Deoxyglucose: 2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.Deoxy SugarsGlucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.HexosesAntimetabolites: Drugs that are chemically similar to naturally occurring metabolites, but differ enough to interfere with normal metabolic pathways. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)MethylglucosidesMonosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Fluorodeoxyglucose F18: The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.3-O-Methylglucose: A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Hexokinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.1.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Glucose-6-Phosphate: An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)GlucosephosphatesGlucose Transporter Type 1: A ubiquitously expressed glucose transporter that is important for constitutive, basal GLUCOSE transport. It is predominately expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and ERYTHROCYTES at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and is responsible for GLUCOSE entry into the BRAIN.Glucose Transporter Type 4: A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.Glucose Transporter Type 3: A major glucose transporter found in NEURONS.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Fluorine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of fluorine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. F atoms with atomic weights 17, 18, and 20-22 are radioactive fluorine isotopes.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cytochalasin B: A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Mannose: A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Tolazamide: A sulphonylurea hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROPAMIDE.MethylglycosidesInsulin Antagonists: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or action of insulin.GlycogenGlucosaminePhosphoenolpyruvate Sugar Phosphotransferase System: The bacterial sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) that catalyzes the transfer of the phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate to its sugar substrates (the PTS sugars) concomitant with the translocation of these sugars across the bacterial membrane. The phosphorylation of a given sugar requires four proteins, two general proteins, Enzyme I and HPr and a pair of sugar-specific proteins designated as the Enzyme II complex. The PTS has also been implicated in the induction of synthesis of some catabolic enzyme systems required for the utilization of sugars that are not substrates of the PTS as well as the regulation of the activity of ADENYLYL CYCLASES. EC 2.7.1.-.Receptor, Insulin: A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Sodium Azide: A cytochrome oxidase inhibitor which is a nitridizing agent and an inhibitor of terminal oxidation. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Phloretin4-Chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan: A benzofuran derivative used as a protein reagent since the terminal N-NBD-protein conjugate possesses interesting fluorescence and spectral properties. It has also been used as a covalent inhibitor of both beef heart mitochondrial ATPase and bacterial ATPase.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Glucokinase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and D-glucose to ADP and D-glucose 6-phosphate. They are found in invertebrates and microorganisms, and are highly specific for glucose. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.2.Galactose: An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.MethylgalactosidesIodoacetates: Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.Antimycin A: An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Thiogalactosides: Galactosides in which the oxygen atom linking the sugar and aglycone is replaced by a sulfur atom.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.ThioglycosidesMannoheptulose: A 7-carbon keto sugar having the mannose configuration.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.HexosephosphatesTritiumBlood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.PhlorhizinAdipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Dinitrophenols: Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.Cyanides: Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative: A family of monosaccharide transport proteins characterized by 12 membrane spanning helices. They facilitate passive diffusion of GLUCOSE across the CELL MEMBRANE.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Salicylamides: Amides of salicylic acid.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Oligomycins: A closely related group of toxic substances elaborated by various strains of Streptomyces. They are 26-membered macrolides with lactone moieties and double bonds and inhibit various ATPases, causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from mitochondrial respiration. Used as tools in cytochemistry. Some specific oligomycins are RUTAMYCIN, peliomycin, and botrycidin (formerly venturicidin X).Aminoimidazole Carboxamide: An imidazole derivative which is a metabolite of the antineoplastic agents BIC and DIC. By itself, or as the ribonucleotide, it is used as a condensation agent in the preparation of nucleosides and nucleotides. Compounded with orotic acid, it is used to treat liver diseases.Iodoacetic Acid: A derivative of ACETIC ACID that contains one IODINE atom attached to its methyl group.Uncoupling Agents: Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.

2-Deoxyglucose selectively inhibits Fc and complement receptor-mediated phagocytosis in mouse peritoneal macrophages II. Dissociation of the inhibitory effects of 2-deoxyglucose on phagocytosis and ATP generation. (1/2660)

Macrophages incubated in 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-dG)-containing medium showed a marked decrease in cellular ATP content, and were unable to ingest IgG- and complement-coated erythrocytes via the corresponding membrane receptors for these ligands. However, the inhibitory effects of 2-dG on Fc- and C3 receptor-mediated phagocytosis were not a consequence of lowered macrophage ATP levels since addition of glucose or mannose to the culture medium restored the capacity of the macrophages to ingest IgG- and C3-coated particles without increasing ATP levels. These results indicate that Fc- and C3 receptor-mediated phagocytosis (opsonin dependent) differs qualitatively from the ingestion of latex and zymosan particles (opsonin independent); they suggest that the same regulatory molecules govern the responses of phagocytic cells to signals initiated by both the Fc and C3 receptors. The possibility that these molecules are regulated by glycosylation is discussed.  (+info)

The biological clock of very premature primate infants is responsive to light. (2/2660)

Each year more than 250,000 infants in the United States are exposed to artificial lighting in hospital nurseries with little consideration given to environmental lighting cycles. Essential in determining whether environmental lighting cycles need to be considered in hospital nurseries is identifying when the infant's endogenous circadian clock becomes responsive to light. Using a non-human primate model of the developing human, we examined when the circadian clock, located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), becomes responsive to light. Preterm infant baboons of different ages were exposed to light (5,000 lux) at night, and then changes in SCN metabolic activity and gene expression were assessed. After exposure to bright light at night, robust increases in SCN metabolic activity and gene expression were seen at ages that were equivalent to human infants at 24 weeks after conception. These data provide direct evidence that the biological clock of very premature primate infants is responsive to light.  (+info)

Characterization of a leukotriene C4 export mechanism in human platelets: possible involvement of multidrug resistance-associated protein 1. (3/2660)

Platelets express leukotriene (LT) C4 synthase and can thus participate in the formation of bioactive LTC4. To further elucidate the relevance of this capability, we have now determined the capacity of human platelets to export LTC4. Endogenously formed LTC4 was efficiently released from human platelets after incubation with LTA4 at 37 degrees C, whereas only 15% of produced LTC4 was exported when the cells were incubated at 0 degrees C. The activation energy of the process was calculated to 49.9 +/- 7.7 kJ/mol, indicating carrier-mediated LTC4 export. This was also supported by the finding that the transport was saturable, reaching a maximal export rate of 470 +/- 147 pmol LTC4/min x 10(9) platelets. Furthermore, markedly suppressed LTC4 transport was induced by a combination of the metabolic inhibitors antimycin A and 2-deoxyglucose, suggesting energy-dependent export. The presence in platelets of multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1), a protein described to be an energy-dependent LTC4 transporter in various cell types, was demonstrated at the mRNA and protein level. Additional support for a role of MRP1 in platelet LTC4 export was obtained by the findings that the process was inhibited by probenecid and the 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (FLAP) inhibitor, MK-886. The present findings further support the physiological relevance of platelet LTC4 production.  (+info)

Mannose inhibits Arabidopsis germination via a hexokinase-mediated step. (4/2660)

Low concentrations of the glucose (Glc) analog mannose (Man) inhibit germination of Arabidopsis seeds. Man is phosphorylated by hexokinase (HXK), but the absence of germination was not due to ATP or phosphate depletion. The addition of metabolizable sugars reversed the Man-mediated inhibition of germination. Carbohydrate-mediated regulation of gene expression involving a HXK-mediated pathway is known to be activated by Glc, Man, and other monosaccharides. Therefore, we investigated whether Man blocks germination through this system. By testing other Glc analogs, we found that 2-deoxyglucose, which, like Man, is phosphorylated by HXK, also blocked germination; no inhibition was observed with 6-deoxyglucose or 3-O-methylglucose, which are not substrates for HXK. Since these latter two sugars are taken up at a rate similar to that of Man, uptake is unlikely to be involved in the inhibition of germination. Furthermore, we show that mannoheptulose, a specific HXK inhibitor, restores germination of seeds grown in the presence of Man. We conclude that HXK is involved in the Man-mediated repression of germination of Arabidopsis seeds, possibly via energy depletion.  (+info)

Developmental regulation of genes mediating murine brain glucose uptake. (5/2660)

We examined the molecular mechanisms that mediate the developmental increase in murine whole brain 2-deoxyglucose uptake. Northern and Western blot analyses revealed an age-dependent increase in brain GLUT-1 (endothelial cell and glial) and GLUT-3 (neuronal) membrane-spanning facilitative glucose transporter mRNA and protein concentrations. Nuclear run-on experiments revealed that these developmental changes in GLUT-1 and -3 were regulated posttranscriptionally. In contrast, the mRNA and protein levels of the mitochondrially bound glucose phosphorylating hexokinase I enzyme were unaltered. However, hexokinase I enzyme activity increased in an age-dependent manner suggestive of a posttranslational modification that is necessary for enzymatic activation. Together, the postnatal increase in GLUT-1 and -3 concentrations and hexokinase I enzymatic activity led to a parallel increase in murine brain 2-deoxyglucose uptake. Whereas the molecular mechanisms regulating the increase in the three different gene products may vary, the age-dependent increase of all three constituents appears essential for meeting the increasing demand of the maturing brain to fuel the processes of cellular growth, differentiation, and neurotransmission.  (+info)

Endothelin stimulates glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation via activation of endothelin ETA receptor in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (6/2660)

Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a 21-amino acid peptide that binds to G-protein-coupled receptors to evoke biological responses. This report studies the effect of ET-1 on regulating glucose transport in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ET-1, but not angiotensin II, stimulated glucose uptake in a dose-dependent manner with an EC50 value of 0.29 nM and a 2.47-fold stimulation at 100 nM. ET-1 stimulated glucose uptake in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells but had no effect in undifferentiated cells, although ET-1 stimulated phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis to a similar degree in both. The 3T3-L1 cells expressed approximately 560,000 sites/cell of ETA receptor, which was not altered during differentiation. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining show that ET-1 stimulated the translocation of insulin-responsive aminopeptidase and GLUT4 to the plasma membrane. The effect of ET-1 on glucose uptake was blocked by A-216546, an antagonist selective for the ETA receptor. ET-1 treatment did not induce phosphorylation of insulin receptor beta-subunit, insulin receptor substrate-1, or Akt but stimulated the tyrosyl phosphorylation of a 75-kDa protein. Genistein (100 microM), an inhibitor of tyrosine kinases, inhibited ET-1-stimulated glucose uptake. Our results show that ET-1 stimulates GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes via activation of ETA receptor.  (+info)

High concentration of glucose decreases glucose transporter-1 expression in mouse placenta in vitro and in vivo. (7/2660)

Facilitative glucose transporter-1 (GLUT1) is expressed abundantly and has an important role in glucose transfer in placentas. However, little is known about the regulation of GLUT1 expression in placental cells. We studied the changes in placental GLUT1 levels in relation to changes in glucose concentration in vitro and in vivo. In in vitro experiments, dispersed mouse placental cells were incubated under control (5.5 mM) and moderately high (22 mM) glucose concentrations, and 2-deoxyglucose uptake into cells was studied on days 1-5 of culture. After 4 days of incubation under both conditions, GLUT1 mRNA and proten levels were examined by Northern and immunoblot analyses. Treatment of cells with 22 mM glucose resulted in a significant decrease in 2-deoxyglucose uptake compared with control, from day 2 to day 5 of culture. Moreover, GLUT1 mRNA and protein levels on day 4 of culture were significantly reduced in cells incubated with 22 mM glucose compared with control. Next, we rendered mice diabetic by administering 200 micrograms/g body weight streptozotocin (STZ) on day 8 of pregnancy. Animals were killed on day 12 of pregnancy and placental tissues were obtained. [3H]Cytochalasin B binding study was carried out to assess total GLUTs, and GLUT1 mRNA and protein were measured as above. [3H]Cytochalasin B binding sites in placentas from STZ-treated mice were significantly less than those in control mice. Northern and immunoblot analyses revealed a significant decrease in GLUT1 mRNA and protein levels in diabetic mice compared with the controls. These findings suggest that the glucose concentration may regulate the expression of placental GLUT1.  (+info)

Chronic hypoglycemia and diabetes impair counterregulation induced by localized 2-deoxy-glucose perfusion of the ventromedial hypothalamus in rats. (8/2660)

Previous studies have demonstrated that the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) plays a critical role in sensing and responding to systemic hypoglycemia. To evaluate the mechanisms of defective counterregulation caused by iatrogenic hypoglycemia and diabetes per se, we delivered 2-deoxy-glucose (2-DG) via microdialysis into the VMH to produce localized cellular glucopenia in the absence of systemic hypoglycemia. Three groups of awake chronically catheterized rats were studied: 1) nondiabetic (with a mean daily glucose [MDG] of 6.9 mmol/l) BB control rats (n = 5); 2) chronically hypoglycemic nondiabetic (3-4 weeks, with an MDG of 2.7 mmol/l) BB rats (n = 5); and 3) moderately hyperglycemic insulin-treated diabetic (with an MDG of 12.4 mmol/l) BB rats (n = 8). In hypoglycemic rats, both glucagon and catecholamine responses to VMH glucopenia were markedly (77-93%) suppressed. In diabetic rats, VMH 2-DG perfusion was totally ineffective in stimulating glucagon release. The epinephrine response, but not the norepinephrine response, was also diminished by 38% in the diabetic group. We conclude that impaired counterregulation after chronic hypoglycemia may result from alterations of the VMH or its efferent pathways. In diabetes, the capacity of VMH glucopenia to activate the sympathoadrenal system is only modestly diminished; however, the communication between the VMH and the alpha-cell is totally interrupted.  (+info)

  • This benchmark article described for the first time the theory and procedure of the quantitative autoradiographic [14C] deoxyglucose method for the quantitative determination of local glucose utilization in the nervous system and the values obtained with it in normal and anesthetized rats. (nih.gov)
  • Recently, positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) has been suggested as a promising novel imaging technique to identify the inflammatory state of atherosclerotic plaque. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Early assessment with 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography to predict short-term outcome in clear cell renal carcinoma treated with nivolumab. (urotoday.com)
  • We reported previously the usefulness of 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) to predict prognosis of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) treated with molecular targeted agents. (urotoday.com)
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six lesions identified on noncontrast MR in 35 patients with biopsy-proved intracranial tumors were imaged with both T1-weighted Cd-DTPA MR at 1.5 T and [ 18 F]2-fiuoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). (elsevier.com)
  • 18-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography ( $^{18}F$ -FDG PET/CT) scans are commonly used for the staging and restaging of various malignancies, such as head and neck, breast, colorectal and gynecological cancers. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Metabolic imaging of untreated prostate cancer by positron emission tomography with 18fluorine-labeled deoxyglucose. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • 18 F-FDG (fluorine-18 deoxyglucose) has become widely used as a radiolabeled marker for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of solid tumors. (springer.com)
  • The coupling between synaptic activity and glucose utilization (neurometabolic coupling) is a central physiological principle of brain function that has provided the basis for 2-deoxyglucose-based functional imaging with positron emission tomography (PET). (biologists.org)
  • Here, we discuss the evidence for one glycolytic inhibitor, 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) and one metabolic substrate, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) exerting direct effects on neuronal excitability, highlight their mechanistic differences, and provide the strengthening scientific rationale for their individual or possibly combined use in the clinical arena of seizure management. (frontiersin.org)
  • 2-Deoxyglucose (2DG), an inhibitor of glycolysis, abrogates seizure activity and retards epilepsy progression both in vitro and in vivo . (frontiersin.org)
  • Previous studies demonstrated that a glycolysis inhibitor, 2-deoxyglucose (2DG), blocks replication of L. pneumophila during infection of macrophages, leading to speculation that L. pneumophila may exploit macrophage glycolysis. (asm.org)
  • Because 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) is a competitive inhibitor of glycolysis we tested its ability to reduce hyperglycemia-exacerbated ischemic brain damage. (ahajournals.org)
  • This study investigated the preclinical efficacy of targeting the tumor bioenergetic pathway using a glycolysis inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) and AMPK agonists, AICAR and metformin. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 2-Deoxyglucose (2-DG), a glycolytic inhibitor analog of glucose, is widely investigated in experimental and clinical oncology for targeting glucose metabolism. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our lead compound, developed at the National Institute on Aging, was 2-deoxyglucose, an analogue of the native sugar, that acted as a glycolytic inhibitor, having limited metabolism and actually reducing overall energy flow--analogous to CR. (isharonline.org)
  • Previously, we reported that under normal O 2 conditions (21% O 2 ), the dual glucose metabolism inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) activates a cytoprotective autophagic response in cancer cells mainly through the induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress rather than ATP 2 reduction. (elsevier.com)
  • Expression of the Escherichia coli glk (glucokinase) gene in M. xanthus hex mutants restores 2dGlc sensitivity, suggesting that these mutants arise upon the loss of a soluble hexokinase function that phosphorylates 2dGlc to form the toxic intermediate, 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate. (asm.org)
  • 2-Deoxyglucose (2DG) was detected by measuring a potent fluorophore, resorufin, generated after incubation with a single assay solution containing hexokinase, adenosine 5'-triphosphate, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, beta-nicotineamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, diaphorase, and resazurin. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In enzymology, a 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.68) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 2-deoxy-D-glucose 6-phosphate + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 2-deoxy-D-glucose + phosphate Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are 2-deoxy-D-glucose 6-phosphate and H2O, whereas its two products are 2-deoxy-D-glucose and phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme is also called 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate phosphatase. (wikipedia.org)
  • In enzymology, a dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxyglucose reductase (EC 1.1.1.266) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction dTDP-D-fucose + NADP+ ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-glucose + NADPH + H+ Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are dTDP-D-fucose and NADP+, whereas its 3 products are dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-glucose, NADPH, and H+. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme is also called dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxyglucose reductase. (wikipedia.org)
  • We performed an extended lab-directed evolution of Z. mobilis strain 8b in the presence of acetate and a non-hydrolyzable glucose analogue 2-deoxyglucose. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells of strains each carrying a deletion of one of the genes snf5, ypa1, pho7 and pas1 and of a strain overexpress-ing gene odr1, have been previously shown to grow in presence of the toxic glucose analogue 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG). (exeley.com)
  • This benchmark article described for the first time the theory and procedure of the quantitative autoradiographic [14C] deoxyglucose method for the quantitative determination of local glucose utilization in the nervous system and the values obtained with it in normal and anesthetized rats. (nih.gov)
  • abstract = "Radiolabeled deoxyglucose (FDG) has been advocated as a marker of viability of reperfused myocardium during acute infarction. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "Neuronal activity underlying various phases of the mammalian hibernation cycle was investigated using the 14C-2-deoxyglucose (2DG) method. (elsevier.com)
  • 1971. Effect of 2-deoxyglucose on cell wall formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its relation to cell growth inhibition. (exeley.com)
  • The accumulation of phosphorylated 2-deoxyglucose (2DGP) was increased in skeletal muscles by 56-102% and in diaphragm by 236% at 3 h after treatment with 100 micrograms/100 g endotoxin. (physiology.org)
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae MCD4 is a 2-deoxyglucose (2-DOG)-resistant mutant derived from the wild-type strain, AK46, wherein the 2-DOG resistance improves the maltose fermentative ability. (mdpi.com)
  • 1. We have studied the effects of the metabolic inhibitors cyanide (CN) and deoxyglucose (DG) on the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in macrovascular endothelial cells derived from human umbilical vein (EA cells). (kuleuven.be)
  • 14C]2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) autoradiography was combined with T2* OC to determine metabolic status of T2*-defined penumbra. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Treatment of cells of all ages with inhibitors of ATP synthesis (oligomycin, 2,4-dinitrophenol, or 2-deoxyglucose) made them more susceptible to cell death but also led to a switch in the death mode from apoptosis to necrosis. (pnas.org)
  • Cultures of Chinese Hamster Cells (CCL 16, Don Strain) were treated with 2-Deoxyglucose over varying lengths of time in order to compare the mitotic index with the rate of adenosine triphosphate synthesis. (uni.edu)
  • Deoxyglucose mapping of nervous activity induced in Drosophila brain by visual movement. (mpg.de)
  • A near-infrared fluorophore, IRDye 800CW, emission maximum 794 nm, was conjugated to 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG). (unl.edu)
  • Through adaptation in the presence of 2-deoxyglucose, we have generated Zymomonas mobilis strain #7, which is better suited to utilizing xylose in pretreated corn stover (PCS) fermentations in the presence of both glucose and model inhibitory compounds of acetate and furfural. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lysis of yeast cell walls induced by 2-deoxyglucose at their sites of glucan synthesis. (exeley.com)
  • Introduction: This study proposes the use 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) with the PKM2 activator, TEPP46 as a novel drug combination for cancer chemotherapy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These observations do not support a role for the use of radiolabeled deoxyglucose for the detection of myocardial viability in recently infarcted cardiac muscle. (elsevier.com)