The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
The property of dentin that permits passage of light, heat, cold, and chemical substances. It does not include penetration by microorganisms.
Substances which reduce or eliminate dentinal sensitivity or the pain associated with a source of stimulus (such as touch, heat, or cold) at the orifice of exposed dentinal tubules causing the movement of tubular fluid that in turn stimulates tooth nerve receptors.
Dentin sensitivity is a condition characterized by pain or discomfort in response to thermal, mechanical, or chemical stimuli, caused by exposure of dentin's tubules to the oral environment.
Cements that act through infiltration and polymerization within the dentinal matrix and are used for dental restoration. They can be adhesive resins themselves, adhesion-promoting monomers, or polymerization initiators that act in concert with other agents to form a dentin-bonding system.
Dentin formed by normal pulp after completion of root end formation.
An adhesion procedure for orthodontic attachments, such as plastic DENTAL CROWNS. This process usually includes the application of an adhesive material (DENTAL CEMENTS) and letting it harden in-place by light or chemical curing.
An apparently hereditary disorder of dentin formation, marked by a normal appearance of coronal dentin associated with pulpal obliteration, faulty root formation, and a tendency for peripheral lesions without obvious cause. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.
Dental cements composed either of polymethyl methacrylate or dimethacrylate, produced by mixing an acrylic monomer liquid with acrylic polymers and mineral fillers. The cement is insoluble in water and is thus resistant to fluids in the mouth, but is also irritating to the dental pulp. It is used chiefly as a luting agent for fabricated and temporary restorations. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p159)
Preparation of TOOTH surfaces and DENTAL MATERIALS with etching agents, usually phosphoric acid, to roughen the surface to increase adhesion or osteointegration.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
Adherent debris produced when cutting the enamel or dentin in cavity preparation. It is about 1 micron thick and its composition reflects the underlying dentin, although different quantities and qualities of smear layer can be produced by the various instrumentation techniques. Its function is presumed to be protective, as it lowers dentin permeability. However, it masks the underlying dentin and interferes with attempts to bond dental material to the dentin.
Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.
The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)
The formation of dentin. Dentin first appears in the layer between the ameloblasts and odontoblasts and becomes calcified immediately. Formation progresses from the tip of the papilla over its slope to form a calcified cap becoming thicker by the apposition of new layers pulpward. A layer of uncalcified dentin intervenes between the calcified tissue and the odontoblast and its processes. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
The susceptibility of the DENTIN to dissolution.
The process whereby calcium salts are deposited in the dental enamel. The process is normal in the development of bones and teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p43)
The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.
Inorganic derivatives of phosphoric acid (H3PO4). Note that organic derivatives of phosphoric acids are listed under ORGANOPHOSPHATES.
A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)
A tooth's loss of minerals, such as calcium in hydroxyapatite from the tooth matrix, caused by acidic exposure. An example of the occurrence of demineralization is in the formation of dental caries.
The reaction product of bisphenol A and glycidyl methacrylate that undergoes polymerization when exposed to ultraviolet light or mixed with a catalyst. It is used as a bond implant material and as the resin component of dental sealants and composite restorative materials.
A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
An inner coating, as of varnish or other protective substance, to cover the dental cavity wall. It is usually a resinous film-forming agent dissolved in a volatile solvent, or a suspension of calcium hydroxide in a solution of a synthetic resin. The lining seals the dentinal tubules and protects the pulp before a restoration is inserted. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)
One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.
The part of a tooth from the neck to the apex, embedded in the alveolar process and covered with cementum. A root may be single or divided into several branches, usually identified by their relative position, e.g., lingual root or buccal root. Single-rooted teeth include mandibular first and second premolars and the maxillary second premolar teeth. The maxillary first premolar has two roots in most cases. Maxillary molars have three roots. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p690)
The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)
An operation in which carious material is removed from teeth and biomechanically correct forms are established in the teeth to receive and retain restorations. A constant requirement is provision for prevention of failure of the restoration through recurrence of decay or inadequate resistance to applied stresses. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239-40)
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
The lymph or fluid of dentin. It is a transudate of extracellular fluid, mainly cytoplasm of odontoblastic processes, from the dental pulp via the dentinal tubules. It is also called dental lymph. (From Stedman, 26th ed, p665)
Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.
Therapeutic technique for replacement of minerals in partially decalcified teeth.
Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.
The seepage of fluids, debris, and micro-organisms between the walls of a prepared dental cavity and the restoration.
The mechanical property of material that determines its resistance to force. HARDNESS TESTS measure this property.
The degree of approximation or fit of filling material or dental prosthetic to the tooth surface. A close marginal adaptation and seal at the interface is important for successful dental restorations.
A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Removal of minerals from bones during bone examination.
Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.
Substances that cause the adherence of two surfaces. They include glues (properly collagen-derived adhesives), mucilages, sticky pastes, gums, resins, or latex.
Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)
Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.
The wearing away of a tooth as a result of tooth-to-tooth contact, as in mastication, occurring only on the occlusal, incisal, and proximal surfaces. It is chiefly associated with aging. It is differentiated from TOOTH ABRASION (the pathologic wearing away of the tooth substance by friction, as brushing, bruxism, clenching, and other mechanical causes) and from TOOTH EROSION (the loss of substance caused by chemical action without bacterial action). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p86)
Poly-2-methylpropenoic acids. Used in the manufacture of methacrylate resins and plastics in the form of pellets and granules, as absorbent for biological materials and as filters; also as biological membranes and as hydrogens. Synonyms: methylacrylate polymer; poly(methylacrylate); acrylic acid methyl ester polymer.
The teeth of the first dentition, which are shed and replaced by the permanent teeth.
The internal resistance of a material to moving some parts of it parallel to a fixed plane, in contrast to stretching (TENSILE STRENGTH) or compression (COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH). Ionic crystals are brittle because, when subjected to shear, ions of the same charge are brought next to each other, which causes repulsion.
A restoration designed to remain in service for not less than 20 to 30 years, usually made of gold casting, cohesive gold, or amalgam. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Production of a radiographic image of a small or very thin object on fine-grained photographic film under conditions which permit subsequent microscopic examination or enlargement of the radiograph at linear magnifications of up to several hundred and with a resolution approaching the resolving power of the photographic emulsion (about 1000 lines per millimeter).
The space in a tooth bounded by the dentin and containing the dental pulp. The portion of the cavity within the crown of the tooth is the pulp chamber; the portion within the root is the pulp canal or root canal.
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
The result of pathological changes in the hard tissue of a tooth caused by carious lesions, mechanical factors, or trauma, which render the pulp susceptible to bacterial invasion from the external environment.
The quality or state of being wettable or the degree to which something can be wet. This is also the ability of any solid surface to be wetted when in contact with a liquid whose surface tension is reduced so that the liquid spreads over the surface of the solid.
An autosomal dominant disorder of tooth development characterized by opalescent dentin resulting in discoloration of the teeth. The dentin develops poorly with low mineral content while the pulp canal is obliterated.
The constricted part of the tooth at the junction of the crown and root or roots. It is often referred to as the cementoenamel junction (CEJ), the line at which the cementum covering the root of a tooth and the enamel of the tooth meet. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p530, p433)
The aftermost permanent tooth on each side in the maxilla and mandible.
The upper part of the tooth, which joins the lower part of the tooth (TOOTH ROOT) at the cervix (TOOTH CERVIX) at a line called the cementoenamel junction. The entire surface of the crown is covered with enamel which is thicker at the extremity and becomes progressively thinner toward the cervix. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p216)
It is used as an oxidizing and bleaching agent and as a disinfectant. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Inability or inadequacy of a dental restoration or prosthesis to perform as expected.
Dentifrices that are formulated into a paste form. They typically contain abrasives, HUMECTANTS; DETERGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; and CARIOSTATIC AGENTS.
Progressive loss of the hard substance of a tooth by chemical processes that do not involve bacterial action. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p296)
Chemicals used mainly to disinfect root canals after pulpectomy and before obturation. The major ones are camphorated monochlorophenol, EDTA, formocresol, hydrogen peroxide, metacresylacetate, and sodium hypochlorite. Root canal irrigants include also rinsing solutions of distilled water, sodium chloride, etc.
Application of a protective agent to an exposed pulp (direct capping) or the remaining thin layer of dentin over a nearly exposed pulp (indirect capping) in order to allow the pulp to recover and maintain its normal vitality and function.
The bonelike rigid connective tissue covering the root of a tooth from the cementoenamel junction to the apex and lining the apex of the root canal, also assisting in tooth support by serving as attachment structures for the periodontal ligament. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The pathologic wearing away of the tooth substance by brushing, bruxism, clenching, and other mechanical causes. It is differentiated from TOOTH ATTRITION in that this type of wearing away is the result of tooth-to-tooth contact, as in mastication, occurring only on the occlusal, incisal, and proximal surfaces. It differs also from TOOTH EROSION, the progressive loss of the hard substance of a tooth by chemical processes not involving bacterial action. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p2)
One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.
Preparation of TOOTH surfaces, and of materials bonded to teeth or DENTAL IMPLANTS, with agents and methods which roughen the surface to facilitate adhesion. Agents include phosphoric or other acids (ACID ETCHING, DENTAL) and methods include LASERS.
A solution used for irrigating the mouth in xerostomia and as a substitute for saliva.
Acrylic resins are a type of polymer used in medical applications such as dentures, orthodontic brackets, and surgical instruments.
A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.
The process of TOOTH formation. It is divided into several stages including: the dental lamina stage, the bud stage, the cap stage, and the bell stage. Odontogenesis includes the production of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS), dentin (DENTINOGENESIS), and dental cementum (CEMENTOGENESIS).
Erbium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Er, atomic number 68, and atomic weight 167.26.
A polymer obtained by reacting polyacrylic acid with a special anion-leachable glass (alumino-silicate). The resulting cement is more durable and tougher than others in that the materials comprising the polymer backbone do not leach out.
A test to determine the relative hardness of a metal, mineral, or other material according to one of several scales, such as Brinell, Mohs, Rockwell, Vickers, or Shore. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Break or rupture of a tooth or tooth root.
Procedures carried out with regard to the teeth or tooth structures preparatory to specified dental therapeutic and surgical measures.
Preparatory activities in ROOT CANAL THERAPY by partial or complete extirpation of diseased pulp, cleaning and sterilization of the empty canal, enlarging and shaping the canal to receive the sealing material. The cavity may be prepared by mechanical, sonic, chemical, or other means. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1700)
The hardening or polymerization of bonding agents (DENTAL CEMENTS) via exposure to light.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Substances that inhibit or arrest DENTAL CARIES formation. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
Inflammation of the DENTAL PULP, usually due to bacterial infection in dental caries, tooth fracture, or other conditions causing exposure of the pulp to bacterial invasion. Chemical irritants, thermal factors, hyperemic changes, and other factors may also cause pulpitis.
Polymeric resins derived from OXIRANES and characterized by strength and thermosetting properties. Epoxy resins are often used as dental materials.
Cylindrical epithelial cells in the innermost layer of the ENAMEL ORGAN. Their functions include contribution to the development of the dentinoenamel junction by the deposition of a layer of the matrix, thus producing the foundation for the prisms (the structural units of the DENTAL ENAMEL), and production of the matrix for the enamel prisms and interprismatic substance. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
A group of phosphate minerals that includes ten mineral species and has the general formula X5(YO4)3Z, where X is usually calcium or lead, Y is phosphorus or arsenic, and Z is chlorine, fluorine, or OH-. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Use of a metal casting, usually with a post in the pulp or root canal, designed to support and retain an artificial crown.
Mesodermal tissue enclosed in the invaginated portion of the epithelial enamel organ and giving rise to the dentin and pulp.
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
Phosphoproteins are proteins that have been modified by the attachment of a phosphate group, which can regulate their activity and function in various cellular processes.
Dental caries involving the tooth root, cementum, or cervical area of the tooth.
Loss of the tooth substance by chemical or mechanical processes
The act of cleaning teeth with a brush to remove plaque and prevent tooth decay. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The collective tissues from which an entire tooth is formed, including the DENTAL SAC; ENAMEL ORGAN; and DENTAL PAPILLA. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Exudate from seeds of the grape plant Vitis vinifera, composed of oils and secondary plant metabolites (BIOFLAVONOIDS and polyphenols) credited with important medicinal properties.
A highly glycosylated and sulfated phosphoprotein that is found almost exclusively in mineralized connective tissues. It is an extracellular matrix protein that binds to hydroxyapatite through polyglutamic acid sequences and mediates cell attachment through an RGD sequence.
Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.
Materials placed inside a root canal for the purpose of obturating or sealing it. The materials may be gutta-percha, silver cones, paste mixtures, or other substances. (Dorland, 28th ed, p631 & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p187)
A prosthesis or restoration placed for a limited period, from several days to several months, which is designed to seal the tooth and maintain its position until a permanent restoration (DENTAL RESTORATION, PERMANENT) will replace it. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Inorganic compounds that contain carbon as an integral part of the molecule but are not derived from hydrocarbons.
Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.
The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)
The tip or terminal end of the root of a tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p62)
Any preparations used for cleansing teeth; they usually contain an abrasive, detergent, binder and flavoring agent and may exist in the form of liquid, paste or powder; may also contain medicaments and caries preventives.
Incomplete fracture of any part of a tooth, characterized by pain during mastication and sensitivity to heat, cold, sweet or sour tastes, and alcohol; it is often undiagnosed because the tooth is usually X-ray negative and normal to pulp vitality tests.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).

The root surface in human teeth: a microradiographic study. (1/1113)

In an attempt to clarify the nature of the human cemento-dentinal junction, ground sections of incompletely formed and fully formed extracted teeth were prepared and their histology compared with their microradiographic appearances. The results showed that incompletely formed teeth possess distinctive surface layers outside the granular layer of Tomes. The evidence indicates that these layers are of dentinal origin; their presence during development supports previous explanations by the author of the hyaline layer of Hopewell-Smith and of so-called intermediate cementum. The results also indicate that the granular layer of Tomes does not represent the outer limit of root dentine. The relationship of these surface layers to the definitive cementum which is present in fully formed teeth was studied in both young and older patients. From the results it was concluded that cementum formation begins in the more apical region of the teeth at a time when root formation is well advanced, and that it spreads towards the crown rather than in the generally accepted reverse direction.  (+info)

Predicting protein decomposition: the case of aspartic-acid racemization kinetics. (2/1113)

The increase in proportion of the non-biological (D-) isomer of aspartic acid (Asp) relative to the L-isomer has been widely used in archaeology and geochemistry as a tool for dating. the method has proved controversial, particularly when used for bones. The non-linear kinetics of Asp racemization have prompted a number of suggestions as to the underlying mechanism(s) and have led to the use of mathematical transformations which linearize the increase in D-Asp with respect to time. Using one example, a suggestion that the initial rapid phase of Asp racemization is due to a contribution from asparagine (Asn), we demonstrate how a simple model of the degradation and racemization of Asn can be used to predict the observed kinetics. A more complex model of peptide bound Asx (Asn + Asp) racemization, which occurs via the formation of a cyclic succinimide (Asu), can be used to correctly predict Asx racemization kinetics in proteins at high temperatures (95-140 degrees C). The model fails to predict racemization kinetics in dentine collagen at 37 degrees C. The reason for this is that Asu formation is highly conformation dependent and is predicted to occur extremely slowly in triple helical collagen. As conformation strongly influences the rate of Asu formation and hence Asx racemization, the use of extrapolation from high temperatures to estimate racemization kinetics of Asx in proteins below their denaturation temperature is called into question. In the case of archaeological bone, we argue that the D:L ratio of Asx reflects the proportion of non-helical to helical collagen, overlain by the effects of leaching of more soluble (and conformationally unconstrained) peptides. Thus, racemization kinetics in bone are potentially unpredictable, and the proposed use of Asx racemization to estimate the extent of DNA depurination in archaeological bones is challenged.  (+info)

Steric effects of N-acyl group in O-methacryloyl-N-acyl tyrosines on the adhesiveness of unetched human dentin. (3/1113)

We have prepared various O-methacryloyl-N-acyl tyrosines (MAATY) to reveal the relationship between molecular structure near carboxylic acid and adhesive strength of MAATY-HEMA type adhesive resin to unetched dentin. In this study, we attempted to change the steric hindrance effect without changing the HLB value, i.e., introducing an iso-acyl group instead of n-acyl group into MAATY. O-methacryloyl-N-ethylbutyryl tyrosine (MIHTY) showed significantly lower adhesive strength when compared with O-methacryloyl-N-hexanoyl tyrosine even though both MAATY have the same HLB value. The possible explanation of the significantly different adhesive strength was that the 2-ethylbutyryl group in MIHTY was bulky, resulting in inhibition of the hydrogen bonding of the carboxylic group. The HLB value is independent of the steric effect of molecular structure, and thus the steric factor should be taken into consideration for the explanation of different adhesive strengths within the adhesive monomers having the same HLB value but different molecular structures.  (+info)

Dentinal tubule occlusion with lanthanum fluoride and powdered apatite glass ceramics in vitro. (4/1113)

To simulate hypersensitive dentin, the smear layer and dentinal plugs of bovine root dentin specimens were removed by immersion in 10% phosphoric acid, polishing with hydroxyapatite particles, and ultrasonic cleansing. The fluoride-tannic acid-lanthanum-apatite (FTLA) group was treated with acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) containing tannic acid followed by rubbing with a paste of lanthanum chloride (LaCl3) and powdered apatite glass ceramics. The treated specimens were immersed in a remineralizing solution that mimics saliva for 6 weeks. The SEM observations revealed that the treated surfaces of the FTLA group were completely covered with fine spherical compounds and the dentinal tubules were occluded with plugs to a depth of about 3 microns. Fluoride and lanthanum were detected to a depth of over 20 microns by EPMA observation. After the remineralization, the surface of FTLA-treated specimen did not have any opened tubules and showed a remarkable increase in the number of fine spherical deposits in the dentinal tubules. These results suggest that the reaction products produced by sequential treatment with acidic fluoride and LaCl3 and powdered apatite glass ceramics are able to effectively occlude dentinal tubules.  (+info)

Osteoclast differentiation factor acts as a multifunctional regulator in murine osteoclast differentiation and function. (5/1113)

Osteoclast differentiation factor (ODF), a novel member of the TNF ligand family, is expressed as a membrane-associated protein by osteoblasts/stromal cells. The soluble form of ODF (sODF) induces the differentiation of osteoclast precursors into osteoclasts in the presence of M-CSF. Here, the effects of sODF on the survival, multinucleation, and pit-forming activity of murine osteoclasts were examined in comparison with those of M-CSF and IL-1. Osteoclast-like cells (OCLs) formed in cocultures of murine osteoblasts and bone marrow cells expressed mRNA of RANK (receptor activator of NF-kappaB), a receptor of ODF. The survival of OCLs was enhanced by the addition of each of sODF, M-CSF, and IL-1. sODF, as well as IL-1, activated NF-kappaB and c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) in OCLs. Like M-CSF and IL-1, sODF stimulated the survival and multinucleation of prefusion osteoclasts (pOCs) isolated from the coculture. When pOCs were cultured on dentine slices, resorption pits were formed on the slices in the presence of either sODF or IL-1 but not in that of M-CSF. A soluble form of RANK as well as osteoprotegerin/osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor, a decoy receptor of ODF, blocked OCL formation and prevented the survival, multinucleation, and pit-forming activity of pOCs induced by sODF. These results suggest that ODF regulates not only osteoclast differentiation but also osteoclast function in mice through the receptor RANK.  (+info)

Deficiency of SHP-1 protein-tyrosine phosphatase activity results in heightened osteoclast function and decreased bone density. (6/1113)

Mice homozygous for the motheaten (Hcphme) or viable motheaten (Hcphme-v) mutations are deficient in functional SHP-1 protein-tyrosine phosphatase and show severe defects in hematopoiesis. Comparison of femurs from mev/mev mice revealed significant decreases in bone mineral density (0.33 +/- 0.03 mg/mm3 for mev/mevversus 0.41 +/- 0.01 mg/mm3 for controls) and mineral content (1.97 +/- 0.36 mg for mev/mevversus 10.64 +/- 0.67 for controls) compared with littermate controls. Viable motheaten mice also showed reduced amounts of trabecular bone and decreased cortical thickness. These bone abnormalities were associated with a 14% increase in numbers of multinucleated osteoclasts and an increase in osteoclast resorption activity. In co-cultures of normal osteoblasts with mutant or control bone marrow cells, numbers of osteoclasts developing from mutant mice were increased compared with littermate control mice. Although mev/mev osteoclasts develop in the absence of colony-stimulating factor (CSF)-1, nevertheless cultured osteoclasts show increased size in the presence of CSF-1. CSF-1-deficient osteopetrosis (op/op) mutant mice develop severe osteosclerosis. However, doubly homozygous mev/mevop/op mice show an expansion of bone marrow cavities and reduced trabecular bone mass compared with op/op mice. Western blot analysis showed that several proteins that were markedly hyperphosphorylated on tyrosine residues were detected in the motheaten osteoclasts, including a novel 126-kd phosphotyrosine protein. The marked hyperphosphorylation of a 126-kd protein in motheaten osteoclasts suggests that this protein depends on SHP-1 for dephosphorylation. These findings demonstrate that the decreased SHP-1 catalytic activity in me/me and mev/mev mice results in an increased population of activated osteoclasts and consequent reduction in bone density.  (+info)

Intermittent inhibition of dentin mineralization of rat incisors under continual infusion of 1-hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-bisphosphonate (HEBP) using a subcutaneous mini osmotic pump. (7/1113)

The inhibitory effect of the continual administration of 1-hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-bisphosphonate (HEBP) (8 mgP/kg/day) through a mini osmotic pump on dentin mineralization was examined in relation to the diurnal rhythm of the rat and compared with that of daily injections of same amounts of HEBP known to inhibit dentin mineralization. After daily injections of HEBP, a series of alternating rows of mineralized and non-mineralized dentin islands appeared in the newly formed portion of the crown-analogue of rat incisors. A similar phenomenon occurred under the continual administration of HEBP in rats raised either under regular environmental photofraction or constant lighting conditions. The average distance between the adjacent mineralized dentin islands was 521.0 +/- 51.3 microns in the injected rats. After continual HEBP administration, this was 426.0 +/- 13.2 microns and 416.5 +/- 19.4 microns under ordinary photofraction and constant light, respectively. Although the pattern of individual mineralized dentin islands tended to become irregular in nocturnal rats, no statistical difference was noted between the two values. Rows of mineralized and non-mineralized dentin islands also appeared in the root analogue dentin. No sign of the intermittent inhibition of mineralization was recognized in mesodermal hard tissues other than dentin in the HEBP-affected animals. These data implicate the presence of intrinsic cycles in dentin mineralization at the growing end of rat incisors independent of environmental photofraction as well as the ameloblast function.  (+info)

Interaction between vacuolar H(+)-ATPase and microfilaments during osteoclast activation. (8/1113)

Vacuolar H(+)-ATPases (V-ATPases) are multisubunit enzymes that acidify compartments of the vacuolar system of all eukaryotic cells. In osteoclasts, the cells that degrade bone, V-ATPases, are recruited from intracellular membrane compartments to the ruffled membrane, a specialized domain of the plasma membrane, where they are maintained at high densities, serving to acidify the resorption bay at the osteoclast attachment site on bone (Blair, H. C., Teitelbaum, S. L., Ghiselli, R., and Gluck, S. L. (1989) Science 249, 855-857). Here, we describe a new mechanism involved in controlling the activity of the bone-resorptive cell. V-ATPase in osteoclasts cultured in vitro was found to form a detergent-insoluble complex with actin and myosin II through direct binding of V-ATPase to actin filaments. Plating bone marrow cells onto dentine slices, a physiologic stimulus that activates osteoclast resorption, produced a profound change in the association of the V-ATPase with actin, assayed by coimmunoprecipitation and immunocytochemical colocalization of actin filaments and V-ATPase in osteoclasts. Mouse marrow and bovine kidney V-ATPase bound rabbit muscle F-actin directly with a maximum stoichiometry of 1 mol of V-ATPase per 8 mol of F-actin and an apparent affinity of 0.05 microM. Electron microscopy of negatively stained samples confirmed the binding interaction. These findings link transport of V-ATPase to reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton during osteoclast activation.  (+info)

Dentin sensitivity is a common dental condition characterized by pain or discomfort in response to stimuli that would not normally cause pain in healthy teeth. The pain is usually felt in the dentin, the layer of the tooth beneath the enamel, and is often described as a sharp, shooting, or burning sensation. Dentin sensitivity can be caused by a variety of factors, including tooth decay, gum recession, tooth grinding or clenching, and exposure of the dentin due to tooth erosion or wear. It can also be triggered by hot or cold beverages, acidic foods and drinks, sweet foods, and brushing too hard or with a harsh toothpaste. Treatment for dentin sensitivity typically involves addressing the underlying cause, such as treating tooth decay or gum disease, and using desensitizing toothpaste or mouth rinses. In some cases, a dentist may recommend a more invasive treatment, such as a dental filling or root canal therapy.

Dentin, secondary, also known as secondary dentin, is a type of dentin that is formed after the primary dentin in the tooth. It is produced by odontoblasts, which are specialized cells that are responsible for forming dentin. Secondary dentin is typically darker in color than primary dentin and has a different microstructure. It is formed in response to injury or inflammation to the tooth and helps to strengthen the tooth and protect it from further damage.

Dentin dysplasia is a rare genetic disorder that affects the development of dentin, the hard, protective layer of the teeth. It is characterized by the abnormal formation of dentin, which can result in teeth that are abnormally thin, weak, and prone to decay. There are two main types of dentin dysplasia: type I and type II. Type I dentin dysplasia is the more common form and is usually inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, meaning that only one copy of the abnormal gene is needed to develop the condition. Type II dentin dysplasia is less common and is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, meaning that both copies of the gene must be abnormal for the condition to develop. Symptoms of dentin dysplasia can vary depending on the severity of the condition. In some cases, affected individuals may have no symptoms at all. However, in more severe cases, symptoms may include sensitivity to hot and cold temperatures, difficulty chewing, and an increased risk of tooth decay and gum disease. In some cases, the condition may also affect the development of other teeth-related structures, such as the jawbone and the roots of the teeth. Treatment for dentin dysplasia typically involves regular dental check-ups and the use of special dental materials to strengthen and protect the teeth. In some cases, more extensive treatment may be necessary, such as the use of dental implants or the extraction of affected teeth.

Methacrylates are a group of organic compounds that contain the -COOR functional group, where R is an alkyl or aryl group. They are commonly used in the medical field as monomers for the synthesis of polymers, such as polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), which is used in the production of acrylic lenses for glasses and contact lenses. Methacrylates are also used as adhesives, coatings, and sealants in medical devices, such as catheters, implants, and surgical instruments. They have excellent bonding properties and are resistant to water, chemicals, and heat, making them ideal for medical applications. In addition, some methacrylates, such as 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), are used as solvents for drugs and other medical compounds. HEMA is also used as a monomer in the production of hydrogels, which are used in contact lenses and drug delivery systems. However, some methacrylates, such as bisphenol A dimethacrylate (Bis-GMA), have been associated with potential health risks, including allergic reactions and genotoxicity. Therefore, the use of methacrylates in medical devices and applications must be carefully evaluated to ensure their safety and efficacy.

Resin cements are dental materials that are used to bond dental restorations, such as fillings, crowns, and bridges, to the tooth structure. They are made from a combination of resin monomers, polymers, and other ingredients that are cured with light or heat to form a strong, durable bond. Resin cements are preferred over traditional dental cements because they have a number of advantages, including: 1. Improved adhesion: Resin cements bond to both tooth structure and dental restorations, providing a stronger and more durable bond than traditional cements. 2. Better esthetics: Resin cements can be matched to the color of the tooth, providing a more natural-looking restoration. 3. Increased strength: Resin cements are stronger than traditional cements, which can reduce the risk of fractures and other types of damage to the tooth. 4. Faster curing: Resin cements can be cured in just a few seconds, which can reduce the time required for dental procedures. Overall, resin cements are a popular choice for dental restorations because of their improved adhesion, esthetics, strength, and curing time.

In the medical field, a smear layer is a thin layer of debris and bacteria that forms on the surface of dental tissues, such as teeth and gums, after a cleaning or scaling procedure. This layer can interfere with the bonding of dental materials, such as fillings or crowns, to the underlying tooth structure, and can also contribute to the development of dental plaque and gum disease. To remove the smear layer, dentists may use a variety of techniques, such as polishing or etching, to roughen the surface of the tooth and improve the adhesion of dental materials.

In the medical field, composite resins are a type of dental filling material that is used to restore teeth that have been damaged by decay or trauma. They are made up of a mixture of glass particles and a resin binder, and are often used to fill small to medium-sized cavities. Composite resins are popular among dentists because they are tooth-colored, which means they can be matched to the natural color of the patient's teeth. This makes them an attractive option for patients who want to restore their teeth without the use of metal fillings. In addition, composite resins are relatively easy to use and can be shaped and polished to blend in with the surrounding teeth. While composite resins are generally considered safe and effective, they may not be suitable for all patients. For example, they may not be a good choice for patients who grind their teeth or who have a high risk of developing cavities. In these cases, other types of dental fillings, such as amalgam or gold, may be a better option.

Phosphoric acids are a group of acids that contain the -PO4 group in their molecular structure. They are commonly used in the medical field as a component of various medications and medical treatments. One of the most common uses of phosphoric acids in medicine is as an ingredient in certain types of antacids. Phosphoric acid can help to neutralize stomach acid and reduce symptoms of heartburn and indigestion. Phosphoric acids are also used in some medications to treat kidney stones. They work by increasing the amount of urine produced, which can help to flush out small kidney stones. In addition, phosphoric acids are used in some wound care products to help prevent infection and promote healing. They can also be used as a preservative in some medications to help extend their shelf life. Overall, phosphoric acids play an important role in the medical field as a component of various medications and treatments. However, it is important to note that they can also have side effects and may not be suitable for everyone. It is always best to consult with a healthcare professional before using any medical product containing phosphoric acid.

Tooth demineralization is a process in which minerals in tooth enamel are gradually lost due to exposure to acidic substances, such as sugary drinks, fruit juices, and certain foods. This loss of minerals weakens the tooth structure and can lead to the development of cavities, also known as dental caries. Tooth demineralization can occur at any age, but it is most common in children and adolescents who are still developing their permanent teeth. It can also occur in adults who have poor oral hygiene or who consume a diet high in sugar and acidic foods and beverages. Treatment for tooth demineralization typically involves the use of fluoride toothpaste, mouth rinses, and professional dental cleanings to remineralize the tooth and prevent further decay. In more severe cases, dental fillings or other restorative procedures may be necessary.

Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate (Bis-GMA) is a chemical compound that is commonly used as a monomer in the production of dental composite resins, which are used to fill cavities in teeth. Bis-GMA is a type of bisphenol, which is a group of industrial chemicals that are used to make a variety of products, including plastics, resins, and coatings. Bis-GMA is a colorless, odorless liquid that is used in the production of dental composite resins because it can be easily polymerized (combined with other molecules) to form a hard, durable material that can be shaped to fit the contours of a tooth. However, some studies have suggested that Bis-GMA may have potential health effects, including the ability to mimic the effects of estrogen in the body and to cause allergic reactions in some people. As a result, the use of Bis-GMA in dental composite resins has been the subject of some debate and controversy in the medical field.

Dental leakage refers to the passage of bacteria or other microorganisms from the oral cavity into the surrounding tissues or the bloodstream through gaps or spaces in dental restorations, such as fillings, crowns, or bridges. This can lead to the development of dental caries (cavities) or other infections, and can also increase the risk of systemic infections, such as endocarditis or meningitis. Dental leakage can occur due to a variety of factors, including poor fit of the restoration, inadequate cleaning and maintenance, or the presence of cracks or defects in the restoration material. It is important to detect and treat dental leakage promptly to prevent further complications.

Dental caries, also known as tooth decay, is a common dental disease that affects the hard tissues of the teeth, including the enamel, dentin, and pulp. It is caused by the demineralization of tooth enamel due to the production of acid by bacteria in the mouth. The bacteria in the mouth feed on sugars and starches in the food we eat, producing acid as a byproduct. This acid can erode the enamel on the teeth, leading to the formation of cavities. If left untreated, dental caries can progress and cause damage to the underlying dentin and pulp, leading to pain, infection, and tooth loss. Dental caries is a preventable disease through good oral hygiene practices, such as brushing and flossing regularly, using fluoride toothpaste and mouthwash, and limiting sugary and acidic foods and drinks. Early detection and treatment of dental caries can help prevent more serious complications and maintain good oral health.

Sialoglycoproteins are a type of glycoprotein that are found in the saliva of humans and other animals. They are composed of a protein core and one or more carbohydrate chains attached to the protein. Sialoglycoproteins play important roles in a variety of biological processes, including the lubrication and protection of the oral mucosa, the breakdown of food in the mouth, and the immune response. They are also involved in the development and progression of certain diseases, such as cancer and autoimmune disorders. In the medical field, sialoglycoproteins are often studied as potential biomarkers for these and other conditions.

Tooth attrition is the gradual wearing down of the tooth enamel and dentin caused by normal tooth-to-tooth contact during chewing, grinding, or clenching. It is a natural process that occurs throughout a person's life, and it can be accelerated by factors such as bruxism (teeth grinding), acid erosion, and aging. Tooth attrition can lead to a variety of dental problems, including sensitivity, cracking, and even tooth loss. It can also affect the shape and size of the teeth, which can impact the way they fit together and affect the function of the jaw. In some cases, tooth attrition may require dental treatment, such as tooth crowns, fillings, or root canal therapy. Preventive measures, such as wearing a mouthguard during sports or sleep, can also help to reduce the risk of tooth attrition.

Polymethacrylic acids are a type of polymer that are commonly used in the medical field for a variety of applications. They are typically synthesized from methacrylic acid, which is a monomer that can be polymerized to form a long chain of repeating units. Polymethacrylic acids are known for their ability to form gels and hydrogels, which are materials that can absorb and retain large amounts of water. In the medical field, polymethacrylic acids are often used as drug delivery systems. They can be used to encapsulate drugs and release them slowly over time, which can help to improve the effectiveness and duration of treatment. They can also be used as wound dressings, as they can absorb and retain fluids and help to protect the wound from infection. Additionally, polymethacrylic acids have been used in tissue engineering applications, as they can be used to create scaffolds that can support the growth and development of new tissue.

Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are a diverse group of proteins that are secreted by cells and form a complex network within the extracellular space. These proteins provide structural support to cells and tissues, regulate cell behavior, and play a crucial role in tissue development, homeostasis, and repair. ECM proteins are found in all tissues and organs of the body and include collagens, elastin, fibronectin, laminins, proteoglycans, and many others. These proteins interact with each other and with cell surface receptors to form a dynamic and highly regulated ECM that provides a physical and chemical environment for cells to thrive. In the medical field, ECM proteins are important for understanding the development and progression of diseases such as cancer, fibrosis, and cardiovascular disease. They are also used in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine to create artificial ECMs that can support the growth and function of cells and tissues. Additionally, ECM proteins are used as diagnostic and prognostic markers in various diseases, and as targets for drug development.

Dental pulp exposure is a condition in which the innermost layer of the tooth, called the dental pulp, becomes exposed or damaged. The dental pulp contains nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissue that nourish and support the tooth. When the pulp is exposed, it can become infected, inflamed, or painful, and may require treatment to prevent further damage or infection. Causes of dental pulp exposure can include tooth decay, trauma, or dental procedures such as root canal therapy or tooth extraction. Treatment options for dental pulp exposure may include pain management, antibiotics, or a procedure called pulpotomy or pulpectomy, in which the damaged pulp is removed and the tooth is filled and sealed to prevent further infection.

Dentinogenesis Imperfecta (DI) is a group of inherited disorders that affect the development and structure of tooth enamel and dentin, the two main components of teeth. DI is characterized by abnormal tooth formation, which can result in teeth that are weak, brittle, and prone to fracture. The severity of DI can vary widely, ranging from mild to severe, and can affect both primary (baby) teeth and permanent teeth. In some cases, DI can also affect the development of bones in the jaw and face. There are several different types of DI, which are classified based on the specific genetic mutations that cause them. Treatment for DI typically involves managing the symptoms and complications of the condition, such as tooth decay and fractures, and may also include dental procedures to improve the appearance and function of affected teeth.

Sodium hypochlorite is a chemical compound with the formula NaOCl. It is a strong oxidizing agent and is commonly used as a disinfectant and bleach. In the medical field, sodium hypochlorite is used as a disinfectant to clean and sterilize medical equipment, instruments, and surfaces. It is also used as a topical antiseptic to treat minor cuts, wounds, and burns. Sodium hypochlorite is available in various concentrations and is typically mixed with water to form a solution for use. It is important to handle sodium hypochlorite with care, as it can be harmful if ingested or inhaled in large quantities.

Tooth erosion is a dental condition that occurs when the hard outer layer of the tooth, called the enamel, is worn away by acids. This can happen due to various factors, including exposure to acidic foods and drinks, frequent vomiting or regurgitation, certain medical conditions, and certain habits such as teeth grinding or clenching. Tooth erosion can cause a number of problems, including sensitivity to hot and cold, difficulty chewing, and an unattractive appearance of the teeth. In severe cases, it can lead to tooth decay and even tooth loss. Treatment for tooth erosion depends on the severity of the condition. In mild cases, simply changing one's diet and avoiding acidic foods and drinks may be enough to slow or stop the erosion. In more severe cases, a dentist may recommend fluoride treatments, dental bonding, or other restorative procedures to repair the damaged teeth.

In the medical field, water is a vital substance that is essential for the proper functioning of the human body. It is a clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that makes up the majority of the body's fluids, including blood, lymph, and interstitial fluid. Water plays a crucial role in maintaining the body's temperature, transporting nutrients and oxygen to cells, removing waste products, and lubricating joints. It also helps to regulate blood pressure and prevent dehydration, which can lead to a range of health problems. In medical settings, water is often used as a means of hydration therapy for patients who are dehydrated or have fluid imbalances. It may also be used as a diluent for medications or as a component of intravenous fluids. Overall, water is an essential component of human health and plays a critical role in maintaining the body's normal functions.

Tooth abrasion is a dental condition that occurs when the outer layer of the tooth, called the enamel, is worn down or abraded. This can happen due to various factors, including brushing too hard, using a toothbrush with hard bristles, grinding or clenching teeth, consuming acidic foods and drinks, and chewing on hard objects such as ice or pencils. Tooth abrasion can cause a number of symptoms, including tooth sensitivity, pain when chewing, and a rough or uneven tooth surface. In severe cases, it can lead to tooth decay, gum recession, and even tooth loss. Treatment for tooth abrasion typically involves addressing the underlying cause, such as changing brushing habits or using a softer toothbrush. In some cases, a dentist may also use a fluoride treatment or a dental filling to help protect the tooth and prevent further damage.

Glutaral is a colorless, crystalline compound that is a derivative of glutaric acid. It is used in the medical field as a disinfectant and antiseptic, particularly for the treatment of skin and mucous membrane infections. Glutaral is also used as a preservative in some medical products, such as eye drops and contact lens solutions. It is a strong oxidizing agent and can cause skin irritation and allergic reactions in some people.

Acrylic resins are a type of polymer that are commonly used in the medical field for a variety of applications. They are typically made from acrylic acid or methacrylic acid, which are then polymerized to form a solid, durable material. One common use of acrylic resins in medicine is in the production of dental prosthetics, such as dentures and dental bridges. Acrylic resins are used to create the artificial teeth and gums that are used to replace missing teeth or to improve the appearance of the smile. Acrylic resins are also used in the production of medical devices, such as catheters and surgical instruments. They are often used because of their durability, flexibility, and ability to be molded into a variety of shapes and sizes. In addition, acrylic resins are sometimes used in the treatment of certain medical conditions. For example, they may be used to create implants for the treatment of joint disorders or to reinforce weakened bones. Overall, acrylic resins are a versatile and widely used material in the medical field, with a range of applications in dentistry, medical devices, and other areas.

Chlorhexidine is an antiseptic agent that is commonly used in the medical field for a variety of purposes. It is a broad-spectrum disinfectant that is effective against a wide range of microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Chlorhexidine is available in a variety of forms, including solutions, gels, and mouthwashes. It is often used to clean and disinfect surfaces and equipment in healthcare settings, as well as to treat wounds and skin infections. It is also commonly used as an antiseptic mouthwash to help prevent gum disease and tooth decay. Chlorhexidine works by disrupting the cell membranes of microorganisms, which kills them or prevents them from multiplying. It is generally considered to be safe and effective when used as directed, although it can cause skin irritation and allergic reactions in some people. It is important to follow the instructions for use carefully and to avoid using chlorhexidine on open wounds or in the eyes.

Erbium is a chemical element with the symbol Er and atomic number 68. It is a rare earth element that is used in a variety of medical applications, including: 1. Medical imaging: Erbium is used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a contrast agent to enhance the visibility of certain tissues in the body. 2. Cancer treatment: Erbium is used in radiation therapy to treat cancer. It is often combined with other elements, such as yttrium or holmium, to form a radioactive compound that can be targeted to specific areas of the body. 3. Dental applications: Erbium is used in dental procedures, such as tooth whitening and tooth reshaping, to remove stains and reshape the surface of the tooth. 4. Orthopedic applications: Erbium is used in orthopedic procedures, such as bone grafting, to stimulate bone growth and promote healing. Overall, erbium is a versatile element with a range of medical applications that make it an important tool in the field of medicine.

Tooth fractures refer to the partial or complete breakage of the hard outer layer of a tooth, known as the enamel. Tooth fractures can occur as a result of trauma, such as a blow to the face, or from excessive force applied to the tooth during biting or chewing. There are several types of tooth fractures, including: 1. Fractures of the enamel: These occur when the outer layer of the tooth is broken, but the underlying dentin and pulp are not affected. 2. Fractures of the dentin: These occur when the dentin, the layer of tooth beneath the enamel, is broken. 3. Fractures of the pulp: These occur when the innermost layer of the tooth, the pulp, is damaged. 4. Complete tooth fractures: These occur when the entire tooth is broken into two or more pieces. Tooth fractures can cause pain, sensitivity, and difficulty chewing or speaking. Treatment options depend on the severity of the fracture and may include filling the tooth, root canal therapy, or extraction and replacement with a dental implant or bridge.

Pulpitis is a medical term used to describe inflammation of the pulp, which is the soft tissue inside the tooth that contains nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissue. Pulpitis can be acute or chronic, and it can be caused by a variety of factors, including tooth decay, injury, or infection. Acute pulpitis is a sudden and severe form of pulpitis that is often accompanied by sharp, shooting pain that can be triggered by hot or cold temperatures, pressure, or sweet or sour foods. Chronic pulpitis is a less severe form of pulpitis that may cause dull, aching pain that is relieved by over-the-counter pain medication. If pulpitis is left untreated, it can lead to the formation of an abscess, which is a pocket of pus that can cause further pain and infection. Treatment for pulpitis typically involves root canal therapy, which involves removing the inflamed pulp and cleaning and sealing the inside of the tooth. In some cases, a tooth may need to be extracted if it is too damaged to save.

Epoxy resins are a type of polymer that are commonly used in the medical field for a variety of applications. They are known for their strong, durable, and adhesive properties, which make them ideal for use in medical devices and implants. One common use of epoxy resins in medicine is in the production of dental fillings. Epoxy resins are used to bond to tooth enamel and provide a strong, long-lasting filling that can withstand the wear and tear of daily use. Epoxy resins are also used in the production of medical implants, such as orthopedic implants and dental implants. They are used to bond the implant to the surrounding bone and provide a strong, stable foundation for the implant. In addition to their use in medical devices and implants, epoxy resins are also used in the production of medical equipment, such as surgical instruments and medical imaging equipment. They are used to provide a strong, durable coating that can withstand the harsh conditions of the medical environment. Overall, epoxy resins are an important material in the medical field due to their strong, durable, and adhesive properties, which make them ideal for use in a wide range of medical applications.

In the medical field, "apatites" typically refers to a group of minerals that are composed of calcium phosphate. These minerals are commonly found in bones and teeth, and are also present in other parts of the body, such as the kidneys and the thyroid gland. Apatites can be either normal or abnormal, depending on the context in which they are found. For example, normal apatites are an essential component of healthy bones and teeth, while abnormal apatites can be associated with a variety of medical conditions, such as osteoporosis, hyperparathyroidism, and kidney stones. In some cases, apatites can also be used as a diagnostic tool in medical imaging. For example, certain types of apatites can be visualized using X-rays or computed tomography (CT) scans, which can help doctors to diagnose and monitor a variety of medical conditions.

Phosphoproteins are proteins that have been modified by the addition of a phosphate group to one or more of their amino acid residues. This modification is known as phosphorylation, and it is a common post-translational modification that plays a critical role in regulating many cellular processes, including signal transduction, metabolism, and gene expression. Phosphoproteins are involved in a wide range of biological functions, including cell growth and division, cell migration and differentiation, and the regulation of gene expression. They are also involved in many diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Phosphoproteins can be detected and studied using a variety of techniques, including mass spectrometry, Western blotting, and immunoprecipitation. These techniques allow researchers to identify and quantify the phosphorylation status of specific proteins in cells and tissues, and to study the effects of changes in phosphorylation on protein function and cellular processes.

Root caries, also known as root decay or tooth decay on the root surface, is a type of dental caries (cavities) that occurs on the root surfaces of teeth. Unlike the more common type of dental caries that occurs on the chewing surfaces of teeth, root caries typically affects older adults and is more common in people with certain medical conditions, such as diabetes or osteoporosis. Root caries can cause pain, sensitivity, and difficulty chewing or speaking. It can also lead to tooth loss if left untreated. Treatment for root caries typically involves removing the decayed tissue and filling the cavity with a dental filling material. In some cases, root canal therapy may be necessary to save the tooth. Good oral hygiene, including regular brushing and flossing, can help prevent root caries.

Tooth wear is a common dental condition that refers to the gradual loss of tooth structure due to various factors. It can occur on the surface of the tooth or extend deeper into the tooth structure, affecting the shape, size, and function of the tooth. There are several types of tooth wear, including: 1. Attrition: This is the most common type of tooth wear, which occurs when the tooth surfaces rub against each other, causing the enamel and dentin to wear down. 2. Abrasion: This type of tooth wear occurs when the tooth surface is worn down by external factors such as brushing too hard, grinding teeth, or consuming acidic foods and drinks. 3. Erosion: This type of tooth wear occurs when the tooth surface is worn down by chemical factors such as acid reflux, stomach acid, or frequent exposure to acidic foods and drinks. Tooth wear can cause a variety of dental problems, including sensitivity, pain, difficulty chewing, and even tooth loss. Treatment options for tooth wear depend on the severity of the condition and may include dental bonding, dental crowns, or dental veneers. It is important to maintain good oral hygiene and visit a dentist regularly to prevent and manage tooth wear.

Grape seed extract is a dietary supplement derived from the seeds of grapes. It is commonly used in alternative medicine and is believed to have a variety of health benefits, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. In the medical field, grape seed extract is sometimes used as a treatment for conditions such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and certain types of cancer. It is also sometimes used to improve blood flow and reduce the risk of blood clots. However, it is important to note that the scientific evidence for the effectiveness of grape seed extract as a medical treatment is limited, and more research is needed to fully understand its potential benefits and risks. As with any dietary supplement, it is important to talk to a healthcare provider before taking grape seed extract, especially if you are taking any medications or have any underlying health conditions.

Integrin-Binding Sialoprotein (IBSP) is a protein that plays a role in bone formation and remodeling. It is also known as osteoblast-specific factor 2 (OSF-2) or bone sialoprotein (BSP). IBSP is synthesized by osteoblasts, which are cells responsible for forming new bone tissue, and is secreted into the extracellular matrix where it binds to integrins, which are cell surface receptors that mediate cell adhesion and migration. IBSP has been shown to regulate bone mineralization, cell proliferation, and differentiation, and is involved in the formation of the dentin matrix in teeth. It is also expressed in other tissues, including the placenta, lung, and kidney, where it may play a role in tissue development and repair.

Fluorides are compounds that contain the fluoride ion (F-). In the medical field, fluorides are commonly used to prevent tooth decay and improve oral health. They can be found in a variety of products, including toothpaste, mouthwashes, and fluoride supplements. Fluoride works by strengthening tooth enamel, making it more resistant to acid attacks from bacteria in the mouth. It can also help to remineralize tooth enamel that has already been damaged by acid. Fluoride is also used in water treatment to reduce the risk of tooth decay in communities. In addition, fluoride is sometimes used in dental procedures, such as fluoride varnishes and fluoride gels, to further strengthen teeth and prevent decay. While fluoride is generally considered safe and effective, excessive exposure to fluoride can lead to dental fluorosis, a condition that causes white or brown stains on the teeth. It is important to use fluoride products in moderation and to follow the instructions on the label.

In the medical field, "Carbon Compounds, Inorganic" refers to compounds that contain carbon but do not contain hydrogen. These compounds are typically formed by the reaction of carbon with other elements, such as oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, or halogens. Examples of inorganic carbon compounds include carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and calcium carbonate (CaCO3). These compounds can play important roles in various physiological processes, such as respiration, metabolism, and bone formation. In some cases, inorganic carbon compounds can also be toxic or harmful to the body if they are present in high concentrations or if they are not properly metabolized.

Calcium compounds are chemical compounds that contain calcium ions. Calcium is an essential mineral for the human body, and it plays a crucial role in various physiological processes, including bone health, muscle function, and nerve transmission. Calcium compounds are commonly used in the medical field for a variety of purposes, including the treatment of osteoporosis, hypocalcemia, and hyperparathyroidism. Some common examples of calcium compounds used in medicine include calcium carbonate, calcium citrate, calcium gluconate, and calcium lactate. These compounds are often administered orally or intravenously, depending on the specific condition being treated.

In the medical field, silicates refer to a group of minerals that contain silicon and oxygen. These minerals are commonly used in various medical applications, including as components of medications, as dietary supplements, and as ingredients in medical devices. One common use of silicates in medicine is as a component of antacids, which are used to treat acid reflux and heartburn. Silicates, such as magnesium aluminum silicate, work by neutralizing stomach acid and forming a protective layer on the lining of the esophagus. Silicates are also used in some dietary supplements, such as calcium silicate, which is a source of calcium and silicon. Calcium is important for maintaining strong bones and teeth, while silicon is thought to play a role in maintaining healthy skin and nails. In addition, silicates are used as ingredients in medical devices, such as wound dressings and dental fillings. For example, hydroxyapatite, a type of silicate mineral, is used as a biocompatible material in dental implants and orthopedic implants. Overall, silicates have a variety of medical applications and are an important component of many medical products.

Cracked Tooth Syndrome (CTS) is a dental condition characterized by a crack or split in one or more of the teeth. The crack may extend from the outer surface of the tooth to the inner pulp chamber, causing pain, sensitivity, and difficulty chewing. CTS can occur in any tooth, but it is most common in the molars and premolars. The exact cause of CTS is not fully understood, but it is believed to be the result of repetitive stress on the tooth, such as grinding or clenching the teeth, or biting down on hard objects. Other factors that may contribute to CTS include tooth decay, gum disease, and tooth wear. Diagnosis of CTS typically involves a thorough examination of the teeth and gums, as well as x-rays to visualize the extent of the crack. Treatment options for CTS depend on the severity of the crack and the location of the tooth. In some cases, the tooth may be restored with a filling or a crown. In more severe cases, the tooth may need to be extracted. Pain management and relaxation techniques may also be recommended to help alleviate symptoms.

Edetic acid, also known as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), is a synthetic organic acid that is commonly used in the medical field as a chelating agent. It is a colorless, water-soluble solid that is used to dissolve minerals and other metal ions in solution. In medicine, EDTA is often used to treat heavy metal poisoning, such as lead or mercury poisoning, by binding to the metal ions and facilitating their excretion from the body. It is also used as an anticoagulant in blood tests and as a component of certain contrast agents used in diagnostic imaging procedures. EDTA is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and intravenous solutions. It is generally considered safe when used as directed, but high doses or prolonged use can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and allergic reactions.

In the medical field, minerals are essential nutrients that are required for the proper functioning of the body. They are typically obtained through the diet and are necessary for a wide range of bodily processes, including building and maintaining bones, muscles, and other tissues, transmitting nerve impulses, and regulating fluid balance. There are many different minerals that are important for human health, including calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chloride, iron, zinc, copper, selenium, and iodine. Each of these minerals has specific functions within the body and is required in different amounts depending on age, sex, and overall health. Deficiencies in certain minerals can lead to a range of health problems, including osteoporosis, anemia, and heart disease. On the other hand, excessive intake of certain minerals can also be harmful and can lead to toxicity or other health issues. Therefore, it is important to maintain a balanced diet that provides adequate amounts of all essential minerals.

Secondary dentin is a layer of dentin formed after the tooth's root has fully formed. Tertiary dentin develops as a result of a ... Thus, interglobular dentin is slightly less mineralized than globular dentin. Interglobular dentin is especially evident in ... Below it lies the circumpulpal dentin, more mineralized dentin which makes up most of the dentin layer and is secreted after ... The outer layer closest to enamel is known as mantle dentin. This layer is unique to the rest of primary dentin. Mantle dentin ...
... (DH, DHS) is dental pain which is sharp in character and of short duration, arising from exposed dentin ... Over time, the dentin-pulp complex may adapt to the decreased insulation by laying down tertiary dentin, thereby increasing the ... Therefore, although the terms dentin sensitivity and sensitive dentin are used interchangeably to refer to dental ... dentin hypersensitivity is not a true form of allodynia or hyperalgesia. To contradict this view, not all exposed dentin ...
... is a protein found in teeth. It is one of the two proteins produced by the segmentation of dentin ... Dentin sialoprotein can be found in the dentin immediately subjacent to cellular cementum, but not subjacent to acellular ...
... (including reparative dentin or sclerotic dentin) forms as a reaction to stimulation, including caries, wear ... Hominins have a much lower rate of tertiary dentin formation, with around 15% of teeth that have dentin exposed through wear ... Tertiary dentin is therefore a mechanism for a tooth to 'heal', with new material formation protecting the pulp chamber and ... Frequency of tertiary dentin in different species of primate suggests teeth 'heal' at different rates in different species. ...
The preproprotein is secreted by odontoblasts and cleaved into dentin sialoprotein and dentin phosphoprotein. Dentin ... 1997). "Dentin phosphoprotein and dentin sialoprotein are cleavage products expressed from a single transcript coded by a gene ... "Entrez Gene: DSPP dentin sialophosphoprotein". Butler WT (1998). "Dentin matrix proteins". Eur. J. Oral Sci. 106 Suppl 1: 204- ... 2005). "Dentin sialoprotein and dentin phosphoprotein overexpression during amelogenesis". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (36): 31991-8. ...
... (DD) is a rare genetic developmental disorder affecting dentine production of the teeth, commonly exhibiting ... DI-2, DI-3 and DD-2 share the same genetic mutation of dentin sialophosphoprotein, that is located on chromosome 4. They are ... "Dentin Dysplasia Type I - NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders)". NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders). ... "Dentin Dysplasia Type II - NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders)". NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders). ...
... , or phosphophoryn, is one of three proteins formed from dentin sialophosphoprotein and is important in ... Being highly negative, dentin phosphoprotein is able to attract large amounts of calcium. In vitro studies also indicate ... the regulation of mineralization of dentin. Phosphophoryn is the most acidic protein ever discovered and has an isoelectric ...
Dentin". "The horse, its taming, training and general management: With anecdotes, &c., relating to horses and horsemen / By ...
DentinDentin dysplasia • Dentine bonding agents • Dentine hypersensitivity • Dentinogenesis • Dentinogenesis imperfecta • ... Radioactive dentin abrasion • Ragas Dental College • Raman Bedi • Randy Starr • Ranula • Receding gums • Reduced enamel ...
Sterrett, J. D.; Bankey, T.; Murphy, H. J. (1993). "Dentin demineralization. The effects of citric acid concentration and ...
2003). "The Effect of Potassium Nitrate and Silica Dentifrice in the Surface of Dentin". Japanese Journal of Conservative ... R. Orchardson & D. G. Gillam (2006). "Managing dentin hypersensitivity" (PDF). Journal of the American Dental Association. 137 ...
Thotakura SR, Mah T, Srinivasan R, Takagi Y, Veis A, George A (March 2000). "The non-collagenous dentin matrix proteins are ... de La Dure-Molla M, Philippe Fournier B, Berdal A (April 2015). "Isolated dentinogenesis imperfecta and dentin dysplasia: ... Witkop CJ (January 1975). "Hereditary defects of dentin". Dental Clinics of North America. 19 (1): 25-45. doi:10.1016/S0011- ... Also called hereditary opalescent dentin. Brandywine isolate. This type is rare with occurrences only in the secluded ...
ATN1 Dentin dysplasia, type II; 125420; DSPP Dentinogenesis imperfecta, Shields type II; 125490; DSPP Dentinogenesis imperfecta ...
"Toothpastes, Relative Dentin Abrasivity (RDA)". www.ada.org. Retrieved 13 January 2021. "Toothpaste Abrasiveness Ranked by RDA ... Dentists consider the extra abrasion of dentin from brushing multiple times per day to be insignificant, since modern ... Relative Dentin Abrasion) Value" (PDF). 16 July 2014. Retrieved 12 January 2021. Donly, K. J.; Vargas, M.; Meckes, M.; Sharma, ... caused more damage to enamel and dentin compared to waiting 30 minutes. Flushing the acid away with water or dissolved baking ...
About I, Bottero MJ, de Denato P, Camps J, Franquin JC, Mitsiadis TA (2000). "Human dentin production in vitro". Experimental ...
Twenty dentin disks were cut from human extracted third molars. The dentin surface of the disks was etched with 6% citric acid ... 1991) assessed the influence of a smear layer on the adhesion of sealer cements to dentin. A total of 120 teeth was tested, 40 ... In vitro the penetration of bacteria into tubules of intact dentin exposed by fracture was compared in pairs of teeth, one of ... However this barrier seemed to be removed after a few days which allowed bacterial growth into intact dentin. Olgart came to a ...
The pulp of the tooth remains normal and healthy in dentin hypersensitivity.: 510 Many topical treatments for dentin ... or because new layers of dentin (tertiary dentin) have been produced inside the pulp chamber, insulating against the stimulus. ... the pulp usually adapts by producing new layers of dentin inside the pulp chamber called tertiary dentin, increasing the ... Due to the close relationship between dentin and pulp, they are frequently considered together as the dentin-pulp complex.: 118 ...
Enamel-Dentin-Pulp fractures extend through the enamel and dentin and into the pulp. If the pulp is vital, a focal spot of ... Enamel-Dentin crown fractures typically present as a tooth fracture confined to enamel and dentin with loss of tooth structure ... enamel-dentin fractures, and fractures that extend through the enamel and dentin into the pulp which are defined below. Crown ... "Enamel-dentin fracture - Dental Trauma Guide". dentaltraumaguide.org. Retrieved 2018-11-15. Services, Department of Health & ...
Lines of Retzius (think age bands like tree growth rings) - Stria (A) artifacts in enamel (not found in dentin) created by ... these lines appear near the dentin. They bend obliquely near the cervical region. They curve occlusally near the cuspal regions ... incremental steps of ameloblasts comparable to the contour "lines of Owen" in dentin have increased organic content and show ...
Like many oxalates, ferric oxalate has been investigated as a short-term treatment for dentin hypersensitivity. It is used in ... Cunha-Cruz, J.; Stout, J. R.; Heaton, L. J.; Wataha, J. C. (29 December 2010). "Dentin Hypersensitivity and Oxalates: a ...
Odontoblasts (dentin-producing cells) of the teeth. Around the optic vesicle and the developing eye and contributes to many eye ... "In vitro odontoblast-like cell differentiation of cranial neural crest cells induced by fibroblast growth factor 8 and dentin ...
Dentin matrix acidic phosphoprotein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DMP1 gene. Dentin matrix acidic ... 2004). "Dentin matrix protein 1 is expressed in human lung cancer". J. Bone Miner. Res. 18 (8): 1506-12. doi:10.1359/jbmr. ... "Entrez Gene: DMP1 dentin matrix acidic phosphoprotein". Cell Cycle-Dependent Nuclear Localization of DMP1 J.O. MANCERA1, T. ... 2005). "Dentin matrix protein 1 gene cis-regulation: use in osteocytes to characterize local responses to mechanical loading in ...
There is tentative evidence for dentin hypersensitivity. It does not appear to be useful for orthodontic pain LLLT might be ... Sgolastra, F.; Petrucci, A.; Severino, M.; Gatto, R.; Monaco, A. (2013-06-01). "Lasers for the treatment of dentin ...
Secondary dentin is darker and more opaque than primary dentin. This gives the dentin an overall darker appearance. At the same ... The underlying dentin layer is darker than enamel, yellow-brown in color, and less transparent. Dentin forms the bulk of the ... The pulp is pink/red due to its vascularity, but is rarely visible through the overlying enamel and dentin unless the thickness ... Dentinogenesis imperfecta is a defect of dentin formation, and the teeth may be discolored yellow-brown, deep amber or blue- ...
Petersson, LG (Mar 2013). "The role of fluoride in the preventive management of dentin hypersensitivity and root caries". Clin ... Petersson, Lars G. (28 December 2012). "The role of fluoride in the preventive management of dentin hypersensitivity and root ... Dental caries Fluoride therapy Xerostomia Dental fluorosis Dentin hypersensitivity Dental restoration Dental surgery Weintraub ... "Treating cervical dentin hypersensitivity with fluoride varnish". The Journal of the American Dental Association. 137 (7): 1013 ...
Dentin Ganoine Schultze, Hans-Peter (2016-01-01). "Scales, Enamel, Cosmine, Ganoine, and Early Osteichthyans". Comptes Rendus ...
"Antimicrobial substantivity of alexidine and chlorhexidine in dentin". J Endod. 39 (11): 1413-5. doi:10.1016/j.joen.2013.07.038 ...
Internal resorption is defined by the loss of intraradicular dentin and tubular dentin from within the middle and apical thirds ... Resorption of the root of the tooth, or root resorption, is the progressive loss of dentin and cementum by the action of ... Osteoclasts in close proximity to the root surface will resorb the root surface cementum and underlying root dentin. This can ... The root is protected internally (endodontium) by pre-dentin and externally on the root surface by cementum and the periodontal ...
Stroud, J L; Buschang, P H; Goaz, P W (August 1994). "Sexual dimorphism in mesiodistal dentin and enamel thickness". ...
In only 5-10% of teeth, there is a space between the enamel and the cementum at which the underlying dentin is exposed. In the ... The sheath is irregularly fragmented in time and space as it promotes cementum deposition on the newly formed dentin. After ... Gap between cementum and enamel exposing the dentin. The shape and location of the cementoenamel junction (CEJ) on each tooth ... Fragmentation of Hertwig's epithelial root sheath and exposure of dentin covered by a thin layer of intermediate cementum are ...
The meaning of SECONDARY DENTIN is dentin formed following the loss (as by erosion, abrasion, or disease) of original dentin. ... dentin formed following the loss (as by erosion, abrasion, or disease) of original dentin ... "Secondary dentin." Merriam-Webster.com Medical Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/medical/secondary% ...
The goal was to determine the optimal technique for minimizing gaps at the sealer-dentin interface. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Thirty ... in sealing dentin to recently introduced root canal bioceramic sealer in 30 extracted mandibular second premolars. ... CWT obturation with CeraSeal root canal sealer produces fewer marginal gaps at the sealer-dentin interface. ... A Scanning Electron Microscopy Study Comparing 3 Obturation Techniques to Seal Dentin to Root Canal Bioceramic Sealer in 30 ...
... phosphoric acid gel used for etching enamel and dentin to prepare the tooth surface prior to the application of a bonding agent ... Etching Gel for Enamel and Dentin. Etching Gel is a 37% phosphoric acid gel used for etching enamel and dentin to prepare the ...
ROSA, Wellington Luiz de Oliveira da et al. Technological monitoring of dentin desensitizing agents. RFO UPF [online]. 2014, ... Keywords : Dentin desensitizing agents.; Patent indicators.; Dental materials.. · abstract in Portuguese · text in Portuguese ... Conclusion: It was possible to obtain an overview of the dentin desensitizing agents sector, which shows a low technological ... Objective: To perform a technological monitoring of dentin desensitizing agents in order to obtain an overview that allows ...
DSPP: dentin sialophosphoprotein. *DUOX2: dual oxidase 2. *DUX4: double homeobox 4. *DVL1: dishevelled segment polarity protein ...
The DSPP gene provides instructions for making a protein called dentin sialophosphoprotein. Learn about this gene and related ... dentin sialoprotein and dentin phosphoprotein. These proteins are components of dentin, which is a bone-like substance that ... Dentin phosphoprotein is thought to be involved in the normal hardening of collagen, the most abundant protein in dentin. ... Dentin glycoprotein: the protein in the middle of the dentin sialophosphoprotein chimera. J Biol Chem. 2005 Apr 29;280(17): ...
Unchecked, the bacteria can penetrate the dissolved surface, attack the underlying dentin, and reach the soft pulp tissue. ... malformed enamel or dentin; reduced salivary flow because of medications, radiation treatment, or disease; low salivary ...
Efficiently desensitizes dentin and is formulated to provide maximum patient comfort. Features and Benefits of MARK3 Dentin ... MARK3 Dentin Desensitizer 10ml Premium desensitizer that can be placed underneath dental cements and temporary, provisional or ... It can also be utilized at the preliminary appointment for desensitization of dentin during temporization. It works to reduce ... It serves to kill bacteria, modify nerve responses, and penetrate bonding primers in etched dentin. This product contains ...
Here is more information on how both types of this hereditary anomaly affect dentin and oral health: ... is rare genetic disorder that affects the dentin and pulp. ... HOW COMMON IS DENTIN DYSPLASIA? Dentin Dysplasia is a rare ... What Is Dentin Dysplasia?. June 19, 2018. By Shakara Robinson Our teeth are composed of 4 dental tissues-enamel, dentin, ... Dentin dysplasia (DD) is rare genetic disorder that affects the dentin and pulp. ...
Dentin showed linear-viscoelastic behavior under various conditions of compressive loading. Time dependent properties of dentin ... The aim of this study was to investigate the creep, stress relaxation and strain rate behavior of human root dentin under ... Cylindrical root dentin samples of 3.5mm outer diameter, 1.5mm internal canal diameter and 6-10mm long were prepared from ... Time-dependent properties of human root dentin.. Jantarat, Jeeraphat; Palamara, Joseph E A; Lindner, Cecylia; Messer, Harold H ...
Kulzer Heraceram Press Opaque dentin 5pcs. Combination of veneer cearmic and full ceramic into a single system ...
Ivoclar Vivadent IPS Empress Direct Shade Guide - Dentin. Like natural dentin, the IPS Empress Direct Dentin shades exhibit ... The well-balanced and mutually complementing translucencies of the IPS Empress Direct Dentin and Enamel materials give you the ... Ivoclar Vivadent IPS Empress Direct Shade Guide - Dentin. ... Ivoclar Vivadent IPS Empress Direct Shade Guide - Dentin. * ...
Return to Article Details Dentin hypersensitivity treatment with Nd:YAG laser: A systematic review Download Download PDF ...
Categories: Dentin Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 3 images ...
The dentin, in turn, induces the IEE to differentiate into ameloblasts, which lay down enamel matrix opposite the dentin. This ... The IEE organizes and induces the adjacent cells of the dental papilla to differentiate into odontoblasts, which form dentin. ... The cells of the dental papilla eventually form tooth pulp and dentin. Similarly, condensation of the ectomesenchyme ... Ameloblastic fibro-odontoma is an extremely rare odontogenic lesion that develops dental hard tissues (eg, dentin, enamel, ...
This study aimed to analyze the effect of GSE solution on the flexural strength of root canal dentin. Ninety root canal dentin ... This study aimed to analyze the effect of GSE solution on the flexural strength of root canal dentin. Ninety root canal dentin ... This study aimed to analyze the effect of GSE solution on the flexural strength of root canal dentin. Ninety root canal dentin ... This study aimed to analyze the effect of GSE solution on the flexural strength of root canal dentin. Ninety root canal dentin ...
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For each group, half of the specimens were evaluated for µSBS by a universal testing machine and the other half for dentin ion ... For each group, half of the specimens were evaluated for µSBS by a universal testing machine and the other half for dentin ion ... Bond strength and elemental analysis of oxidized dentin bonded to resin modified glass ionomer based restorative material. Show ... Hesperidin groups improved the µSBS, with a significant effect for HP+H group (p,. 05). Dentin ion uptake was significantly (p ...
Relationships regarding boron released through surface area pre-reacted wine glass ionomer using enamel/dentin as well as ...
Molar Tooth Section Dental Art Print Anatomy Art Teeth and Gums Molar with Enamel Dentin Pulp Root Medical art Watercolor ... Home / Uncategorized / Molar Tooth Section Dental Art Print Anatomy Art Teeth and Gums Molar with Enamel Dentin Pulp Root ... Molar Tooth Section Dental Art Print Anatomy Art Teeth and Gums Molar with Enamel Dentin Pulp Root Medical art Watercolor ... Molar Tooth Section Dental Art Print Anatomy Art Teeth and Gums Molar with Enamel Dentin Pulp Root Medical art Watercolor ...
Stress distribution in crown and root dentin associated with different crown materials and thicknesses. Chiharu Shin, DDS, PhD ...
Dentin. Below your enamel lies the layer of tooth called dentin. Best layer is comprised of millions of microscopic tubes that ... Underneath many tiny tubes that comprise dentin, the soft tissue found in the center of all teeth, the pulp, can be found. This ...
2. Dentin etching: Dentin is a vital tissue containing about 70% hydroxyapatite and approximately 30% collagen fibers. In the ... Overview of clinical alternatives to minimize the degradation of the resin-dentin bonds. Oper Dent. 2013 Jul-Aug;38(4):E1-E25. ... The acidic primer is applied to the enamel and dentin surface and rubbed with a microbrush for 20 seconds, then dried with a ... Etching the enamel with strong acid and etching the dentin with weak acid will result in better resistance in the hybrid layer ...
Effect of Antioxidant on Coronal Seal of Dentin Following Sodium Hypochlorite and Hydrogen-Peroxide Irrigation. DOI: 10.7727/ ... Aim: Comparative analysis of the coronal microleakage of a self-etching priming dentin adhesive with the use of antioxidant ( ... Read more about Effect of Antioxidant on Coronal Seal of Dentin Following Sodium Hypochlorite and Hydrogen-Peroxide Irrigation ...
Biological Bases of Dentin Hybridization (str. 901-906) Davor Brajdić, Ozren Mika Krznarić, Zoran Azinović, Darko Macan, ... Influence of Different Etching Times on Dentin Surface Morphology (str. 893-900) ...
Tooth sensitivity or dentin hypersensitivity is a very common condition that affects more than 45 million adults in the U.S. ... There are several reasons dentin can be exposed, leading to sensitivity.. *. Gum recession as a result of age or brushing too ... Tooth grinding can cause sensitivity because enamel erodes, exposing dentin. This can cause most or all teeth to feel sensitive ... In both cases the dentin (the layer below the enamel in the crown of the tooth) is exposed. ...
Section B: Dentin Bonding. 9. Anterior Direct Composites. Section A: Direct Anterior Bonding: Minimally Invasive at its Best ...
Dark Blue, 25 ga x 1/2″, All Plastic Flocked Tips, Pkg. ...
  • Because the mineral contents of enamel and dentin in primary teeth are different from those of permanent teeth, the effect of laser on the mineral content of primary teeth may be different from that of permanent teeth as well. (hindawi.com)
  • Etching Gel is a 37% phosphoric acid gel used for etching enamel and dentin to prepare the tooth surface prior to the application of a bonding agent. (pentron.com)
  • Omya֦'s patented technology functionalizes calcium carbonate particles with a shell of hydroxyapatite, which is the main component of enamel and dentin. (fraunhofer.de)
  • What Is Dentin Dysplasia? (deltadentalnjblog.com)
  • Dentin dysplasia (DD) is rare genetic disorder that affects the dentin and pulp. (deltadentalnjblog.com)
  • Dentin Dysplasia is a rare hereditary disturbance, seen in 1 in 100,000 people, characterized by irregular development of dentin in a person's teeth. (deltadentalnjblog.com)
  • Mutations in this gene also cause dentin dysplasia type II, a disorder with signs and symptoms very similar to those of dentinogenesis imperfecta. (medlineplus.gov)
  • However, dentin dysplasia type II affects the primary (baby) teeth much more than the permanent teeth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some researchers believe that this type of dentin dysplasia and dentinogenesis imperfecta types II and III are actually forms of a single disorder. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Phenotypic variation in dentinogenesis imperfecta/dentin dysplasia linked to 4q21. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Overlapping DSPP mutations cause dentin dysplasia and dentinogenesis imperfecta. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Tooth enamel can fall out prematurely when the dentin layer under the enamel crown is too weak to support it. (deltadentalnjblog.com)
  • The dentin-pulp complex is the principal inner component of the tooth beneath the superficial enamel layer in the tooth crown, and comprises the entire tooth root outlined with a thin cementum layer. (cambridge.org)
  • The highly mineralized dentin confers structural integrity and insulative properties to the tooth and surrounds the pulp chamber and canals, which confer vitality to the tooth and whose neurovascular supplies exit through constricted foramina at the root apices. (cambridge.org)
  • Together, the dentin-pulp complex plays a crucial role in tooth health. (cambridge.org)
  • When cold or hot food and drinks, sweets, sour or salty foods cause pain in the teeth, this is called dentin hypersensitivity, which is mainly caused by exposed tooth necks. (fraunhofer.de)
  • When observed under a microscope, the dentin forms tubules (they are micro canals), and they make the largest part of the tooth. (healthyteeth.org)
  • These proteins are components of dentin, which is a bone-like substance that makes up the protective middle layer of each tooth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The dentin of the tooth is very porous and is an ineffective seal over the pulp. (medscape.com)
  • In Ellis II and III fractures in which the dentin or pulp is exposed, the clinician caring for the tooth fracture in the acute setting must create a seal over these injured teeth to protect the pulp from intraoral flora and potential infection. (medscape.com)
  • findings were inconsistent across biomarkers of Mn (hair, cord blood, tooth enamel, maternal or child blood and dentin). (cdc.gov)
  • Dentin is the hard, mineralized tissue beneath the enamel and cementum that surrounds and protects the pulp (soft tissue with blood vessels and nerves). (deltadentalnjblog.com)
  • Dentin is the part that is located right below the enamel and the cementum. (healthyteeth.org)
  • The pulp also has reparative mechanisms, activated by insults to the overlying dentin by noxious stimuli such as attrition, trauma, and caries. (cambridge.org)
  • Such external damage to the dentin renders the pulp vulnerable to external invasion if the extent of the insult extends throughout the thickness of the dentin layer in question. (cambridge.org)
  • Ellis III: These fractures involve the enamel, dentin, and pulp layers. (medscape.com)
  • As a result, the neck of the teeth, which is made of dentin permeated by tubules (tubules), is exposed without protection. (fraunhofer.de)
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate the mineral content of sound dentin in primary teeth prepared using an Er:YAG laser at two different power settings. (hindawi.com)
  • 12 ] reported cracks and microfissures in the dentin surface of primary teeth prepared using a high-powered Er:YAG laser. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition, However, the effect of Er:YAG laser on the mineral content of sound dentin in primary teeth has not been studied yet. (hindawi.com)
  • Methods: Eighty 2-mm-thick dentin discs were obtained from transversal sections of human teeth roots. (unicamp.br)
  • As a result of these abnormalities of DSPP -related proteins, teeth have abnormally soft dentin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Teeth with defective dentin are discolored, weak, and prone to breakage and decay. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cylindrical root dentin samples of 3.5mm outer diameter, 1.5mm internal canal diameter and 6-10mm long were prepared from freshly extracted teeth . (bvsalud.org)
  • The DSPP gene provides instructions for making a protein called dentin sialophosphoprotein. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A third smaller protein produced from dentin sialophosphoprotein, called dentin glycoprotein, was identified in pigs but has not been found in humans. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Dong J, Gu T, Jeffords L, MacDougall M. Dentin phosphoprotein compound mutation in dentin sialophosphoprotein causes dentinogenesis imperfecta type III. (medlineplus.gov)
  • About half of DSPP gene mutations affect dentin sialoprotein, altering its transport in cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Mineral content in the dentin slabs were calculated by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). (hindawi.com)
  • Ninety root canal dentin slabs were divided into three groups, and immersed in a GSE solution, in NaOCl and in aqua bidest. (ui.ac.id)
  • It works to reduce post-op sensitivity by assisting the collagen structure, allowing informal penetration of the adhesive, thus improving the dentin bond. (miamidentalsupplies.com)
  • Composites and adhesive systems are by far the most widely- composite/adhesive-dentin bond interface integrity as a result used and versatile dental material available to the dental from poor initial adhesion appear to be largely related to these professional1. (bvsalud.org)
  • Führt der Einsatz von Caries Detector® bei der Caries profunda zum Entfernen von gesundem Dentin? (uni-freiburg.de)
  • It serves to kill bacteria, modify nerve responses, and penetrate bonding primers in etched dentin. (miamidentalsupplies.com)
  • In addition, Ari and Erdemir [ 19 ] reported that the adhesion of dental restorative materials to hard tissue was affected by changes in the mineral content of dentin. (hindawi.com)
  • Conclusion: It was possible to obtain an overview of the dentin desensitizing agents sector, which shows a low technological appropriation of this dental industry by Brazil. (bvsalud.org)
  • Comparative evaluation of four different remineralizing agents on dentin surface topography: an invitro study', Egyptian Dental Journal , 67(2), pp. 1647-1655. (ekb.eg)
  • Therefore, change in the mineral content of dentin is important to restorative practice, bonding mechanism, and microleakage. (hindawi.com)
  • Time dependent properties of dentin should be taken into account in restorative dentistry . (bvsalud.org)
  • twenty-five extracted human molars were ground flat to expose occlusal dentin. (bvsalud.org)
  • The strategic use of scientific and technological information related to dentin desensitizing agents may allow opportunities for scientific and technological projects in accordance with public policies to stimulate innovation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Objective: To perform a technological monitoring of dentin desensitizing agents in order to obtain an overview that allows analyzing the current context, and to obtain opportunities for technological prospecting. (bvsalud.org)
  • Dentin desensitizing agents. (bvsalud.org)
  • this study was designed to evaluate the effect of four remineralizing agents on surface topography of dentin. (ekb.eg)
  • Conclusions: surface topography of dentin is positively affected by the application of remineralizing agents. (ekb.eg)
  • Increasing the application rate (pH cycling periods) of the remineralizing agents significantly affect the surface topography of dentin. (ekb.eg)
  • Grape seed extract (GSE) contains proanthocyanidin as a collagen crosslink, which determines the mechanical properties of dentin. (ui.ac.id)
  • Dentin phosphoprotein is thought to be involved in the normal hardening of collagen, the most abundant protein in dentin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Specifically, dentin phosphoprotein may play a role in the deposition of mineral crystals among collagen fibers (mineralization). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Visible light generators produce heat which may elevate the intrapulpal temperature and/or dehydrate the dentin [9,10]. (who.int)
  • Molecular basis of human dentin diseases. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Time-dependent properties of human root dentin. (bvsalud.org)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the creep, stress relaxation and strain rate behavior of human root dentin under compressive loading. (bvsalud.org)
  • Ellis II: Injuries in this category are fractures that involve the enamel as well as the dentin layer. (medscape.com)
  • A yellow layer of dentin may be visible on examination. (medscape.com)
  • The remaining mutations affect dentin phosphoprotein, interfering with its normal production and/or secretion. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This study aimed to analyze the effect of GSE solution on the flexural strength of root canal dentin. (ui.ac.id)
  • Thus, the flexural strength of root canal dentin was significantly higher in the GSE-solution group than in the NaOCl solution group. (ui.ac.id)
  • Sugiono, REA , Meidyawati, R & Asrianti, D 2018, ' Effect of grape seed extract solution on the flexural strength of root canal dentin ', Journal of Physics: Conference Series , vol. 1073, no. 3, 032003. (ui.ac.id)
  • Like natural dentin, the IPS Empress Direct Dentin shades exhibit higher opacity and more opacious saturated chroma than the Enamel materials. (dentalworldofficial.com)
  • In addition, they found dentin melting and cracks associated with high-powered Er:YAG lasers [ 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Dentin is less radiopaque than enamel and has a radiopacity similar to that of bone. (medscape.com)