The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
A hydroxylated derivative of the amino acid LYSINE that is present in certain collagens.
The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians, and are qualified by special training and, frequently, by licensure to work in supporting roles in the health care field. These occupations include, but are not limited to, medical technology, physical therapy, physician assistant, etc.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
Development of a library collection, including the determination and coordination of selection policy, assessment of needs of users and potential users, collection use studies, collection evaluation, identification of collection needs, selection of materials, planning for resource sharing, collection maintenance and weeding, and budgeting.
Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.
A historical and cultural entity dispersed across a wide geographical area under the influence of Greek civilization, culture, and science. The Greek Empire extended from the Greek mainland and the Aegean islands from the 16th century B.C., to the Indus Valley in the 4th century under Alexander the Great, and to southern Italy and Sicily. Greek medicine began with Homeric and Aesculapian medicine and continued unbroken to Hippocrates (480-355 B.C.). The classic period of Greek medicine was 460-136 B.C. and the Graeco-Roman period, 156 B.C.-576 A.D. (From A. Castiglioni, A History of Medicine, 2d ed; from F. H. Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed)
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.
DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Physiologic methyl radical donor involved in enzymatic transmethylation reactions and present in all living organisms. It possesses anti-inflammatory activity and has been used in treatment of chronic liver disease. (From Merck, 11th ed)
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.

2-Deoxyglucose selectively inhibits Fc and complement receptor-mediated phagocytosis in mouse peritoneal macrophages II. Dissociation of the inhibitory effects of 2-deoxyglucose on phagocytosis and ATP generation. (1/352)

Macrophages incubated in 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-dG)-containing medium showed a marked decrease in cellular ATP content, and were unable to ingest IgG- and complement-coated erythrocytes via the corresponding membrane receptors for these ligands. However, the inhibitory effects of 2-dG on Fc- and C3 receptor-mediated phagocytosis were not a consequence of lowered macrophage ATP levels since addition of glucose or mannose to the culture medium restored the capacity of the macrophages to ingest IgG- and C3-coated particles without increasing ATP levels. These results indicate that Fc- and C3 receptor-mediated phagocytosis (opsonin dependent) differs qualitatively from the ingestion of latex and zymosan particles (opsonin independent); they suggest that the same regulatory molecules govern the responses of phagocytic cells to signals initiated by both the Fc and C3 receptors. The possibility that these molecules are regulated by glycosylation is discussed.  (+info)

Structure of the O-specific polysaccharide of a serologically separate strain Proteus penneri 2 from a new proposed serogroup O66. (2/352)

O-specific polysaccharide chain of Proteus penneri strain 2 lipopolysaccharide was studied by full and partial acid hydrolysis, Smith degradation, methylation analysis, and NMR spectroscopy, including two-dimensional rotating-frame NOE spectroscopy (ROESY) and 1H,13C heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherence (HMQC) experiments. Together with D-glucose and 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose, the polysaccharide was found to contain two rarely occurring sugars, 6-deoxy-L-talose (L-6dTal) and 2,3-diacetamido-2,3,6-trideoxy-L-mannose (L-RhaNAc3NAc), and the following structure of a non-stoichiometrically O-acetylated tetrasaccharide repeating unit was established: [equation: see text] The O-specific polysaccharide studied has a unique composition and structure and, accordingly, P. penneri 2 is serologically separate among Proteus strains. Therefore, we propose for P. penneri 2 a new Proteus O-serogroup O66 where this strain is at present the single representative.  (+info)

Interactions on 3-deoxy and 6-deoxy derivatives of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine with hen lysozyme. (3/352)

The interactions of deoxy derivatives of GlcNAc, 6-deoxy-GlcNAc, and 3-deoxy-GlcNAc with hen egg-white lysozyme [EC 3.2.1.17] were studied at various pH's by measuring the changes in the circular dichroic (CD) band at 295 nm. It was shown that 6-deoxy-GlcNAc and 3-deoxy-GlcNAc bind at subsite C of lysozyme and compete with GlcNAc. The pH dependence of the binding constant of 6-deoxy-GlcNAc was the same as that of GlcNAc. On the other hand, the binding constants of 3-deoxy-GlcNAc were 3--10 times smaller than those of GlcNAc in the pH range from 3 to 9. X-ray crystallographic studies show that O(6) and O(3) of GlcNAc at subsite C are hydrogen-bonded to the indole NH's of Trp 62 and Trp 63, respectively, but the above results indicate that Trp 63, not Trp 62, is important for the interaction of GlcNAc with lysozyme.  (+info)

2-Deoxyglucose selectively inhibits Fc and complement receptor-mediated phagocytosis in mouse peritoneal macrophages. I. Description of the inhibitory effect. (4/352)

Incubation of normal or thioglycollate-elicited mouse peritoneal macrophages with 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-dG) inhibits the capacity of these macrophages to phagocytize IgG- or complement-coated particles via their Fc and C3 receptors. 2-dG has no inhibitory effect on the capacity of these macrophages to phagocytize latex or zymosan particles, which are ingested in the absence of specific opsonins, and it does not inhibit binding of IgG- or C3-coated particles to their respective receptors on the macrophage's plasma membrane. 2-dG exerts its inhibitory effect on the macrophage and not on the opsonized particle. The inhibition is independent of particle size, occurs within 15-30 min of addition of this glucose analogue to the medium at 37 degrees C, cannot be overcome by supra-agglutinating amounts of opsonizing antibody, and is completely reversible by substitution of 5.5 mM glucose for 50 mM 2-dG in the medium. Addition of equimolar amounts of glucose or mannose, but not of fructose, galactose, fucose, or glucosamine, to medium containing 50 mM 2-dG results in substantial reversal of the inhibitory effect of 2-dG on Fc and C3 receptor mediated phagocytosis.  (+info)

Interference of nucleoside diphosphate derivatives of 2-deoxy-D-glucose with the glycosylation of virus-specific glycoproteins in vivo. (5/352)

The predominant effect of 2-deoxy-D-glucose on chick embryo cells infected with Semliki Forest virus is an interference with glycosylation of virus-specific glycoproteins; this results in a block of synthesis of infectious virus. Incorporation of radioactive mannose is blocked severely in the presence of 2-deoxyglucose in the cultural medium although it is readily phosphorylated and subsequently activated by GTP to yield GDP-mannose, which accumulates under these conditions. The intracellular concentrations of GDP-mannose and UDP-N-acetyl-D-hexosamine are not reduced in the presence of the inhibitor. An equimolar concentration of mannose in the cultural medium competes with the inhibitory effect of the deoxysugar and drops the cellular pool of GDP-2-deoxy-D-glucose below the level of detection, at the same time restoring the synthesis of infectious virus. When the intracellular concentration of UDP-2-deoxyglucose is reduced by addition of glucose into the cultural medium the inhibition of virus synthesis by the deoxysugar and the concentration of GDP-2-deoxyglucose within the cells remain near to the values when the inhibitor is present alone. It is concluded that among the metabolites of 2-deoxyglucose which occur in vivo after addition of 2-deoxyglucose to the culture medium, GDP-2-deoxyglucose is the agent responsible for inhibition of glycosylation of viral glycoproteins.  (+info)

[18F]-labeled 3-deoxy-3-fluoro-D-glucose: synthesis and preliminary biodistribution data. (6/352)

A cyclotron target system for the production of anhydrous [18F] fluoride ion has been developed and used for the synthesis of carrier-free [18F]-3-deoxy-3fluoro-D-glucose (3-FDG). The synthesis is sufficiently rapid and efficient to allow production of usable amounts of 3-FDG with a 6-MeV cyclotron. Preliminary animal studies show that 3-FDG is in fact a glucose analog.  (+info)

The effect of 2-deoxy-D-glucose and D-glucose on the efferent discharge rate of sympathetic nerves. (7/352)

Efferent discharges were recorded from nerve filaments dissected from the adrenal and renal nerves in the rabbit. 2. An increase in discharge rate was observed in the adrenal nerve filaments following I.V. administration of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG). No change in discharge rate after 2-DG infusion was observed in the renal nerve filaments. 3. A decrease in discharge rate of the adrenal nerve filaments was observed after I.V. injection of glucose, but there was no change in the activity of renal nerve filaments. 4. Transection of the spinal cord abolished the adrenal nerve response to the systemic administration of 2-DG and glucose. 5. It is suggested that there might be a pathway from the hypothalmic area to the adrenal nerve cells of the spinal cord, but not to the renal nerve cells, through which activity of the adrenal nerve might be changed in response to 2-DG and glucose infusion.  (+info)

Thymidine diphosphate-6-deoxy-L-lyxo-4-hexulose reductase synthesizing dTDP-6-deoxy-L-talose from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. (8/352)

The serotype c-specific polysaccharide antigen of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans NCTC 9710 contains an unusual sugar, 6-deoxy-L-talose, which has been identified as a constituent of cell wall components in some bacteria. Two genes coding for thymidine diphosphate (dTDP)-6-deoxy-L-lyxo-4-hexulose reductases were identified in the gene cluster required for biosynthesis of serotype c-specific polysaccharide. Both dTDP-6-deoxy-L-lyxo-4-hexulose reductases were overproduced and purified from Escherichia coli transformed with the plasmids containing these genes. The sugar nucleotides converted by both reductases were purified by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography and identified by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance and gas-liquid chromatography. The results indicated that one of two reductases produced dTDP-6-deoxy-L-talose and the other produced dTDP-L-rhamnose (dTDP-6-deoxy-L-mannose). The amino acid sequence of the dTDP-6-deoxy-L-lyxo-4-hexulose reductase forming dTDP-6-deoxy-L-talose shared only weak homology with that forming dTDP-L-rhamnose, despite the fact that these two enzymes catalyze the reduction of the same substrate and the products are determined by the stereospecificity of the reductase activity. Neither the gene for dTDP-6-deoxy-L-talose biosynthesis nor its corresponding protein product has been found in other bacteria; this biosynthetic pathway is identified here for the first time.  (+info)

Glycosyl ortho-alkynylbenzoates have emerged as a new generation of donors for glycosidation under the catalysis of gold(I) complexes such as Ph3PAuOTf and Ph3PAuNTf2 (Tf= trifluoromethanesulfonate). A wide variety of these donors, including 2-deoxy sugar and sialyl donors, are easily prepared and shelf stable. The glycosidic coupling yields with alcohols are generally excellent; even direct coupling with the poorly nucleophilic amides gives satisfactory yields. Moreover, excellent alpha-selective glycosylation with a 2-deoxy sugar donor and beta-selective sialylation have been realized. Application of the present glycosylation protocol in the efficient synthesis of a cyclic triterpene tetrasaccharide have further demonstrated the versatility and efficacy of this new method, in that a novel chemoselective glycosylation of the carboxylic acid and a new one-pot sequential glycosylation sequence have been implemented ...
4-Deoxy-4-fluoro-D-glucose 29218-07-3 MSDS report, 4-Deoxy-4-fluoro-D-glucose MSDS safety technical specifications search, 4-Deoxy-4-fluoro-D-glucose safety information specifications ect.
The apparent enhancement of 2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake by mouse 3T3 cells accompanying transformation by SV40 virus is not due primarily to an effect on the transport process but to enhanced phosphorylation of the sugar by intracellular kinases. Moreover, the effect is not specifically a function of the presence of the viral genome, but is a reflection of the overall growth rate and physiological state of the cell. ...
2-[2-13c]Acetamido-2-Deoxy-d-glucose/ACM478518897 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best products and services.
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Product Number , 73965300. CAS Number , 154-17-6. EC , 205-823-0. Molecular Formula , C6H12O5. Molecular Weight , 164.16. Storage Temp , Harmonized Tariff code , 29400000. Signal Word , ...
dTDP-3-amino-2,3,6-trideoxy-4-keto-D-glucose/dTDP-3-amino-3,4,6-trideoxy-alpha-D-glucose/dTDP-2,6-dideoxy-D-kanosamine transaminase [EC:2.6.1.106 2.6.1 ...
PubMed comprises more than 27 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
I recently discovered that my 49 year old wife has been taking my sons adderall for a year. She has been taking 20mg. per day. She also takes celexa for depression. I am concerned that she is addict...
Periodical: Sokoloff, Louis, Martin Reivich, Charles Kennedy, M. H. Des Rosiers, C. S. Patlak, K. D. Pettigrew, O. Sakurada, and M. Shinohara. The [14C]Deoxyglucose Method for the Measurement of Local Cerebral Glucose Utilization: Theory, Procedure, and Normal Values in the Conscious and Anesthetized Albino Rat. Journal of Neurochemistry 28, 5 (1977): 897-916. Article. 20 Images ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cerebral glucose utilization is reduced in second test session. AU - Stapleton, June M.. AU - Morgan, Michael J.. AU - Liu, Xiang. AU - Yung, Babington C K. AU - Phillips, Robert L.. AU - Wong, Dean Foster. AU - Shaya, Elias K.. AU - Dannals, Robert F. AU - London, Edythe D.. PY - 1997/6. Y1 - 1997/6. N2 - Cerebral glucose utilization was higher during the first positron emission tomography (PET) session than during the second session, as assayed using the PET [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose method in male human volunteers. This difference was due largely to data from subjects with low trait anxiety, since subjects with high anxiety showed similar metabolism in both PET sessions. High anxiety subjects showed greater right/left ratios of cerebral metabolism than low-anxiety subjects, particularly during the second PET session. These findings suggest that the level of anxiety may be an important variable to consider in PET studies using multiple sessions.. AB - Cerebral glucose utilization ...
Metabolism of 2-deoxy-D-glucose by bakers yeast. I. Isolation and identification of phosphorylated esters of 2-deoxy-D-glucose ...
Size-resolved aerosol samples for subsequent quantitative determination of polymer sugars (polysaccharides) after hydrolysis to their subunit monomers (monosaccharides) were collected in surface air over the central Arctic Ocean during the biologically most active summer period. The analysis was carried out by novel use of liquid chromatography coupled with highly selective and sensitive tandem mass spectrometry. Polysaccharides were detected in particle sizes ranging from 0.035 to 10 mu m in diameter with distinct features of heteropolysaccharides, enriched in xylose, glucose + mannose as well as a substantial fraction of deoxysugars. Polysaccharides, containing deoxysugar monomers, showed a bimodal size structure with about 70% of their mass found in the Aitken mode over the pack ice area. Pentose (xylose) and hexose (glucose + mannose) had a weaker bimodal character and were largely found with super-micrometer sizes and in addition with a minor sub-micrometer fraction. The concentration of ...
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by Lees, J. P and Poireau, V and Tisserand, V and Grauges, E and Palano, A and Eigen, G and Brown, D. N and Kolomensky, Yu. G and Fritsch, M and Schroeder, T and Hearty, C and Mattison, T. S and McKenna, J. A and So, R. Y and Blinov, V. E and Buzykaev, A. R and zhinin, V. P and Golubev, V. B and Kravchenko, E. A and Onuchin, A. P and Serednyakov, S. I and Skovpen, Yu. I and Solodov, E. P and Todyshev, K. Yu and Lankford, A. J and Gary, J. W and Long, O and Eisner, A. M and Lockman, W. S and Vazquez, W. Panduro and Chao, D. S and Echenard, B and Flood, K. T and Hitlin, D. G and Miyashita, T. S and Ongmongkolkul, P and Rohrken, M and Huard, Z and Meadows, B. T and Pushpawela, B. G and Sokoloff, M. D and Smith, J. G and Wagner, S. R and Bernard, D and Verderi, M and Bettoni, D and Bozzi, C and Calabrese, R and Cibinetto, G and Fioravanti, E and Garzia, I and Luppi, E and Santoro, V and Calcaterra, A and de Sangro, R and Finocchiaro, G and Martellotti, S and Patteri, P and Peruzzi, I. M and Piccolo, ...
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2-Deoxy-2-Phthalimido-tri-acetofluoro-alpha-D-glucose2-Deoxy-2-Phthalimido-3,4,6-Tri-O-Acetyl-alpha-D-Glucopyranosyl Fluoride22004 1g | ...
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Positron emission tomography (PET) in use with F-18 labeled deoxyglucose (FDG) has received considerable attention in recent years for its role in studies of cerebral glucose metabolism. PET...
PubMedID: 23509326 | Fasting 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography to detect metabolic changes in pulmonary arterial hypertension hearts over 1 year. | Annals of the American Thoracic Society | 2/1/2013
Dastur, Darab K. (Darab K. Dastur), Lane, Mark H. (Mark H. Lane), Hansen, Douglas B. (Douglas B. Hansen), Kety, Seymour S., Butler, Robert N., 1927-2010, Perlin, Seymour (Seymour Perlin), and Sokoloff, Louis (Louis Sokoloff ...
The Author(s) 2018. Oxidative stress plays an important role in the onset and progression of Parkinson disease. Although released dopamine at the synaptic terminal is mostly reabsorbed by dopaminergic neurons, some dopamine is presumably taken up by astroglia. This study examined the dopamine-induced astroglial protective function through the activation of the pentose-phosphate pathway (PPP) to reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS). In vitro experiments were performed using striatal neurons and cortical or striatal astroglia prepared from Sprague-Dawley rats or C57BL/6 mice. The rates of glucose phosphorylation in astroglia were evaluated using the [ 14 C]deoxyglucose method. PPP activity was measured using [1- 14 C]glucose and [6- 14 C]glucose after acute (60 min) or chronic (15 hr) exposure to dopamine. ROS production was measured using 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. The involvement of the Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) or nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor ...
Insulin binding and 2-deoxy-d-glucose uptake were compared in the soleus, plantaris, and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles, in vitro, since the known biochemical profile of the soleus differs markedly from the other two. The present study showed that insulin binding increased in all three muscles with increasing concentrations of insulin in the range of 0.2- 30 nM. However, the increase in binding of insulin to soleus at each insulin concentration exceeded that observed in the other two muscles (P , 0.05). Differences between the plantaris and EDL were not significant. The quantity of insulin bound at each concentration also increased more rapidly in the soleus than in either the plantaris (P , 0.05) or EDL (P , 0.05). Basal and insulin-stimulated uptake of 2-deoxy-d-glucose was also greater in the soleus than in the other muscles (P , 0.05). Maximal 2-deoxy-d-glucose uptake occurred at 1 nM insulin in each of the three muscles. These results indicate that in metabolically distinct types ...
Provide fine chemicals, building blocks and pharmaceutical intermediates. PI-15720 2-Deoxy-D-glucose (154-17-6) Synonym: Molecular Formula: C6H12O5 Weight: 164.16 CAS No: 154-17-6 Appearance: white crystalline solid Purity:98.0% FM Point:146-147℃ Order online from laboratory chemical supplier and distributor.
Author(s): Lees, JP; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Grauges, E; Palano, A; Eigen, G; Brown, DN; Kolomensky, YG; Fritsch, M; Koch, H; Schroeder, T; Hearty, C; Mattison, TS; McKenna, JA; So, RY; Blinov, VE; Buzykaev, AR; Druzhinin, VP; Golubev, VB; Kravchenko, EA; Onuchin, AP; Serednyakov, SI; Skovpen, YI; Solodov, EP; Todyshev, KY; Lankford, AJ; Gary, JW; Long, O; Eisner, AM; Lockman, WS; Panduro Vazquez, W; Chao, DS; Cheng, CH; Echenard, B; Flood, KT; Hitlin, DG; Kim, J; Miyashita, TS; Ongmongkolkul, P; Porter, FC; Röhrken, M; Huard, Z; Meadows, BT; Pushpawela, BG; Sokoloff, MD; Sun, L; Smith, JG; Wagner, SR; Bernard, D; Verderi, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Fioravanti, E; Garzia, I; Luppi, E; Santoro, V; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Martellotti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, IM; Piccolo, M; Rotondo, M; Zallo, A; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Lacker, HM; Bhuyan, B; Szczepaniak, AP; Mallik, U; Chen, C; Cochran, J; Prell, S; Ahmed, H; Pennington, MR; Gritsan, AV | Abstract: ©
Experiments were carried out on 11 anesthetized cats (Na-pentobarbital). Uptake of a glucose analogue (2-deoxy- d-glucose) by intestinal mucosa and muscularis from arterial plasma was studied in...
Cell structureCell envelopeBiosynthesis and degradation of surface polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharidesTDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose transaminase (TIGR02379; HMM-score: 21) ...
We studied the uptake of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) and the synthesis of its phosphorylated product 2DG-6-phosphate (2DG-6P) by the retinas of the clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) and the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana). Autoradiographs showed that most of the retinal 2DG uptake is by the photoreceptor layer. The 2DG accumulation by isolated Xenopus retinas was time and concentration dependent. The Kt for transport was 5.05 mM; Vmax was 6.99 X 10(-10) mol . mg-1 tissue wet weight min-1. The Km for 2DG-6P formation was estimated to be 2-3 mM and Vmax to be approximately 4 x 10(-9) mol . mg-1 min-1. 2DG uptake was inhibited competitively by glucose with a Ki of 2.29 mM. Exposure to light reduced 2DG uptake by no more than 10% as compared with dark uptake. Low sodium or ouabain (10(-4)-10(-7) M) treatment did not significantly alter 2DG uptake as compared with control retinas. In experiments upon intact, anesthetized bullfrogs, light reduced both the total amount of radioactivity acquired by the retina and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ischemia-induced impairment of 2-deoxyglucose uptake and CA1 field potentials in rat hippocampal slices. T2 - Protection by 5-HT1A receptor agonists and 5-HT2 receptor antagonists. AU - Shigenobu Shibata, Shibata. AU - Yoshifumi Kagami-Ishi, Kagami-Ishi. AU - Keiko Tominaga, Tominaga. AU - Koutaroh Kodama, Kodama. AU - Showa Ueki, Ueki. AU - Shigenori Watanabe, Watanabe. PY - 1992/12/8. Y1 - 1992/12/8. N2 - Various in vitro models have been developed to study ischemia and/or hypoxia. In the present experiment, we examined whether hypoxia/hypoglycemia (ischemia) in rat hippocampal slices reduced the 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) uptake and CA1 field potentials evoked by stimulation of Schaffer collaterals. Autoradiograms revealed that ischemia for 15 or 20 min reduced 2-DG uptake in the stratum radiatum of the CA1 and the dentate gyrus. Similarly, the CA1 field potentials of slices exposed to ischemia for 15 and 20 min decreased by about 70 and 90% after a 6-h washout. In the second ...
Use of [18F]FDG-PET in clinical breast cancer (BC) imaging is limited mainly due to insufficient expression levels of GLUT1 in up to 50% of all patients. Fructose-specific facilitative hexose transporter GLUT5 represents an alternative biomarker for PET imaging of hexose metabolism in BC. The goal of the present study was to compare uptake characteristics of selected hexose-based PET radiotracers in murine BC model EMT6. Uptake of 1-deoxy-1-[18F]fluoro-D-fructose (1-[18F]FDF), 6-deoxy-6-[18F]fluoro-D-fructose (6-[18F]FDF), 1-deoxy-1-[18F]fluoro-2,5-anhydro-mannitol (1-[18F]FDAM), 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (2-[18F]FDG) and 6-deoxy-6-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (6-[18F]FDG) was studied in EMT6 cells, tumors and muscle and correlated to GLUT1 and GLUT5 expression levels ...
dTDP-β-L-rhamnose = dTDP-6-deoxy-β-L-mannose. Other name(s): dTDP-4-keto-L-rhamnose reductase; reductase, thymidine diphospho-4-ketorhamnose; dTDP-4-ketorhamnose reductase; TDP-4-keto-rhamnose reductase; thymidine diphospho-4-ketorhamnose reductase; dTDP-6-deoxy-L-mannose:NADP+ 4-oxidoreductase; dTDP-6-deoxy-β-L-mannose:NADP+ 4-oxidoreductase. Systematic name: dTDP-β-L-rhamnose:NADP+ 4-oxidoreductase. Comments: In the reverse direction, reduction on the 4-position of the hexose moiety takes place only while the substrate is bound to another enzyme that catalyses epimerization at C-3 and C-5; the complex has been referred to as dTDP-L-rhamnose synthase.. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 37250-64-9. References:. 1. Melo, A. and Glaser, L. The mechanism of 6-deoxyhexose synthesis. II. Conversion of deoxythymidine diphosphate 4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose to deoxythymidine diphosphate L-rhamnose. J. Biol. Chem. 243 (1968) 1475-1478. [PMID: ...
250 µCi quantities of 2-[14C(U)]-Deoxy-D-Glucose (300-350mCi/mmol) are available for your research. Application of [14C]Deoxy-D-Glucose can be found in: glucose transporter isoform GLUT4 gene regulation and mechanisms in insulin resistance, selectively suppressing the quinolinic acid-induced enhancement of anaerobic glycolysis in glial cells, stimulatory effect of d-ephedrine on ß3-adrenoceptors in adipose tissue of rats, glucose utilization in the brain during acute seizure as a useful biomarker for the evaluation of anticonvulsants, etc. ...
250 µCi quantities of 2-[14C(U)]-Deoxy-D-Glucose (300-350mCi/mmol) are available for your research. Application of [14C]Deoxy-D-Glucose can be found in: glucose transporter isoform GLUT4 gene regulation and mechanisms in insulin resistance, selectively suppressing the quinolinic acid-induced enhancement of anaerobic glycolysis in glial cells, stimulatory effect of d-ephedrine on ß3-adrenoceptors in adipose tissue of rats, glucose utilization in the brain during acute seizure as a useful biomarker for the evaluation of anticonvulsants, etc. ...
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Rosen, J; Fina, J; Milholland, R; and Rosen, F, Inhibitory effect of cortisol in vitro on 2-deoxyglucose uptake and rna and protein metabolism in lymphosarcoma p1798. (1972). Subject Strain Bibliography 1972. 218 ...
Creative-Proteomics offer cas 66-84-2 2-amino-2-deoxy-D-[1, 2-13C2]glucose HCl (D-[1, 2-13C2]glucosamine hydrochloride). We are specialized in manufacturing Stabel Isotope Labeled Analytical Standard products.
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule 2-({6-[(bromoacetyl)amino]hexanoyl}amino)-2-deoxy-d-glucose (C14H25BrN2O7) from the PQR.
This study attempted to screen selected phytochemicals in the ethanolic, methanolic and acetone extracts of Nonochlorum spp. The extracts were subjected to the following tests: Test tube method for Alkaloid Analysis (Confirmatory test, test for quaternary bases and/ or amine oxide), Test Tube Reaction Method for Steroids (Keller- Kiliani test: test for 2- deoxysugars), the Borntragers Test for Anthraquinones, Test tube Screening Methods for Flavonoids (Test for leucoanthocyanins: Bate- Smith and Metacalf method), and the Test tube Screening Method for Tannins (Ferric chloride test). Results showed that in all Nanochlorum spp. extract, steroids, anthraquinones and tannins were positive (with slight precipitation) but negative with alkaloids and flavonoids.. ...
BACKGROUND: Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) is a defense mechanism to maintain adequate oxygenation. It has been reported that metabolism inhibition augments HPV. The purpose of the present study was, therefore, to determine the effect of metabolism inhibition on HPV in a rabbit model of isolated lung perfusion with exclusion of the influential factors on HPV. METHODS: In adult rabbits, lungs were isolated and perfused with a constant pulmonary perfusate flow. Acid-base status and temperature of perfusate was also constantly maintained. Thirty minutes after, the baseline hypoxic pressor response (HPR) was measured as the difference of pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) between a period of 21% normoxic gas inhalation and that of 3% hypoxic gas inhalation. After another thirty minutes, 2-deoxy-D-glucose 100 mg was mixed with the perfusate, and then HPR was measured three times. After checking metabolism inhibition effects, D-glucose 300 mg was mixed to the perfusate to reverse metabolism ...
The age-related functional changes underlying epileptogenesis remain to be clarified. in the present study, we explored the correlation between metabolic changes, neuronal damage and epileptogenesis during the acute, silent and chronic phases following status epilepticus (SE) induced by lithium-pilocarpine (Li-Pilo) in 10- (P10), 21-day-old (P21) and adult rats. Local cerebral metabolic rates for glucose (LCMRglcs) were measured by the [C-14]2-deoxyglucose method during SE, the silent period and the interictal phase of the chronic period. Neurodegeneration was assessed by cresyl violet staining. During SE, LCMRglcs dramatically increased at all ages mainly in forebrain vulnerable regions. During the silent phase, in P21 and adult rats, metabolic decreases were recorded in damaged forebrain regions involved in the genesis and propagation of seizures 14 days after SE. At the end of the silent phase, P21 and adult rats exhibited metabolic increases in intact brainstem areas involved in the remote ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Serum glucose. T2 - Effects on tumor and normal tissue accumulation of 2-[F-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose in rodents with mammary carcinoma. AU - Wahl, Richard L.. AU - Henry, Christine A.. AU - Ethier, Stephen P.. PY - 1992/6. Y1 - 1992/6. N2 - The positron-emitter-labeled glucose analogue 2-[fluorine-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) accumulates into many cancers after intravenous injection, but the effect of serum glucose levels on FDG uptake in the tumor has not been extensively studied. In vitro, elevated media glucose levels markedly diminished FDG and FDG 6-phosphate uptake and retention in human adenocarcinoma cells, while insulin had no effect. Mammary cancers were established subcutaneously in 12 rats. Six control rats with mammary tumors were fasted overnight. Hyperglycemia was established in six rats by means of continuous glucose infusion (glucose clamp). All animals were then intravenously administered 50 μCi of FDG. Serum glucose levels were 87 mg/dL (4.83 mmol/L) ...
An apparatus for continuous monitoring of cerebral blood flow and intracranial pressure for substantially the same local region of cerebral tissue. A combined probe includes an elongated housing member that contains an ICP probe and a single optical fiber LDF microprobe. The LDF probe and the ICP probe are situated adjacent to each other within the elongated housing member, and preferably their respective intracranial ends are flush with the distal end of the elongated housing member. In addition, the combined probe is adapted to cooperate with an intracranial access system for securing the combined probe, and mitigating movement artifacts. In another embodiment, a combined probe includes a tissue oxymetry probe thus providing both metabolic and hemodynamic information for the same locus of cerebral tissue, and may be used for measuring a local cerebral metabolic rate. Another embodiment of the present invention provides a probe structure that includes a plurality of LDF microprobes for measuring
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All organisms synthesize amidosugars, such as N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), and deoxysugars, such as fucose. They are found in important polysaccharides and glycoconjugates such as glycoproteins. N-acetylquinovosamine (QuiNAc) is both an amido- and a deoxy-sugar. It is found in many examples of an important prokaryotic glycoconjugate, the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that coats the surface of Gram-negative bacteria. Like N-glycosylation of glycoproteins, LPS has a portion that is synthesized first on a polyprenyl lipid carrier and then transferred to the rest of the molecule. QuiNAc is believed to initiate the O-antigen portion of LPS of Rhizobium etli CE3. Genetic studies identified three genes, wreV, wreU and wreQ, required for the initial steps of O-antigen synthesis in R. etli CE3. Based on the predicted roles of the gene products and the theory of polysaccharide biosynthesis, there was a very straightforward prediction of the initial events: WreV catalyzes conversion of UDP-GlcNAc to its 4-keto-6-deoxy
UCQ-COmpOUndSare produced from those with aD-manno-stereochemistry and vice versa. l5 (- 0 (3) (4) Reagents: i, ROH, b a s e Scheme 3 a- Di-Q-alkylphosphorodithioc acids add to peracetylated glycals to give high yields of predominantly 2-deoxy-a-D-qlycosyl (6) adducts. g. can be obtained (Scheme , ) . I 6 Further in the area of glycosides 0 CH~OAC AcO A ,ji-&,,,, GMe CH~OAC -L--+ AcO 2H 2H R c x u ~ ~ . n c,(NeO),P(S)SH, b W , Ndtl~,McOc(,u, Ac20-Py (6) Scheme 4 of deoxysugars, methyl 2,6-dideoxy-a-D-arabIno * -hexopyranoside can be made readily from 2,6-dibromo-2,6-dideoxy-a-D-mannopyranosyl bromide by methanolysis followed ~y reductive debromination (Chapter 12). S ( m ~Abstl;, . 1988, 6816). C b , 1988, 669. Schmidt,J . Carbohydr. Chem.. 1988, 1, 435. Kumazawa, J . Am. (:hem. , 1988, JJ&, 7910. Kamikawa, Tetrahedron Lett,, 1988, 29, 1189. Riess,Tetrahedron Lett,, 1988, 2193. , 1988, 1op, 55 090). Yang, w e XuebaQ, 1988, G ,239 (Chem. , 1988, 190 679). Bioore. W&, 1987, 654 ( ! b D . Abst: . ...
Streptomyces venezuelae decarboxylase JadN (jadN), JadX (jadX), NDP-hexose2,3-dehydratase (jadO), NDP-hexose 3-ketoreductase (jadP), NDP-glucosephosphate nucleotidyltransferase (jadQ), glycosyltransferase (jadS),NDP-hexose 4,6-dehydratase (jadT), NDP-4-keto-6-deoxyhexose 5-epimerase(jadU), NDP-4-keto-6-deoxyhexose 4-ketoreductase (jadV), JadR* (jadR*), andJadY (jadY) genes, complete cds; and JadZ (jadZ) gene, partial ...
Background Optical imaging (OI) techniques such as bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging have been widely used to track diseases in a non-invasive manner within living subjects. These techniques generally require bioluminescent and fluorescent probes. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of using radioactive probes for in vivo molecular OI. Methodology/Principal Findings By taking the advantages of low energy window of light (1.2-3.1 eV, 400-1000 nm) resulting from radiation, radionuclides that emit charged particles such as β+ and β− can be successfully imaged with an OI instrument. In vivo optical images can be obtained for several radioactive probes including 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose ([18F]FDG), Na18F, Na131I, 90YCl3 and a 90Y labeled peptide that specifically target tumors. Conclusions/Significance These studies demonstrate generalizability of radioactive OI technique. It provides a new molecular imaging strategy and will likely have significant impact on both small animal and
Information on EC 5.3.2.3 - TDP-4-oxo-6-deoxy-alpha-D-glucose-3,4-oxoisomerase (dTDP-3-dehydro-6-deoxy-alpha-D-galactopyranose-forming)
Macdonald, H R., Energy metabolism and t-cell-mediated cytolysis. II. Selective inhibition of cytolysis by 2-deoxy-d-glucose. (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 1211 ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Buy high quality p-Nitrophenyl 2-Acetamido-2-deoxy-3,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-α-D-glucopyranoside 13089-23-1 from toronto research chemicals Inc.
refined sugar ( Page 3 ) 제조업체 주소록 - EC21에는 세계곳곳에서 등록한 3,000,000개의 refined sugar 수입업체, 수출업체, 제조업체, 공급업체, 도매업체, 유통업체, 무역회사, 셀러 등이 있습니다. EC21을 통해 쉽게 거래선을 발굴 하세요.
Although sugar is more and more criticised these days, it is still just as appreciated. Sugar is an important ingredient in cooking. To find out all about the differ...
Cereal and fungal products have been used for centuries for medicinal and cosmetic purposes; however, the specific role of β-glucan was not explored until the 20th century. β-glucans were first discovered in lichens, and shortly thereafter in barley. A particular interest in oat β-glucan arose after a cholesterol lowering effect from oat bran reported in 1981.[2] In 1997, the FDA approved of a claim that intake of at least 3.0 g of β-glucan from oats per day decreased absorption of dietary cholesterol and reduced the risk of coronary heart disease. The approved health claim was later amended to include these sources of β-glucan: rolled oats (oatmeal), oat bran, whole oat flour, oatrim (the soluble fraction of alpha-amylase hydrolyzed oat bran or whole oat flour), whole grain barley and barley beta-fiber. An example of an allowed label claim: Soluble fiber from foods such as oatmeal, as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol, may reduce the risk of heart disease. A serving of ...
An oligosaccharide (/ˌɑlɪgoʊˈsækəˌɹaɪd/[1]; from the Greek ὀλίγος olígos, "a few", and σάκχαρ sácchar, "sugar") is a saccharide ... it is believed that N-linked glycosylation helps determine the folding of polypeptides due to the hydrophilic nature of sugars ... polymer containing a small number (typically three to ten[2][3][4][5]) of monosaccharides (simple sugars). Oligosaccharides can ... which dictate where glycosyltransferases will add sugars. ...
Sucrose (table sugar, cane sugar, beet sugar, or saccharose) Glucose. Fructose. α(1→2)β ... A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or bivose[1]) is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides (simple sugars) are ... Breaking apart a double sugar into its two simple sugars is accomplished by hydrolysis with the help of a type of enzyme called ... The joining of simple sugars into a double sugar happens by a condensation reaction, which involves the elimination of a water ...
Garot (1850) "De la matière colorante rouge des rhubarbes exotiques et indigènes et de son application (comme matière colorante) aux arts et à la pharmacie" (On the red coloring material of exotic and indigenous rhubarb and on its application (as a coloring material) in the arts and in pharmacy), Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie, 3rd series, 17 : 5-19. Erythrose is named on p. 10: "Celui que je propose, sans y attacher toutefois la moindre importance, est celui d'érythrose, du verbe grec 'ερυθραινω, rougir (1)." (The one [i.e., name] that I propose, without attaching any importance to it, is that of erythrose, from the Greek verb ερυθραινω, to redden (1).) ...
Coarse-grain, such as sanding sugar (also called "pearl sugar", "decorating sugar", nibbed sugar or sugar nibs) is a coarse ... from either sugar cane or sugar beet. Sugar mills are located where sugar cane is grown to crush the cane and produce raw sugar ... Powdered, 10X sugar, confectioner's sugar (0.060 mm), or icing sugar (0.024 mm), produced by grinding sugar to a fine powder. ... beet sugar is almost always labeled simply as sugar or pure sugar. Interviews with the 5 major beet sugar-producing companies ...
Viscous fibers thicken the contents of the intestinal tract and may attenuate the absorption of sugar, reduce sugar response ... Regulates blood sugar, which may reduce glucose and insulin levels in diabetic patients and may lower risk of diabetes[1][76] ... production with Xanthomonas-bacteria from sugar substrates Resistant starch. Can be starch protected by seed or shell (type RS1 ... Inulin is advantageous because it contains 25-30% the food energy of sugar or other carbohydrates and 10-15% the food energy of ...
The repeating unit (except for keratan) consists of an amino sugar (N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine) along with a ... Next, C-5 uronyl epimerase coverts d-GlcA to l-IdoA followed by 2-O sulfation of the uronic acid sugar by 2-O sulfotransferase ... Finally, sulfation of the polymer occurs at the 6-position of both sugar residues. The enzyme KS-Gal6ST (CHST1) transfers ... uronic sugar (glucuronic acid or iduronic acid) or galactose.[3] Glycosaminoglycans are highly polar and attract water. They ...
Viscous fibers thicken the contents of the intestinal tract and may attenuate the absorption of sugar, reduce sugar response ... Regulates blood sugar, which may reduce glucose and insulin levels in diabetic patients and may lower risk of diabetes[1][86] ... production with Xanthomonas-bacteria from sugar substrates Resistant starch. Can be starch protected by seed or shell (type RS1 ... complex carbohydrates, such as long-chained sugars also called starch, oligo saccharides, or poly saccharides, are sources of ...
... /ˌæmɪloʊˈpɛktɪn/ is a water-soluble[1][2] polysaccharide and highly branched polymer of α-glucose units found in plants. It is one of the two components of starch, the other being amylose. Amylopectin bears a straight/linear chain along with a number of side chains which may be branched further. Glucose units are linked in a linear way with α(1→4) Glycosidic bonds. Branching usually occurs at intervals of 25 residues. At the places of origin of a side chain, the branching that takes place bears an α(1→6) Glycosidic bond , resulting in a soluble molecule that can be quickly degraded as it has many end points onto which enzymes can attach. Wolform and Thompson (1956) have also reported α(1→3)linkages in case of Amylopectin. Amylopectin contains a larger number of Glucose units (2000 to 200,000) as compared to Amylose containing 200 to 1000 α-Glucose units. In contrast, amylose contains very few α(1→6) bonds, or even none at all. This causes amylose to be hydrolyzed ...
It is often derived from plant sources such as sugar beets and sugar cane, and by the fermentation of glycerin. ... AGEs are behind the damage to the skin that occurs with high blood sugar in diabetes where similar glycation occurs. Some of ...
The furanose ring is a cyclic hemiacetal of an aldopentose or a cyclic hemiketal of a ketohexose. A furanose ring structure consists of four carbon and one oxygen atom with the anomeric carbon to the right of the oxygen. The highest numbered chiral carbon (typically to the left of the oxygen in a Haworth projection) determines whether or not the structure has a ...
Soluble fiber also attenuates the absorption of sugar, reduces sugar response after eating, normalizes blood lipid levels and, ... Arabinoxylans are found in both the primary and secondary cell walls of plants and are the copolymers of two sugars: arabinose ... Some of these microorganisms have receptors to simple sugars from the decomposition of chitin. If chitin is detected, they then ... Polysaccharides with unprotected vicinal diols or amino sugars (i.e. some OH groups replaced with amine) give a positive ...
ˌmɒnə-/, from Greek monos: single, sacchar: sugar), also called simple sugars, are the simplest form of sugar and the most ... Monosaccharides are the simplest units of carbohydrates and the simplest form of sugar. ...
... is an aldohexose sugar. It is a monosaccharide that is very rare in nature, but has been found in archaea, bacteria and ... Swain, M., Brisson, J. R., Sprott, G. D., Cooper, F. P. and Patel, G. B. (1997). "Identification of β-L-gulose as the sugar ...
... is classified as a sugar alcohol; that is, it can be derived from a sugar (mannose) by reduction. Other sugar alcohols ... Mannitol is a type of sugar alcohol used as a sweetener and medication.[1][2] As a sweetener it is used in diabetic food as it ... Kearsley MW, Deis RC (2006). "Sorbitol and Mannitol". Sweeteners and Sugar Alternatives in Food Technology. Ames: Oxford. pp. ... Kearsley MW, Deis RC (2006). "Sorbitol and Mannitol". Sweeteners and Sugar Alternatives in Food Technology. Wiley-Blackwell. pp ...
Ethanol is obtained by fermentation using glucose produced from sugar from the hydrolysis of starch, in the presence of yeast ... However, many substances that contain hydroxyl functional groups (particularly sugars, such as glucose and sucrose) have names ... More complex alcohols however are pervasive, as manifested in sugars, some amino acids, and fatty acids. ...
Deoxy sugar alcohols. *Fucitol. Cyclic sugar alcohols. *Inositol. Glycylglycitols. *Maltitol. *Lactitol. *Isomalt ...
... is a sugar alcohol used as a sugar substitute. The name derives from Ancient Greek: ξύλον, xyl[on], "wood" + suffix - ... Sugar rationing during World War II led to an interest in sugar substitutes when interest in xylitol and other polyols became ... Absorbed more slowly than sugar, xylitol supplies 40% fewer calories than table sugar.[8] It is approved as a food additive in ... itol, used to denote sugar alcohols. Xylitol is categorized as a polyalcohol or sugar alcohol (specifically an alditol). It has ...
... is a sugar substitute, a type of sugar alcohol used primarily for its sugar-like physical properties. It has little to ... Its energy value is 2 kcal/g, half that of sugars.[2] However, like most sugar alcohols, it carries a risk of gastric distress ... The Oxford Companion to Sugar and Sweets. Oxford University Press. 2015-04-01. ISBN 9780199313624. .. ... Isomalt is an equimolar mixture of two mutually diastereomeric disaccharides, each composed of two sugars: glucose and mannitol ...
Wang SF, Gabriel O (1969). "Biological mechanisms involved in the formation of deoxy sugars. V Isolation and crystallization of ... This enzyme participates in 4 metabolic pathways: nucleotide sugars metabolism, streptomycin biosynthesis, polyketide sugar ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is dTDP-glucose 4,6-hydro-lyase (dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-glucose-forming). Other ... dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-glucose + H2O Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, dTDP-glucose, and two products, dTDP-4-dehydro-6- ...
Gaugler RW, Gabriel O (1973). "Biological mechanisms involved in the formation of deoxy sugars VII. Biosynthesis of 6-deoxy-L- ... This enzyme participates in 3 metabolic pathways: nucleotide sugars metabolism, streptomycin biosynthesis, and polyketide sugar ... dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-L-mannose Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-glucose, and one product, dTDP- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-glucose 3,5-epimerase. Other names in common use include ...
... they are all deoxy sugars. Rules for Nomenclature of Modified Sugars: State the Sugar is deoxy sugar. Specify the position of ... Examples Sugars in which -OH is protected by some modification are called protected sugars. Rules for Nomenclature for ... Modification of sugar is generally done by replacing one or more -OH group with other functional groups at all positions except ... deoxy, -iodo, -amino etc.). Di-, tri- etc. prefixes do not count. ...
... is a deoxy sugar and amino sugar of the hexosamine class. Daunosamine is a component of the anthracycline class of ...
... (Rha, Rham) is a naturally occurring deoxy sugar. It can be classified as either a methyl-pentose or a 6-deoxy-hexose ... Rhamnose occurs in nature in its L-form as L-rhamnose (6-deoxy-L-mannose). This is unusual, since most of the naturally ... Brown, M. R. (1991). "The amino-acid and sugar composition of 16 species of microalgae used in mariculture". Journal of ... Rhamnose is commonly bound to other sugars in nature. It is a common glycone component of glycosides from many plants. Rhamnose ...
Macrolide Deoxy sugar Rodríguez E, Peirú S, Carney JR, Gramajo H (March 2006). "In vivo characterization of the dTDP-D- ... Desosamine in the US National Library of Medicine MeSH (Medical Subject Headings): Deoxy Sugar in the US National Library of ... Degradation of several of the aforementioned antibiotics yields the desosamine sugar. It is found in combination with the ... Alkaline degradation found the sugar to be a D-hexose derivative. Glycosidic cleavage of methomycin produces aglycone ...
... or 6-deoxy-tagatose is a ketohexose deoxy sugar. Fuculose is involved in the process of sugar metabolism. It is both a ...
... is a glycoside formed from the flavonoid quercetin and the deoxy sugar rhamnose. Austrian chemist Heinrich Hlasiwetz ...
... thereby making it a deoxy sugar) and the L-configuration. It is equivalent to 6-deoxy-l-galactose. In the fucose-containing ... Fucose is a hexose deoxy sugar with the chemical formula C6H12O5. It is found on N-linked glycans on the mammalian, insect and ... Two structural features distinguish fucose from other six-carbon sugars present in mammals: the lack of a hydroxyl group on the ... Roca, C (2015). "Exopolysaccharides enriched in rare sugars: bacterial sources, production, and applications". Front Microbiol ...
... producing dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-glucose. Xue M. He & Hung-wen Liu (2002). "Formation of unusual sugars: Mechanistic studies and ... It is the starting compound for the syntheses of many deoxysugars. DTDP-glucose is produced by the enzyme glucose-1-phosphate ... DTDP-glucose goes on to form a variety of compounds in nucleotide sugars metabolism. Many bacteria utilize dTDP-glucose to form ... During the syntheses of many of these exotic sugars, dTDP-glucose undergoes a combined oxidation/reduction reaction via the ...
doi:10.1111/j.1945-5100.2008.tb01115.x. Degens, E; Bajor, M (1963). "Amino acids and sugars in the bruderheim and Murray ... Nuevo, M; Cooper, G; Sandford, S (2018). "Deoxyribose and deoxysugar derivatives from photoprocessed astrophysical ice ... sugars and amino acids existed in space, via meteorites. This includes non-terrestrial amino acids. Multiple isotopes do not ...
1978). "Labeled 2-deoxy-D-glucose analogs. 18F-labeled 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose, 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-mannose and 14C-2-deoxy-2 ... This means that FDG is trapped in any cell that takes it up until it decays, since phosphorylated sugars, due to their ionic ... The molecule most commonly used for this purpose is F-18 labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), a sugar, for which the waiting ... radiotracers in oncology-utility of 18F-Fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG)-PET in the management of patients with non-small-cell lung ...
In Indonesia, a beverage called wedang jahe is made from ginger and palm sugar. Indonesians also use ground ginger root, called ... 15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2. *α-Sanshool (ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers) ... Candied ginger or crystallized ginger, known in the U.K. as "stem ginger", is the root cooked in sugar until soft, and is a ... and sugar. Ginger is also consumed in candied and pickled form. In Japan, ginger is pickled to make beni shōga and gari or ...
15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2. *α-Sanshool (ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers) ...
Yang, D; Hindra, H; Dong, LB; Crnovcic, I; Shen, B (23 August 2017). "Engineered production and evaluation of 6'-deoxy- ... Bleomycin naturally occurring-analogues have two to three sugar molecules, and DNA cleavage activities of these analogues have ...
... viruses bind through hemagglutinin onto sialic acid sugars on the surfaces of epithelial cells, typically in the nose ... "Efficacy of 2'-deoxy-2'-fluororibosides against influenza A and B viruses in ferrets". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy ... by cleaving sugars that bind the mature viral particles.[66] Thus, these proteins are targets for antiviral drugs.[67] ...
In contrast, sugars have two fewer hydrogen atoms, for example HOCH2(CHOH)nCHO or HOCH2(CHOH)n−1C(O)CH2OH. The sugar alcohols ... Consumption of sugar alcohols affects blood sugar levels, although much less than does sucrose comparing by glycemic index.[6][ ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sugar alcohols.. *. "The Other 26 Sweeteners". The Sugar Association, Inc. Retrieved ... Unlike sugars, which tend to exist as rings, sugar alcohols do not. They can however be dehydrated to give cyclic ethers, e.g. ...
Long-term control of blood sugar concentration can be measured by the concentration of Hb A1c. Measuring it directly would ... require many samples because blood sugar levels vary widely through the day. Hb A1c is the product of the irreversible reaction ...
Deoxy sugars. *Biochemistry stubs. Hidden categories: *Articles without EBI source. *Articles without KEGG source ... Samuel G, Reeves P (2003). "Biosynthesis of O-antigens: genes and pathways involved in nucleotide sugar precursor synthesis and ... The sugar is also found in perimycin, an antibiotic produced by the Gram-positive organism Streptomyces coelicolor var. ...
sugar, saccharose, β-(2S,3S,4S,5R)-fructofuranosyl-α-(1R,2R,3S,4S,5R)-glucopyranoside ... "Sugar Daddie$". Mother Jones. 1997-05-01. Retrieved 2010-05-05.. *↑ ನ್ಯೂಯಾರ್ಕ್‌ ಟೈಮ್ಸ್‌‌ , ನವೆಂಬರ್‌‌ 11, 2003, ಅಮೆರಿಕಾ'ಸ್‌ ... "Sugar Daddie$". Mother Jones. 1997-05-01. Retrieved 2010-05-05.. *↑ FLO (ಫೇರ್‌‌ಟ್ರೇಡ್‌ ಲೇಬಲಿಂಗ್‌ ಆರ್ಗನೈಸೇಷನ್ಸ್‌‌ ... ಕಾಳು ಸಕ್ಕರೆ , baker's sugar , ಅಥವಾ ತುಂಡು ಸಕ್ಕರೆ ಎಂದೂ ಕರೆಯಲ್ಪಡುವ ಅತಿಸೂಕ್ಷ್ಮ ಸಕ್ಕರೆಯು, ಪಾನೀಯಗಳ ಸಿಹಿಗೊಳಿಸುವಿಕೆಗೆ ಸಂಬಂಧಿಸಿದಂತೆ ಅಥವಾ ...
Combinations of English mustard with honey or Demerara sugar are used in British cuisine to coat grilled lamb cutlets or pork ... 15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2. *α-Sanshool (ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers) ... Sweet mustard is from Bavaria, made from kibbled mustard seed sweetened with sugar, apple sauce, or honey. It is typically ... Bavarian sweet mustard contains very little acid, substituting copious amounts of sugar for preservation. The Tecuci mustard ...
The hydrolysis of glucose 6-phosphate begins with a nucleophilic attack on the sugar-bound phosphate by His176 resulting in the ... either deoxy- or ribo- *Nuclease S1 *Mung bean nuclease. *Serratia marcescens nuclease ...
Conversion of 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate to pyruvate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphateEdit. The KDPG is then converted into ... The aldehyde groups of the triose sugars are oxidised, and inorganic phosphate is added to them, forming 1,3- ... Conversion of 6-phosphogluconic acid to 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconateEdit. The 6-phosphogluconic acid is converted to 2- ... Next, gluconate dehydratase converts gluconate into 2-keto-3-deoxy-gluconate (KDG). The next step is where phosphorylation ...
1978). "Labeled 2-deoxy-D-glucose analogs. 18F-labeled 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose, 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-mannose and 14C-2-deoxy-2 ... This means that FDG is trapped in any cell that takes it up until it decays, since phosphorylated sugars, due to their ionic ... The molecule most commonly used for this purpose is F-18 labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), a sugar, for which the waiting ...
Long-term control of blood sugar concentration can be measured by the concentration of Hb A1c. Measuring it directly would ... require many samples because blood sugar levels vary widely through the day. Hb A1c is the product of the irreversible reaction ... Animation of hemoglobin: from deoxy to oxy form. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hemoglobin&oldid= ...
O-GlcNAcylation is the process of adding a single N-acetylglucosamine sugar to the serine or threonine of a protein.[4] ... β-D-(Acetylamino)-2-deoxy-glucopyranose. Other names N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine. GlcNAc. NAG ... "Sugar supplement may treat immune disease - health - 07 June 2007 - New Scientist". Retrieved 8 June 2007.. ...
Deoxy sugar (Deoxyribose). Hexoses. Ketohexose (Psicose, Fructose, Sorbose, Tagatose) Aldohexose (Allose, Altrose, Glucose, ...
Polyprenol phosphate sugars and polyprenol diphosphate sugars function in extra-cytoplasmic glycosylation reactions, in ... a hexa-acylated disaccharide of glucosamine that is glycosylated with two 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid (Kdo) residues.[53] ... Saccharolipids describe compounds in which fatty acids are linked directly to a sugar backbone, forming structures that are ... which are characterized by the presence of one or more sugar residues attached to glycerol via a glycosidic linkage. Examples ...
HbA1c is a measure of the beta-N-1-deoxy fructosyl component of hemoglobin.[2] The origin of the naming derives from Hemoglobin ... However, fasting blood sugar tests are crucial in making treatment decisions. The American Diabetes Association guidelines are ... Higher levels of HbA1c are found in people with persistently elevated blood sugar, as in diabetes mellitus. While diabetic ... Glycated hemoglobin testing is recommended for both checking the blood sugar control in people who might be pre-diabetic and ...
15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2. *α-Sanshool (ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers) ...
Nucleotides are initially made with ribose as the sugar component, which is a feature of RNA. DNA, however, requires deoxy ... In order to synthesize thymidine, a component of DNA which only exists in the deoxy form, uridine is converted to deoxyuridine ... Unlike in purine synthesis, the sugar/phosphate group from PRPP is not added to the nitrogenous base until towards the end of ... They both contain a sugar and a phosphate, but have nitrogenous bases that are different sizes. Because of this, the two ...
You do not have JavaScript enabled. Please enable JavaScript to access the full features of the site or access our non-JavaScript page ...
The 1.6 A resolution crystal structure of NovW: a 4-keto-6-deoxy sugar epimerase from the novobiocin biosynthetic gene cluster ... The 1.6 A Resolution Crystal Structure of Novw: A 4-Keto-6-Deoxy Sugar Epimerase from the Novobiocin Biosynthetic Gene Cluster ...
In this study, a number of IW3 and IW7 analogues with different structural modifications in 2-deoxy sugar or uridine parts were ... Therefore, inhibition of influenza A virus infection by conjugates of uridine and 2-deoxy sugars is a new promising approach ... We have previously shown that two 2-deoxy sugar derivatives of uridine (designated IW3 and IW7) targeting the glycan processing ... 2-deoxy sugars; glycosylation inhibition influenza A virus; antiviral compounds; uridine; 2-deoxy sugars; glycosylation ...
They also showed that the epimerization site of 1-deoxy 3-keto D-galactitol is shifted from C3 to C4 and that 1-deoxy sugars ... In PcDTE_C66S/deoxy sugar complex structures, bound ligand molecules in both the linear and ring forms were detected in the ... X-ray structures of the Pseudomonas cichorii D-tagatose 3-epimerase mutant form C66S recognizing deoxy sugars as substrates. * ... In an attempt to elucidate the substrate recognition and catalytic reaction mechanisms of PcDTE for deoxy sugars, the X-ray ...
Secondary amine salt catalyzed controlled activation of 2-deoxy sugar lactols towards alpha-selective dehydrative glycosylation ... Secondary amine salt catalyzed controlled activation of 2-deoxy sugar lactols towards alpha-selective dehydrative glycosylation ... This operationally simple iminium catalyzed activation of 2-deoxy hemi-acetals is a potential alternative to the existing ...
Deoxy sugars : a symposium co-sponsored by the Division of Carbohydrate Chemistry and the Division of Microbial Chemistry and ... Deoxy sugars : a symposium co-sponsored by the Division of Carbohydrate Chemistry and the Division of Microbial Chemistry and ...
Deoxy sugar: , , Categories , , ,Articles lacking in-text citations from Decem... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation ...
This latter system activated deoxy-sugar donors to react with a range of glycosyl acceptors to afford products within 50 to 98 ... This is largely due to the difficulties associated with controlling the selectivity of glycosylations using deoxy-sugar donors ... Tackling the glycosylation of 2-deoxy-sugars: A reagent-controlled approach utilizing cyclopropenium cations for the α- ... Abstract: Gaining access to stereodefined deoxy-sugar containing oligosaccharides, such as those containing 2,6-dideoxy and 2,3 ...
Cereal and fungal products have been used for centuries for medicinal and cosmetic purposes; however, the specific role of β-glucan was not explored until the 20th century. β-glucans were first discovered in lichens, and shortly thereafter in barley. A particular interest in oat β-glucan arose after a cholesterol lowering effect from oat bran reported in 1981.[2] In 1997, the FDA approved of a claim that intake of at least 3.0 g of β-glucan from oats per day decreased absorption of dietary cholesterol and reduced the risk of coronary heart disease. The approved health claim was later amended to include these sources of β-glucan: rolled oats (oatmeal), oat bran, whole oat flour, oatrim (the soluble fraction of alpha-amylase hydrolyzed oat bran or whole oat flour), whole grain barley and barley beta-fiber. An example of an allowed label claim: Soluble fiber from foods such as oatmeal, as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol, may reduce the risk of heart disease. A serving of ...
An oligosaccharide (/ˌɑlɪgoʊˈsækəˌɹaɪd/[1]; from the Greek ὀλίγος olígos, "a few", and σάκχαρ sácchar, "sugar") is a saccharide ... it is believed that N-linked glycosylation helps determine the folding of polypeptides due to the hydrophilic nature of sugars ... polymer containing a small number (typically three to ten[2][3][4][5]) of monosaccharides (simple sugars). Oligosaccharides can ... which dictate where glycosyltransferases will add sugars. ...
Comparisons between early daytime and early nighttime effects of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) injections on food and water intake ... Deoxy Sugars / pharmacology* * Deoxyglucose / pharmacology* * Drinking Behavior / drug effects* * Feeding Behavior / drug ... Effects of 2-deoxy-D-glucose on food and water intake and body temperature in rats Physiol Behav. 1986;36(3):431-5. doi: ... Comparisons between early daytime and early nighttime effects of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) injections on food and water intake ...
4. Deoxy-Sugars. a. Occurrence, Detection and General Reactions. b. Synthesis. c. Biosynthesis. d. Individual Deoxy-Sugars. 5. ... 6. Thio-Sugars. a. Occurrence. b. General Properties and Reactions. c. Methods of Preparation. d. Individual Thio-Sugars. 7. ... 3. Amino-Sugars. a. Synthesis and Methods of Preparation. b. General Properties and Reactions of Amino-Sugars. c. 2-Amino-2- ... c. 3-Deoxy- and 3,4-Dideoxy-3-Enoses. d. 4-Enoses (Non-Terminal). e. 4- and 5-Enoses (Terminal). 8. Isotopically Labeled ...
4.1.2 Deoxy sugars 122. 4.1.3 Amino sugars 122. 4.1.4 Sugar alcohols 125. 4.1.5 Acidic sugars 125. 4.2 Polysaccharides 127. 4.3 ... 4 Sugars 115. 4.1 Monosaccharides 116. 4.1.1 Aldoses and ketoses 116. ...
An enzymatic route to 5-deoxy-5-[18F]fluoro-D-ribose, a [18F]-fluorinated sugar for PET imaging. In: Chemical Communications. ... An enzymatic route to 5-deoxy-5-[18F]fluoro-D-ribose, a [18F]-fluorinated sugar for PET imaging. Chemical Communications. 2010; ... An enzymatic route to 5-deoxy-5-[18F]fluoro-D-ribose, a [18F]-fluorinated sugar for PET imaging. / Onega, Mayca; Domarkas, ... An enzymatic route to 5-deoxy-5-[18F]fluoro-D-ribose, a [18F]-fluorinated sugar for PET imaging. ...
Sugar Alcohols.- b. Sugar Acids.- c. Deoxy Sugars.- d. Amino Sugars.- e. Sugar Phosphates.- f. Condensed Sugar Products.- 1.7 ... 5.1 The Sweet Taste of Sugars and the Development of the Sweet-Taste Hypothesis.- 5.2 Naturally Occurring Sweet Glycosides.- ... 2.6 Conformational Structures of Cyclic Sugars.- 2.7 The Literature of Carbohydrate Chemistry.- 2.8 Chronological Summary of ...
Deoxy Sugars. p. 161. Amino Sugars and Analogously Substituted Derivatives. p. 162. ...
X SYNTHESIS OF DEOXY SUGARS FROM ALDONOLACTONES. *XI GLYCOSYLATION OF ALDONOLACTONES. *XII ALDONOLACTONES AS CHIRAL PRECURSORS ...
Deoxy Sugars / pharmacokinetics* * Deoxyglucose / pharmacokinetics* * Dose-Response Relationship, Drug * Glycolates / ...
Other sugar derivatives of biomedical importance       L-ascorbic acid Phytic acid Deoxy sugar Amino sugar Amino sugar ... Deoxysugars  Deoxyribofuranose   Present in DNA. L-Fucose   6-deoxy-L-galactose Important component of some cell membrane ... Are named according to the reacting sugar. Any glycosidic linkage is named according to the type of parent sugar eg glucosidic ... A sugar may also condense with a nonsugar radical (aglycon)  Nucleoside: (pentose sugar + nitrogenous base) 95 ...
0 (Bacterial Proteins); 0 (Deoxy Sugars); 0 (Formyltetrahydrofolates); 0 (Thymine Nucleotides); 0 (Virulence Factors); 0 (dTDP- ... The results described herein are especially intriguing given that there have been no published reports of N-formylated sugars ... Here we demonstrate that Rv3404c functions as a sugar N-formyltransferase that converts dTDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxyglucose into ... 0 (Bacterial Proteins); 0 (Nucleoside Diphosphate Sugars); 0 (Thymine Nucleotides); 2147-59-3 (thymidine diphosphate rhamnose ...
Protecting-Group-Free Synthesis of 2-Deoxy-Aza-Sugars. Previous Article in Special Issue. Molecular Iodine-Mediated Cyclization ...
Deoxy sugars. Monosaccharides in which an alcoholic hydroxy group has been replaced by a hydrogen atom are called deoxy sugars ... 1.6. Deoxy sugars *1.7. Amino sugars *1.8. Alditols *1.9. Aldonic acids *1.10. Ketoaldonic acids *1.11. Uronic acids *1.12. ... It includes aldoses, dialdoses, aldoketoses, ketoses and diketoses, as well as deoxy sugars and amino sugars, and their ... Within ten years, he could assign the relative configurations of most known sugars and had also synthesized many sugars. This ...
Perr, M.B., and A.C. Webb: Synthesis of 2-Acetamido-2-deoxy-D-gulose, 2-Acet-amido-2-deoxy-D-idose, and 2-Deoxy-D-xylo-hexose ... Overend, W. G., S. Laland, and M. Stacey: Deoxy-Sugars. Part X. Some Metha-nesulphonyl and Toluene-p-sulphonyl Derivatives of α ... Satoh, C., and A. Kiyomoto: Studies on Nitrogen-Containing Sugars. I. Synthesis of N-Acetyl-D-mannosamine from 1-Nitro-1-deoxy- ... Applications of the Synthesis of Aminodeoxy and Deoxy Sugars of Biological Importance. J. Org. Chem., 34, 1045 (1969).Google ...
2-Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose*2-Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ... Deoxy Sugars [D09.254]. *Deoxyglucose [D09.254.229]. * ...
Sugar alcohols are commonly defined by the corresponding (parent) sugars, e.g., ribitol is the reduced form of ribose. Deoxy ... In contrast, comparable (and biological) sugar alcohols and rare deoxy sugar acids are racemic in some of the same extracts as ... Meteoritic sugar derivatives, the subject of this work, include sugar acids and sugar alcohols (Fig. 1). Previously, we ... Sugar Acid Enantiomeric Excesses and Racemic Sugar Alcohols.. Enantiomer analyses of the smallest (3C) meteoritic sugar acid, ...
... sugar is 2-deoxy-D-ribose. The defining part of a nucleotide is the hetero-cyclic base that is covalently bound to the sugar. ... The sugar portion provides the primary structure for all nucleotides. In general, the sugars are composed of five carbon atoms ... The bases make up the rungs of the ladder while the sugar and phosphate portions make up the ladder sides. The order in which ... Each nucleotide is made up of a deoxyribose sugar molecule, a phosphate group, and one of four nitrogen containing bases. The ...
GDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-α-D-mannose (CHEBI:16955) is a GDP-sugar (CHEBI:21169) GDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-α-D-mannose (CHEBI:16955) is ... A GDP-sugar having 4-dehydro-6-deoxy-α-D-mannose as the sugar portion.. ... GDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-α-D-mannose (CHEBI:16955) has functional parent GDP-α-D-mannose (CHEBI:15820) GDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-α-D- ... GDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-α-D-mannose(2−) (CHEBI:57964) is conjugate base of GDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-α-D-mannose (CHEBI:16955). ...
Wang SF, Gabriel O (1969). "Biological mechanisms involved in the formation of deoxy sugars. V Isolation and crystallization of ... This enzyme participates in 4 metabolic pathways: nucleotide sugars metabolism, streptomycin biosynthesis, polyketide sugar ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is dTDP-glucose 4,6-hydro-lyase (dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-glucose-forming). Other ... dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-glucose + H2O Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, dTDP-glucose, and two products, dTDP-4-dehydro-6- ...
O-aryl glycosides were conveniently obtained by reaction of 2-deoxy-glycosyl acetates with phenols in the presence of TMSOTf as ... Stereoselective 2-deoxy sugars Aryl glycoside Glycosyl acetates TMSOTf Electronic supplementary material. The online version of ... 2-Deoxy α-O-aryl glycosides were conveniently obtained by reaction of 2-deoxy-glycosyl acetates with phenols in the presence of ... Facile TMSOTf-catalyzed preparation of 2-deoxy α-O-aryl-D-glycosides from glycosyl acetates. ...
  • 9. 2- According to the characteristic carbonyl group (aldehyde or ketone group): - Aldo sugars: aldoses: Contain aldehyde group e.g. glucose, ribose, erythrose and glyceraldehydes. (slideshare.net)
  • Sugar: deoxy ribose Phosphate: H 2 PO 4. (slideserve.com)
  • 3-deoxy erythrose / 3-deoxy threose and glucose/mannose, ribose/arabinose and xylose/lyxose pairs. (etis.ee)
  • Deoxyribose, more, precisely 2-deoxyribose, is a monosaccharide with idealized formula H---3-H. Its name indicates that it is a deoxy sugar, meaning that it is derived from the sugar ribose by loss of an oxygen atom. (absoluteastronomy.com)
  • It is derived from the pentose sugar ribose . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Deoxyribose is the sugar component of DNA, just as ribose serves that role in RNA (ribonucleic acid). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The sugar component is either deoxyribose or ribose. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Deoxy" simply indicates that the sugar lacks an oxygen atom present in ribose, the parent compound. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The nucleic acid DNA (which stands for deoxyribonucleic acid ) is built of nucleotides with a deoxyribose sugar, whereas RNA (or ribonucleic acid ) contains nucleotides composed of ribose sugars. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • A double-stranded nucleic acid containing the sugar 2-deoxy-D-ribose. (visionlearning.com)
  • A single-stranded nucleic acid containing the sugar ribose. (visionlearning.com)
  • Essentially, the deoxy sugar is just a pentose sugar ribose , with the hydroxyl group at position 2 replaced with a hydrogen instead. (wikibooks.org)
  • Nucleosides are formed when purines and pyrimidines are coupled with a ribose sugar. (wikibooks.org)
  • 1. a nucleoside composed of the pentose sugar d -ribose and adenine. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 2-Deoxy-D-ribose, Crystalline, also known as 2-deoxyribose, is a monosaccharide and a deoxy sugar. (spectrumchemical.com)
  • Another important sugar used in biology is ribose, one of the building blocks of nucleotides in RNA, and of bioenergetic compounds such as adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP). (astrochem.org)
  • Ribose and 2-deoxyribose, the sugars of RNA and DNA, respectively, are exclusively right-handed. (astrochem.org)
  • In particular, ribose and deoxyribose, the sugar and deoxysugar that are the molecular backbones of RNA and DNA, have both been detected in residues produced from the UV photo-irradiation of simple H 2 O:CH 3 OH ices (Figure 3 ). (astrochem.org)
  • While sugar alcohols, sugar acids, sugar diacids, and several deoxysugar acids have been detected in abundance in carbonaceous meteorites, only a few sugars such as ribose and its isomers have recently been reported in small abundances. (astrochem.org)
  • Carbohydrates, or saccharides (saccharo is Greek for ―sugar) are polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones, or substances that yield such compounds on hydrolysis. (slideshare.net)
  • Carbohydrates include not only sugar, but also the starches that we find in foods, such as bread, pasta, and rice. (slideshare.net)
  • Deoxysugars are a distinct class of carbohydrates that has at least one hydroxyl group replaced with non-O-linked functional group. (uci.edu)
  • A nucleotide is a chemical compound with three components: a nitrogen-containing base, a pentose (five-carbon) sugar (relatively simple carbohydrates ), and one or more phosphate groups. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Sugar is the generalized name for sweet, short-chain, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. (worldebooklibrary.org)
  • Meso-1,2-Bis(4-methoxyphenyl)ethylenediamine is the most favourable fluorogenic reagent for reducing carbohydrates, including 2- deoxy sugars, amino sugars and sialic acids. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This enzyme participates in 4 metabolic pathways: nucleotide sugars metabolism, streptomycin biosynthesis, polyketide sugar unit biosynthesis, and biosynthesis of vancomycin group antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • No structure is available for enzymes that are involved in deoxysugar biosynthesis. (uci.edu)
  • Enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of these sugar nucleotides have been studied in some detail in bacteria and plants, but the activated form of L-Rha and the corresponding biosynthetic enzymes have yet to be explored in algae. (jic.ac.uk)
  • Cooperative Involvement of Glycosyltransferases in the Transfer of Amino Sugars during the Biosynthesis of the Macrolactam Sipanmycin by Streptomyces sp. (asm.org)
  • An attempt on alternative glycosylation of nystatinolide was performed by using glycosyltransferase hybrids and deoxysugar biosynthesis gene cassettes. (bibsys.no)
  • Insights about the biosynthesis of the avermectin deoxysugar L-oleandrose through heterologous expression of Streptomyces avermitilis deoxysugar genes in Streptomyces lividans. (genome.jp)
  • Unusual sugar biosynthesis and natural product glycodiversification. (genome.jp)
  • 7. CLASSIFICATION: 1- Monosaccharides (simple sugars): They can not be hydrolyzed into simpler units. (slideshare.net)
  • These are monosaccharides in which the sugar unit is a is a six-carbon containing moeity. (hmdb.ca)
  • Simple sugars are called monosaccharides and include glucose (also known as dextrose), fructose and galactose . (worldebooklibrary.org)
  • Since it is added cotranslationally, it is believed that N-linked glycosylation helps determine the folding of polypeptides due to the hydrophilic nature of sugars. (wikipedia.org)
  • [10] Glycosylation sites in O-linked oligosaccharides are determined by the secondary and tertiary structures of the polypeptide, which dictate where glycosyltransferases will add sugars. (wikipedia.org)
  • GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES. (drugbank.ca)
  • Macrolide rings are comprised of a large macrocycle lactone ring to which one or more deoxy sugars, usually cladinose and desosamine, may be attached. (hindawi.com)
  • They derive their name from their characteristic structural features, a macrocyclic lactone ring to which various deoxy sugars, most commonly cladinose and desosamine, are attached [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • He endorsed Armstrong's proposal to classify sugars into aldoses and ketoses, and proposed the name fructose for laevulose, because he found that the sign of optical rotation was not a suitable criterion for grouping sugars into families. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • It includes aldoses, dialdoses, aldoketoses, ketoses and diketoses, as well as deoxy sugars, provided that the parent compound has a (potential) carbonyl group. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Figure 1:The basic molecular structures of linear sugars (aldoses) that contain 3 to 6 carbon atoms. (astrochem.org)
  • Photosynthesis converts solar energy to chemical energy, which then drives the synthesis of sugars from carbon dioxide and water. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Abiotic synthesis of sugars, such as the formose reaction, lead to the production of racemic proportions of sugars, i.e., equal amounts of right- and left-handed enantiomers. (astrochem.org)
  • Sugar Acids. (buecher.de)
  • For example, nucleic acids are composed of only d sugars. (pnas.org)
  • In multiple meteorites, we demonstrate that rare and common sugar acids contain large excesses of the d enantiomer. (pnas.org)
  • In multiple carbonaceous meteorites, we show that both rare and common sugar monoacids (aldonic acids) contain significant excesses of the d enantiomer, whereas other (comparable) sugar acids and sugar alcohols are racemic. (pnas.org)
  • The organic phase of carbonaceous meteorites comprises an insoluble "macromolecular" material ( 1 ⇓ - 3 ), a complex mixture of largely uncharacterized solvent-extractable compounds ( 4 ), as well as discrete (identified) soluble organic compounds such as amino acids ( 3 , 5 ) nucleobases ( 6 , 7 ), and sugar derivatives ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • This is composed of three parts, a complex lipid, called lipid A (consisting of sugars and fatty acids), that anchors the structure to the outer membrane, a conserved core oligosaccharide, and variable polysaccharide side chains (O antigen) that extend from the latter core. (asm.org)
  • The method comprises oral administration of ascorbic acid, a source of biologically available calcium, a precursor or stimulant of epinephrine or nor-epinephrine selected from tyrosine and phenylalanine, and an anti-inflammatory substance selected from anti-inflammatory sugars, amino sugars and biocompatible acid addition salts thereof, and anti-inflammatory amino acids. (patents.com)
  • Sugars (Figure 1 ) and sugar derivatives such as sugar alcohols, sugar acids, sugar diacids, and their corresponding deoxy variants (altogether sometimes referred to as 'polyols') are molecules that have a wide range of roles in modern biology. (astrochem.org)
  • Like amino acids , sugars and sugar derivatives are chiral molecules, which means that they exist in two mirror image forms, often referred to as "right-" and "left-handed", and called enantiomers (Figure 2 ). (astrochem.org)
  • Figure 2: Like amino acids (shown here), sugar derivatives come in right- and left-handed versions. (astrochem.org)
  • The total abundance of polyols in meteorites is larger than that of amino acids, indicating that significant amounts of sugar derivatives are delivered to the surface of telluric planets such as Earth. (astrochem.org)
  • [8] Soluble fiber also attenuates the absorption of sugar, reduces sugar response after eating, normalizes blood lipid levels and, once fermented in the colon, produces short-chain fatty acids as byproducts with wide-ranging physiological activities (discussion below). (bioscience.ws)
  • The name glucose comes from the Greek word glykys (γλυκύς), meaning 'sweet', plus the suffix '-ose' which denotes a sugar 4 chiral centers give 24 = the 16 stereoisomer s of hexose sugars. (slideshare.net)
  • Fucose is a hexose deoxy sugar with the chemical formula C6H12O5. (hmdb.ca)
  • L-rhamnose (L-Rha) is a deoxy-hexose sugar commonly found in nature. (frontiersin.org)
  • Keto sugars: ketoses: Contain ketone group e.g. fructose, ribulose and dihydroxy acetone. (slideshare.net)
  • Deoxyribose, also known as D -Deoxyribose and 2-deoxyribose, is a pentose sugar ( monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms ) that is a key component of the nucleic acid deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA ). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Deoxyribose is an aldopentose, which means a pentose sugar with an aldehyde functional group in position 1. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Nucleosides consist of a nitrogen -containing base bonded to a five- carbon (pentose) sugar . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Nucleotides consist of a pentose sugar (brown), one or more phosphate groups (red), and a heterocyclic base (blue). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Chemically-different substances may also have a sweet taste, but are not classified as sugars. (worldebooklibrary.org)
  • Each nucleotide is made up of a deoxyribose sugar molecule, a phosphate group, and one of four nitrogen containing bases. (madehow.com)
  • Such data indicate that early meteoritic compounds may have influenced the enantiomer profile of subsequent biological sugars and their derivatives. (pnas.org)
  • Compounds which an acetal or thiocetal derivatives of the cyclic forms of sugars in which the hydrogen atom of the hemiacetal hydroxyl or hemithioacetal sulfhydryl group has been replaced by an alkyl, aralkyl, or aryl group. (uspto.gov)
  • The presence of sugar derivatives in carbonaceous meteorites and their detection in organic residues produced from the UV photolysis of astrophysically relevant ices simulating chemical processes in astrophysical environments suggest that these compounds were part of the inventory of organic compounds that were delivered to the early Earth, and possibly other telluric planets, and that could have contributed to the emergence of life. (astrochem.org)
  • Comparisons between early daytime and early nighttime effects of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) injections on food and water intake and rectal temperature were made. (nih.gov)
  • In the early nineteenth century, individual sugars were often named after their source, e.g. grape sugar (Traubenzucker) for glucose, cane sugar (Rohrzucker) for saccharose (the name sucrose was coined much later). (qmul.ac.uk)
  • In enzymology, a dTDP-glucose 4,6-dehydratase (EC 4.2.1.46) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction dTDP-glucose ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-glucose + H2O Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, dTDP-glucose, and two products, dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-glucose and H2O. (wikipedia.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is dTDP-glucose 4,6-hydro-lyase (dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-glucose-forming). (wikipedia.org)
  • This is achieved by using a specific sugar compound during the infection, so-called 2-Deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG). (meduniwien.ac.at)
  • This sugar molecule differs from glucose in that it lacks a hydroxyl group, consisting of one hydrogen atom and one oxygen atom. (meduniwien.ac.at)
  • The treatment approach is based on a combination therapy of the sugar 2-Deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) and fenofibrate, a well-studied cholesterol medication. (scienceblog.com)
  • For example, the sugar glucose serves as the fuel source for cells, and it is also used as the building block for cellulose, the most abundant organic polymer on Earth and the main constituent of the cell walls of plants. (astrochem.org)
  • A Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of Deoxy Sugar Esters Involving Stereoselective Acetylation of Hemiacetals Catalyzed by CALB. (etis.ee)
  • A Synthesis of Deoxy Sugar Esters. (etis.ee)
  • The main practical goal of the work is to develop further our stereoselective synthesis of (deoxy) sugar esters and investigate synthesis of their O- and N-glycosides (incl. (etis.ee)
  • glycopeptides) via deoxy sugar esters in aldehyde form. (etis.ee)
  • Abstract: Gaining access to stereodefined deoxy-sugar containing oligosaccharides, such as those containing 2,6-dideoxy and 2,3,6-trideoxy motifs, remains a formidable challenge. (tufts.edu)
  • Longer chains of sugars are called oligosaccharides . (worldebooklibrary.org)
  • Depending on their base sugar, nucleotides are therefore known as "deoxyribonucleotides" or "ribonucleotides. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Nucleosides resemble the structure of nucleotides (i.e., they contain a base bonded to a sugar) but lack the phosphate group. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • 2.6 Conformational Structures of Cyclic Sugars. (buecher.de)
  • Towards the end of the nineteenth century it was realized that the free sugars (not only the glycosides) existed as cyclic hemiacetals or hemiketals. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • The cyclic sugars referred to in the definitions are normally pyranoses or furanoses. (uspto.gov)
  • Most importantly, it allows for the glycosylations for the highly reactive and acid sensitive 2,3,6-trideoxy sugar L-rhodinose, an important structural motif in various carbohydrate based natural products. (tufts.edu)
  • The enzyme CMP-Kdo synthetase (CKS) catalyzes the activation of the sugar Kdo (2-keto-3-deoxy-manno-octonic acid) by forming a monophosphate diester. (rcsb.org)
  • The feasibility, features and synthetic applications of decyclization of different hemiacetals, in particular, deoxy sugars, sugars and glycoconjugates will be investigated. (etis.ee)
  • Moreover, the chain fold and the substrate-binding position of CKS resemble those of other enzymes processing nucleotide-sugars. (rcsb.org)
  • As a consequence, the abundance and depletion of sugars or their derivatives initiate various responses in plants and have profound effects on plant metabolism, growth, and development. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Scientists from the Medical University of Vienna and Max F. Perutz Laboratories of MedUni Vienna and the University of Vienna, supervised by Gerhard Zlabinger from the Institute of Immunology, have now demonstrated in an animal model that such an excessive response by the immune system can be modulated by targeted manipulation of the sugar metabolism to produce an immune response that efficiently eliminates the pathogens without causing any harmful secondary reactions. (meduniwien.ac.at)
  • Manipulation of the sugar metabolism and associated modulation of the immune system could open up new options for treating specific infectious and also autoimmune diseases in the future. (meduniwien.ac.at)
  • In principle, a sugar signal could be generated by extracellular recognition via a soluble or membrane-bound receptor molecule or by intracellular sensing at different stages of sugar metabolism. (plantphysiol.org)
  • General Properties and Reactions of Amino-Sugars c. 2-Amino-2-Deoxyaldoses d. 3-Amino-3-Deoxyaldoses e. 4-Amino-4-Deoxyaldoses f. 5-Amino-5-Deoxyaldoses g. 6-Amino-6-Deoxyaldoses h. (elsevier.com)
  • The term ―carbohydrate comes from the observation that when you heat sugars, you get carbon and water (hence, hydrate of carbon). (slideshare.net)
  • Sugars, aldehydes, or ketones that contain multiple carbon hydroxyl (carbon alcohol) groups, are also chiral and were likely necessary for the origin of life. (pnas.org)
  • Two structural features distinguish fucose from other six-carbon sugars present in mammals: the lack of a hydroxyl group on the carbon at the 6-position (C-6) and the L-configuration. (hmdb.ca)
  • The backbone of the polymer is the sugar-phosphate-sugar chain that is created by the 3'-5'-3'-carbon bonds, which is independent of which base is attached to the sugars. (wikibooks.org)
  • An O- or S- glycoside is basically a compound having a sugar moeity connected to an aglycone moiety via oxygen or sulfur. (uspto.gov)
  • L-fucose (6-deoxy-L-galactose) is a monosaccharide that is a common component of many N- and O-linked glycans and glycolipids produced by mammalian cells. (hmdb.ca)
  • To gain insight into the regulatory mechanisms of sugar signaling in plants, the effect of derivatives of the transport sugar sucrose (Suc), the Suc isomers palatinose and turanose, and the Suc analog fluoro-Suc were tested. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The table or granulated sugar most customarily used as food is sucrose , a disaccharide . (worldebooklibrary.org)
  • A class of antibiotics that are produced by certain actinomycetes of the genus Streptomyces, are characterized by a large lactone ring linked to one or more sugars, and act by inhibiting protein synthesis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Sugar Phosphates. (buecher.de)
  • In fact, it is chemical bonds between the phosphates and the sugars that link one nucleotide to the next in the DNA strand. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • L-Rha is most commonly biosynthesized as the activated sugar-nucleotide uridine 5'-diphospho-ß-L-rhamnose (UDP-ß-L-Rha) or thymidine 5'-diphospho-ß-L-rhamnose (TDP-ß-L-Rha). (jic.ac.uk)
  • Characterisation of Streptomyces spheroides NovW and revision of its functional assignment to a dTDP-6-deoxy-D-xylo-4-hexulose 3-epimerase. (genome.jp)
  • As far as we know, it is the first time that the cooperation between two different glycosyltransferases is demonstrated to be strictly necessary for the incorporation of the same sugar. (asm.org)
  • We have previously shown that two 2-deoxy sugar derivatives of uridine (designated IW3 and IW7) targeting the glycan processing steps during maturation of viral glycoproteins show good anti-influenza virus activity and may be a promising alternative approach for the development of new anti-influenza therapy. (mdpi.com)
  • In this study, a number of IW3 and IW7 analogues with different structural modifications in 2-deoxy sugar or uridine parts were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to inhibit influenza A virus infection in vitro. (mdpi.com)
  • Therefore, inhibition of influenza A virus infection by conjugates of uridine and 2-deoxy sugars is a new promising approach for the development of new derivatives with anti-influenza activities. (mdpi.com)
  • Many deoxysugars are attached to polyketide natural products and are indispensable for the pharmaceutical activity. (uci.edu)
  • In keeping with your hands, these two variants of a sugar compound are often referred to as being 'right' and 'left' handed versions of the same molecule. (astrochem.org)
  • Finally, the importance of the hydroxyl group at C-10 of the macrolactam ring and the sugar moieties for cytotoxicity and antibiotic activity of sipanmycins is shown. (asm.org)
  • A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which can be converted to the deoxy sugar GDPfucose, which provides fucose for lipopolysaccharides of bacterial cell walls. (nih.gov)
  • A GDP-sugar having 4-dehydro-6-deoxy-α- D -mannose as the sugar portion. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • At this time researchers looked at the ability of mannose, the pure version of the complex sugar in MOS, to inhibit salmonella infections. (netlibrary.net)
  • As a free sugar, L-fucose is normally found at very low levels in mammals. (hmdb.ca)
  • In fucose-containing glycan structures, fucosylated glycans, fucose can exist as a terminal modification or serve as an attachment point for adding other sugars. (hmdb.ca)
  • since he used models with flexible bonds between the atoms, he could easily 'stretch' his sugar models into a position suitable for projection. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • This invention relates to novel method of synthesis of RNA utilizing N-2-acetyl protected guanine as nucleoside base, nucleosides, succinates, phosphoramidites, corresponding solid supports that are suitable for oligo deoxy nucleosides and RNA oligonucleotide synthesis. (patents.com)
  • The Extension of the Sugar Chain of Thymidine: a New Route to 5'-Deoxyhexose Nucleosides, Chemical Communications, 1968, 422. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • This approach is designed to lead to high purity large scale therapeutic grade oligonucleotide chimeras which consist of fluoro sugar modification in conjunction with deoxy nucleosides, ribonucleosides, modified base and modified sugar nucleosides. (patents.com)
  • Similarly, sugar starvation initiates changes in substantial physiological and biochemical processes with the goal of sustaining respiration and other essential metabolic processes in plants. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Reagent for the quantitative, sensitive detection of catecholamines and reducing sugars by HPLC with fluorescent detection (ex. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Pseudomonas cichorii D-tagatose 3-epimerase (PcDTE), which has a broad substrate specificity, efficiently catalyzes the epimerization of not only D-tagatose to D-sorbose but also D-fructose to D-psicose (D-allulose) and also recognizes the deoxy sugars as substrates. (springer.com)
  • In an attempt to elucidate the substrate recognition and catalytic reaction mechanisms of PcDTE for deoxy sugars, the X-ray structures of the PcDTE mutant form with the replacement of Cys66 by Ser (PcDTE_C66S) in complexes with deoxy sugars were determined. (springer.com)
  • Biological mechanisms involved in the formation of deoxy sugars. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathways and mechanisms in the biogenesis of novel deoxysugars by bacteria. (genome.jp)
  • Knowledge about the response to sugar starvation and adaptation mechanisms in plants is of both fundamental and agronomic importance. (plantphysiol.org)
  • However, the underlying mechanisms used by plant cells to cope with sugar starvation are largely unknown, and only recently have these questions been addressed experimentally. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Whereas the effect of sugars on gene regulation is well established, the nature of the sugar signal, and the molecular mechanisms involved in sugar perception and intracellular signal transmission, are largely unknown. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In the majority of extant biological sugars and derivatives ("polyols"), the d enantiomers are significantly more abundant than the l enantiomers (we will note exceptions in Results and Natural Occurrence of Relevant Sugar Derivatives and Enantiomers ). (pnas.org)
  • The activation of different signal transduction pathways by sugars was further supported by the analysis of the activation of MAPKs. (plantphysiol.org)
  • To gain insight into disaccharide-specific signal transduction pathways, derivates of the transport sugar Suc were used in the present study. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The 6-deoxy sugar L-rhamnose (L-Rha) is found widely in plant and microbial polysaccharides and natural products. (jic.ac.uk)