Dentist's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice in dentistry related to diagnosis and treatment.Dentists, Women: Female dentists.General Practice, Dental: Nonspecialized dental practice which is concerned with providing primary and continuing dental care.Practice Management, Dental: The organization and operation of the business aspects of a dental practice.Dentistry: The profession concerned with the teeth, oral cavity, and associated structures, and the diagnosis and treatment of their diseases including prevention and the restoration of defective and missing tissue.Dentist-Patient Relations: The psychological relations between the dentist and patient.Education, Dental, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform dentists of recent advances in their fields.Dental Care: The total of dental diagnostic, preventive, and restorative services provided to meet the needs of a patient (from Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982).Pediatric Dentistry: The practice of dentistry concerned with the dental problems of children, proper maintenance, and treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.Dental Research: The study of laws, theories, and hypotheses through a systematic examination of pertinent facts and their interpretation in the field of dentistry. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982, p674)Foreign Professional Personnel: Persons who have acquired academic or specialized training in countries other than that in which they are working. The concept excludes physicians for which FOREIGN MEDICAL GRADUATES is the likely heading.Group Practice, Dental: Any group of three or more full-time dentists, organized in a legally recognized entity for the provision of dental care, sharing space, equipment, personnel and records for both patient care and business management, and who have a predetermined arrangement for the distribution of income.Dental Offices: The room or rooms in which the dentist and dental staff provide care. Offices include all rooms in the dentist's office suite.Dental Staff: Personnel who provide dental service to patients in an organized facility, institution or agency.Dental Care for Chronically Ill: Dental care for patients with chronic diseases. These diseases include chronic cardiovascular, endocrinologic, hematologic, immunologic, neoplastic, and renal diseases. The concept does not include dental care for the mentally or physically disabled which is DENTAL CARE FOR DISABLED.Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.Dental Restoration, Permanent: A restoration designed to remain in service for not less than 20 to 30 years, usually made of gold casting, cohesive gold, or amalgam. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Insurance, Dental: Insurance providing coverage for dental care.Dental Care for Children: The giving of attention to the special dental needs of children, including the prevention of tooth diseases and instruction in dental hygiene and dental health. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.State Dentistry: Control, direction and financing of the total dental care of the population by a national government.Evidence-Based Dentistry: An approach or process of practicing oral health care that requires the judicious integration of systematic assessments of clinical relevant scientific evidence, relating to the patient's oral and medical condition and history, with the dentist's clinical expertise and the patient's treatment needs and preferences. (from J Am Dent Assoc 134: 689, 2003)Public Health Dentistry: A dental specialty concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance of oral health through promoting organized dental health programs at a community, state, or federal level.Specialties, Dental: Various branches of dental practice limited to specialized areas.Schools, Dental: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.Dental Clinics: Facilities where dental care is provided to patients.Education, Dental, Graduate: Educational programs for dental graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic dental sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced dental degree.Dental Health Services: Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.Societies, Dental: Societies whose membership is limited to dentists.Radiography, Dental: Radiographic techniques used in dentistry.Students, Dental: Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.Mortuary Practice: Activities associated with the disposition of the dead. It excludes cultural practices such as funeral rites.Dental Care for Aged: The giving of attention to the special dental needs of the elderly for proper maintenance or treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Dental Anxiety: Abnormal fear or dread of visiting the dentist for preventive care or therapy and unwarranted anxiety over dental procedures.Geriatric Dentistry: The branch of dentistry concerned with the dental problems of older people.Rubber Dams: Sheets of latex rubber punched and placed over the teeth during dental procedures to isolate the field of operation from the rest of the oral cavity (Jablonski; Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982). Rubber dams are useful in preventing the swallowing of instruments or restorations during dental work.Dental Service, Hospital: Hospital department providing dental care.Private Practice: Practice of a health profession by an individual, offering services on a person-to-person basis, as opposed to group or partnership practice.Licensure, Dental: The granting of a license to practice dentistry.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Body Fat Distribution: Deposits of ADIPOSE TISSUE throughout the body. The pattern of fat deposits in the body regions is an indicator of health status. Excess ABDOMINAL FAT increases health risks more than excess fat around the hips or thighs, therefore, WAIST-HIP RATIO is often used to determine health risks.Technology, Dental: The field of dentistry involved in procedures for designing and constructing dental appliances. It includes also the application of any technology to the field of dentistry.Infection Control, Dental: Efforts to prevent and control the spread of infections within dental health facilities or those involving provision of dental care.Mouth DiseasesHealth Education, Dental: Education which increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of dental health on a personal or community basis.Anesthesia, Dental: A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.Dental Records: Data collected during dental examination for the purpose of study, diagnosis, or treatment planning.Dental Auxiliaries: Personnel whose work is prescribed and supervised by the dentist.Dental Amalgam: An alloy used in restorative dentistry that contains mercury, silver, tin, copper, and possibly zinc.Dental Equipment: The nonexpendable items used by the dentist or dental staff in the performance of professional duties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p106)Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Dental Care for Disabled: Dental care for the emotionally, mentally, or physically disabled patient. It does not include dental care for the chronically ill ( = DENTAL CARE FOR CHRONICALLY ILL).American Dental Association: Professional society representing the field of dentistry.Neisseria lactamica: A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA commonly found in the NASOPHARYNX of infants and children, but rarely pathogenic. It is the only species to produce acid from LACTOSE.Community Dentistry: The practice of dentistry concerned with preventive as well as diagnostic and treatment programs in a circumscribed population.Body Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.Dental Waste: Any waste product generated by a dental office, surgery, clinic, or laboratory including amalgams, saliva, and rinse water.Partnership Practice, Dental: A voluntary contract between two or more dentists who may or may not share responsibility for the care of patients, with proportional sharing of profits and losses.Surgery, Oral: A dental specialty concerned with the diagnosis and surgical treatment of disease, injuries, and defects of the human oral and maxillofacial region.Fees, Dental: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for dental services.Oral Hygiene: The practice of personal hygiene of the mouth. It includes the maintenance of oral cleanliness, tissue tone, and general preservation of oral health.Endodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the maintenance of the dental pulp in a state of health and the treatment of the pulp cavity (pulp chamber and pulp canal).Dental Caries Susceptibility: The predisposition to tooth decay (DENTAL CARIES).Professional Practice Location: Geographic area in which a professional person practices; includes primarily physicians and dentists.Tooth DiseasesForensic Dentistry: The application of dental knowledge to questions of law.Tooth Injuries: Traumatic or other damage to teeth including fractures (TOOTH FRACTURES) or displacements (TOOTH LUXATION).Root Canal Therapy: A treatment modality in endodontics concerned with the therapy of diseases of the dental pulp. For preparatory procedures, ROOT CANAL PREPARATION is available.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.United States Health Resources and Services Administration: A component of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that provides leadership related to the delivery of health services and the requirements for and distribution of health resources, including manpower training.Faculty, Dental: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a dental school.Tobacco Use Cessation: Ending the TOBACCO habits of smoking, chewing, or snuff use.National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It seeks to improve oral, dental and craniofacial health through research, research training, and the dissemination of health information by conducting and supporting basic and clinical research. It was established in 1948 as the National Institute of Dental Research and re-named in 1998 as the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research.Transillumination: Passage of light through body tissues or cavities for examination of internal structures.Dental Prophylaxis: Treatment for the prevention of periodontal diseases or other dental diseases by the cleaning of the teeth in the dental office using the procedures of DENTAL SCALING and DENTAL POLISHING. The treatment may include plaque detection, removal of supra- and subgingival plaque and calculus, application of caries-preventing agents, checking of restorations and prostheses and correcting overhanging margins and proximal contours of restorations, and checking for signs of food impaction.Behavior Control: Manipulation of the behavior of persons or animals by biomedical, physical, psychological, or social means, including for nontherapeutic reasons.Orthodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the prevention and correction of dental and oral anomalies (malocclusion).Preventive Dentistry: The branch of dentistry concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance and promotion of oral health.Dental Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to dental or oral health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Diagnosis, Oral: Examination of the mouth and teeth toward the identification and diagnosis of intraoral disease or manifestation of non-oral conditions.Professional Role: The expected function of a member of a particular profession.ScandinaviaMercury Poisoning, Nervous System: Neurologic disorders associated with exposure to inorganic and organic forms of MERCURY. Acute intoxication may be associated with gastrointestinal disturbances, mental status changes, and PARAPARESIS. Chronic exposure to inorganic mercury usually occurs in industrial workers, and manifests as mental confusion, prominent behavioral changes (including psychosis), DYSKINESIAS, and NEURITIS. Alkyl mercury poisoning may occur through ingestion of contaminated seafood or grain, and its characteristic features include POLYNEUROPATHY; ATAXIA; vision loss; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; and DEAFNESS. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch20, pp10-15)Legislation, Dental: Laws and regulations pertaining to the field of dentistry, proposed for enactment or recently enacted by a legislative body.Coated Vesicles: Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles are covered with a lattice-like network of coat proteins, such as CLATHRIN, coat protein complex proteins, or CAVEOLINS.Photography, Dental: Photographic techniques used in ORTHODONTICS; DENTAL ESTHETICS; and patient education.Comprehensive Dental Care: Providing for the full range of dental health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and rehabilitation of patients.Curcumin: A yellow-orange dye obtained from tumeric, the powdered root of CURCUMA longa. It is used in the preparation of curcuma paper and the detection of boron. Curcumin appears to possess a spectrum of pharmacological properties, due primarily to its inhibitory effects on metabolic enzymes.Economics, Dental: Economic aspects of the dental profession and dental care.Northwestern United States: The geographic area of the northwestern region of the United States. The states usually included in this region are Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, and Wyoming.Oral Medicine: A branch of dentistry dealing with diseases of the oral and paraoral structures and the oral management of systemic diseases. (Hall, What is Oral Medicine, Anyway? Clinical Update: National Naval Dental Center, March 1991, p7-8)Videodisc Recording: The storing of visual and usually sound signals on discs for later reproduction on a television screen or monitor.Patient Education HandoutCommunity-Based Participatory Research: Collaborative process of research involving researchers and community representatives.Periodontal Diseases: Pathological processes involving the PERIODONTIUM including the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.Tooth Extraction: The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Dental Restoration Repair: The process of repairing broken or worn parts of a PERMANENT DENTAL RESTORATION.Tooth Crown: The upper part of the tooth, which joins the lower part of the tooth (TOOTH ROOT) at the cervix (TOOTH CERVIX) at a line called the cementoenamel junction. The entire surface of the crown is covered with enamel which is thicker at the extremity and becomes progressively thinner toward the cervix. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p216)Dental High-Speed Equipment: Tools used in dentistry that operate at high rotation speeds.Blue Cross Blue Shield Insurance Plans: Prepaid health and hospital insurance plan.Dentin SensitivityTooth Wear: Loss of the tooth substance by chemical or mechanical processesTooth Fractures: Break or rupture of a tooth or tooth root.Insurance: Coverage by contract whereby one part indemnifies or guarantees another against loss by a specified contingency.Deep Sedation: Drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients cannot be easily aroused but respond purposely following repeated painful stimulation. The ability to independently maintain ventilatory function may be impaired. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)Denturists: Individuals who fabricate and fit DENTURES without the supervision of DENTISTS. (from Stedman's Medical Dictionary, 27th ed) They may or may not have formal education in health sciences, but are well versed in the art of constructing dentures.Dental Staff, Hospital: Dental personnel practicing in hospitals.Dentistry, Operative: That phase of clinical dentistry concerned with the restoration of parts of existing teeth that are defective through disease, trauma, or abnormal development, to the state of normal function, health, and esthetics, including preventive, diagnostic, biological, mechanical, and therapeutic techniques, as well as material and instrument science and application. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 2d ed, p237)Patient Care Planning: Usually a written medical and nursing care program designed for a particular patient.Halitosis: An offensive, foul breath odor resulting from a variety of causes such as poor oral hygiene, dental or oral infections, or the ingestion of certain foods.Dental Caries Activity Tests: Diagnostic tests conducted in order to measure the increment of active DENTAL CARIES over a period of time.Nova Scotia: A province of eastern Canada, one of the Maritime Provinces with NEW BRUNSWICK; PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND; and sometimes NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR. Its capital is Halifax. The territory was granted in 1621 by James I to the Scotsman Sir William Alexander and was called Nova Scotia, the Latin for New Scotland. The territory had earlier belonged to the French, under the name of Acadia. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p871 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p384)Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Focal Infection, Dental: Secondary or systemic infections due to dissemination throughout the body of microorganisms whose primary focus of infection lies in the periodontal tissues.Human Engineering: The science of designing, building or equipping mechanical devices or artificial environments to the anthropometric, physiological, or psychological requirements of the people who will use them.Dental Restoration Failure: Inability or inadequacy of a dental restoration or prosthesis to perform as expected.Dental Atraumatic Restorative Treatment: Treatment modality for DENTAL CARIES that uses manual excavation method and GLASS IONOMER CEMENTS. Because of its noninvasiveness and no need for expensive equipment and anesthesia it is promoted as an approach in places where dental care is not readily available.Radiography, Bitewing: Technique involving the passage of X-rays through oral structures to create a film record while a central tab or wing of dental X-ray film is being held between upper and lower teeth.United StatesTime Management: Planning and control of time to improve efficiency and effectiveness.Crowns: A prosthetic restoration that reproduces the entire surface anatomy of the visible natural crown of a tooth. It may be partial (covering three or more surfaces of a tooth) or complete (covering all surfaces). It is made of gold or other metal, porcelain, or resin.Mouth Protectors: Devices or pieces of equipment placed in or around the mouth or attached to instruments to protect the external or internal tissues of the mouth and the teeth.Denture Retention: The retention of a denture in place by design, device, or adhesion.Tooth, Deciduous: The teeth of the first dentition, which are shed and replaced by the permanent teeth.Dental Enamel: A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)Toothbrushing: The act of cleaning teeth with a brush to remove plaque and prevent tooth decay. (From Webster, 3d ed)Prosthodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the restoration and maintenance of oral function by the replacement of missing TEETH and related structures by artificial devices or DENTAL PROSTHESES.Tooth Abrasion: The pathologic wearing away of the tooth substance by brushing, bruxism, clenching, and other mechanical causes. It is differentiated from TOOTH ATTRITION in that this type of wearing away is the result of tooth-to-tooth contact, as in mastication, occurring only on the occlusal, incisal, and proximal surfaces. It differs also from TOOTH EROSION, the progressive loss of the hard substance of a tooth by chemical processes not involving bacterial action. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p2)Sampling Studies: Studies in which a number of subjects are selected from all subjects in a defined population. Conclusions based on sample results may be attributed only to the population sampled.Molar: The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)Visible Human Projects: Digital image data sets, consisting of complete, anatomically detailed, three-dimensional representations of the normal male and female human bodies.Toothache: Pain in the adjacent areas of the teeth.Authoritarianism: The personality pattern or syndrome consisting of behavioral and attitudinal characteristics reflecting a preoccupation with the factors of power and authority in interpersonal relationships.Reimbursement Mechanisms: Processes or methods of reimbursement for services rendered or equipment.Smiling: A facial expression which may denote feelings of pleasure, affection, amusement, etc.Universal Precautions: Prudent standard preventive measures to be taken by professional and other health personnel in contact with persons afflicted with a communicable disease, to avoid contracting the disease by contagion or infection. Precautions are especially applicable in the diagnosis and care of AIDS patients.Aminobenzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the benzene ring structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobenzoate structure.Incisor: Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)Cuspid: The third tooth to the left and to the right of the midline of either jaw, situated between the second INCISOR and the premolar teeth (BICUSPID). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p817)Dental Materials: Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.Preimplantation Diagnosis: Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the OVUM; ZYGOTE; or BLASTOCYST prior to implantation. CYTOGENETIC ANALYSIS is performed to determine the presence or absence of genetic disease.Mouthwashes: Solutions for rinsing the mouth, possessing cleansing, germicidal, or palliative properties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Mouth Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.Training Support: Financial support for training including both student stipends and loans and training grants to institutions.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.DMF Index: "Decayed, missing and filled teeth," a routinely used statistical concept in dentistry.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Refusal to Treat: Refusal of the health professional to initiate or continue treatment of a patient or group of patients. The refusal can be based on any reason. The concept is differentiated from PATIENT REFUSAL OF TREATMENT see TREATMENT REFUSAL which originates with the patient and not the health professional.Bone Malalignment: Displacement of bones out of line in relation to joints. It may be congenital or traumatic in origin.West VirginiaAnesthesiology: A specialty concerned with the study of anesthetics and anesthesia.Blood Transfusion, Intrauterine: In utero transfusion of BLOOD into the FETUS for the treatment of FETAL DISEASES, such as fetal erythroblastosis (ERYTHROBLASTOSIS, FETAL).Oral Surgical Procedures: Surgical procedures used to treat disease, injuries, and defects of the oral and maxillofacial region.Dental Informatics: The application of computer and information sciences to improve dental practice, research, education and management.Pyrethrins: The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.Professional Practice: The use of one's knowledge in a particular profession. It includes, in the case of the field of biomedicine, professional activities related to health care and the actual performance of the duties related to the provision of health care.Mouth, Edentulous: Total lack of teeth through disease or extraction.Facial Pain: Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.Gloves, Surgical: Gloves, usually rubber, worn by surgeons, examining physicians, dentists, and other health personnel for the mutual protection of personnel and patient.Tooth Abnormalities: Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the teeth.Medical Waste Disposal: Management, removal, and elimination of biologic, infectious, pathologic, and dental waste. The concept includes blood, mucus, tissue removed at surgery or autopsy, soiled surgical dressings, and other materials requiring special control and handling. Disposal may take place where the waste is generated or elsewhere.Forensic Anthropology: Scientific study of human skeletal remains with the express purpose of identification. This includes establishing individual identity, trauma analysis, facial reconstruction, photographic superimposition, determination of time interval since death, and crime-scene recovery. Forensic anthropologists do not certify cause of death but provide data to assist in determination of probable cause. This is a branch of the field of physical anthropology and qualified individuals are certified by the American Board of Forensic Anthropology. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1992 Jun;13(2):146)Tooth Erosion: Progressive loss of the hard substance of a tooth by chemical processes that do not involve bacterial action. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p296)Chewing Gum: A preparation of chicle, sometimes mixed with other plastic substances, sweetened and flavored. It is masticated usually for pleasure as a candy substitute but it sometimes acts as a vehicle for the administration of medication.Pharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PHARYNX.Conscious Sedation: A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Tooth Discoloration: Any change in the hue, color, or translucency of a tooth due to any cause. Restorative filling materials, drugs (both topical and systemic), pulpal necrosis, or hemorrhage may be responsible. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p253)Tooth, Nonvital: A tooth from which the dental pulp has been removed or is necrotic. (Boucher, Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Dental Scaling: Removal of dental plaque and dental calculus from the surface of a tooth, from the surface of a tooth apical to the gingival margin accumulated in periodontal pockets, or from the surface coronal to the gingival margin.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Fluoridation: Practice of adding fluoride to water for the purpose of preventing tooth decay and cavities.Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Tooth Loss: The failure to retain teeth as a result of disease or injury.School Admission Criteria: Requirements for the selection of students for admission to academic institutions.LithuaniaCareer Choice: Selection of a type of occupation or profession.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Dentin: The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Retreatment: The therapy of the same disease in a patient, with the same agent or procedure repeated after initial treatment, or with an additional or alternate measure or follow-up. It does not include therapy which requires more than one administration of a therapeutic agent or regimen. Retreatment is often used with reference to a different modality when the original one was inadequate, harmful, or unsuccessful.Crithidia fasciculata: A species of monogenetic, parasitic protozoa usually found in insects.Manitoba: A province of Canada, lying between the provinces of Saskatchewan and Ontario. Its capital is Winnipeg. Taking its name from Lake Manitoba, itself named for one of its islands, the name derived from Algonquian Manitou, great spirit. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p724 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p332)Bicuspid: One of the eight permanent teeth, two on either side in each jaw, between the canines (CUSPID) and the molars (MOLAR), serving for grinding and crushing food. The upper have two cusps (bicuspid) but the lower have one to three. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p822)Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Oral Hemorrhage: Bleeding from the blood vessels of the mouth, which may occur as a result of injuries to the mouth, accidents in oral surgery, or diseases of the gums.Delegation, Professional: The process of assigning duties to a subordinate with lesser qualifications.Radiography, Panoramic: Extraoral body-section radiography depicting an entire maxilla, or both maxilla and mandible, on a single film.Toothpastes: Dentifrices that are formulated into a paste form. They typically contain abrasives, HUMECTANTS; DETERGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; and CARIOSTATIC AGENTS.Military Dentistry: The practice of dentistry as applied to special circumstances associated with military operations.Oral Ulcer: A loss of mucous substance of the mouth showing local excavation of the surface, resulting from the sloughing of inflammatory necrotic tissue. It is the result of a variety of causes, e.g., denture irritation, aphthous stomatitis (STOMATITIS, APHTHOUS); NOMA; necrotizing gingivitis (GINGIVITIS, NECROTIZING ULCERATIVE); TOOTHBRUSHING; and various irritants. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p842)Maxillofacial Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the face and jaw (either upper, lower, or both).Dental Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of dental prostheses in general or a specific dental prosthesis. It does not include DENTURE DESIGN. The framework usually consists of metal.BrazilDental Devices, Home Care: Devices used in the home by persons to maintain dental and periodontal health. The devices include toothbrushes, dental flosses, water irrigators, gingival stimulators, etc.Traumatology: The medical specialty which deals with WOUNDS and INJURIES as well as resulting disability and disorders from physical traumas.Dental Implantation: The grafting or inserting of a prosthetic device of alloplastic material into the oral tissue beneath the mucosal or periosteal layer or within the bone. Its purpose is to provide support and retention to a partial or complete denture.Models, Educational: Theoretical models which propose methods of learning or teaching as a basis or adjunct to changes in attitude or behavior. These educational interventions are usually applied in the fields of health and patient education but are not restricted to patient care.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases: A sub-subclass of endopeptidases that depend on an ASPARTIC ACID residue for their activity.

Factors associated with refusal to treat HIV-infected patients: the results of a national survey of dentists in Canada. (1/447)

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated dentists refusal to treat patients who have HIV. METHODS: A survey was mailed to a random sample of all licensed dentists in Canada, with 3 follow-up attempts (n = 6444). Data were weighted to allow for probability of selection and nonresponse and analyzed with Pearson's chi 2 and multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: The response rate was 66%. Of the respondents, 32% had knowingly treated HIV-infected patients in the last year; 16% would refuse to treat HIV-infected patients. Respondents reported willingness to treat HIV-infected patients (81%), injection drug users (86%), hepatitis B virus-infected patients (87%), homosexual and bisexual persons (94%), individuals with sexually transmitted disease(s) (94%), and recipients of blood and blood products (97%). The best predictors of refusal to treat patients with HIV were lack of ethical responsibility (odds ratio = 9.0) and items related to fear of cross-infection or lack of knowledge of HIV. CONCLUSIONS: One in 6 dentists reported refusal to treat HIV-infected patients, which was associated primarily with respondents' lack of belief in an ethical responsibility to treat patients with HIV and fears related to cross-infection. These results have implications for undergraduate, postgraduate, and continuing education.  (+info)

Sources of stress for orthodontic practitioners. (2/447)

This paper aims to examine and highlight the difference between sources of stress and burn-out. The first part of the paper examines stress and the second part looks at the concept of burn-out with reference to how orthodontists compare with other dental professionals.  (+info)

Who should determine the medical necessity of dental sedation and general anesthesia? A clinical commentary supported by Illinois patient and practitioner surveys. (3/447)

Many third-party payers try to deny benefits for dental sedation and general anesthesia. The term "not medically necessary" is often applied to these services by third-party payers. The label is poorly defined and varies from payer to payer. This paper uses original practitioner and patient opinion surveys to support the position that the definition of medical necessity is solely the joint responsibility of the patient and his/her physician. These surveys also support the argument that both patients and practitioners view dental sedation and general anesthesia as a medically necessary procedure if it allows a patient to complete a medically necessary surgical procedure that he/she might otherwise avoid.  (+info)

Dental surgeons with natural rubber latex allergy: a report of 20 cases. (4/447)

Latex allergy is becoming a major occupational health issue and dental surgeons are at risk from becoming sensitized to natural rubber latex. A study was conducted to investigate risk factors and glove-related symptoms reported by dentists with natural rubber latex allergy. Twenty dentists, who had undergone serological or dermatological testing for a Type I allergy to latex, were identified from a questionnaire survey. Risk factors investigated were: gender, years in clinical practice, exposure to latex gloves, atopic history and food allergy. The majority of dentists (75%) gave an atopic history. Glove-related adverse reactions ranged from cutaneous to systemic manifestations. All twenty dentists reported itching of the hands in response to latex gloves. One respondent was unable to continue in dental practice because of her glove-related allergies; nineteen dentists were able to continue by using synthetic, non-latex gloves.  (+info)

Detecting child abuse and neglect--are dentists doing enough? (5/447)

Dental health professionals continue to under-report child abuse, despite growing awareness of their potential role in detecting this crime. This article presents an overview of child abuse and neglect and outlines the indicators that may alert dental professionals to possible maltreatment of child patients. Documentation protocols are also provided to aid in reporting child abuse identified in the dental office.  (+info)

Infectious health care workers: should patients be told? (6/447)

The risk of transmission of HIV or hepatitis B from infectious health care workers to patients is low. However, inadvertent exposure causes great concern amongst patients of an infected health care worker. The patients of a Scottish dentist diagnosed hepatitis B e antigen positive were informed by letter of their exposure. A sample of patients was sent a postal questionnaire. Most (56%) respondents reported feeling anxious on receiving the letter but almost all (93%) thought patients should always be informed following treatment by an infectious health care worker, although the risk was very small. We discuss clinical and ethical factors relating to informing patients following exposure to an infectious health care worker. We suggest that a balance should be struck between patients' wishes to know of risks to which they have been exposed, however small, and the professional view that when risks are negligible, patients need not be informed.  (+info)

Comparing characteristics of Canadians who visited dentists and physicians during 1993/94: a secondary analysis. (7/447)

Unlike medical care, dental services are not included in Canada's universal system of health care. Using the data from the 1994 National Population Health Survey, we estimate the proportion of the population aged 12 and older visiting dentists and physicians in 1993/94 and compare the factors that influence the use of dentists' and physicians' services. Overall, 52.4% of Canadians made one or more visits to a dentist and 78.4% visited a physician. Logistic regression analysis indicates that whereas visiting a family physician is more likely to occur for people who are ill (generally, on medications or needing help with daily living) or pregnant, visiting a dentist is more likely to occur for young, healthy, wealthy and highly educated people. Future dental health policy needs better information on health status linked to use of services.  (+info)

Sociodemographic and workload characteristics of dentists who participated in national survey, 1995. (8/447)

Comprehensive, standardized data on the sociodemographic characteristics and workload of dentists in different provinces and territories in Canada are not available. The authors mailed a survey to a stratified random sample of dentists (n = 6,444) with three follow-up attempts. The response rate was 66.4%. Significant provincial and territorial differences in sociodemographic characteristics included gender, age, years since graduation, marital status, population size of town or city where primary practice is located and patient load. There was considerable variation in dentists' workload: more than 10% of dentists from New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island reported seeing > or = 30 patients per day. The majority of respondents reported seeing patients for 25 to 40 hours per week. British Columbia, Ontario, Saskatchewan and Newfoundland had a greater proportion of respondents > or = 60 years of age compared with other provinces/territories, indicating that there may be more opportunities in these provinces for younger dentists as a result of retirements.  (+info)

  • In addition to clinical practice, the dentist can also contribute significantly to the future direction of oral health care by engaging in dental education and research. (adea.org)
  • Hygienists would need an extra year of training, and the supervision of a dentist to practice. (nhpr.org)
  • The Dentist, Buntingford is a well-established practice that offers private treatment to about 3500 patients. (cqc.org.uk)
  • The practice is owned by an individual who is the dentist there. (cqc.org.uk)
  • Yes regulate dentists forcing them to be aversive as possible, so they will have to lower their fees or even pay people to practice their tooth pulling trade. (halfbakery.com)
  • Around 100 dentists and their practice staff attended a ball in Leeds to raise money to send a dental nurse to Morroco to help children suffering dental problems. (itv.com)
  • Professional dentists can work towards enhancing their income with experience on the job and performing tricky procedures in a commendable manner, particularly those who build a reputation and opt for private practice. (excite.com)
  • It's designed to assist new dentists and other members in managing ethical challenges that may arise in day to day practice. (ada.org)
  • Follow Dr. Sowa and other new dentists as they navigate practice and life. (ada.org)
  • JACKSONVILLE, Fla. - A Jacksonville pediatric dentist under investigation by the state of Florida is now the target of a class-action lawsuit alleging his practice is a front for a "sadistic and systematic scheme of physical and psychological torture and abuse" of "utterly defenseless" children. (usatoday.com)
  • Dentist Schneider's deep need to inflict pain, torture, mutilate and humiliate, has driven him to create a specialized dental 'practice', which, by its very design and structure, provided him with a constant supply of especially defenseless, indigent, children to victimize," the complaint said. (usatoday.com)
  • Twice, though, first in 2001 and more recently in 2013, the Jacksonville Sheriff's Office has been called to his practice to deal with complaints about the dentist using excessive force on young patients. (usatoday.com)
  • On top of his many violations in sanitary practice, the dentist was a Medicaid provider, which means he had a high proportion of patients with HIV or hepatitis, she said. (go.com)
  • For information on becoming a network dentist, enter the state where you practice. (deltadental.com)
  • Owned by Dr Moore, this dental practice restores your confidence in the dentist and is renowned for their caring approach. (thebestof.co.uk)
  • Any patient notes/records taken at the EDC will be computerised at the dental practice visited, but on request a patient's regular dentist can request a copy of these records if required. (www.gov.im)
  • Dentists are taking a good look at their systems, trying to figure out what they can do internally that won't cost them anything but will keep people coming,' says Gene Werner of Mercer Advisors, a company that does financial planning and practice management for about 4,000 dental practices across the nation. (wsj.com)
  • Dr. Serve Wahan, an oral surgeon with OM3 , a group practice with offices in Everett, Mill Creek and Smokey Point, estimated that about 80 percent of area dentists either have made the switch to digital records or are in the process of doing so. (heraldnet.com)
  • The Wealthy Dentist is a dental marketing and dental practice management resource featuring dental consulting expert Jim Du Molin. (pr.com)
  • Westside dentist Kevin Komatsu agrees: 'What we use in our practice is evidence-based, our procedures are based on what the research tells us works. (latimes.com)
  • Dr Mitesh Badiani felt patients were not offered any alternative treatment if they were too afraid of visiting the dentist, be it because of a fear of needles, the dentist's chair, the sound of drilling and even the smell of a practice. (redorbit.com)
  • In June 2017, the CDC reviewed medical records from 894 patients diagnosed with IPF and treated at the above-mentioned specialty clinic from September 1996 to June 2017, looking for those with an occupation of dentist, dental hygienist or dental technician. (mercola.com)
  • The state dental care system could lose as much as 37 percent of its current dentists to retirement by 2017. (realchangenews.org)
  • Considering the small number of dentists in the U.S. relative to the overall population (0.038 percent in 2016), the fact that they represented nearly 1 percent of patients being treated for IPF at one clinic was noteworthy. (mercola.com)
  • According to the last available data from the BLS (Bureau of Labor Statistics), job growth for dentists is expected to be 19% between 2016 and 2026. (redorbit.com)
  • Golden Apple Award for New Dental Leadership from the American Dental Association (2014) Distinguished Service Award from Smiles Change Lives (2014) Top Dentist by 435 South magazine (2013-2016) Family Favorite by KC Parent magazine (2013-2014) "Best of the Northland" Silver Award (Orthodontics) (2012) Dr. Burleson is the author of The Ultimate Ortho Handbook, The Consumer's Guide to Invisalign,, Stop Hiding Your Smile! (wikipedia.org)
  • Excludes "Prosthodontists" (29-1024), "Orthodontists" (29-1023), "Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons" (29-1022) and "Dentists, All Other Specialists" (29-1029). (bls.gov)
  • Dentists can refer you to other dental specialists such as endodontists, periodontists, oral and maxillofacial surgeons, and orthodontists . (healthline.com)
  • Like surgeons, we dentists can lean on others when we need help. (agd.org)
  • Currently in India, according to WHO, dentist to population ratio is 1:30000 (very low by global standards) *Dental Surgeons in India are the worst victims of unemployment crisis among health workers. (change.org)
  • Dentists and oral surgeons are by far the major prescribers of opioids for people ages 10 to 19. (nytimes.com)
  • Health officials in the US are to meet next month to decide whether to recommend mandatory HIV tests for dentists and surgeons. (newscientist.com)
  • In fact, a cluster of eight dentists and one dental technician from Virginia were diagnosed with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a chronic and progressive lung disease with no known cure, and sought treatment at the same specialty clinic in the state from 2000 to 2015. (mercola.com)
  • After this analysis, another IPF case was diagnosed in a dentist treated at this specialty clinic. (mercola.com)
  • Dentist Ringwood was created to help you find the best Dental Clinic in Ringwood Victoria 3134. (hotfrog.com.au)
  • An Emergency Dental Clinic (EDC) is provided by an on duty dentist for weekends and bank holidays. (www.gov.im)
  • Next is I have a new lady dentist now because my male dentist clinic is not yet done because he transffered location. (hubpages.com)
  • Of special note, The Natural Dentist Healthy Gums Mouth Rinse (with aloe vera) has been shown to relieve chemotherapy-induced mouth and gum side effects such as mouth irritations and mouth sores. (breastcancer.org)
  • The dentist numb your gums and if your tooth has been paining, you will be relieved. (hubpages.com)
  • Always think like a dentist so first listen to their issue, examine them and use your expertise to treat them painlessly. (apple.com)
  • New dental boards, such as the National Association of Dental Examiners, were created to establish standards and uniformity among dentists. (wikipedia.org)
  • But that median figure obscures variation around the country and among dentists with different specialties. (washingtonpost.com)
  • With population growth, changes in health care law and the upcoming retirement of a large group of dentists educated during the 1960s and 1970s, the need for new dentists is rapidly increasing. (adea.org)
  • Dentists are highly regarded by the communities they serve for their contributions to the general health of the public as well as their drive to improve the lives of those around them. (adea.org)
  • Find a dentist near you and your family in Cleveland that fit your health needs. (healthline.com)
  • The aim of Dentists on Starkey is to enable you to achieve the highest standard of dental health, function and aesthetics so as. (hotfrog.com.au)
  • State health officials traced the infections to the dentist. (go.com)
  • He's certified by the state of Alaska as a dental health therapist and ventures to villages so rural no dentist has ever set up shop. (realchangenews.org)
  • To be sure, some dentists have received a business boost as the soon-to-be unemployed seek health care before their benefits run out. (wsj.com)
  • Advocates say this could help increase access in the state, but dentists argue it's a misguided solution for a problem that may not exist. (nhpr.org)
  • Dentists need to be aware of the need for malpractice insurance as well as state laws with regards to their profession. (excite.com)
  • 6. All dentists need to be licensed in their state of employment. (excite.com)
  • Although, requirements vary by state, dentists need to have a degree from an accredited dental school and pass a written and practical exam in order to get licensed. (excite.com)
  • Many state and local dental societies also have new dentist committees and this is a great way to get involved. (ada.org)
  • Contact the New Dentist Committee office at [email protected] , or 800.621.8099 get connected to your representative or reach out to your state dental society. (ada.org)
  • Once responses were compiled, dentists were checked against state dental boards for disciplinary actions to make sure they have an active license and are in good standing. (5280.com)
  • She knows that dentists in her state will oppose the issue, and she understands why. (governing.com)
  • The joint event in the nation's capital - the ADA Dentist and Student Lobby Day (formerly ADA Washington Leadership Conference) - hosted some 1,000 dentists, dental students, state association staff and other dental leaders. (ada.org)
  • In January, State Rep. Eileen Cody (D-Seattle) will introduce legislation that would create a two-year professional certification for a mid-level dental worker, which would provide more training than a hygienist, but less than a dentist. (realchangenews.org)
  • By preparing for a future shortage in dentists, the whole state could benefit, he said. (realchangenews.org)
  • For instance, dentists must be state licensed and recognized by the American Dental Association (ADA). (consumersresearchcncl.org)
  • First of all, the state that the dentist operates in has a big impact on the salary. (redorbit.com)
  • Dr. Coleman has 15 years of experience as the official dentist of the Miss Texas USA pageant, and has created winning smiles for several Miss USA winners and one Miss Universe. (prweb.com)
  • BBB Accredited Dentists near Kearney, NE have all agreed to a set of high standards in their business practices. (bbb.org)
  • At the very least, there should be clown dentists whose practices are awash with snakes and tarantulas. (halfbakery.com)
  • Experienced dentists need opportunities to advance while maintaining busy practices. (agd.org)
  • For the most part, holistic dentists don't use fluoride in their practices, and they prefer herbal and traditional products and remedies. (latimes.com)
  • The dentist at the EDC will be able to assist with any of the treatments listed within Schedule 4 of the Dental Charges Regulations linked at the top of this page. (www.gov.im)
  • There is this unfortunate opportunity for dentists to prescribe opioids for any acute or chronic pain that the elderly adult is having, and it may actually pose dangerous interactions for those other medications they're on and place them at greater risk of 30-day ER visits and cause hospitalizations,' said study co-author Jessina McGregor. (medicinenet.com)
  • However I have, over the years, worked on appliances with many dentists. (selfgrowth.com)
  • I've been a dentist for 20 years now and it is good to give back in life. (itv.com)
  • After ten years of development, dental engineers now have a prototype device ready, and they're looking for investors to bring the invention to a dentist office near you. (discovermagazine.com)
  • When my wife and I moved to Miami Beach years ago, we expected an added emphasis on appearance-but I never thought that superficiality would extend to my dentist. (5280.com)
  • The need for dentists to install amalgam separators was well-established years ago,' Bender said. (treehugger.com)
  • After that experience I avoided the dentist for years. (empowher.com)
  • Fast forward several years and two babies later and I was forced to attend a dentist for medical reasons. (empowher.com)
  • This was the case for Paula Wardle, 36, of Whitleigh, Plymouth, who avoided visiting a dentist for more than 20 years, but was forced back into the surgery to take her young children for check- ups. (redorbit.com)
  • The dentist tells U.S. news show Entertainment Tonight, "Oksana's been my patient for 12 years. (contactmusic.com)
  • An early career Dentist with 1-4 years of experience earns an average total compensation of ₹287,602 based on 517 salaries. (payscale.com)
  • A mid-career Dentist with 5-9 years of experience earns an average total compensation of ₹418,294 based on 172 salaries. (payscale.com)
  • An experienced Dentist with 10-19 years of experience earns an average total compensation of ₹720,875 based on 86 salaries. (payscale.com)
  • Born into a family of dentists, Burleson spent his early teenage years working in his father's dental office, an experience that led him to pursue his own career in the dental field. (wikipedia.org)
  • It's about the fear and rage inside one smooth, civilized dentist, David Hurst (Campbell Scott), and his wife and partner in a thriving dental business, Dana (Hope Davis). (metroactive.com)
  • Tell your dentist beforehand about your fear and they will help you to deal with the procedure. (hubpages.com)
  • In June 1987, The Dentists headlined a show at the George Hotel in Chatham which featured all 23 acts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ADA New Dentist Committee provides the perspective of the new dentist to ADA leadership. (ada.org)
  • The session, which featured a role-playing exercise demonstrating a typical visit to a congressional office, was facilitated by Dr. Charlie McGinty, a former ADPAC chair, Dr. Justin Norbo of the ADA New Dentist Committee, and Sara Golkari, a member of ASDA's Council on Advocacy. (ada.org)
  • ADA New Dentist Committee names leadership, program award recipients" ADA News. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is the third year the charity has sent a team of dentists to Morocco. (itv.com)
  • They're getting their first taste of the drug from a doctor or dentist, and that increases the likelihood they would use it recreationally. (nytimes.com)
  • The opportunity for dentists to concentrate more on preventive messages is currently being tested in dental pilots in England. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • A little more than half of 1,275 dentists surveyed in July by the American Dental Associaton said their net incomes have decreased and their unbooked appointment times have increased from the first quarter. (wsj.com)
  • You'll be contacted as soon as an appointment is available but if this isn't within a reasonable time, you should complain to NHS England, rather than to an individual dentist who refuses to take you on. (citizensadvice.org.uk)
  • Seniors who take depression and anxiety drugs shouldn't be prescribed opioid painkillers by their dentist because it puts them at increased risk for problems, researchers warn. (medicinenet.com)
  • The researchers are convinced that the dentist was the source of the infections because the virus samples are extremely closely related. (newscientist.com)
  • Shortly afterward, the Dentists were signed by the American label Homestead Records, which released the compilation Dressed (1992) and the album Powdered Lobster Fiasco (1993). (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1992, the Dentists released three seven-inch singles -- See No Evil, Hear No Evil, and Speak No Evil -- simultaneously on three different record labels. (wikipedia.org)
  • You will want to ask them about their qualifications, don't worry to much about where they went to dental school, all dental schools produce good dentists. (hubpages.com)
  • This does not mean that professionals that did not accumulate enough points are not good dentists, but merely did not qualify for this list because of the points needed. (consumersresearchcncl.org)
  • In order to receive this high honor as determined by detailed evaluations of dental professionals by their peers, one can assume that Canterino, primary dentist and owner of Canterino Dental Associates, holds himself up to high standards and understands a thing or two about being social. (prweb.com)
  • Your primary dentist will refer you to a specialist if needed. (consumersresearchcncl.org)