sequences within the DNA structure. (els.net)
- DNA consists of long sequences of four chemical 'letters' - C,T,G, and A - strung together in different combinations like different coloured beads on a necklace (2). (whitebiocentrism.com)
- A technique called "Hi-C" captures and sequences DNA fragments, which is then used to build a 3D map of the chromosome. (news-medical.net)
- DNA sequences form the chromosomes. (standardtoday.co.uk)
- RNA is a lot like DNA-it's got a sugar-phosphate backbone and contains sequences of nitrogenous bases. (visiblebody.com)
- Half of the junk DNA consists of repeated sequences of various types, most of which are parasitic elements inherited from our distant evolutionary past. (encyclopedia.com)
- These genes make up different DNA sequences called genotypes . (wikizero.com)
- This animation explains the difference between addition mutations, in which nucleotides are added to DNA sequences, and deletion mutations, in which nucleotides are lost. (accessscience.com)
- DNA exists inside your body's cells and is made up of four chemicals: adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine. (wonderopolis.org)
- DNA contains adenine (A), guanine (G), thymine (T), and cytosine (C). RNA also contains the A, G, and C bases, but has uracil (U) instead of thymine. (wisegeek.com)
- C677T polymorphism is a point mutation (substitution) of C (cytosine) for T (thymine) at position 677, resulting in amino acid substitution of alanine (Ala = A) for valine (Val) at the point 223 in the peptide chain. (thrombophiliac.com)
- Therefore, on hydrolysis of DNA, the quantity of adenine produced is equal to that of thymine and similarly, the quantity of cytosine is equal to that of guanine. (hamronotes.com)
- They see how the pattern of nucleotide bases (adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine) forms the double helix ladder shape of DNA, and serves as the code for the steps required to make genes. (teachengineering.org)
- Many of us in the genetics community," write Linda and Edward McCabe in DNA: Promise and Peril (2008), "sincerely believed that DNA analysis would provide us with a molecular crystal ball that would allow us to know quite accurately the clinical futures of our individual patients. (thenewatlantis.com)
- The next major step in genetics was deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA. (blogspot.com)
- BR7 also showed increased expression of genes involved in amino acid metabolism and transport, while BR21 showed increased expression of genes involved in iron acquisition and metabolism and in prophage genes. (thefreedictionary.com)
- As tRNA bonds with the mRNA, the amino acids carried by the tRNA bond with each other to begin forming a new amino acid chain. (wisegeek.com)
- A new study by NASA scientists has just been published where researchers did nothing more than convert a pre-cursor chemical into a single type of amino acid. (icr.org)
- Consequently, the amino acid arginine (Arg = R) is substituted for glutamine (Gln = Q) in the peptide chain in place 506 (FV R506Q). (thrombophiliac.com)
- Is produced when the amino acid, isoleucine, is metabolized to its keto acid in individuals with MSUD. (msud-support.org)
- tRNA (Transfer RNA)- It picks up activated amino acid from the cytoplasm and supplies it to mRNA in the ribosome according to the message expressed in the form of the codon. (gkscientist.com)
- Each amino acid bears a recognition site, anticodon site, ribosome attachment site, and amino acid attachment site. (gkscientist.com)
- When we are told that as the difference in DNA between peoples from different parts of the globe is so small therefore there is really no such thing as 'race', let us first remember that the difference between humans and chimpanzees is only just over one per cent. (whitebiocentrism.com)
- Furthermore, according to Prof Stylianos Antonarakis of the University of Geneva Medical School and Dr Ewen Kirkness of the Institute of Genomic Research, Maryland, latest DNA research shows that some DNA regions of humans, dogs, and species as distant as elephant and wallaby are nearly identical (1). (whitebiocentrism.com)
- When it emerged a few years ago that humans and chimpanzees shared, by some measures, 98 or 99 percent of their DNA, a good deal of verbal hand-wringing and chest-beating ensued. (thenewatlantis.com)
- humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes. (chp.edu)
- His discovery of miRNA marked the beginning of research into a form of genetic regulation found throughout diverse life forms from plants to humans. (asu.edu)
- Telomerase is an RNA-dependent DNA polymerase, which stabilises telomere lengths by adding hexameric repeats (TTAGGG in humans) to chromosome termini, thus preventing the telomere shortening that usually occurs during mitotic cell division. (aston.ac.uk)
- Among humans and other mammals , males typically carry an X and a Y chromosome (XY), whereas females typically carry two X chromosomes (XX), which are a part of the XY sex-determination system . (artandpopularculture.com)
- In order to produce a double stranded DNA structure, interactions occur between complementary bases. (ncl.ac.uk)
- These are called Topologically Associated Domains (TADs) and are about 200,000 - 1 million DNA letters, or bases. (news-medical.net)
- Sequencing is the technique used to determine in what order the bases (letters) contained in the DNA are found. (standardtoday.co.uk)
- Each of the four different letters stands for one of the four nucleotide bases constituting the DNA sequence. (thenewatlantis.com)
- Human DNA has around 3 billion bases, and more than 99 percent of those bases are the same in all people, according to the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM). (livescience.com)
- DNA sequencing is technology that allows researchers to determine the order of bases in a DNA sequence. (livescience.com)
- DNA is made of nucleotide chains made of foursome bases. (blogspot.com)
- An enzyme called DNA helicase opens up the helix structure on a segment of DNA, breaking the bonds between the nitrogenous bases. (visiblebody.com)
- On the 5'-3' strand of the DNA, an enzyme called DNA polymerase slides towards the replication fork and uses the sequence of nitrogenous bases on that strand to make a new strand of DNA complementary to it (this means that its bases pair with the ones on the old strand). (visiblebody.com)
- RNA caps out at around 10,000 bases long, while DNA averages about 100 million. (visiblebody.com)
- The exposed nitrogenous bases form hydrogen bonds with complementary bases on the opposite strand. (biochemtuition.com)
- The basic structure of DNA itself is a coil, with two sugar chains (the deoxyribose in DeoxyriboNucleic Acid or DNA) coiling around each other, and attached by nucleic acid bases. (stackexchange.com)
- Methods for amplifying genomic DNA using semi-random primers that consist of different combinations of two non-complementary bases are disclosed. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Even though 99.9% of human DNA sequence is the same, the odds of two people have this same exact DNA profile is one in a billion! (giantmicrobes.com)
- Although much of your DNA is similar to other human beings (and even many other animals), no other creature has your exact same DNA! (wonderopolis.org)
- Human Artificial Chromosomes (Hac) Human artificial chromosomes (HAC) are synthetic chromosomes that are structurally similar to normal chromosomes that, in addition to being artificially created, car. (bookrags.com)
- Every human being has a set of chromosomes . (scienceabc.com)
- We use q-exponential distributions, which maximize the nonextensive entropy S q (defined as S q ≡ (1 - ∑ i p i q ) / (q - 1)), to study the size distributions of non-coding DNA (including introns and intergenic regions) in all human chromosomes. (edu.kz)
- Importantly, they also found that huge tracts of human DNA, previously written off as meaningless junk, have been found to contain a hitherto unrecognised "genetic grammar", making the language of our genes much more complex than previously thought. (whitebiocentrism.com)
- In the human body there are 23 pairs of chromosomes containing 46 chromosomes altogether. (whitebiocentrism.com)
- This is because the number of different offspring a pair of human parents could produce are two to the power of 47 (remember there are 46 chromosomes that can be shuffled about) or 140,000,000,000,000. (whitebiocentrism.com)
- This information is extensive, with a single human cell predicted to contain about 2 meters of DNA. (news-medical.net)
- in 2014, showed that there were around 10,000 DNA loops in human DNA. (news-medical.net)
- This question hinges on the definition of "code" and whether it is metaphorical when applied to DNA or whether it is technically identical to its use in human language. (evo2.org)
- Every human cell contains 46 chromosomes, arranged as 23 pairs (called autosomes), with one member of each pair inherited from each parent at the time of conception. (kidshealth.org)
- Human chromosomes are large enough to be seen with a high-powered microscope, and the 23 pairs can be identified according to differences in their size, shape, and the way they pick up special laboratory dyes. (kidshealth.org)
- A Russian team of researchers, under Pjotr Garjajev, has shown that DNA activation occurs by words and sounds, a regular grammar with rules similar to human languages. (ascensionnow.co.uk)
- e.g., the human has 46 chromosomes, the potato has 48, and the fruit fly Drosophila has 8. (thefreedictionary.com)
- To understand the chemical behavior of ascorbic acid in human pathology, one must go beyond its present academic status either as a factor essential for life or as a substance necessary to prevent scurvy. (angelfire.com)
- In this study, two DNA enzymes were designed to target the template region of human telomerase RNA (hTR), utilising the 10-23 and 8-17 catalytic motifs elucidated by Santoro and Joyce (1997). (aston.ac.uk)
- DNA is packed into chromosomes, of which 23 pairs exist in each cell of the human body. (blogspot.com)
- A recent news story emerged regarding sequencing ancient human DNA found in bones thought to be about 4,000 years old. (icr.org)
- Did you know that in the average human cell, there is about 2m (6ft) of DNA? (visiblebody.com)
- There are 46 separate strings of DNA in each somatic cell of the human body. (visiblebody.com)
- No genes are shared between the avian ZW and mammal XY chromosomes, and from a comparison between chicken and human, the Z chromosome appeared similar to the autosomal chromosome 9 in human, rather than X or Y, suggesting that the ZW and XY sex-determination systems do not share an origin, but that the sex chromosomes are derived from autosomal chromosomes of the common ancestor of birds and mammals. (artandpopularculture.com)
- The scientific goal was to map the genes and sequence human DNA. (encyclopedia.com)
- A human cell has two copies of twenty-three chromosomes for a total of forty-six-one copy from its mother and one from its father. (asu.edu)
- A human chromosome can have up to 500 million base pairs of DNA with thousands of genes. (wikizero.com)
- Each chromosome contains segments of DNA that correspond to and determine specific traits and characteristics. (wonderopolis.org)
- These segments are what we call genes, and they're simply made up of DNA with different patterns of A, T, C, and G. (wonderopolis.org)
- Chromosomes contain the genes, or segments of DNA, that encode for. (bookrags.com)
- She researched how body and head segments formed in chicks (Gallus gallus) and spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias). (asu.edu)
- Genes are hereditary units which are the particular segments of DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) and carry genetic information from generation to generation. (keralapscgk.com)
- Inheritance by way of meiosis is transported to a single-base set or maybe couple of DNA. (unipd.it)
- Sturtevant, Morgan, and other researchers established that chromosomes play a role in the inheritance of traits. (asu.edu)
- Any location on a chromosome where inheritance can be identified and tracked is a marker (Murphy). (blogspot.com)
- Markers can be expressed areas of genes (DNA) or some segment of DNA with no cognise coding function but an inheritance can still be traced (Murphy). (blogspot.com)
- This winding , dual structure is known as the double helix , and it allows DNA to pass along biological instructions with great precision. (wonderopolis.org)
- Chromosomal Aberrations Chromosomal aberrations are abnormalities in the structure or number of chromosomes and are often responsible for genetic disorders. (bookrags.com)
- nbsp;These interactions form bridges between two DNA chains, thus creating a double stranded 'ladder' shaped structure. (ncl.ac.uk)
- DNA]] fibres, displayed a unique X-shape, which illustrates a helical stucture, although they indicated a repeating structure of 3.4 Å apart per turn of the helix, each base is roated 36 degrees from the next one. (ncl.ac.uk)
- The structure of DNA was first identified as having a 'double-helix' structure by Watson and Crick in 1953. (ncl.ac.uk)
- The term chromosome is usually reserved for the structure when it is condensed and readily visible during cell division (see mitosis mitosis , process of nuclear division in a living cell by which the carriers of hereditary information, or the chromosomes, are exactly replicated and the two copies distributed to identical daughter nuclei. (thefreedictionary.com)
- At other times the chromosome appears as a fibrous structure, called the chromonema, consisting of accumulations (called chromomeres) of chromatin, the dye-absorbing material. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Cytogenetic disorders with visible chromosomal abnormalities are evidenced by either an abnormal number of chromosomes or some alteration in the structure of one or more chromosomes. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Theophilus Shickel Painter studied the structure and function of chromosomes in the US during in the early to mid-twentieth century. (asu.edu)
- However, at the time scientists had not determined how DNA functioned or its three-dimensional structure. (asu.edu)
- In the article, Watson and Crick propose a novel structure for deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA. (asu.edu)
- The structure of DNA and RNA. (livescience.com)
- It was not until 1953 that James Watson, Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin figured out the structure of DNA - a double helix - which they realized could carry biological information. (livescience.com)
- Watson, Crick and Wilkins were awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1962 "for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material. (livescience.com)
- They are smaller in size and simpler in internal structure than eukaryotes and are believed to have evolved much earlier (see evolution evolution, concept that embodies the belief that existing animals and plants developed by a process of gradual, continuous change from previously existing forms. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Some Information About DNA 2 2.1) Structure of DNA 2.2) Arrangement of Nucleotides in DNA 3. (slideshare.net)
- The Structure of DNA: Phenomenal Biological Powers. (visiblebody.com)
- If a part of a chromosome has been marked as inactive, or during certain steps in the cell cycle when one cell splits into two ( mitosis ), the fibers further coil into condensed chromatin, forming the typical structure many people associate with chromosomes. (stackexchange.com)
- This happens as the cyclic structure of glucose forms an open chain structure in an aqueous medium, which then reacts with NH 2 OH to give an oxime. (hamronotes.com)
- This is because pentaacetate does not form an open chain structure. (hamronotes.com)
- It was only in 1953 that James Watson and Francis Crick , based on the X-ray diffraction data produced by Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin , proposed a very simple but famous Double Helix model for the structure of DNA. (gkscientist.com)
- Watson and Crick were awarded Nobel Prize in 1962 , for giving the famous double-helical structure of DNA. (gkscientist.com)
- The structure of DNA was first deduced by J.D. Watson and F.H. Crick in 1953. (keralapscgk.com)
- Genetic engineering involves modifying the structure of DNA to produce novel genetic make-ups. (teachengineering.org)
- Chromosome Segregation and Rearrangement Chromosome segregation refers to the coordinated movement of chromosomes to opposite poles of the cell during either cellular reproduction (mitosis) or the pro. (bookrags.com)
- genes have instructions for cellular operations called DNA (DeoxyriboNucleic Acid). (naturalherbscure.com)
- Cellular delivery of the DNA enzymes was effectively improved using commercial cationic lipid formulations. (aston.ac.uk)
- Thus DNA enzymes have potential against endogenous cellular targets. (aston.ac.uk)
- While making a sperm cell, half of the X-shaped chromosomes are added to the mix, which decides half the set of genes in the child. (scienceabc.com)
- A male gamete is called sperm (spermatozoa) and is a haploid cell formed through Spermatogenesis. (onmouseup.info)
- The 23 chromosomes from the sperm pair with 23 chromosomes in the egg, forming a chromosome cell called a zygote. (onmouseup.info)
- After conception (when a sperm cell and an egg come together to make a baby), the chromosomes duplicate again and again to pass on the same genetic information to each new cell in the developing child. (kidshealth.org)
- A full set, or complement, of chromosomes is carried by each sperm or ovum in animals and each pollen grain or ovule in plants. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Where can DNA be found? (wonderopolis.org)
- DNA is also found in A- and Z-forms . (ncl.ac.uk)
- [ 1 ] The ascorbic acid content of this cherry-like fruit is thirty times that found in oranges. (angelfire.com)
- Not all cases are inherited, but genes have been found for familial forms of Alzheimer's disease. (genetherapynet.com)
- DNA found! (godandscience.org)
- Chromosomal Mutations and Abnormalities Chromosome abnormalities describe alterations in the normal number of chromosomes or structural problems within the chromosomes themselves. (bookrags.com)
- Trisomy 13 is a chromosomal disorder caused by an extra chromosome 13 that results in severe intellectual disability and physical abnormalities. (merckmanuals.com)
- Either trisomy or monosomy involving the sex chromosomes yields relatively mild abnormalities. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The DNA record is the objective form of the DNA analysis test and may include numerical representation of DNA fragment lengths, digital images of autoradiographs, discrete allele assignment numbers, and similar characteristics obtained from a DNA sample which are of value in establishing the identity of individuals. (lawserver.com)
- Chromosome Mapping Also known as cytogenetic mapping or genetic mapping, chromosome mapping is a technique used to locate particular characteristics (coded for by specific genes) on specific chromosom. (bookrags.com)
- Evo-biologists who work on the problem of forming life from non-living ingredients typically place perfectly selected ingredients in containers, then change the environmental characteristics in hopes of forming something. (evoillusion.org)
- The DNA is incubated with T4-endonuclease, and the molecular weight of the DNA is determined. (europa.eu)
- Manipulation of an organism's genes by introducing, eliminating or rearranging specific genes using the methods of modern molecular biology, particularly those techniques referred to as recombinant DNA techniques. (usda.gov)
- At the molecular level, DNA has a characteristic double-helix shape, and though this wasn't observed by scientists until mid-20th century , it has quickly become one of the most iconic shapes in all of science. (visiblebody.com)
- DNA is the set of biological instructions that are unique to every living creature on Earth. (giantmicrobes.com)
- DNA sample' means a blood, tissue, hair follicle, or other biological sample provided by any person or submitted to the division pursuant to this subdivision for analysis or storage or both. (lawserver.com)
- The DNA definition is utilised to refer to the biological course of action that makes chromosomes. (unipd.it)