GRAY MATTER situated above the GYRUS HIPPOCAMPI. It is composed of three layers. The molecular layer is continuous with the HIPPOCAMPUS in the hippocampal fissure. The granular layer consists of closely arranged spherical or oval neurons, called GRANULE CELLS, whose AXONS pass through the polymorphic layer ending on the DENDRITES of PYRAMIDAL CELLS in the hippocampus.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
A pathway of fibers that originates in the lateral part of the ENTORHINAL CORTEX, perforates the SUBICULUM of the HIPPOCAMPUS, and runs into the stratum moleculare of the hippocampus, where these fibers synapse with others that go to the DENTATE GYRUS where the pathway terminates. It is also known as the perforating fasciculus.
Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.
Axons of certain cells in the DENTATE GYRUS. They project to the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus and to the proximal dendrites of PYRAMIDAL CELLS of the HIPPOCAMPUS. These mossy fibers should not be confused with mossy fibers that are cerebellar afferents (see NERVE FIBERS).
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A subsection of the hippocampus, described by Lorente de No, that is located between the HIPPOCAMPUS CA2 FIELD and the DENTATE GYRUS.
A convolution on the inferior surface of each cerebral hemisphere, lying between the hippocampal and collateral sulci.
A slowly hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Pilocarpine is used as a miotic and in the treatment of glaucoma.
A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.
Cerebral cortex region on the medial aspect of the PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS, immediately caudal to the OLFACTORY CORTEX of the uncus. The entorhinal cortex is the origin of the major neural fiber system afferent to the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the so-called PERFORANT PATHWAY.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
A prolonged seizure or seizures repeated frequently enough to prevent recovery between episodes occurring over a period of 20-30 minutes. The most common subtype is generalized tonic-clonic status epilepticus, a potentially fatal condition associated with neuronal injury and respiratory and metabolic dysfunction. Nonconvulsive forms include petit mal status and complex partial status, which may manifest as behavioral disturbances. Simple partial status epilepticus consists of persistent motor, sensory, or autonomic seizures that do not impair cognition (see also EPILEPSIA PARTIALIS CONTINUA). Subclinical status epilepticus generally refers to seizures occurring in an unresponsive or comatose individual in the absence of overt signs of seizure activity. (From N Engl J Med 1998 Apr 2;338(14):970-6; Neurologia 1997 Dec;12 Suppl 6:25-30)
A localization-related (focal) form of epilepsy characterized by recurrent seizures that arise from foci within the temporal lobe, most commonly from its mesial aspect. A wide variety of psychic phenomena may be associated, including illusions, hallucinations, dyscognitive states, and affective experiences. The majority of complex partial seizures (see EPILEPSY, COMPLEX PARTIAL) originate from the temporal lobes. Temporal lobe seizures may be classified by etiology as cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (i.e., related to an identified disease process or lesion). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p321)
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
(2S-(2 alpha,3 beta,4 beta))-2-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid. Ascaricide obtained from the red alga Digenea simplex. It is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist at some types of excitatory amino acid receptors and has been used to discriminate among receptor types. Like many excitatory amino acid agonists it can cause neurotoxicity and has been used experimentally for that purpose.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."
Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.
Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
The repeated weak excitation of brain structures, that progressively increases sensitivity to the same stimulation. Over time, this can lower the threshold required to trigger seizures.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.
Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.
A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
Calcium-binding proteins that are found in DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES, INTESTINES, BRAIN, and other tissues where they bind, buffer and transport cytoplasmic calcium. Calbindins possess a variable number of EF-HAND MOTIFS which contain calcium-binding sites. Some isoforms are regulated by VITAMIN D.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
One of four subsections of the hippocampus described by Lorente de No, located furthest from the DENTATE GYRUS.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.
Low molecular weight, calcium binding muscle proteins. Their physiological function is possibly related to the contractile process.
The first highly specific serotonin uptake inhibitor. It is used as an antidepressant and often has a more acceptable side-effects profile than traditional antidepressants.
An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.
Cells with high proliferative and self renewal capacities derived from adults.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.
An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)
A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).
Drugs that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
A type VI intermediate filament protein expressed mostly in nerve cells where it is associated with the survival, renewal and mitogen-stimulated proliferation of neural progenitor cells.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.
A hydro-lyase that catalyzes the dehydration of 2-phosphoglycerate to form PHOSPHOENOLPYRUVATE. Several different isoforms of this enzyme exist, each with its own tissue specificity.
Drugs that are chemically similar to naturally occurring metabolites, but differ enough to interfere with normal metabolic pathways. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)
Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
Cavity in each of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES derived from the cavity of the embryonic NEURAL TUBE. They are separated from each other by the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM, and each communicates with the THIRD VENTRICLE by the foramen of Monro, through which also the choroid plexuses (CHOROID PLEXUS) of the lateral ventricles become continuous with that of the third ventricle.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
A calbindin protein that is differentially expressed in distinct populations of NEURONS throughout the vertebrate and invertebrate NERVOUS SYSTEM, and modulates intrinsic neuronal excitability and influences LONG-TERM POTENTIATION. It is also found in LUNG, TESTIS, OVARY, KIDNEY, and BREAST, and is expressed in many tumor types found in these tissues. It is often used as an immunohistochemical marker for MESOTHELIOMA.
Organic compounds composed of tin and three methyl groups. Affect mitochondrial metabolism and inhibit oxidative phosphorylation by acting directly on the energy conserving processes.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
A class of opioid peptides including dynorphin A, dynorphin B, and smaller fragments of these peptides. Dynorphins prefer kappa-opioid receptors (RECEPTORS, OPIOID, KAPPA) and have been shown to play a role as central nervous system transmitters.
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The D-enantiomer is a potent and specific antagonist of NMDA glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). The L form is inactive at NMDA receptors but may affect the AP4 (2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate; APB) excitatory amino acid receptors.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
An isoquinoline alkaloid obtained from Dicentra cucullaria and other plants. It is a competitive antagonist for GABA-A receptors.
Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.
A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
Spiny processes on DENDRITES, each of which receives excitatory input from one nerve ending (NERVE ENDINGS). They are commonly found on PURKINJE CELLS and PYRAMIDAL CELLS.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
The analysis of a critical number of sensory stimuli or facts (the pattern) by physiological processes such as vision (PATTERN RECOGNITION, VISUAL), touch, or hearing.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of neuronal cell adhesion molecules that is required for proper nervous system development. Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 consists of six Ig domains, five fibronectin domains, a transmembrane region and an intracellular domain. Two splicing variants are known: a neuronal form that contains a four-amino acid RSLE sequence in the cytoplasmic domain, and a non-neuronal form that lacks the RSLE sequence. Mutations in the L1 gene result in L1 disease. Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 is predominantly expressed during development in neurons and Schwann cells; involved in cell adhesion, neuronal migration, axonal growth and pathfinding, and myelination.
Compounds based on benzeneacetamide, that are similar in structure to ACETANILIDES.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A pathological process consisting of hardening or fibrosis of an anatomical structure, often a vessel or a nerve.
The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.
A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.

NMDA-dependent currents in granule cells of the dentate gyrus contribute to induction but not permanence of kindling. (1/1453)

Single-electrode voltage-clamp techniques and bath application of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV) were used to study the time course of seizure-induced alterations in NMDA-dependent synaptic currents in granule cells of the dentate gyrus in hippocampal slices from kindled and normal rats. In agreement with previous studies, granule cells from kindled rats examined within 1 wk after the last of 3 or 30-35 generalized tonic-clonic (class V) seizures demonstrated an increase in the NMDA receptor-dependent component of the perforant path-evoked synaptic current. Within 1 wk of the last kindled seizure, NMDA-dependent charge transfer underlying the perforant path-evoked current was increased by 63-111% at a holding potential of -30 mV. In contrast, the NMDA-dependent component of the perforant-evoked current in granule cells examined at 2.5-3 mo after the last of 3 or 90-120 class V seizures did not differ from age-matched controls. Because the seizure-induced increases in NMDA-dependent synaptic currents declined toward control values during a time course of 2.5-3 mo, increases in NMDA-dependent synaptic transmission cannot account for the permanent susceptibility to evoked and spontaneous seizures induced by kindling. The increase in NMDA receptor-dependent transmission was associated with the induction of kindling but was not responsible for the maintenance of the kindled state. The time course of alterations in NMDA-dependent synaptic current and the dependence of the progression of kindling and kindling-induced mossy fiber sprouting on repeated NMDA receptor activation are consistent with the possibility that the NMDA receptor is part of a transmembrane signaling pathway that induces long-term cellular alterations and circuit remodeling in response to repeated seizures, but is not required for permanent seizure susceptibility in circuitry altered by kindling.  (+info)

In vivo intracellular analysis of granule cell axon reorganization in epileptic rats. (2/1453)

In vivo intracellular recording and labeling in kainate-induced epileptic rats was used to address questions about granule cell axon reorganization in temporal lobe epilepsy. Individually labeled granule cells were reconstructed three dimensionally and in their entirety. Compared with controls, granule cells in epileptic rats had longer average axon length per cell; the difference was significant in all strata of the dentate gyrus including the hilus. In epileptic rats, at least one-third of the granule cells extended an aberrant axon collateral into the molecular layer. Axon projections into the molecular layer had an average summed length of 1 mm per cell and spanned 600 microm of the septotemporal axis of the hippocampus-a distance within the normal span of granule cell axon collaterals. These findings in vivo confirm results from previous in vitro studies. Surprisingly, 12% of the granule cells in epileptic rats, and none in controls, extended a basal dendrite into the hilus, providing another route for recurrent excitation. Consistent with recurrent excitation, many granule cells (56%) in epileptic rats displayed a long-latency depolarization superimposed on a normal inhibitory postsynaptic potential. These findings demonstrate changes, occurring at the single-cell level after an epileptogenic hippocampal injury, that could result in novel, local, recurrent circuits.  (+info)

Postnatal development of hippocampal dentate granule cell gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor pharmacological properties. (3/1453)

Postnatal development of hippocampal dentate granule cell gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptor pharmacological properties was studied. Granule cells were acutely isolated from hippocampi of 7- to 14- and 45- to 52-day-old rats, and whole cell patch-clamp recordings were obtained. The sensitivity of GABAA receptors to GABA and modulation of GABAA receptor currents by benzodiazepines (BZ), zinc, furosemide, and loreclezole was studied. Multiple changes in the pharmacological properties of dentate granule-cell GABAA receptors occurred during the first 52 days of postnatal development: GABA-evoked maximal current increased with postnatal age; GABAA receptors changed from BZ type 3 in young rats to BZ type 1 in adult rats; furosemide and zinc inhibited GABAA receptor currents in young rats but not in adult rats; the fraction of cells that expressed loreclezole-sensitive GABAA receptors increased with postnatal age. These findings suggest that dentate granule cells in young and adult animals express pharmacologically distinct GABAA receptors and that the postnatal development of these receptors is prolonged, lasting at least 45 days. Comparison with the previously reported pharmacological properties of GABAA receptors on dentate granule cells acutely isolated from hippocampi of 28- to 35-day-old rats suggests that receptors expressed at that age have properties intermediate between young and adult rats.  (+info)

Overexpression of a Shaker-type potassium channel in mammalian central nervous system dysregulates native potassium channel gene expression. (4/1453)

The nervous system maintains a delicate balance between excitation and inhibition, partly through the complex interplay between voltage-gated sodium and potassium ion channels. Because K+ channel blockade or gene deletion causes hyperexcitability, it is generally assumed that increases in K+ channel gene expression should reduce neuronal network excitability. We have tested this hypothesis by creating a transgenic mouse that expresses a Shaker-type K+ channel gene. Paradoxically, we find that addition of the extra K+ channel gene results in a hyperexcitable rather than a hypoexcitable phenotype. The presence of the transgene leads to a complex deregulation of endogenous Shaker genes in the adult central nervous system as well as an increase in network excitability that includes spontaneous cortical spike and wave discharges and a lower threshold for epileptiform bursting in isolated hippocampal slices. These data suggest that an increase in K+ channel gene dosage leads to dysregulation of normal K+ channel gene expression, and it may underlie a mechanism contributing to the pathogenesis of human aneuploidies such as Down syndrome.  (+info)

Modification of postsynaptic densities after transient cerebral ischemia: a quantitative and three-dimensional ultrastructural study. (5/1453)

Abnormal synaptic transmission has been hypothesized to be a cause of neuronal death resulting from transient ischemia, although the mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we present evidence that synapses are markedly modified in the hippocampus after transient cerebral ischemia. Using both conventional and high-voltage electron microscopy, we performed two- and three-dimensional analyses of synapses selectively stained with ethanolic phosphotungstic acid in the hippocampus of rats subjected to 15 min of ischemia followed by various periods of reperfusion. Postsynaptic densities (PSDs) from both area CA1 and the dentate gyrus were thicker and fluffier in postischemic hippocampus than in controls. Three-dimensional reconstructions of selectively stained PSDs created using electron tomography indicated that postsynaptic densities became more irregular and loosely configured in postischemic brains compared with those in controls. A quantitative study based on thin sections of the time course of PSD modification indicated that the increase in thickness was both greater and more long-lived in area CA1 than in dentate gyrus. Whereas the magnitude of morphological change in dentate gyrus peaked at 4 hr of reperfusion (140% of control values) and declined thereafter, changes in area CA1 persisted and increased at 24 hr of reperfusion (191% of control values). We hypothesize that the degenerative ultrastructural alteration of PSDs may produce a toxic signal such as a greater calcium influx, which is integrated from the thousands of excitatory synapses onto dendrites, and is propagated to the neuronal somata where it causes or contributes to neuronal damage during the postischemic phase.  (+info)

On the mechanism of histaminergic inhibition of glutamate release in the rat dentate gyrus. (6/1453)

1. Histaminergic depression of excitatory synaptic transmission in the rat dentate gyrus was investigated using extracellular and whole-cell patch-clamp recording techniques in vitro. 2. Application of histamine (10 microM, 5 min) depressed synaptic transmission in the dentate gyrus for 1 h. This depression was blocked by the selective antagonist of histamine H3 receptors, thioperamide (10 microM). 3. The magnitude of the depression caused by histamine was inversely related to the extracellular Ca2+ concentration. Application of the N-type calcium channel blocker omega-conotoxin (0. 5 or 1 microM) or the P/Q-type calcium channel blocker omega-agatoxin (800 nM) did not prevent depression of synaptic transmission by histamine. 4. The potassium channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 100 microM) enhanced synaptic transmission and reduced the depressant effect of histamine (10 microM). 4-AP reduced the effect of histamine more in 2 mM extracellular calcium than in 4 mM extracellular calcium. 5. Histamine (10 microM) did not affect the amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) and had only a small effect on their frequency. 6. Histaminergic depression was not blocked by an inhibitor of serine/threonine protein kinases, H7 (100 microM), or by an inhibitor of tyrosine kinases, Lavendustin A (10 microM). 7. Application of adenosine (20 microM) or the adenosine A1 agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA, 0.3 microM) completely occluded the effect of histamine (10 microM). 8. We conclude that histamine, acting on histamine H3 receptors, inhibits glutamate release by inhibiting presynaptic calcium entry, via a direct G-protein-mediated inhibition of multiple calcium channels. Histamine H3 receptors and adenosine A1 receptors act upon a common final effector to cause presynaptic inhibition.  (+info)

Quantal amplitude and quantal variance of strontium-induced asynchronous EPSCs in rat dentate granule neurons. (7/1453)

1. Excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) were recorded from granule cells of the dentate gyrus in acute slices of 17- to 21-day-old rats (22-25 C) using tissue cuts and minimal extracellular stimulation to selectively activate a small number of synaptic contacts. 2. Adding millimolar Sr2+ to the external solution produced asynchronous EPSCs (aEPSCs) lasting for several hundred milliseconds after the stimulus. Minimally stimulated aEPSCs resembled miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs) recorded in the same cell but differed from them in ways expected from the greater range of dendritic filtering experienced by mEPSCs. aEPSCs had the same stimulus threshold as the synchronous EPSCs (sEPSCs) that followed the stimulus with a brief latency. aEPSCs following stimulation of distal inputs had a slower mean rise time than those following stimulation of proximal inputs. These results suggest that aEPSCs arose from the same synapses that generated sEPSCs. 3. Proximally elicited aEPSCs had a mean amplitude of 6.7 +/- 2.2 pA (+/- s.d., n = 23 cells) at -70 mV and an amplitude coefficient of variation of 0. 46 +/- 0.08. 4. The amplitude distributions of sEPSCs never exhibited distinct peaks. 5. Monte Carlo modelling of the shapes of aEPSC amplitude distributions indicated that our data were best explained by an intrasite model of quantal variance. 6. It is concluded that Sr2+-evoked aEPSCs are uniquantal events arising at synaptic terminals that were recently invaded by an action potential, and so provide direct information about the quantal amplitude and quantal variance at those terminals. The large quantal variance obscures quantization of the amplitudes of evoked sEPSCs at this class of excitatory synapse.  (+info)

Recurrent mossy fiber pathway in rat dentate gyrus: synaptic currents evoked in presence and absence of seizure-induced growth. (8/1453)

A common feature of temporal lobe epilepsy and of animal models of epilepsy is the growth of hippocampal mossy fibers into the dentate molecular layer, where at least some of them innervate granule cells. Because the mossy fibers are axons of granule cells, the recurrent mossy fiber pathway provides monosynaptic excitatory feedback to these neurons that could facilitate seizure discharge. We used the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy to study the synaptic responses evoked by activating this pathway. Whole cell patch-clamp recording demonstrated that antidromic stimulation of the mossy fibers evoked an excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) in approximately 74% of granule cells from rats that had survived >10 wk after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. Recurrent mossy fiber growth was demonstrated with the Timm stain in all instances. In contrast, antidromic stimulation of the mossy fibers evoked an EPSC in only 5% of granule cells studied 4-6 days after status epilepticus, before recurrent mossy fiber growth became detectable. Notably, antidromic mossy fiber stimulation also evoked an EPSC in many granule cells from control rats. Clusters of mossy fiber-like Timm staining normally were present in the inner third of the dentate molecular layer at the level of the hippocampal formation from which slices were prepared, and several considerations suggested that the recorded EPSCs depended mainly on activation of recurrent mossy fibers rather than associational fibers. In both status epilepticus and control groups, the antidromically evoked EPSC was glutamatergic and involved the activation of both AMPA/kainate and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. EPSCs recorded in granule cells from rats with recurrent mossy fiber growth differed in three respects from those recorded in control granule cells: they were much more frequently evoked, a number of them were unusually large, and the NMDA component of the response was generally much more prominent. In contrast to the antidromically evoked EPSC, the EPSC evoked by stimulation of the perforant path appeared to be unaffected by a prior episode of status epilepticus. These results support the hypothesis that recurrent mossy fiber growth and synapse formation increases the excitatory drive to dentate granule cells and thus facilitates repetitive synchronous discharge. Activation of NMDA receptors in the recurrent pathway may contribute to seizure propagation under depolarizing conditions. Mossy fiber-granule cell synapses also are present in normal rats, where they may contribute to repetitive granule cell discharge in regions of the dentate gyrus where their numbers are significant.  (+info)

Here we adapted an existing computational model of the dentate gyrus (J Neurophysiol 93: 437-453, 2005) by replacing the reduced granule cell models with morphologically detailed models coming from (3D) reconstructions of mature cells. ... Different fractions of the mature granule cell models were replaced by morphologically reconstructed models of newborn dentate granule cells from animals with PILO-induced Status Epilepticus, which have apical dendritic alterations and spine loss, and control animals, which do not have these alterations. This complex arrangement of cells and processes allowed us to study the combined effect of mossy fiber sprouting, altered apical dendritic tree and dendritic spine loss in newborn granule cells on the excitability of the dentate gyrus model. Our simulations suggest that alterations in the apical dendritic tree and dendritic spine loss in newborn granule cells have opposing effects on the excitability of the dentate gyrus after Status Epilepticus. Apical ...
note = {Hippocampal granule cells are critical relay stations to transfer spatial information from the entorhinal cortex into the hippocampus proper. Therefore, the integrative properties of the small-caliber granule cell dendrites were examined in this thesis, using a combination of dual somato-dendritic patch-clamp recordings and two-photon glutamate uncaging. These experiments revealed unusual integrative properties that differ substantially from other principal neurons. Due to a strong dendritic voltage attenuation, the impact of individual synapses on granule cell output is low. At the same time, integration is linear, only weakly affected by input synchrony, and is independent of the spatial location of input sites. These integrative properties can enhance contrast in the generation of place-specific firing maps from entorhinal inputs and contribute to the sparse representation of space in the dentate gyrus.}, ...
Dentage Gyrus Granule Cell model associated with the papers: J. Tejada, G.M. Arisi, N. Garcia-Cairasco, A.C. Roque, Morphological alterations in newly born dentate gyrus granule cells that emerge after status epilepticus contribute to make them less excitable, PLoS ONE. 7 (2012) e40726. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0040726. J. Tejada, N. Garcia-Cairasco, A.C. Roque, Combined role of seizure-induced dendritic morphology alterations and spine loss in newborn granule cells with mossy fiber sprouting on the hyperexcitability of a computer model of the dentate gyrus, PLoS Comput. Biol. 10 (2014) e1003601. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003601. [email protected] - 2014 */ //Defining granule cell begintemplate GranuleCell49 // Original name on neuroMorpho.org 418882.CNG.hoc ndend1=23 public pre_list, connect_pre, subsets, is_art, is_connected public vbc2gc, vmc2gc, vhc2gc, vgc2bc, vbc2bc, vmc2bc, vhc2bc, vgc2mc, vbc2mc, vmc2mc, vhc2mc, vgc2hc, vmc2hc public soma, dend public all, gcldend, pdend, mdend, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fibroblast Growth Factor 14 Modulates the Neurogenesis of Granule Neurons in the Adult Dentate Gyrus. AU - Alshammari, Musaad A.. AU - Alshammari, Tahani K.. AU - Nenov, Miroslav N.. AU - Scala, Federico. AU - Laezza, Fernanda. PY - 2016/12/1. Y1 - 2016/12/1. N2 - Adult neurogenesis, the production of mature neurons from progenitor cells in the adult mammalian brain, is linked to the etiology of neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. However, a thorough understanding of the molecular elements at the base of adult neurogenesis remains elusive. Here, we provide evidence for a previously undescribed function of fibroblast growth factor 14 (FGF14), a brain disease-associated factor that controls neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity, in regulating adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG). We found that FGF14 is dynamically expressed in restricted subtypes of sex determining region Y-box 2 (Sox2)-positive and doublecortin (DCX)-positive neural progenitors in the DG. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adrenal steroids regulate postnatal development of the rat dentate gyrus. T2 - II. Effects of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids on cell birth. AU - Gould, Elizabeth. AU - Woolley, Catherine S.. AU - Cameron, Heather A.. AU - Daniels, Deborah C.. AU - McEwen, Bruce S.. PY - 1991/11/15. Y1 - 1991/11/15. N2 - Unlike the majority of mammalian brain regions, the rat dentate gyrus undergoes maximal cell birth and cell death during the same developmental time period. Granule cell birth and death peak at the end of the first postnatal week. We have found that manipulations of glucocorticoid levels during the stress hyporesponsive period profoundly influence the density of pyknotic cells in the dentate gyrus while apparently not affecting the density of healthy cells. This raises the possibility that glucocorticoids are regulating processes in addition to cell death, i.e., cell birth. In order to determine whether increases in circulating glucocorticoids or mineralocorticoids affect ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Analysis of current fluctuations during after-hyperpolarization current in dentate granule neurones of the rat hippocampus. AU - Valiante, Taufik A.. AU - Abdul-Ghani, Muhammad A.. AU - Carlen, Peter L.. AU - Pennefather, Peter. PY - 1997/2/15. Y1 - 1997/2/15. N2 - We have studied macroscopic current fluctuations associated with the after-hyperpolarization current (I(AHP)) that follows a 200 ms voltage-clamp step to 0 mV in dentate granule (DG) neurones of the rat hippocampus. This maximally effective stimulus produced a peak I(AHP) of 205 ± 20 pA. Background noise was minimized by using the whole-cell single-electrode voltage-clamp configuration. 2. Conventional current-variance analysis was performed on I(AHP) to obtain estimates of the unitary AHP channel current (i) and the maximal attainable AHP current (I(max)). A second approach, utilizing changes in the power spectrum of I(AHP) noise during the decay of I(AHP), was employed to yield an independent estimate of I(max) as ...
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis, the constitutive generation of new granule cells in the dentate gyrus of the mature brain, is a robust model of neural development and its dysregulation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Previous studies in mice have shown that altered expression of Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia 1 (Disc1), the mouse homolog of a risk gene for major psychiatric disorders, results in several distinct morphological phenotypes during neuronal development. Although there are advantages to using rats over mice for neurophysiological studies, genetic manipulations have not been widely utilized in rat models. Here, we used a retroviral-mediated approach to knockdown DISC1 expression in dividing cells in the rat dentate gyrus and characterized the morphological development of adult-born granule neurons. Consistent with earlier findings in mice, we show that DISC1 knockdown in adult-born dentate granule cells in rats resulted in accelerated dendritic
The transverse temporal gyri, also called Heschls gyri (/ˈhɛʃəlz ˈdʒaɪraɪ/) or Heschls convolutions, are gyri found in the area of primary auditory cortex buried within the lateral sulcus of the human brain, occupying Brodmann areas 41 and 42. Transverse temporal gyri are superior to and separated from the planum temporale (cortex involved in language production) by Heschls sulcus. Transverse temporal gyri are found in varying numbers in both the right and left hemispheres of the brain and one study found that this number is not related to the hemisphere or dominance of hemisphere studied in subjects. Transverse temporal gyri can be viewed in the sagittal plane as either an omega shape (if one gyrus is present) or a heart shape (if two gyri and a sulcus are present).[1] Transverse temporal gyri are the first cortical structures to process incoming auditory information. Anatomically, the transverse temporal gyri are distinct in that they run mediolaterally (toward the center of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Increased excitatory synaptic transmission of dentate granule neurons in mice lacking PSD-95-interacting adhesion molecule Neph2/Kirrel3 during the early postnatal period. AU - Roh, Junyeop D.. AU - Choi, Su Yeon. AU - Cho, Yi Sul. AU - Choi, Tae Yong. AU - Park, Jong Sil. AU - Cutforth, Tyler. AU - Chung, Woosuk. AU - Park, Hanwool. AU - Lee, Dongsoo. AU - Kim, Myeong Heui. AU - Lee, Yeunkum. AU - Mo, Seojung. AU - Rhee, Jeong Seop. AU - Kim, Hyun. AU - Ko, Jaewon. AU - Choi, Se Young. AU - Bae, Yong Chul. AU - Shen, Kang. AU - Kim, Eunjoon. AU - Han, Kihoon. N1 - Funding Information: This study was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (MISP; NRF-2015R1C1A1A01052794 to KH) and (NRF-2012M3A9B6055378 to HK), the grant of the Korea Health Technology R&D Project through the Korea Health Industry Development Institute (KHIDI) funded by the Ministry of Health and Welfare, South ...
Pubertal development is marked by significant decreases in cellular proliferation and neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation. Although it is unclear what mediates these developmental changes in the dentate gyrus, gonadal hormones have been implicated in modulating many neurobiological processes during puberty and various parameters of neurogenesis in adulthood. Thus, it is possible that the gradual and sustained increase in gonadal hormones experienced during puberty plays a role in these changes in neurogenesis. In this experiments, we first quantified cellular proliferation and neurogenesis using 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and doublecortin (DCX) immunohistochemistry, respectively, in the dentate gyrus of prepubertal (30 d), midpubertal (45 d), and adult (90 d) male rats. We found the decline in BrdU and DCX cell numbers throughout these ages was coincident with increases in their plasma testosterone levels. We next tested whether exposure to the pubertal rise in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sustained transcription of the immediate early gene arc in the dentate gyrus after spatial exploration. AU - Ramirez-Amaya, Victor. AU - Angulo-Perkins, Arafat. AU - Chawla, Monica K.. AU - Barnes, Carol A.. AU - Rosi, Susanna. PY - 2013/1/23. Y1 - 2013/1/23. N2 - After spatial exploration in rats, Arc mRNA is expressed in~2% of dentate gyrus (DG) granule cells, and this proportion of Arc-positive neurons remains stable for ~8 h. This long-term presence of Arc mRNA following behavior is not observed in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells. We report here that in rats~50% of granule cells with cytoplasmic Arc mRNA, induced some hours previously during exploration, also show Arc expression in the nucleus. This suggests that recent transcription can occur long after the exploration behavior that elicited it. To confirm that the delayed nuclear Arc expression was indeed recent transcription, Actinomycin D was administered immediately after exploration. This treatment resulted in ...
Cognitive reserve, the brains capacity to draw on enriching experiences during youth, is believed to protect against memory loss associated with a decline in hippocampal function, as seen in normal aging and neurodegenerative disease. Adult neurogenesis has been suggested as a specific mechanism in …
In all species examined, the dentate gyrus develops over an extended period that begins during gestation and continues up to adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of postnatal cell production in the dentate gyrus of the guinea pig, a rodent whose brain development has features more closely resembling the human condition than the most commonly used rodents (rat and mouse). Animals of different postnatal (P) ages received one or multiple injections of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), and the number of labeled cells in the dentate gyrus was counted after time intervals of 24 h or longer. The total granule cell number and the volume of the granule cell layer were evaluated in Nissl-stained brain sections from P1 and P30 animals. P1-P5 animals were treated with MK-801 to analyze the effect of NMDA receptor blockade on cell proliferation. Cell production occurred at a high rate (9,000-13,000 labeled cells 24 h after one injection) from P1 to P20, with a peak at 3-6 days of age, and ...
Figure 1. Retroviral labeling of newborn cells in the adult hippocampus after seizure activity. A-G, Retroviral labeling of newborn granule cells in controls (A, F) and animals that had seizures (B-E, G) revealed altered polarity and ectopic localization of granule neurons born after SE. Whereas control cells 4 weeks after viral injection (A) extended an apical dendrite toward the ML, seizure-induced granule cells extended basal dendrites reaching deep into the hilus (B, C). Note that basal dendrites were covered with dendritic spines (D). Granule cells born after SE also ectopically migrated into the hilar/CA3 border (E), which was never observed in control animals. Under control conditions, once newborn granule cells survived the initial critical selection process, they became stably integrated into the circuitry for at least 1 year (F). Despite hilar dendritic growth, the same was true for aberrant granule cells, which were frequently observed 1 year after viral injection (G). H, The number ...
Temporal lobe epilepsy is associated with changes in the morphology of hippocampal dentate granule cells, including formation of hilar basal dendrites. These changes are evident in numerous models that are associated with substantial neuron loss and spontaneous recurrent seizures. By contrast, previous studies have shown that in the kindling model, it is possible to administer a limited number of stimulations sufficient to produce a lifelong enhanced sensitivity to stimulus evoked seizures without associated spontaneous seizures or overt neuronal loss. Here we asked whether stimulations sufficient to induce enhanced sensitivity to evoked seizures, but not frank epilepsy will induce the formation of basal dendrites and other morphological changes similar to those observed in models of epilepsy associated with substantial cell loss. The morphology of GFP-expressing granule cells from Thy-1 GFP mice was examined either one day or one month after the last of five amygdala kindling-evoked seizures. ...
The dentate gyrus (DG), an important part of the hippocampus, plays a critical role in consolidation of information from short-term to long-term memory, and also in spatial navigation. Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) exist throughout life in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the DG, where they develop into granular cells and establish synaptic connections with nearby cells. Granular cells of the DG sprout axons targeting neurons in the cornu ammonis 3 (CA3) area of the hippocampus, forming a neural trisynaptic circuit, an important part of the neural network in the hippocampus. Thus, the DG and the neurogenic cells it contains are of importance in controlling formation of memories, learned behaviors, and also in the maintenance and restoration of functions of the hippocampus. According to reports, both in vivo and in vitro neurogenesis in the DG are regulated by a variety of endogenous and exogenous factors at different stages. Therefore, a better understanding of the factors in NSPC niches and the
The synapse is the site of neurotransmission between the axons and dendrites of different neurons. In the synapses between mossy-fiber terminals of dentate gyrus granule cells and the dendrites of CA3 pyramidal cells, there are two types of junctions between axons and dendrites of neurons: synaptic junctions (SJs), which function as the sites of neurotransmission, and puncta adherentia junctions (PAJs), which function as the sites of mechanical adhesion between axon terminals and their targets (Spacek and Lieberman, 1974) (Fig. 3A). The active zone, which is the site at which neurotransmission takes place, is formed at the presynaptic side of SJs, whereas the postsynaptic density (PSD), which contains the neurotransmitter receptors, is located below the postsynaptic membrane. PAJs are particularly developed in the CA3 region of the hippocampus. In the postnatal developmental stage, the synapses between mossy-fiber terminals of dentate gyrus granule cells and the dendrites of CA3 pyramidal cells ...
The granule cells in the dentate gyrus are distinguished by their late time of formation during brain development. In rats, approximately 85% of the granule cells are generated after birth. In humans, it is estimated that granule cells begin to be generated during gestation weeks 10.5 to 11, and continue being generated during the second and third trimesters, after birth and all the way into adulthood. The germinal sources of granule cells and their migration pathways have been studied during rat brain development. The oldest granule cells are generated in a specific region of the hippocampal neuroepithelium and migrate into the primordial dentate gyrus around embryonic days (E) 17/18, and then settle as the outermost cells in the forming granular layer. Next, dentate precursor cells move out of this same area of the hippocampal neuroepithelium and, retaining their mitotic capacity, invade the hilus (core) of the forming dentate gyrus. This dispersed germinal matrix is the source of granule ...
The proliferation and survival of new cells in the dentate gyrus of mammals is a complex process that is subject to numerous influences, presenting a confusing picture. We suggest regarding these processes on the level of small networks, which can be simulated in silico and which illustrate in a nutshell the influences that proliferating cells exert on plasticity and the conditions they require for survival. Beyond the insights gained by this consideration, we review the available literature on factors that regulate cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus in vivo. It turns out that the rate of cell proliferation and excitatory afferents via the perforant path interactively determine cell survival, such that the best network stability is achieved when either of the two is increased whereas concurrent activation of the two factors lowers cell survival rates. Consequently, the mitotic activity is regulated by systemic parameters in compliance with the hippocampal networks ...
Hippocampal function varies along its septotemporal axis, with the septal (dorsal) pole more frequently involved in spatial learning and memory and the temporal (ventral) pole playing a greater role in emotional behaviors. One feature that varies across these subregions is adult neurogenesis. New neurons are more numerous in the septal hippocampus but are more active in the temporal hippocampus during water maze training. However, many other aspects of adult neurogenesis remain unexplored in the context of septal versus temporal subregions. In addition, the dentate gyrus contains another functionally important anatomical division along the transverse axis, with the suprapyramidal blade showing greater experience-related activity than the infrapyramidal blade. Here we ask whether new neurons differ in their rates of survival and maturation along the septotemporal and transverse axes. We found that neurogenesis is initially higher in the infrapyramidal than suprapyramidal blade, but these cells are less
Our findings indicate that despite the presence of more new neurons in runners, a smaller proportion of these cells were activated in the ventral dentate gyrus in response to cold water swim stress compared with sedentary mice. This prevention cannot be explained by a general blunting effect on the activation of new neurons by exercise, because studies have shown that runners have increased seizure-induced expression of immediate early genes in new neurons compared with controls (Snyder et al., 2009b). Previous studies have shown that small numbers of new neurons in the dentate gyrus are activated by engaging in behaviors that depend on the hippocampus, including spatial navigation and learning (Ramirez-Amaya et al., 2006; Kee et al., 2007; Tashiro et al., 2007; Snyder et al., 2009c; Epp et al., 2011; Snyder et al., 2012). Other experiences that generally activate the hippocampus, such as exercise and seizures, have been shown to activate new neurons as well (Jessberger and Kempermann, 2003; ...
Neurogenesis and apoptosis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) occur during development and adulthood. However, little is known about how these two processes relate to each other during aging. In this study, we examined apoptosis, proliferation, migration, and survival of newborn cells in the youn …
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis originates from precursor cells in the adult dentate gyrus and results in new granule cell neurons. We propose a model of the development that takes place between these two fixed points and identify several developmental milestones. From a presumably bipotent radial-glia-like stem cell (type-1 cell) with astrocytic properties, development progresses over at least two stages of amplifying lineage-determined progenitor cells (type-2 and type-3 cells) to early postmitotic and to mature neurons. The selection process, during which new neurons are recruited into function, and other regulatory influences differentially affect the different stages of development ...
Zinc (ionic form Zn2+) is a common trace element in the forebrain, and is especially enriched in the hippocampus, a brain structure important for learning and memory. A large amount of vesicular Zn2+ which is thought to be released upon presynaptic depolarisation is found at synapses formed by the axons of dentate granule cells (GCs), known as mossy fibres (MFs). Zn2+ inhibits NMDA and GABAA receptors (NMDAR and GABAAR) at mono-synaptic inputs between MFs and CA3 pyramidal neurons but its role in synaptic integration in the dentate gyrus remains elusive. Whole-cell recordings were obtained from GCs held in voltage-clamp in acute rat hippocampal slices. One tungsten electrode was positioned in stratum lucidum (SL) of CA3b to activate MFs and another in stratum granulosum (SG) to directly stimulate dentate interneurons. Evoked synaptic currents were blocked by superfusion of the GABAAR antagonist bicuculline implying that they were mediated by GABAARs. In contrast, the AMPA/kainate receptor ...
The dentate gyrus is the most important relay station that transfers polysensory information from the entorhinal cortex into the hippocampus proper. Theoretical
Random roundup because any posts linking to articles or ideas Ive recently found noteworthy will never occur on a regular basis (as others manage to do - I applaud you) but only when enough interesting material has accrued and I have a spare moment. The links will, however, not be random. For example, you can expect many links to point to articles on adult neurogenesis or hippocampal function but will likely find few links directing you to photos of puppy dogs.. Dopaminergic Modulation of Cortical Inputs during Maturation of Adult-Born Dentate Granule Cells. A pretty thorough examination of dopaminergic modulation of synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus. Dopamine reduced synaptic transmission in both immature and mature granule neurons, but through different receptor subtypes. Additionally, dopamine reduced long-term plasticity in immature neurons but not mature neurons. Given the suggestion that dopamine could gate the entry of information into long-term memory, ...
Different events usually contain similar elements that can contribute to interference during memory encoding and retrieval. The hippocampus (HPC), a structure that is critically involved in some forms of memory, has been hypothesized to reduce interference between memories with overlapping content, thus facilitating correct recall. Pattern separation is one hypothetical process whereby input ambiguity is reduced. Here we test the hypothesis that the HPC and/or dentate gyrus (DG) are important for pattern separation by measuring performance by rats with damage in tasks that require discrimination between visual stimuli that share systematically varying numbers of common elements. Rats with HPC damage were slower to resolve discriminations with minimal degrees of overlap. Lesions of the DG did not affect the ability of rats to deal with overlap, suggesting a dissociation between the HPC and DG. Our results provide partial support for the idea that the HPC contributes to the pattern separation ...
The sparse single spike activity of dentate gyrus granule cells (DG GCs) is punctuated by occasional brief bursts of 3 to 7 action potentials. It is well-known that such presynaptic bursts in individual mossy fibers (MFs; axons of granule cells) are often able to discharge postsynaptic CA3 pyramidal cells due to powerful short-term facilitation. However, what happens in the CA3 network after the passage of a brief MF burst, before the arrival of the next burst or solitary spike, is not understood. Because MFs innervate significantly more CA3 interneurons than pyramidal cells, we focused on unitary MF responses in identified interneurons in the seconds-long post-burst period, using paired recordings in rat hippocampal slices ...
Dentate Gyrus The DG is a V shaped structure situated in the most proximal part of the HF. DG is subdivided into the crest area, the enclosed blade, positioned adjacent to CA1 and the exposed blade
A large number of predictions from passive electrotonic analyses [38-40] have revealed general principles of dendritic computation that were consequently also shown to be true in experiments [41, 42] or complex active computational models [43-45]. Using simplified branched morphological models and the resulting derived compartmental models, we showed that dendritic retraction in passive dendrites leads to a selective boost of bAPs specifically in the retracted dendritic region. This is in line with a previous study that proposed the number of branch points as a predictor of bAP efficacy [18] since reducing the number of dendritic branches decreases the number of branch points [46]. Because of its general applicability, we would like to claim that the principle that we describe in this manuscript will apply under a wide variety of biologically relevant settings in adult animals.. First, we have tested this in the case of the dentate gyrus granule cell. Retracting distal dendrites as a consequence ...
Our ultimate goal is to explore the potential of stem cell differentiation towards generating specific cell types for treatment of neurological disorders in Regenerative Medicine. Overall, our lab studies a very basic question, how a cell makes the decision to differentiate into a neuron and to define the genomic and epigenomic basis for its neuronal fate. A comprehensive molecular knowledge of neurogenesis will enble us to develop novel strategies for generating specific types of neurons. We aim to move towards controlled stem cell programming and differentiation. The future translation of our work is for patients with neurological disorders associated with disabilities. ...
precentral gyrus, gyrus, brain sulci, sulci, brain gyri, gyrus, gyri of the brain, brain sulci and gyri, brain anatomy, BRAIN GYRUS, supramarginal gyrus, sulci and gyri, gyri and sulci, Sulci and gyri of the brain, sulci of the brain, brain gyri and sulci, postcentral gyrus, occipital gyrus, angular gyrus, brain gyrus anatomy, ...
The death of excitatory neurons in the dentate gyrus may be one explanation for any result that reports a reduced level of inhibition, but it is not the entire story. It has also been reported that in rat models of TLE mIPSCs frequency in granule cells (remember the release is coming from the pre-synaptic basket cell, but is being recorded in the post-synaptic granule cell) drop 35-70% versus control.44,54,86 One suggestion for the decrease in mIPSCs frequency is the death of basket cells (fewer basket cells means lower probability for an mIPSC (i.e. lower frequency)); however, such a suggestion re-ignites the question of interneuron death in the dentate gyrus. Although interneuron death is rather small early into SE, suppose if PV-IR cells are indeed dying then their death could explain such a considerable drop because of the extensive synaptic connections that they have with the granule cells in the dentate gyrus. Basically although the total number of interneurons lost is only a small ...
Bengzon J, Kokaia Z, Elmér E, Nanobashvili A, Kokaia M, Lindvall O. Apoptosis and proliferation of dentate gyrus neurons after single and intermittent limbic seizures ...
Upon contact with water, each Humic DG granule disperses into thousands of micro particles that move directly into the root zone and provide immediate benefits to the soil and plant.. Humic DG utilizes patented technology to create uniform spherical dispersing granules. Highly engineered DG granules have a low moisture content and are resistant to breakage during handling resulting in a dust free, free flowing product.. Engineered for superior handling in the spreader or at the blender.. Humic DGs granules are unique among dry humate products in their ability to be blended with most fertilizer components.. ...
The total number of granule cells in the dentate gyrus was estimated in 17 male rats, four each aged 30, 120, and 200 days, and five aged 365 days. There is a substantial 35-43% linear increase betwee
Gradari, S., Pérez-Domper, P., Butler, R.G., Martínez-Cué, C., de Polavieja, G.G. and Trejo, J.L. The relationship between behavior acquisition and persistence abilities: Involvement of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Hippocampus 2016; 26 (7): 857-74. doi: 10.1002/hipo.22568. doi: 10.1002/hipo.22568.. Doublecortin (DCX)-Calretinin(CLR) immunolabeling of the hippocampal dentate gyrus of a 4 month old male mice (Mus musculus). DCX+(red) and CLR+(green) neurons in a section from a control (no treatment) mouse, where both DCX+/CLR+ and DCX+/CLR+ can be appreciated. This dual labeling lets to count two different subpopulation of immature, differentiating neurons in two successive stages of maturation with one double immunohistochemistry reaction. Cell counts were performed in these type of sections by using the U-disector and confocal microscopy. The cover image, by J.L. Trejo et al., is based on the Research Article The relationship between behavior acquisition and persistence abilities: ...
Gyrus or gyri in the temporal lobe on the inferior bank of lateral sulcus. It might said to be a part of the superior temporal gyrus and sometimes referred to as Herchls gyrus/gyri. ...
We now agree that the production of new neurons in the human brain is really limited to a special set of stem cells that seem to sit in the basal region of dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. So in this subgranular zone, we have a population of neural stem cells that can differentiate into interneurons that are found in the granule cell layer of the hippocampus. ...
Mihaly, A.; Olah, Z.; Krug, M.; Kuhnt, U.; Matthies, H.; Rapp, U. R.; Joo, F.: Transient increase of raf protein kinase-like immunoreactivity in the rat dentate gyrus during long-term potentiation. Neuroscience Letters 116 (1-2), pp. 45 - 50 (1990 ...
TITLE: Neunuebel JP, Knierim JJ (2012). Spatial Firing Correlates of Physiologically Distinct Cell Types of the Rat Dentate Gyrus. J Neurosci, 32(11):3848-3858 ...
Development of phasic and tonic inhibitory GABAergic currents in mouse dentate gyrus [Elektronische Ressource] / presented by Nadine Holter : Dissertation submitted to the Combined Faculties for the Natural Sciences and for Mathematics of the Ruperto‐Carola University of Heidelberg, Germany for the degree of Doctor of Natural Sciences presented by Diplom‐Biochemikerin Nadine Holter born in Miltenberg Oral‐examination
Define fascia dentata. fascia dentata synonyms, fascia dentata pronunciation, fascia dentata translation, English dictionary definition of fascia dentata. n. pl. fas·ci·ae 1. Anatomy a. A sheet or band of fibrous connective tissue enveloping, separating, or binding together muscles, organs, and other soft...
Neurogenesis is the process of birth of neurons wherein neurons are generated from neural stem cells. Contrary to popular belief, neurogenesis continuously occurs in specific regions in the adult brain. Developmental neurogenesis and adult neurogenesis differ markedly. This article is limited in scope to adult neurogenesis. In humans, new neurons are continually born throughout adulthood in two regions of the brain: The subgranular zone (SGZ), part of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. The striatum; however the adult-born neurons are a type of interneuron, not a type that projects to other brain areas. In other species of mammals, particularly rodents, adult-born neurons also appear in the olfactory bulb. In humans, however, few if any olfactory bulb neurons are generated after birth. Much more attention has been paid to neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus than in the other areas. Many of the newborn dentate gyrus neurons die shortly after they are born, but a number of them become functionally ...
The hippocampus proper refers to the actual structure of the hippocampus which is made up of four regions or subfields. The subfields CA1, CA2, CA3, and CA4 use the initials of Cornu Ammonis , an earlier name of the hippocampus. Structure There are four regions in the hippocampus proper which form a neural circuit. CA1 is the first region in the hippocampal circuit, from which a major output pathway goes to layer V of the entorhinal cortex . Another significant output is to the subiculum . CA2 is a small region located between CA1 and CA3. It receives some input from layer II of the entorhinal cortex via the perforant path . Its pyramidal cells are more like those in CA3 than those in CA1. It is often ignored due to its small size. CA3 receives input from the mossy fibers of the granule cells in the dentate gyrus , and also from cells in the entorhinal cortex via the perforant path. The mossy fiber pathway ends in the stratum lucidum . The perforant path passes through the stratum lacunosum and ends in
TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of the postnatal radial glial scaffold for the development of the dentate gyrus as revealed by reelin signaling mutant mice. AU - Brunne, Bianka. AU - Franco, Santos. AU - Bouché, Elisabeth. AU - Herz, Joachim. AU - Howell, Brian W.. AU - Pahle, Jasmine. AU - Müller, Ulrich. AU - May, Petra. AU - Frotscher, Michael. AU - Bock, Hans H.. PY - 2013/8/1. Y1 - 2013/8/1. N2 - During dentate gyrus development, the early embryonic radial glial scaffold is replaced by a secondary glial scaffold around birth. In contrast to neocortical and early dentate gyrus radial glial cells, these postnatal glial cells are severely altered with regard to position and morphology in reeler mice lacking the secreted protein Reelin. In this study, we focus on the functional impact of these defects. Most radial glial cells throughout the nervous system serve as scaffolds for migrating neurons and precursor cells for both neurogenesis and gliogenesis. Precursor cell function has been demonstrated for ...
In adult brain, the inhibitory GABAergic neurons utilize two distinct molecular forms of the GABA-synthesizing enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), GAD65 and GAD67. During embryonic development, two truncated forms of GAD67 are also expressed (GAD25 and GAD44), which are translated from two embryonic-specific splice variants of GAD67 messenger RNA. It has recently been established that the excitatory dentate granule cells, in addition to the neurotransmitter glutamate, also contain low levels of GABA and GAD67, which are increased after limbic seizures. To study the seizure-induced activation of glutamate decarboxylase, we investigated the expression of both embryonic and adult glutamate decarboxylase messenger RNAs in the adult rat hippocampus after kainic acid administration by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction, in situ hybridization and immunoblotting. We observed a rapid induction of the embryonic glutamate decarboxylase messenger RNA in the granule cells of
The Wnt signaling pathway plays multiple roles during adult neurogenesis, regulating proliferation, differentiation and maturation of newborn neurons [15-18, 40]. Here we studied the potential role of the Wnt receptor FZD1 during adult hippocampal neurogenesis. We specifically focused on FZD1 since it is expressed in the adult hippocampus [22, 25], and is well known to activate the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway [25-29]. We found that in the adult dentate gyrus, FZD1 is mainly expressed in NSCs, amplifying progenitors and immature neurons, suggesting that FZD1 may mediate the activation of the Wnt pathway in these cell-types. In agreement, the expression of FZD1 was also found in cultured AHPs that were isolated from hippocampi of adult mice.. The in vivo role of FZD1 in adult neurogenesis was evaluated by retrovirus-mediated shRNA knockdown of FZD1 expression in newborn cells of the dentate gyrus. We determined that differentiation into neurons was impaired in FZD1-deficient cells. ...
Starting at the dentate gyrus and working inward along the S-curve of the hippocampus means traversing a series of narrow zones. The first of these, the dentate gyrus (DG), is actually a separate structure, a tightly packed layer of small granule cells wrapped around the end of the hippocampus proper, forming a pointed wedge in some cross-sections, a semicircle in others. Next come a series of Cornu Ammonis areas: first CA4 (which underlies the dentate gyrus), then CA3, then a very small zone called CA2, then CA1. The CA areas are all filled with densely packed Pyramidal cells similar to those found in the neocortex. After CA1 comes an area called the subiculum. After this comes a pair of ill-defined areas called the presubiculum and parasubiculum, then a transition to the cortex proper (mostly the entorhinal area of the cortex). Most anatomists use the term hippocampus proper to refer to the four CA fields, and hippocampal formation to refer to the hippocampus proper plus dentate gyrus and ...
The dentate gyrus has been shown to receive a laminated and target selective GABAergic input (Han et al., 1993; Halasy and Somogyi, 1993), but the numerical parameters of this innervation are not known. In order to establish the relative weight of GABAergic inputs to the dendritic versus somatic regions of granule cells the numerical density and proportion of GABA-immunopositive and immunonegative synaptic boutons and their postsynaptic targets were determined in the molecular and granule cell layers of the dentate gyrus using the postembedding immunogold method. The granule cell layer contained 9% of all synapses with the remaining 91% being in the molecular layer. Altogether 17% of all synaptic boutons were GABA-immunoreactive, and they formed either type 1 or type 2 synaptic junctions. About 88% of synaptic boutons in the granule cell layer and 7-8% in the molecular layer were GABA-positive. However, the numerical density (number of synapses per unit volume) of GABA-immunoreactive type 2 ...
Intrinsic programs and extrinsic factors imposed by the local extracellular environment tightly control the fate determination of NSCs (Barnabé-Heider et al., 2005; Ma et al., 2008; Seuntjens et al., 2009; Shen et al., 2006; Tanentzapf et al., 2007). In the present study we identified TNR, an extracellular matrix glycoprotein that is expressed in the developing and adult nervous system, as an important factor in regulating the generation of GABAergic interneurons and granule neurons in the developing and adult murine dentate gyrus.. The majority of GABAergic neurons in rodents arise from the medial and caudal eminence (Danglot et al., 2006). We show that during embryonic development TNR is not only strongly expressed in the developing murine cortex, but also in the medial and caudal ganglionic eminence in close proximity to proliferating cells. Notably, TNR is also expressed in the developing human cerebral cortex in a spatio-temporally controlled pattern (El Ayachi et al., 2011). Ablation of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Subcortical deafferentation impairs behavioral reinforcement of long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus of freely moving rats. AU - Almaguer-Melian, W.. AU - Rosillo, J. C.. AU - Frey, J. U.. AU - Bergado, J. A.. PY - 2006/3/16. Y1 - 2006/3/16. N2 - Long-term potentiation is a form of neural functional plasticity which has been related with memory formation and recovery of function after brain injury. Previous studies have shown that a transient early-long-term potentiation can be prolonged by direct stimulation of distinct brain areas, or behavioral stimuli with a high motivational content. The basolateral amygdala and other subcortical structures, like the medial septum and the locus coeruleus, are involved in mediating the reinforcing effect. We have previously shown that the lesion of the fimbria-fornix - the main entrance of subcortical afferents to the hippocampus - abolishes the reinforcing basolateral amygdala-effects on long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus in ...
Aging is associated with specific impairments of learning and memory, some of which are similar to those caused by hippocampal damage. Studies of the effects of aging on hippocampal anatomy, physiology, plasticity, and network dynamics may lead to a better understanding of age-related cognitive deficits. Anatomical and electrophysiological studies indicate that the hippocampus of the aged rat sustains a loss of synapses in the dentate gyrus, a loss of functional synapses in area CA1, a decrease in the NMDA-receptor-mediated response at perforant path synapses onto dentate gyrus granule cells, and an alteration of Ca(2+) regulation in area CA1. These changes may contribute to the observed age-related impairments of synaptic plasticity, which include deficits in the induction and maintenance of long-term potentiation (LTP) and lower thresholds for depotentiation and long-term depression (LTD). This shift in the balance of LTP and LTD could, in turn, impair the encoding of memories and enhance the erasure
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transcription-factor-dependent control of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. AU - Beckervordersandforth, Ruth. AU - Zhang, Chun Li. AU - Lie, Dieter Chichung. PY - 2015/10/1. Y1 - 2015/10/1. N2 - Adult-generated dentate granule neurons have emerged as major contributors to hippocampal plasticity. Newneurons are generated fromneural stem cells through a complex sequence of proliferation, differentiation, and maturation steps. Development of the new neuron is dependent on the precise temporal activity of transcription factors, which coordinate the expression of stage-specific genetic programs. Here, we review current knowledge in transcription factor-mediated regulation of mammalian neural stem cells and neurogenesis and will discuss potential mechanisms of how transcription factor networks, on one hand, allow for precise execution of the developmental sequence and, on the other hand, allow for adaptation of the rate and timing of adult neurogenesis in response to complex stimuli. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of histamine on dentate granule cells in vitro. AU - Greene, R. W.. AU - Haas, H. L.. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - Hippocampal slices from rat brain were exposed to histamine and related substances in a perfusion chamber. Granule cells of the dentate gyrus were studied with conventional extra- and intracellular recording and a single electrode voltage clamp. Histamine caused, through activation of H2-receptors, a small depolarization, an increase in the number of synaptic and action potentials, a block of the long lasting (but not the early) component of spike afterhyperpolarizations and a reduction of the accommodation of action potential firing. These effects were mimicked by forskolin (suggests activation of adenylate cyclase). In voltage clamp, histamine blocked a long lasting calcium-dependent outward tail current without any reduction of inward current. Thus histamine selectively blocks the late calcium-dependent potassium current in dentate granule cells which ...
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Our previous research showed that 4 h of maternal anesthesia with isoflurane during early gestation in pregnant rats leads to a deficit in spatial memory of adult male offspring. Because spatial memory is predominantly a hippocampally-mediated task, we asked the question if early gestational exposure to isoflurane affects development of the hippocampus in the offspring. Previously behaviorally characterized adult male rats that were exposed to isoflurane during second trimester were sacrificed at 4 months of age (N = 10 and 13, control and isoflurane groups, respectively) for quantitative histology of hippocampal subregions. Sections were stained with cresyl violet and the total number of cells in the granular layer of the dentate gyrus and the pyramidal cell layer in the CA1 region were determined by a blinded observer using unbiased stereological principles and the optical fractionator method. Data were analyzed using Students t test; P | 0.05 was accorded statistical significance. Stereological
Our previous research showed that 4 h of maternal anesthesia with isoflurane during early gestation in pregnant rats leads to a deficit in spatial memory of adult male offspring. Because spatial memory is predominantly a hippocampally-mediated task, we asked the question if early gestational exposure to isoflurane affects development of the hippocampus in the offspring. Previously behaviorally characterized adult male rats that were exposed to isoflurane during second trimester were sacrificed at 4 months of age (N = 10 and 13, control and isoflurane groups, respectively) for quantitative histology of hippocampal subregions. Sections were stained with cresyl violet and the total number of cells in the granular layer of the dentate gyrus and the pyramidal cell layer in the CA1 region were determined by a blinded observer using unbiased stereological principles and the optical fractionator method. Data were analyzed using Students t test; P | 0.05 was accorded statistical significance. Stereological
Mtss1 encodes an actin-binding protein, dysregulated in a variety of tumors, that interacts with sonic hedgehog/Gli signaling in epidermal cells. Given the prime importance of this pathway for cerebellar development and tumorigenesis, we assessed expression of Mtss1 in the developing murine cerebellum and human medulloblastoma specimens. During development, Mtss1 is transiently expressed in granule cells, from the time point they cease to proliferate to their synaptic integration. It is also expressed by granule cell precursor-derived medulloblastomas. In the adult CNS, Mtss1 is found exclusively in cerebellar Purkinje cells. Neuronal differentiation is accompanied by a switch in Mtss1 splicing. Whereas immature granule cells express a Mtss1 variant observed also in peripheral tissues and comprising exon 12, this exon is replaced by a CNS-specific exon, 12a, in more mature granule cells and in adult Purkinje cells. Bioinformatic analysis of Mtss1 suggests that differential exon usage may affect
The principal focus of the Ginsberg laboratory is to delineate cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying synaptic and dendritic reorganization following various brain injuries, including excitotoxicity, specific lesions, and neurodegeneration. The hippocampal formation, a brain region critical for learning and memory, is the main region analyzed, with particular emphasis on identifying mechanisms that govern synaptic reorganization within dentate gyrus granule cells and dendrites. We conduct experiments on animal models of synaptic plasticity and neurodegeneration. Mice are used as experimental subjects because of a similar cellular organization of the dorsal hippocampal formation to humans; genetically altered mice are used to analyze specific gene/protein products. In addition, the laboratory studies human brain tissues obtained from patients with no cognitive impairment (NCI), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimers disease (AD). A multidisciplinary approach of surgical, ...
Over the last few years there has been increasing interest in behavioral pattern separation. This has primarily focused on spatial pattern separation in rats and mice or pattern separation of visual objects as evaluated in humans. What has been overlooked is a vast literature of temporal pattern separation extending into the early 1990s. The manuscript…
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulators of adult neurogenesis in the healthy and diseased brain. AU - Grote, Helen E.. AU - Hannan, Anthony J.. PY - 2007/5. Y1 - 2007/5. N2 - 1. In recent decades evidence has accumulated demonstrating the birth and functional integration of new neurons in specific regions of the adult mammalian brain, including the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the subventricular zone. 2. Studies in a variety of models have revealed genetic, environmental and pharmacological factors that regulate adult neurogenesis. The present review examines some of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that could be mediating these regulatory effects in both the normal and dysfunctional brain. 3. The dysregulation of adult neurogenesis may contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Huntingtons, Alzheimers and Parkinsons disease, as well as psychiatric disorders such as depresssion. Recent evidence supports this idea and, furthermore, also indicates that factors ...
Each year in the USA, over 2.4 million people experience mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), which can induce long-term neurological deficits. The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is notably susceptible to damage following TBI, as hilar mossy cell changes in particular may contribute to post-TBI dysfunction. Moreover, microglial activation after TBI may play a role in hippocampal circuit and/or synaptic remodeling; however, the potential effects of chronic microglial changes are currently unknown. The objective of the current study was to assess neuropathological and neuroinflammatory changes in subregions of the dentate gyrus at acute to chronic time points following mild TBI using an established model of closed-head rotational acceleration induced TBI in pigs. This study utilized archival tissue of pigs which were subjected to sham conditions or rapid head rotation in the coronal plane to generate mild TBI. A quantitative assessment of neuropathological changes in the hippocampus was performed via
TY - JOUR. T1 - Radiation-induced impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis is associated with cognitive deficits in young mice. AU - Rola, Radoslaw. AU - Raber, Jacob. AU - Rizk, Angela. AU - Otsuka, Shinji. AU - Vandenberg, Scott R.. AU - Morhardt, Duncan R.. AU - Fike, John R.. PY - 2004/8. Y1 - 2004/8. N2 - Advances in the management of pediatric brain tumors have increased survival rates in children, but their quality of life is impaired due to cognitive deficits that arise from irradiation. The pathogenesis of these deficits remains unknown, but may involve reduced neurogenesis within the hippocampus. To determine the acute radiosensitivity of the dentate subgranular zone (SGZ), 21-day-old C57BL/J6 male mice received whole brain irradiation (2-10 Gy), and 48 h later, tissue was assessed using immunohistochemistry. Proliferating SGZ cells and their progeny, immature neurons, were decreased in a dose-dependent fashion. To determine if acute changes translated into long-term alterations in ...
A specific memory is thought to be encoded by a sparse population of neurons. These neurons can be tagged during learning for subsequent identification and manipulation. Moreover, their ablation or inactivation results in reduced memory expression, suggesting their necessity in mnemonic processes. However, the question of sufficiency remains: it is unclear whether it is possible to elicit the behavioural output of a specific memory by directly activating a population of neurons that was active during learning. Here we show in mice that optogenetic reactivation of hippocampal neurons activated during fear conditioning is sufficient to induce freezing behaviour. We labelled a population of hippocampal dentate gyrus neurons activated during fear learning with channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) and later optically reactivated these neurons in a different context. The mice showed increased freezing only upon light stimulation, indicating light-induced fear memory recall. This freezing was not detected in ...
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June: It is a great news that our research on Rett Syndrome has received a new funding on drug discovery. Our grant entitled: Investigating the potential application of an FDA-approved drug for Rett Syndrome has been approved operating funding from Childrens Hospital Research Institute of Manitoba (CHRIM ...
Transmembrane protein required for proper cognitive functions. Involved in the development of dentate gyrus (DG) neuron circuitry, is necessary for AMPA receptors surface expression and proper excitatory postsynaptic currents of DG granule neurons (PubMed:28096412). Regulates the organization and stability of the microtubule network of sensory neurons to allow axonal transport. Through the interaction with DST, mediates the docking of the dynein/dynactin motor complex to vesicle cargos for retrograde axonal transport (PubMed:17287360). In hippocampal neurons, required for BDNF-dependent dendrite outgrowth (PubMed:21849472). Cooperates with SH3GL2 and recruits the WAVE1 complex to facilitate actin-dependent BDNF:NTRK2 early endocytic trafficking and mediate signaling from early endosomes (PubMed:21849472, PubMed:27605705).
Adult neurogenesis, the continuous generation of newborn neurons in discrete regions of the brain throughout life, is now widely regarded as a fundamental mechanism of neural plasticity. This phenomenon, and in particular the integration of new neurons into the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, has been associated with the regulation of important but quite subtle and complex aspects of cognition and memory formation.. In addition to its important role in the healthy adult brain, adult neurogenesis has also been of considerable interest to the research community because of a growing body of literature implicating its deregulation in mental disorders. Perhaps the most high-profile example of this is the putative role of reduced neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus in the pathogenesis of major depression.. However, despite the fact that adult neurogenesis is confined to very discrete regions of the brain, and the established role of adult neurogenesis in major depression notwithstanding, it is ...
Neural stem cells (NSCs) generate new neurons throughout life in two distinct areas of the mammalian brain, the subventricular zone lining the lateral ventricles and the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Adult neurogenesis has been implicated in tissue homeostasis, physiologic brain function, and is also associated with a number of neuro-psychiatric diseases, such as cognitive aging and depression. Understanding the mechanisms underlying adult neurogenesis represents a prerequisite for future therapeutic targeting of adult NSCs for endogenous brain repair. Our previous work has identified several pathways/genes that are critically involved in certain steps, from the dividing NSC to the integrating newborn neuron, during the developmental course of adult neurogenesis. Further, we have participated in efforts to characterize the functional role of adult neurogenesis on a behavioral level. Currently, we use gene expression profiling together with analyses of the metabolic state of NSCs and their progeny ...
Abstract: Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) inhibit the formation and differentiation of neural stem cells during embryonic development. In this study, the effects of prenatal exposure to EMF on the number of granule cells in the dentate gyrus of 4-week-old rats were investigated. This experiment used a control (Cont) group and an EMF exposed (EMF) group (three pregnant rats each group). The EMF group consisted of six offspring (n=6) of pregnant rats that were exposed to an EMF of up to 900 megahertz (MHz) for 60 min/day between the first and last days of gestation. The control group consisted of five offspring (n=5) of pregnant rats that were not treated at all. The offspring were sacrificed when they were 4 weeks old. The numbers of granule cells in the dentate gyrus were analyzed using the optical fractionator technique. The results showed that prenatal EMF exposure caused a decrease in the number of granule cells in the dentate gyrus of the rats (P,0.01). This suggests that prenatal exposure to ...
The EPA must evaluate the risk of exposure of the developing organism to chemicals with the potential to disrupt thyroid hormone (TH), and for which the degree of TH perturbation is likely to be fairly mild. The primary concern of altered TH status is the impact insufficient TH may have on the developing brain, especially in areas critical for cognition. We have characterized the effects of developmental hypothyroidism on synaptic transmission and plasticity in the hippocampus, a primary region in brain responsible for learning and memory, when hormonal status was altered in utero and the early postnatal period. It has also become clear in recent years that TH also alters functioning of neuronal circuitry in the adult brain. In the following paper we describe a series of endpoints, similar to those previously characterized in a developmental exposure model, in response to a 4-week exposure to the TH synthesis inhibitor, propylthiouracil (PTU) in adult rats. What we observed were a number of ...
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In the human the frontal lobe is composed of two groups of gyri and seven individual gyri. The groups are the transverse frontopolar gyri and the orbital gyri. Individual gyri on the dorsolateral surface of the cerebral hemisphere include the superior frontal gyrus, the middle frontal gyrus, the inferior frontal gyrus and the precentral gyrus; those on the mesial side of the hemisphere include part of the superior frontal gyrus, the superior rostral gyrus, the inferior rostral gyrus, and the straight gyrus ...
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(Medical Xpress)-The brains two hippocampal formations - one in each hemispheres temporal lobe, medial to the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle and typically referring to the dentate gyrus, the hippocampus proper ...
Endogenous Acetylcholine Release Enhances Granule Cell Excitability by Lowering the Action Potential Threshold(Ai) Hippocampal slice preparation schematic and e
Published on 5/19/2004. King RS, DeBassio WA, Kemper TL, Rosene DL, Tonkiss J, Galler JR, Blatt GJ. Effects of prenatal protein malnutrition and acute postnatal stress on granule cell genesis in the fascia dentata of neonatal and juvenile rats. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 2004 May 19; 150(1):9-15. PMID: 15126033.. Read at: PubMed ...
This paper reviews on results from a million-cell granule cell model of the rat dentate gyrus that was used to explore the efforts of local interneuronal and associational circuits to network-level activity. activity. Outcomes furthermore present that the topography of regional interneuronal circuits can possess simply as solid an influence on the advancement of spatio-temporal groupings in the granule cell inhabitants as the perforant route topography will, both sharpening existing groupings and presenting brand-new types with a better spatial level. Finally, outcomes present that the connections between the inhibitory and associational loops can trigger high regularity oscillations that are modulated by a low-frequency oscillatory sign. These outcomes serve to additional illustrate the importance of topographical restrictions on a global sign digesting feature of a sensory network, while also showing how wealthy spatio-temporal and oscillatory aspect can evolve from a fairly little amount ...
We have previously hypothesized that the reason why physical activity increases precursor cell proliferation in adult neurogenesis is that movement serves
In recent years we have elaborated an animal model to examine the neurochemical background of differences in the individual responses to conditioned aversive stimuli, using the strength of a rat contextual fear test, as a discriminating variable: low responders (LR), i.e. rats with duration of a freezing response one standard error, or more, below the mean value and high responders (HR), i.e. rats with duration of a freezing response one standard error, or more, above the mean value. It was found that 1.5 h after a testing session of contextual fear test, the LR animals showed a higher density of 5-HT1A and glucocorticoid immunoreactivity-expressing cells (GRsir) in the cortical M2 area and hippocampal dentate gyrus as well as an increased number co-expressing 5-HT1A /GRs-ir in the same areas. The HR rats had a signifi cantly higher concentration of 5-HT1A and GRs-ir in the basolateral amygdala. The present data add more arguments for the neurobiological background of differences in individual ...
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The term rostral sulcus refers to a superficial feature of the frontal lobe identified by dissection. In the human it is a horizontal groove on the lower medial surface that separates the straight gyrus below from the inferior rostral gyrus above ( Mai-1997 ); in brains that have parallel sulci dorsal to the straight gyrus, it is called the inferior rostral sulcus ( Vogt-1995 ). In the macaque, which does not have an inferior rostral gyrus or a superior rostral gyrus, it separates the straight gyrus from the anterior cingulate gyrus ( Martin-2000 ). Equivalent structures are not found in the smooth cerebral cortex of the rat or mouse ( NeuroNames ). ...
Each of these newborn neurons undergoes a prolonged maturation process, during which it changes from hyper-excitable to composed and reaches out to mature brain cells that are already well-connected within the established circuitry. Exercise, learning, and environmental enrichment increase proliferation and survival of new neurons, while pathological (chronic) stress and age send their numbers plummeting. Despite an increasing understanding of how new neurons become part of the existing dentate gyrus network, it is still unclear what their exact function is ...
... but is also found in other areas of the brain including the hippocampal dentate gyrus. The hippocampus is known to integrate ...
Dentate gyrus. *Cornu ammonis (CA fields) *Cornu ammonis area 1 (CA1). *Cornu ammonis area 2 (CA2) ... Dentate nucleus in Lateral hemisphere/pontocerebellum → SCP → Dentatothalamic tract → Thalamus (VL) → Motor cortex ...
Archicortical precursor cells are also present in the dentate gyrus of the developing mammalian embryo. The archicortex is ... Pellegrini, M.; Mansouri, A.; Simeone, A.; Boncinelli, E.; Gruss, P. (December 1996). "Dentate gyrus formation requires Emx2". ...
Drake CT, Chavkin C, Milner TA (2007). "Opioid systems in the dentate gyrus". The Dentate Gyrus: A Comprehensive Guide to ...
Amaral DG, Scharfman HE, Lavenex P (2007). The dentate gyrus: fundamental neuroanatomical organization (dentate gyrus for ... The dentate gyrus receives excitatory projections from neurons in layer II of the entorhinal cortex as well as input from ... It has been shown that the axons of granule cells from the dentate gyrus synapse with hilar mossy cells and GABAergic ... Mossy fibers in the hippocampus project from the dentate gyrus to CA3. The pathway consists of varicose granule cell axons that ...
Failure of preplate to split Failure to establish a distinct granule cell layer in the dentate gyrus. Normal dentate gyrus ... In the dentate gyrus of hippocampus, no characteristic radial glial scaffold is formed and no compact granule cell layer is ... Liu Y, Fujise N, Kosaka T (1996). "Distribution of calretinin immunoreactivity in the mouse dentate gyrus. I. General ... "Malformation of the radial glial scaffold in the dentate gyrus of reeler mice, scrambler mice, and ApoER2/VLDLR-deficient mice ...
Granular cell precursors that will populate the dentate gyrus proliferate locally in the hilus. This area, also known as the ... Unexpectedly, these mice have reduced migration into dentate gyrus. The mechanism of this is involve disruption in radial glial ... Hippocampal Development Migration of cells to the CA1 (red), CA3 (orange), and dentate gyrus (green). Hippocampus in relation ...
Moser, M-B. (1995). Field potential changes in the dentate gyrus during spatial learning in the rat. Thesis for the degree of ... Leutgeb, J.K., Leutgeb, S., Moser, M.-B., and Moser, E.I. (2007). Pattern separation in dentate gyrus and CA3 of the ... Moser, E.I., Mathiesen, I. & Andersen, P. (1993). Association between brain temperature and dentate field potentials in ...
In a cross-section of the hippocampus, including the dentate gyrus, several layers will be shown. The dentate gyrus has three ... Sometimes the hippocampus is said to include the dentate gyrus and the subiculum. Some references include the dentate gyrus and ... This process of neurogenesis is confined to the dentate gyrus.[106] The production of new neurons can be positively affected by ... The hippocampus, including the dentate gyrus, has the shape of a curved tube, which has been compared to a seahorse, and a ...
In a cross-section of the hippocampus, including the dentate gyrus, several layers will be shown. The dentate gyrus has three ... Sometimes the hippocampus is said to include the dentate gyrus and the subiculum. Some references include the dentate gyrus and ... The hippocampus, including the dentate gyrus, has the shape of a curved tube, which has been compared to a seahorse, and a ... Place cell responses are shown by pyramidal cells in the hippocampus and by granule cells in the dentate gyrus. Other cells in ...
"Oscillatory dynamics in the hippocampus support dentate gyrus-CA3 coupling". Nature Neuroscience. 15 (5): 763-768. doi:10.1038/ ...
Leutgeb, J.K., Leutgeb, S., Moser, M.-B., and Moser, E.I. (2007). "Pattern separation in dentate gyrus and CA3 of the ...
Gould, E; McEwen, BS; Tanapat, P; Galea, LA; Fuchs, E (1 April 1997). "Neurogenesis in the Dentate Gyrus of the Adult Tree ... Gould and her colleagues found that the ovarian steroid estrogen enhances cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of the adult ... Also and conversely, steroid hormones of the adrenal glands were found to inhibit cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus but ... Gould's research has shown that exposure of aversive stimuli results in a decrease in cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus ...
Bot AM, Dębski KJ, Lukasiuk K (2013). "Alterations in miRNA levels in the dentate gyrus in epileptic rats". PLOS ONE. 8 (10): ...
Amaral, DG; Scharfman, HE; Lavenex, P (2007). "The dentate gyrus: fundamental neuroanatomical organization (dentate gyrus for ... located in the hilus of the dentate gyrus, which then send information to distant portions of the dentate gyrus where the cycle ... the terms most frequently used are dentate gyrus and the cornu ammonis (literally "Amun's horns", abbreviated CA). The dentate ... The dentate gyrus is composed of a similar series of strata: The polymorphic layer (poly. lay.) is the most superficial layer ...
The main areas of archicortex are the hippocampus and dentate gyrus. Periallocortex is a transitional form between neocortex ...
Reelin and Notch1 cooperate in the development of the dentate gyrus, according to another. Notch signaling is triggered via ... "Reelin and Notch1 cooperate in the development of the dentate gyrus". The Journal of Neuroscience. 29 (26): 8578-85. doi: ...
Running increases cell proliferation and neurogenesis in adult mouse dentate gyrus. Nature Neuroscience, (2), 266-270. Rossi, E ...
Reelin and Notch1 cooperate in the development of the dentate gyrus, according to another. NOTCH1 has been shown to interact ... "Reelin and Notch1 cooperate in the development of the dentate gyrus". J. Neurosci. 29 (26): 8578-85. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0958 ...
Dentate gyrusEdit. The dentate gyrus is composed of a similar series of strata: *The polymorphic layer (poly. lay.) is the most ... "The dentate gyrus: fundamental neuroanatomical organization (dentate gyrus for dummies)". Progress in brain research. 163: 3-22 ... located in the hilus of the dentate gyrus, which then send information to distant portions of the dentate gyrus where the cycle ... the terms most frequently used are dentate gyrus and the cornu ammonis (literally "Amun's horns", abbreviated CA). The dentate ...
The fascia dentata and the hilus together make up the dentate gyrus. As with all regions of the hippocampus, the dentate gyrus ...
Running increases cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult mouse dentate gyrus. Nat Neurosci 2:266-270. Van der Borght ...
The dentate gyrus (DG) is the innermost section of the hippocampal formation. The dentate gyrus consists of three layers: ... The entorhinal cortex transmits its signals from the parahippocampal gyrus to the dentate gyrus via granule cell fibers known ... The dentate gyrus then synapses on pyramidal cells in CA3 via mossy cell fibers. CA3 then fires to CA1 via Schaffer collaterals ... Collectively the dentate gyrus, CA1 and CA3 of the hippocampus compose the trisynaptic loop. EC → DG via the perforant path ( ...
"Trimethyltin-induced expression of neuropeptide Y Y2 receptors in rat dentate gyrus". Neurotoxicol Teratol. 20 (6): 607-10. doi ...
Dentate granule cells Loss of dentate gyrus neurons from the hippocampus results in spatial memory deficits. Therefore, dentate ... The principal cell type of the dentate gyrus is the granule cell. The dentate gyrus granule cell has an elliptical cell body ... The granule cells are tightly packed in the granular cell layer of the dentate gyrus. The granule cells in the dorsal cochlear ... Aberrant integration of adult-generated cells during the development of epilepsy may impair the ability of the dentate gyrus to ...
July 2007). "Dentate gyrus NMDA receptors mediate rapid pattern separation in the hippocampal network". Science. 317 (5834): 94 ...
February 2011). "Palmitoylethanolamide protects dentate gyrus granule cells via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α". ...
"Enhancing dentate gyrus function with dietary flavanols improves cognition in older adults". Nature Neuroscience. 17 (12): 1798 ...
"Running increases cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult mouse dentate gyrus". Nat. Neurosci. 2 (3): 266-270. doi: ...
"Testosterone and social isolation influence adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of male rats". Neuroscience. 195: 180-90. ... "Androgens increase survival of adult-born neurons in the dentate gyrus by an androgen receptor-dependent mechanism in male rats ...
This area is also known as the pars triangularis (of the inferior frontal gyrus). In humans, it occupies the triangular part of ... Connections in inferior frontal gyrus[edit]. At least one study demonstrated a high degree of connectivity between the three ... "Functional connections within the human inferior frontal gyrus". The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 503: 550-559. doi: ... a portion of the orbital part of the inferior frontal gyrus (H). Bounded caudally by the anterior ascending limb of the lateral ...
dentate gyrus development. • transmission of nerve impulse. • память. • positive regulation of synaptic transmission, ...
Saab BJ, Georgiou J, Nath A, Lee FJ, Wang M, Michalon A, Liu F, Mansuy IM, Roder JC (2009). "NCS-1 in the dentate gyrus ... The CA3 is innervated by two afferent paths known as the perforant path (PPCA3) and the dentate gyrus (DG)-mediated mossy ... Lee, I.; Kesner, R. P. (2004). "Encoding versus retrieval of spatial memory: Double dissociation between the dentate gyrus and ... how the dentate gyrus, CA3, and CA1 process spatial information". Behav Neurosci. 122 (1): 16-26. doi:10.1037/0735-7044.122. ...
... the isthmus of cingulate gyrus, the fasciolar gyrus, the parahippocampal gyrus, the parahippocampal sulcus, the dentate gyrus, ... the cingulate gyrus, the parahippocampal gyrus, the dentate gyrus, the hippocampus and the subiculum;[1] while the Terminologia ... The term is ambiguous, with some authors[who?] including the paraterminal gyrus, the subcallosal area, ... Broca named the limbic lobe in 1878, identifying it with the cingulate and parahippocampal gyri, and associating it with the ...
dentate gyrus mossy fiber. • axonal growth cone. • synapse. • axon. • dendrite. • endoplasmic reticulum. • mitochondrion. • ...
"Preferential localization of polyribosomes under the base of dendritic spines in granule cells of the dentate gyrus". Journal ...
Anterior limb of internal capsule → Cingulate gyrus → Cingulum → Parahippocampal gyrus → Entorhinal cortex → Perforant path → ... "Long-lasting potentiation of synaptic transmission in the dentate area of the anaesthetized rabbit following stimulation of ...
... and hippocampal subfields such as the combined dentate gyrus/CA3, CA1, and subiculum.[30] ...
"Stimulus and Potassium-Induced Epileptiform Activity in the Human Dentate Gyrus from Patients with and without Hippocampal ...
... and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation.[30] Although the generation of new neurons in the hippocampus is well ...
齒狀回(英語:Dentate gyrus). *Rhinal sulcus(英語:Rhinal sulcus) ... Isthmus of cingulate gyrus(英語:Isthmus of cingulate gyrus): Retrosplenial cortex(英語:Retrosplenial region) *26(英語:Brodmann area ... Transverse temporal gyrus(英語:Transverse temporal gyrus)/聽覺皮層 *41(英語:Brodmann area 41) ... Orbital gyri(英語:Orbital gyri)/眶額皮質 *10(英語:Brodmann
Dentate nucleus in Lateral hemisphere/pontocerebellum → SCP → Dentatothalamic tract → Thalamus (VL) → Motor cortex ... Postcentral gyrus) → 4° (Posterior parietal cortex) ...
... consisting of gyri and sulci) and clusters of cells. ... Dentate gyrus *Fascia dentata. *Subiculum. White matter. * ...
... including the dentate gyrus, all CA fields (including CA1),[3] and the subiculum. ... Anterior limb of internal capsule → Cingulate gyrus → Cingulum → Parahippocampal gyrus → Entorhinal cortex → Perforant path → ... Dentate nucleus in Lateral hemisphere/pontocerebellum → SCP → Dentatothalamic tract → Thalamus (VL) → Motor cortex ...
Effects of androstenedione on long term potentiation in the rat dentate gyrus. Relevance for affective and degenerative ...
... released by exercising muscles affect the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor synthesis in the dentate gyrus of the ...
... dentate gyrus, subiculum, amygdala, the parahippocampal, entorhinal, and perirhinal cortices[74] or the (b) midline ... Researchers have suggested that these age differences are probably due to the fact that the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus ...
Xu L, Liu SL, Zhang JT (2005). "(-)-Clausenamide potentiates synaptic transmission in the dentate gyrus of rats". Chirality. 17 ...
Dentate nucleus in Lateral hemisphere/pontocerebellum → SCP → Dentatothalamic tract → Thalamus (VL) → Motor cortex ... Projections from the VPN to the postcentral gyrus account for the transfer of sensory information concerning touch and pain. ... terminating in cortical layers of the lateral postcentral gyrus. S1 receives parallel thalamocortical radiations from the ... sublenticular region of the internal capsule and terminate in an organized topographic manner in the transverse temporal gyri ...
Age-related memory loss is believed to originate in the dentate gyrus, whereas Alzheimer's is believed to originate in the ...
... and the hippocampal dentate gyrus. A study in rats found that a heavy 2-day drinking binge caused extensive neurodegeneration ...
... in the dentate gyrus in vitro". Neuroreport. 8 (3): 687-93. PMID 9106748. doi:10.1097/00001756-199702100-00022.. ...
Dentate nucleus in Lateral hemisphere/pontocerebellum → SCP → Dentatothalamic tract → Thalamus (VL) → Motor cortex ... Postcentral gyrus) → 4° (Posterior parietal cortex) ...
It surrounds a gyrus (pl. gyri), creating the characteristic folded appearance of the brain in humans and other mammals. The ... A sulcus is a shallower groove that surrounds a gyrus. A fissure is a large furrow that divides the brain into lobes and also ... Sulci, the grooves, and gyri, the folds or ridges, make up the folded surface of the cerebral cortex. Larger or deeper sulci ... "The cerebral sulci and gyri". Neurosurgical Focus. pp. E2. doi:10.3171/2009.11.focus09245. Retrieved 10 September 2018 ...
Haznedar, MM; Buchsbaum, MS; Hazlett, EA; Shihabuddin, L; New, A; Siever, LJ (Dec 1, 2004). "Cingulate gyrus volume and ... forms the retrosplenial gyrus. The posterior cingulate cortex is bordered by the following brain regions: the marginal ramus of ... such as the entorhinal cortex and the parahippocampal gyrus, the latter being involved in associative learning and episodic ...
In a cross-section of the hippocampus, including the dentate gyrus, several layers will be shown. The dentate gyrus has three ... Sometimes the hippocampus is said to include the dentate gyrus and the subiculum. Some references include the dentate gyrus and ... This process of neurogenesis is confined to the dentate gyrus.[112] The production of new neurons can be positively affected by ... The hippocampus, including the dentate gyrus, has the shape of a curved tube, which has been compared to a seahorse, and a ...
Along with the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, the SVZ is one of two places where neurogenesis has been found to occur in the ... Along with the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus, the subventricular zone serves as a source of neural stem cells (NSCs) in ...
The anteromedial continuation of the dentate gyrus is called the tail of the dentate gyrus, or the band of Giacomini. Most of ... Pattern separation begins in the dentate gyrus. Granule cells in the dentate gyrus process sensory information using ... Amaral DG, Scharfman HE, Lavenex P (2007). "The dentate gyrus: fundamental neuroanatomical organization (dentate gyrus for ... the dentate gyrus is important in pattern separation. When information enters via the perforant path, the dentate gyrus ...
In these mutants, almost all neurons in the dentate gyrus are arrested at a pseudoimmature state at the molecular and ... Immature Dentate Gyrus: An Endophenotype of Neuropsychiatric Disorders. Hideo Hagihara. ,1. ,. 2 Keizo Takao. ,1. ,. 2. ,. 3 ... Immature Dentate Gyrus: An Endophenotype of Neuropsychiatric Disorders,. Neural Plasticity,. vol. 2013. ,. Article ID 318596. ... J. K. Leutgeb, S. Leutgeb, M.-B. Moser, and E. I. Moser, "Pattern separation in the dentate gyrus and CA3 of the hippocampus," ...
NMDA Receptor Granule Cell Dentate Gyrus Hippocampal Slice Granule Cell Layer These keywords were added by machine and not by ... Stanton P.K., Heinemann U. (1988) Mechanisms of Noradrenergic Modulation of Dentate Gyrus Long-Term Plasticity. In: Woody C.D ... Fricke, R. A., and Prince, D. A., 1984, Electrophysiology of dentate gyros granule cells, J. Neurophysiol. 51: 195-209.PubMed ... Alger, B. E., and Teyler, T. J., 1976, Long-term and short-term plasticity in the CA1, CA3, and dentate regions of the ...
Rapid stimulation of human dentate gyrus function with acute mild exercise. Kazuya Suwabe, Kyeongho Byun, Kazuki Hyodo, ... Rapid stimulation of human dentate gyrus function with acute mild exercise. Kazuya Suwabe, Kyeongho Byun, Kazuki Hyodo, ... Rapid stimulation of human dentate gyrus function with acute mild exercise Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... Rapid stimulation of human dentate gyrus function with acute mild exercise. Kazuya Suwabe, Kyeongho Byun, Kazuki Hyodo, ...
Granule Cell Dentate Gyrus Molecular Layer Cerebellar Cortex Granular Layer These keywords were added by machine and not by the ... Lynch, G. S., Mosko, S., Parks, T., And Cotman, C. W. Relocation And Hyperdevelopment Of The Dentate Gyrus Commissural System ... Cotman, C. W., Matthews, D. A., Taylor, D., And Lynch, G. Synaptic Rearrangement In The Dentate Gyrus: Histochemical Evidence ... Altman J., Bayer S. (1975) Postnatal Development of the Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus Under Normal and Experimental Conditions. In ...
Experience-Induced Neurogenesis in the Senescent Dentate Gyrus Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... Experience-Induced Neurogenesis in the Senescent Dentate Gyrus. Gerd Kempermann, H. Georg Kuhn and Fred H. Gage ... We demonstrate here that under physiological conditions neurogenesis continues to occur in the dentate gyrus of senescent mice ...
Pattern separation in the dentate gyrus: a role for the CA3 backprojection.. Myers CE1, Scharfman HE. ... Pattern Separation in the Dentate Gyrus: A Role for the CA3 Backprojection ... Pattern Separation in the Dentate Gyrus: A Role for the CA3 Backprojection ... Pattern Separation in the Dentate Gyrus: A Role for the CA3 Backprojection ...
M. M. Okazaki, P. Molnár, and J. V. Nadler, "Recurrent mossy fiber pathway in rat dentate gyrus: synaptic currents evoked in ... R. J. Morgan and I. Soltesz, "Nonrandom connectivity of the epileptic dentate gyrus predicts a major role for neuronal hubs in ... A. T. U. Schaefers, K. Grafen, G. Teuchert-Noodt, and Y. Winter, "Synaptic remodeling in the dentate gyrus, CA3, CA1, subiculum ... J. P. Wuarin and F. E. Dudek, "Electrographic seizures and new recurrent excitatory circuits in the dentate gyrus of ...
... the layers of the dentate gyrus were highlighted in red, green or blue. Color channels were exported, and the dentate layers ... Sampling the Mouse Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus. Lisa Basler1,2, Stephan Gerdes1, David P. Wolfer1,3,4 and Lutz Slomianka1,4* ... For the layers of the dentate gyrus, CE estimates using both m values typically provide upper and lower bounds for the ... The entire dentate gyrus behaved somewhat differently from its layers. For all sampling intervals used in frontal sections and ...
... Journal. Progress in Brain Research. Volume. 163. Pages (from-to). 355- ... Dentate granule cells are enriched with receptors for the stress hormone corticosterone, i.e., the high-affinity ... More than any other cell type in the brain studied so far, dentate granule cells require hormone levels to be within the ... These corticosteroid effects on dentate cell and network function are translated into behavioral consequences, in health and ...
Exercise selectively increases dentate gyrus CBV in mice. (a) Exercise had a selective effect on dentate gyrus CBV. Bar graphs ... Exercise selectively increases dentate gyrus CBV in humans. (a) Exercise had a selective effect on dentate gyrus CBV. Bar graph ... An in vivo correlate of exercise-induced neurogenesis in the adult dentate gyrus.. Pereira AC1, Huddleston DE, Brickman AM, ... The dentate gyrus was the only hippocampal subregion that showed a significant exercise effect, with CBV peaking at week 4, ...
The dentate gyrus (DG), an important part of the hippocampus, plays a critical role in consolidation of information from short- ... The dentate gyrus (DG), an important part of the hippocampus, plays a critical role in consolidation of information from short- ... The dentate gyrus (DG) is an important structure within the hippocampus and plays critical roles in consolidation of ... Lei Zhang and Xinhua Zhang (April 5th 2018). Factors Regulating Neurogenesis in the Adult Dentate Gyrus, The Hippocampus - ...
New role for immature brain neurons in the dentate gyrus identified. University of Alabama at Birmingham researchers have ... proposed a model that resolves a seeming paradox in one of the most intriguing areas of the brain-the dentate gyrus. ...
The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of postnatal cell production in the dentate gyrus of the guinea pig, a ... Postnatal neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the guinea pig. Authors. *. Sandra Guidi,. *Dipartimento di Fisiologia Umana e ... Administration of MK-801 to P1-P5 animals caused an increase in cell proliferation restricted to the dorsal dentate gyrus. The ... In all species examined, the dentate gyrus develops over an extended period that begins during gestation and continues up to ...
Childhood maltreatment is associated with reduced volume in the hippocampal subfields CA3, dentate gyrus, and subiculum. Martin ... Childhood maltreatment is associated with reduced volume in the hippocampal subfields CA3, dentate gyrus, and subiculum ... Childhood maltreatment is associated with reduced volume in the hippocampal subfields CA3, dentate gyrus, and subiculum ... Childhood maltreatment is associated with reduced volume in the hippocampal subfields CA3, dentate gyrus, and subiculum ...
Depressed synaptic inhibition in the dentate gyrus. Field potential recordings of perforant path input to dentate granule cells ... "dentate gate" (Stringer and Lothman, 1989). Synaptically mediated seizure activity can be propagated into the dentate gyrus ... The dentate gyrus may act as a filter, resisting the transfer of epileptiform discharges from the entorhinal cortex to the ... 1996) Kainic acid-induced seizures enhance dentate gyrus inhibition by downregulation of GABAB receptors. J Neurosci 16:4250- ...
In addition, the dentate gyrus contains another functionally important anatomical division along the transverse axis, with the ...
Fate choice decision and the initiation of neuronal development occur in precursor cells of the adult dentate gyrus. We here ... A subpopulation of precursor cells in the mouse dentate gyrus receives synaptic GABAergic input Mol Cell Neurosci. 2005 Jun;29( ... Fate choice decision and the initiation of neuronal development occur in precursor cells of the adult dentate gyrus. We here ...
The dentate gyrus (DG) receives highly processed information from the associative cortices functionally integrated in the ... The dentate gyrus (DG) receives highly processed information from the associative cortices functionally integrated in the ... Development of the Dentate Gyrus (DG) at the Histological Level (Figure 1). Before thinking of producing dentate gyrus (DG) ... dentate gyrus; Dkk, Dickkopf-related protein; DNE, Dentate Neuroepitelium; EB, embryoid body; Egf, epidermal growth factor ( ...
Genetic influence on neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of adult mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 1997. 94:10409-10414. ... Kainic acid increases the proliferation of granule cell progenitors in the dentate gyrus of the adult rat. Brain Res. 1998. 790 ... Increased neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus after transient global ischemia in gerbils. J. Neurosci. 1998. 18:7768-7778. View ... FGF-2 regulates neurogenesis and degeneration in the dentate gyrus after traumatic brain injury in mice. Shinichi Yoshimura,1 ...
Mossy cells give rise to the commissural and associational pathway of the dentate gyrus, and receive their major excitatory ... Long- and short-term plasticity at mossy fiber synapses on mossy cells in the rat dentate gyrus Hippocampus. 2005;15(6):691-6. ... Mossy cells give rise to the commissural and associational pathway of the dentate gyrus, and receive their major excitatory ... in whole cell recorded mossy cells retrogradely prelabeled with the fluorescent dye DiO from the contralateral dentate gyrus. ...
Immature dentate gyrus in neuropsychiatric diseases. Several studies have recently identified the immature dentate gyrus (iDG ... 2007). Dentate gyrus NMDA receptors mediate rapid pattern separation in the hippocampal network. Science 317, 94-99. doi: ... 2000). Loss of BETA2/NeuroD leads to malformation of the dentate gyrus and epilepsy. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 865-870. ... 2013). Immature dentate gyrus: an endophenotype of neuropsychiatric disorders. Neural Plast. 2013, 318596. doi:10.1155/2013/ ...
The pubertal-related decline in cellular proliferation and neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of male rats is independent of the ... Although it is unclear what mediates these developmental changes in the dentate gyrus, gonadal hormones have been implicated in ... Pubertal development is marked by significant decreases in cellular proliferation and neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the ... in the dentate gyrus of prepubertal (30 d), midpubertal (45 d), and adult (90 d) male rats. We found the decline in BrdU and ...
Ketamine Affects the Neurogenesis of the Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus in 7-Day-Old Rats. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad ... Ketamine Affects the Neurogenesis of the Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus in 7-Day-Old Rats.. Neurotox Res. 2016 08; 30(2):185-98.NR ... Anesthetics, DissociativeAnimalsApoptosisAstrocytesBromodeoxyuridineCell MovementCell ProliferationDentate GyrusFluorescent ... Ketamine Affects the Neurogenesis of the Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus in 7-Day-Old Rats. Neurotox Res. 2016;30(2):185-98. PubMed ...
Pattern Separation in the Dentate Gyrus and CA3 of the Hippocampus. By Jill K. Leutgeb, Stefan Leutgeb, May-Britt Moser, Edvard ... Pattern Separation in the Dentate Gyrus and CA3 of the Hippocampus. By Jill K. Leutgeb, Stefan Leutgeb, May-Britt Moser, Edvard ... Pattern Separation in the Dentate Gyrus and CA3 of the Hippocampus Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... Rats code small changes in their surrounding environment by modifying neural activity in the dentate gyrus and code larger ...
Find out information about dentate gyrus. One of the convolutions on the surface of the cerebrum Explanation of dentate gyrus ... Dentate gyrus , Article about dentate gyrus by The Free Dictionary https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/dentate+gyrus ... gyrus. (redirected from dentate gyrus). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Acronyms, Wikipedia.. Related to dentate ... 20 mm for the CA1, CA3 and the dentate gyrus (DG) subfields of the dorsal hippocampus; -4.. Sexual metabolic differences in the ...
This paper describes a million-plus granule cell compartmental model of the rat hippocampal dentate gyrus, including excitatory ...
Beneficial effect of cilostazol-mediated neuronal repair following trimethyltin-induced neuronal loss in the dentate gyrus.. [ ... in the dentate gyrus of impaired animals. The results of a forced swimming test revealed that the chronic treatment with ... induced neuronal loss/self-repair in the hippocampal dentate gyrus [Ogita et al. (2005) J Neurosci Res 82:609-621]; these mice ... our data suggest that cilostazol has a beneficial effect on neuronal repair following neuronal loss in the dentate gyrus ...
METHODS: The molecular layer of the DG (dentate gyrus) of human epileptic tissue and rat nonepileptic tissue was electrically ... Carbamazepine modulates the spatiotemporal activity in the dentate gyrus of rats and pharmacoresistant humans in vitro. Journal ...
... embryos lack dentate gyrus granule cells but contain glial cells and interneurons in the region of the dentate gyrus. In mouse ... 1987) Organization of radial glial cells during the development of the rat dentate gyrus. J. Comp. Neurol 264, 449-479. ... Thus, LEF1 regulates the generation of dentate gyrus granule cells, and together with other LEF1/TCF proteins, the development ... 1998) Multipotent progenitor cells in the adult dentate gyrus. J. Neurobiol 36, 249-266. ...
  • The dentate gyrus (DG) is part of the hippocampal formation in the temporal lobe of the brain that includes the hippocampus and the subiculum. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dentate gyrus, like the hippocampus, consists of three distinct layers: an outer molecular layer, a middle granule cell layer, and an inner polymorphic layer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The polymorphic layer is also the hilus of the dentate gyrus, (CA4, the junction of the hippocampus and dentate gyrus). (wikipedia.org)
  • In the iDG phenotype, most of the granule cells or principal neurons in the dentate gyrus (DG) within the hippocampus are arrested at a pseudoimmature status, in which the molecular and physiological properties are similar to those of normal immature neurons from the DG. (hindawi.com)
  • Many theories of hippocampal function assume that area CA3 of hippocampus is capable of performing rapid pattern storage, as well as pattern completion when a partial version of a familiar pattern is presented, and that the dentate gyrus (DG) is a preprocessor that performs pattern separation, facilitating storage and recall in CA3. (nih.gov)
  • The dentate gyrus (DG), an important part of the hippocampus, plays a critical role in consolidation of information from short-term to long-term memory, and also in spatial navigation. (intechopen.com)
  • New neurons are born in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus throughout the life of mammals ( 1 ) and derive from dividing progenitor cells located in the innermost part of the granule cell layer, a region called the subgranular zone. (pnas.org)
  • McGinty, "Sleep deprivation reduces proliferation of cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in rats," The Journal of Physiology, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Chen said that this neurotransmitter, called GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), was found in deformed cells called "reactive astrocytes" in a structure in the core of the brain called the dentate gyrus , whose structure is the gateway to hippocampus, an area of the brain that is critical for learning and memory. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Through these electrical recordings of nerve cell activity, they focused on a region of the hippocampus known as the dentate gyrus thought to contribute to the formation of new memories. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Lef1 is expressed in the developing hippocampus, and LEF1-deficient embryos lack dentate gyrus granule cells but contain glial cells and interneurons in the region of the dentate gyrus. (biologists.org)
  • Thus, LEF1 regulates the generation of dentate gyrus granule cells, and together with other LEF1/TCF proteins, the development of the hippocampus. (biologists.org)
  • Histological image of dentate gyrus is similar to hippocampus in this group. (nih.gov)
  • Effect of Early Glutamate Exposure on EAAT-3 and GAT-1 Protein Expression in Cells of the Dentate Gyrus and CA1 Region of the Adult Rat Hippocampus. (biomedsearch.com)
  • METHODS: Following repeated MSG administration, we used immunofluorescence techniques to quantify the number of cells expressing the EAAT-3 and GAT-1 transporters at postnatal days (PD) 14 and 60 in the dentate gyrus (DG) and CA1 region of the hippocampus. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The dentate gyrus is the most important relay station that transfers polysensory information from the entorhinal cortex into the hippocampus proper. (maxplanckflorida.org)
  • New neurons are formed in the dentate gyrus of the mammalian hippocampus throughout adulthood. (uncg.edu)
  • To investigate the effect of running exercise on myelinated fibers in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus during Alzheimer's disease (AD), 6-month-old male APP/PS1 transgenic mice were randomly assigned to control or running groups. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Reactive synaptogenesis and terminal proliferation are known to occur in the dentate gyrus of the rat hippocampus following removal of specific afferents. (semanticscholar.org)
  • At 24 h after infection animals were sacrificed and brains were examined for apoptotic injury to the dentate granule cell layer of the hippocampus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The second form consists of apoptosis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This abnormal chain of events is also linked to learning and memory deficits, primarily in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus. (otago.ac.nz)
  • The feedforward dentate gyrus-CA3 microcircuit in the hippocampus is thought to activate ensembles of CA3 pyramidal cells and interneurons to encode and retrieve episodic memories. (bris.ac.uk)
  • The dentate gyrus (DG), is actually a separate structure, a tightly packed layer of small granule cell s wrapped around the end of the hippocampus proper, forming a pointed wedge in some cross-sections, a semicircle in others. (operativeneurosurgery.com)
  • Most anatomists use the term "hippocampus proper" to refer to the four CA fields, and hippocampal formation to refer to the hippocampus proper plus dentate gyrus and subiculum 1) . (operativeneurosurgery.com)
  • Granule cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus are thought to be essential to memory function by decorrelating overlapping input patterns (pattern separation). (elsevier.com)
  • Among the experiments with tracer injections into the hippocampus (Table 1 ) two cases were injected with biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) into the dentate area exclusively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The consolidation of stress-induced adaptive behaviours, such as the learned immobility response in the forced swim (FS) test, depends on specific epigenetic modifications underlying gene transcriptional responses in dentate gyrus (DG) granule neurons of the hippocampus. (edu.au)
  • Granule and pyramidal cell neurons within the dentate gyrus and CA1 subfields of the hippocampus exhibited significant reductions in dendritic complexity, spine density, and immature and mature spine types following chemotherapy, adverse effects that were eradicated by stem cell transplantation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The Eisch Lab studies a part of the brain called the dentate gyrus, which is a part of the hippocampus that is involved with mood, reward, and pattern separation. (upenn.edu)
  • Curcumin can effectively reduce the damages of nicotine administration in hippocampus dentate gyrus probably through antioxidant properties. (herbmedpharmacol.com)
  • Jalili C, Arji Rodsari B, Roshankhah S, Salahshoor MR. Effect of curcumin on hippocampus dentate gyrus injury induced by nicotine in rats. (herbmedpharmacol.com)
  • Initial experiments consolidate evidence on inducing LTP in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. (autorenwelt.de)
  • Granule neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) receive their primary inputs from the cortex and are known to be continuously generated throughout adult life. (biologists.org)
  • The dentate gyrus (DGy) is made up mainly of granule neurons (GNs) with interspersed GABAergic interneurons. (omicsonline.org)
  • We provide evidence that the extracellular matrix molecule tenascin-R (TNR) - which is predominantly expressed by a subpopulation of interneurons - plays a role in the generation of GABAergic and granule neurons in the murine dentate gyrus by regulating fate determination of neural stem or progenitor cells (NSCs). (biologists.org)
  • No data exist concerning the interplay between granule neurons and late radial glial cells during dentate gyrus development. (elsevier.com)
  • In a parallel set of experiments, we show that long-term potentiation elicited in the dentate gyrus in the absence of GABA blockers requires the presence of new neurons, as it is eliminated by each of our ablation procedures. (pnas.org)
  • Electron microscopic immunocytochemical methods were used to determine the localization, subcellular distribution and expression of activity-regulated cytoskeletal protein (Arc/Arg3.1) in dentate gyrus after unilateral induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the perforant pathway of anaesthetized rats. (open.ac.uk)
  • Low-frequency stimulation induces long-term depression and slow onset long-term potentiation at perforant path-dentate gyrus synapses in vivo. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Long-term potentiation expands information content of hippocampal dentate gyrus synapses. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In these mutants, almost all neurons in the dentate gyrus are arrested at a pseudoimmature state at the molecular and electrophysiological levels, a phenomenon defined as "immature dentate gyrus (iDG). (hindawi.com)
  • The researchers said identifying CCK neurons in the dentate gyrus as the site of interest, will advance scientists' understanding of how SSRIs work. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Lehmann K, Butz M, Teuchert-Noodt G. Offer and demand: proliferation and survival of neurons in the dentate gyrus. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • One tungsten electrode was positioned in stratum lucidum (SL) of CA3b to activate MFs and another in stratum granulosum (SG) to directly stimulate dentate interneurons. (bl.uk)
  • These results imply a poly-synaptic inhibitory feedback projection from CA3 to the dentate gyrus via recurrent MFs, and a mono-synaptic input from dentate interneurons to GCs. (bl.uk)
  • A second excitatory cell type in the dentate gyrus, the mossy cell, forms an intricate circuit with granule cells, CA3c pyramidal cells, and local interneurons, but the influence of mossy cells on dentate function is often overlooked. (elsevier.com)
  • CYFIP1 protein interacts with FMRP whose loss downregulates tonic GABAergic inhibition via interaction with the δ-subunit of the GABA A receptor (GABA A R). Here, however, we report that reduced Cyfip1 dosage in mice does not alter tonic GABAergic inhibition in granule cells and parvalbumin-positive interneurons (PV + -INs) of the dentate gyrus (DG), a region rich in δ-subunit expression. (eneuro.org)
  • By using paired recordings of synaptically connected interneurons in slice preparations of the rat and mouse dentate gyrus (DG), we show that morphologically identified interneurons form complex neuronal networks. (coolled.com)
  • However, whether significant neurogenesis exists in the adult human dentate gyrus has been a matter of debate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amaral DG, Insausti R, Campbell MJ (1988) Distribution of somatostatin immunoreactivity in the human dentate gyrus. (springer.com)
  • The granule cell precursors remain in a subgranular zone that becomes progressively thinner as the dentate gyrus grows, but these precursor cells are retained in adult rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rats code small changes in their surrounding environment by modifying neural activity in the dentate gyrus and code larger differences by activating neurons in an adjacent area. (sciencemag.org)
  • PREGS induces LTP in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of adult rats via the tyrosine phosphorylation of NR2B coupled to ERK/CREB [corrected] signaling. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Whereas the number of progenitors four weeks after BrdU injections was still significantly greater in male than in female SHRs, resulting in a greater net neurogenesis in the male, the number of BrdU-immunoreactive cells did not differ between male and female SD rats, suggesting a greater survival of newly generated cells in the dentate gyrus in female than in male SD rats. (lu.se)
  • Synaptophysin expression was assessed in dentate gyrus prepared from aged (22 months) and young (4 months) rats by immunoblotting and post-embedding immunolabelling at electron microscope level. (open.ac.uk)
  • The aim of the present study was investigate whether increasing neurogenesis in rats could promote a recovery of spatial function following dentate gyrus damage. (uncg.edu)
  • Experimental AD was induced by bilateral injection of beta amyloid 1-42 in the dentate gyrus (DG) of female rats, and then learning and memory were tested using the passive avoidance task. (sid.ir)
  • Five hours after LTP induction in awake rats, microarrays and RNA sequencing were used to quantify global miRNA expression in laser-microdissected dentate gyrus middle molecular layer and granule cell layer, respectively. (otago.ac.nz)
  • Low-dose sevoflurane promotes hippocampal neurogenesis and facilitates the development of dentate gyrus-dependent learning in neonatal rats. (smarttots.org)
  • In situ hybridization histochemistry, using a digoxigenin-labeled GAD cRNA probe, demonstrated a substantial decrease in the number of GAD mRNA-containing neurons in the hilus of the dentate gyrus in the pilocarpine-treated rats as compared to controls at all time intervals. (qxmd.com)
  • The trisynaptic circuit consists of excitatory cells (mostly stellate cells) in layer II of the entorhinal cortex, projecting to the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus via the perforant path. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heterosynaptic LTD and depotentiation in the medial perforant path of the dentate gyrus in the freely moving rat. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cholecystokinin (CCK) as the sulfated (CCK-8S) and unsulfated (CCK-8U) octapeptide sequences, and CR 1409 were administered intraventricularly while the action potential (EAP) in the granular cell layer of the hippocampal dentate gyrus evoked by perforant path stimulation was recorded. (elsevier.com)
  • We tested the performance of the commonly used Gundersen-Jensen CE estimator, using the layers of the mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus as an example (molecular layer, granule cell layer and hilus). (frontiersin.org)
  • Tanshinone I enhances neurogenesis in the mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus via increasing Wnt-3, phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3[sz] and [sz]-catenin immunoreactivities. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Neural stem cell s (NSCs) in the adult mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) are mostly quiescent, and only a few are in the cell cycle at any point in time. (operativeneurosurgery.com)
  • METHODS: The molecular layer of the DG (dentate gyrus) of human epileptic tissue and rat nonepileptic tissue was electrically stimulated and the evoked responses were recorded with voltage-sensitive dye imaging to characterize the spatiotemporal properties. (uva.nl)
  • Immunogold labelling studies in the medial molecular layer of the dentate gyrus demonstrated that gold particles were restricted to pre-synaptic boutons, and were present mainly on the membranes of the synaptic vesicles or occasionally inside vesicles. (open.ac.uk)
  • At 2 h post-induction, immunoreaction product was visible in the dentate gyrus in both the granule cell and molecular layers. (open.ac.uk)
  • At 2 h post-LTP induction, there were significant increases in Arc-IR within the granule cell and molecular layers of the dentate gyrus and particularly within the middle molecular layer relative to the inner and outer molecular layers. (open.ac.uk)
  • Our data provide ultrastructural evidence for a transient LTP-associated increase in the expression of Arc protein in the middle molecular layer of the dentate gyrus, with preferential targeting to dendrites, dendritic spines and glia. (open.ac.uk)
  • I identified two miRNAs that were up-regulated specifically in the dentate gyrus middle molecular layer, containing activated synapses: miR-151-3p and miR-23a-3p. (otago.ac.nz)
  • Using anterograde and retrograde tracer techniques in the Madagascan lesser hedgehog tenrec (Afrosoricidae, Afrotheria) it was shown in this study that the dentate hilar region gave rise to a faint, but distinct, bilateral projection to the most rostromedial portion of the olfactory tubercle, particularly its molecular layer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These tracer injections mainly involved the dentate molecular layer (DtMo) but there was some tracer uptake by the granule cells as seen from the weak to moderate mossy fiber projection to CA3 (Fig. 1 ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we used single-cell RNA sequencing to reveal the molecular dynamics and diversity of dentate gyrus cell types in perinatal, juvenile, and adult mice. (scilifelab.se)
  • In contrast, iontophoretically applied CCK-8S, CCK-8U and CR 1409 slightly but consistently reduced the slope of the evoked response recorded in the dentate gyrus molecular layer. (elsevier.com)
  • In situ hybridization methods were used to determine if glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) mRNA-containing neurons within the hilus of the dentate gyrus are vulnerable to seizure-induced damage in a model of chronic seizures. (qxmd.com)
  • Differential properties of dentate gyrus and CA1 neural precursors. (inserm.fr)
  • Conserved properties of dentate gyrus neurogenesis across postnatal development revealed by single-cell RNA sequencing. (scilifelab.se)
  • Taken together, our data suggest that cilostazol has a beneficial effect on neuronal repair following neuronal loss in the dentate gyrus through promotion of proliferation and/or neuronal differentiation of neural progenitor cells in the subgranular zone. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We describe a strongly biologically motivated artificial neural network approach to model neurogenesis and synaptic turnover as it naturally occurs for example in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) of the developing and adult mammalian and human brain. (bccn-goettingen.de)
  • abstract = "During dentate gyrus development, the early embryonic radial glial scaffold is replaced by a secondary glial scaffold around birth. (elsevier.com)
  • Next, dentate precursor cells move out of this same area of the hippocampal neuroepithelium and, retaining their mitotic capacity, invade the hilus (core) of the forming dentate gyrus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fate choice decision and the initiation of neuronal development occur in precursor cells of the adult dentate gyrus. (nih.gov)
  • Archicortical precursor cells are also present in the dentate gyrus of the developing mammalian embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1998 ) Multipotent progenitor cells in the adult dentate gyrus. (biologists.org)
  • Beneficial effect of cilostazol-mediated neuronal repair following trimethyltin-induced neuronal loss in the dentate gyrus. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We evaluated whether cilostazol would have a beneficial effect on neuronal repair following hippocampal neuronal damage by using a mouse model of trimethyltin (TMT)-induced neuronal loss/self-repair in the hippocampal dentate gyrus [Ogita et al. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • However, chronic treatment with cilostazol on days 3-15 posttreatment resulted in an increase in the number of BrdU-incorporating cells in the dentate GCL of the impaired animals, and these cells were positive for neuronal nuclear antigen or doublecortin. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The germinal matrices in the developing dentate gyrus are composed of neuronal progenitors at distinct differentiation stages. (mysciencework.com)
  • The dentate gyrus, on the other hand, has only few projections to the CA1 and the subiculum, and none have clearly been shown to extrahippocampal target regions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Unlike the CA1 and the subiculum the dentate gyrus did not project to the accumbens nucleus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus the fast conductance change at interneuron-interneuron synapses may promote the generation of high-frequency oscillations observed in the dentate gyrus in vivo . (jneurosci.org)
  • A large amount of vesicular Zn2+ which is thought to be released upon presynaptic depolarisation is found at synapses formed by the axons of dentate granule cells (GCs), known as mossy fibres (MFs). (bl.uk)
  • The rat dentate gyrus is unusual among mammalian brain regions in that it shows cell birth well into adulthood. (core.ac.uk)
  • 2019 evidence has shown that adult neurogenesis does take place in the subventricular zone and in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. (wikipedia.org)
  • A single treatment with cilostazol (10 mg/kg, i.p.) produced no significant change in the number of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-incorporating cells in the dentate granule cell layer (GCL) or subgranular zone on day 3 after TMT treatment. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Neurogenesis persists in certain regions of the adult brain including the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus wherein its regulation is essential, particularly in relation to learning, stress and modulation of mood. (scripps.edu)
  • The subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in one region where neurogenesis (the birth of new neurons) occurs into adolescence and adulthood. (upenn.edu)
  • Most of the dentate gyrus is not exposed on the surface of the brain but the band of Giacomini is visible, and makes an important landmark of the inferior surface of the uncus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The granule cells in the dentate gyrus are distinguished by their late time of formation during brain development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Previously, studies have identified the "immature dentate gyrus (iDG)," a potential brain endophenotype shared by several psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. (hindawi.com)
  • More than any other cell type in the brain studied so far, dentate granule cells require hormone levels to be within the physiological range. (uva.nl)
  • University of Alabama at Birmingham researchers have proposed a model that resolves a seeming paradox in one of the most intriguing areas of the brain-the dentate gyrus. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Before thinking of producing dentate gyrus (DG) granule cells (or the entire DG itself) in vitro , it is convenient to review the formation of the DG in the mouse brain at the histological level. (frontiersin.org)
  • This report contains a gene expression summary of the dentate gyrus (DG), derived from the Allen Brain Atlas (ABA) _in situ_ hybridization mouse data set. (openaire.eu)
  • The dentate gyrus (DG) is an important part of the hippocampal formation and is believed to be involved in a variety of brain functions including episodic and spatial memory and the exploration of novel environments. (aston.ac.uk)
  • Kisspeptin is most notably expressed in the hypothalamus , but is also found in other areas of the brain including the hippocampal dentate gyrus . (wikipedia.org)
  • In this description of the stratification/lamination of the dentate gyrus, the most superficial layer, close to the pial surface of the brain comes first, followed by the layers below. (temporal-lobe.com)
  • Continuing our attempts to elucidate the hippocampal and parahippocampal circuits in mammals with a poorly differentiated brain [ 26 - 29 ] the present study in the lesser hedgehog tenrec ( Echinops telfairi , Et ) will demonstrate some true dentate hilar cells projecting to a circumscribed region in the olfactory tubercle. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A) Hypoxic brain injury in bilateral fasciolar gyrus which is the posterior part of dentate gyrus (arrowhead). (jkna.org)
  • Fmrp knock-out has been shown to reduce tonic GABAergic inhibition by interacting with the δ-subunit of the GABA A receptor (GABA A R). Using in situ hybridization (ISH), qPCR, Western blotting techniques, and patch clamp electrophysiology in brain slices from a Cyfip1 haploinsufficient mouse, we examined δ-subunit mediated tonic inhibition in the dentate gyrus (DG). (eneuro.org)
  • I got to refresh my understanding of neurocircuitry, while also learning a lot about the dentate gyrus and how to look at biological processes in the brain. (upenn.edu)
  • Neurospheres generated from CA1 were multipotent and produced neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, while dentate gyrus neurospheres mostly produced glial cells. (inserm.fr)
  • In contrast to neocortical and early dentate gyrus radial glial cells, these postnatal glial cells are severely altered with regard to position and morphology in reeler mice lacking the secreted protein Reelin. (elsevier.com)
  • Herein, we show that despite the severe morphological defects in the reeler dentate gyrus, the precursor function of secondary radial glial cells is not impaired during development in reeler mice. (elsevier.com)
  • The oldest granule cells are generated in a specific region of the hippocampal neuroepithelium and migrate into the primordial dentate gyrus around embryonic days (E) 17/18, and then settle as the outermost cells in the forming granular layer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dentate granule cells are enriched with receptors for the stress hormone corticosterone, i.e., the high-affinity mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), which is already extensively occupied with low levels of the hormone, and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which is particularly activated after stress. (uva.nl)
  • Conversely, prolonged exposure of animals to a high level of corticosterone suppresses neurogenesis and presumably makes dentate granule cells more vulnerable to delayed cell death. (uva.nl)
  • We have made paired recordings from basket cells (BCs) in the dentate gyrus of rat hippocampal slices, followed by correlated light and electron microscopical analysis. (jneurosci.org)
  • Furthermore, the number of cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus increased with G-CSF treatment. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 1990 ) Mosaic organization of the hippocampal neuroepithelium and the multiple germinal sources of dentate granule cells. (biologists.org)
  • When recording from dentate basket cells, Zn2+ chelation increased spike width, decreased spike threshold, enhanced NMDAR-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) and facilitated T-type Ca2+ currents. (bl.uk)
  • Stereologic analysis of the numbers of BrdU-immunoreactive cells in the dentate gyrus revealed both a strain difference with significantly higher cell proliferation and net neurogenesis. (lu.se)
  • Stereologic analysis of the numbers of BrdU-immunoreactive cells in the dentate gyrus revealed both a strain difference with significantly higher cell proliferation and net neurogenesis in SHR than in SD and a gender difference with males from both strains producing significantly more cells than their female counterparts. (lu.se)
  • It covers more poorly expressed degenerative changes of nerve cells in the area of dentate gyrus and glial proliferation occurs mainly in the blood vessel zone, where infiltration of microglia cells is observed. (nih.gov)
  • Here we adapted an existing computational model of the dentate gyrus (J Neurophysiol 93: 437-453, 2005) by replacing the reduced granule cell models with morphologically detailed models coming from (3D) reconstructions of mature cells. (yale.edu)
  • Different fractions of the mature granule cell models were replaced by morphologically reconstructed models of newborn dentate granule cells from animals with PILO-induced Status Epilepticus, which have apical dendritic alterations and spine loss, and control animals, which do not have these alterations. (yale.edu)
  • This complex arrangement of cells and processes allowed us to study the combined effect of mossy fiber sprouting, altered apical dendritic tree and dendritic spine loss in newborn granule cells on the excitability of the dentate gyrus model. (yale.edu)
  • Our simulations suggest that alterations in the apical dendritic tree and dendritic spine loss in newborn granule cells have opposing effects on the excitability of the dentate gyrus after Status Epilepticus. (yale.edu)
  • 1 . Tejada J, Garcia-Cairasco N, Roque AC (2014) Combined role of seizure-induced dendritic morphology alterations and spine loss in newborn granule cells with mossy fiber sprouting on the hyperexcitability of a computer model of the dentate gyrus. (yale.edu)
  • 2 . Tejada J, Arisi GM, García-Cairasco N, Roque AC (2012) Morphological alterations in newly born dentate gyrus granule cells that emerge after status epilepticus contribute to make them less excitable. (yale.edu)
  • Dentage Gyrus Granule Cell model associated with the papers: J. Tejada, G.M. Arisi, N. Garcia-Cairasco, A.C. Roque, Morphological alterations in newly born dentate gyrus granule cells that emerge after status epilepticus contribute to make them less excitable, PLoS ONE. (yale.edu)
  • BrdU-positive cells in the dentate gyrus expressed Nestin, but only a few expressed Mash-1. (inserm.fr)
  • Dentate gyrus contains fewer neurosphere-forming cells and none that respond to FGF-2 alone. (inserm.fr)
  • Armato U, Chakravarthy B, Chiarini A, Prà ID, Whitfield JF (2011) A Paradigm-Changing Surprise from Dentate Gyrus Granule Cells-Cilium- Localized p75 NTR May Drive Their Progenitor Cell Proliferation. (omicsonline.org)
  • DGC, dentate granule cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • Intradentate infusions of colchcine selectively ablated the majority of dorsal dentate gyrus granule cells. (uncg.edu)
  • In dentate gyrus granule cells, SR 95531 was found approximately 4 times as potent inhibiting phasic currents compared to tonic currents (IC50 values: 101 vs. 427 nM). (ku.dk)
  • Using whole cell current clamp patch recordings, we observed a sustained decrease of intrinsic excitability in the FSINs of the dentate gyrus (DG) following repetitive stimulations of the mossy fibers at 30 Hz (gamma bursts) which could not be expressed in the granule cells. (maxplanckflorida.org)
  • used the case of the dentate gyrus (DG) to show that boundary-crossing interneuron s with cell bodies in CA3 and CA1 constitute a numerically significant and diverse population that relays patterns of activity generated within the CA regions back to granule cells. (operativeneurosurgery.com)
  • Hilar mossy cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) shape the firing and function of the hippocampal circuit. (eneuro.org)
  • Mossy cells of the dentate gyrus (DG) have been implicated in hippocampal circuits regulating pattern separation, an important function attributed to the DG. (eneuro.org)
  • A control injection into the medial septum-diagonal band complex also retrogradely labeled cells in the dentate hilus, but these neurons were found immediately adjacent to the heavily labeled CA3, while the tracer injections into the rostromedial tubercle did not reveal any labeling in CA3. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The dentate hilar neurons projecting to the olfactory tubercle cannot be considered displaced cells of CA3 but represent true dentato-tubercular projection neurons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The sparse (Et01-36B, Fig. 1C ) to moderate (Et01-21B, Fig. 1A ) number of labeled cells in the dentate hilar region subjacent to the main injection site might be due to a retrogarde transport and/or a direct uptake of tracer substance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Young dentate granule cells mediate pattern separation, whereas old granule cells facilitate pattern completion. (nature.com)
  • The proliferation and survival of new cells in the dentate gyrus of mammals is a complex process that is subject to numerous influences, presenting a confusing picture. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Hippocampal cell proliferation was assessed by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation, and BrdU-positive cells were counted in the dentate gyrus (DG) using confocal microscopy. (umn.edu)
  • Synaptic properties of SOM- and CCK-expressing cells in dentate gyrus interneuron networks. (coolled.com)
  • Nfix may suppress oligodendrocyte expression so cells remain committed to neuron development within the dentate gyrus. (wikipedia.org)
  • NMDA receptor- and metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity induced by high frequency stimulation in the rat dentate gyrus in vitro. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We demonstrate here that under physiological conditions neurogenesis continues to occur in the dentate gyrus of senescent mice and can be stimulated by living in an enriched environment. (jneurosci.org)
  • As in mice, exercise was found to have a primary effect on dentate gyrus CBV, and the CBV changes were found to selectively correlate with cardiopulmonary and cognitive function. (nih.gov)
  • Exercise selectively increases dentate gyrus CBV in mice. (nih.gov)
  • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most commonly used medications for mood and anxiety disorders, and adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus has been shown to be involved in the behavioral effects of SSRIs in mice. (bibsys.no)
  • During development, absence of TNR in constitutively TNR-deficient (TNR −/− ) mice results in increased numbers of dentate gyrus GABAergic neurons, decreased expression of its receptor β1 integrin, increased activation of p38 MAPK and increased expression of the GABAergic specification gene Ascl1 . (biologists.org)
  • In the present study, the role of CB in synaptic transmission and plasticity was further investigated using extracellular recordings of synaptic activity in cell- and dendritic layers of dentate gyrus (DG) and CA1 area in hippocampal slices from wild-type, heterozygous and homozygous CB knockout mice. (uu.nl)
  • In addition, the dentate gyrus (DG) of PV-Cre mice received bilateral injection of control lentivirus or lentivirus expressing double floxed hM3D-Gq-mCherry. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Reactive synaptogenesis assessed by synaptophysin immunoreactivity is associated with GAP-43 in the dentate gyrus of the adult rat. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Together, the results demonstrate that Zn2+ modulates MF-interneuron-GC communication and thus regulates information transfer to dentate and hippocampal networks. (bl.uk)
  • We have studied the perinatal and postnatal changes of the dentate gyrus (DG) interneuron populations at three rostrocaudal levels. (springer.com)
  • An in vivo correlate of exercise-induced neurogenesis in the adult dentate gyrus. (nih.gov)
  • however, no in vivo research has reported whether ketamine could affect postnatal neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In the present article we investigated the properties of CA1 and dentate gyrus cell precursors in adult rodents both in vivo and in vitro. (inserm.fr)
  • Therefore, the aim of the current study was to profile global miRNA expression in subregions of the dentate gyrus after LTP induction in vivo and investigate the functional significance of regulated miRNAs. (otago.ac.nz)
  • Beyond the insights gained by this consideration, we review the available literature on factors that regulate cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus in vivo. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • The dentate gyrus was the only hippocampal subregion that showed a significant exercise effect, with CBV peaking at week 4, whereas the entorhinal cortex showed a nonsignificant increase in CBV. (nih.gov)
  • Firstly, multiphoton glutamate uncaging and dual recordings reveal that dentate granule cell dendritic properties are optimized for linear integration and strong attenuation of synaptic input from the entorhinal cortex. (maxplanckflorida.org)
  • The perforant pathway projection from layer II of the entorhinal cortex to the hippocampal dentate gyrus is especially important for long-term memory formation, and is preferentially vulnerable to developing a degenerative tauopathy early in Alzheimer disease (AD) that may spread over time trans-synaptically. (operativeneurosurgery.com)
  • Busche A, Neddens J, Dinter C, Dawirs RR, Teuchert-Noodt G. Differential influence of rearing conditions and methamphetamine on serotonin fibre maturation in the dentate gyrus of gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Differential influence of rearing conditions and methamphetamine on serotonin fibre maturation in the dentate gyrus of gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus)", DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE , vol. 24, 2002, pp. 512-521. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Overall, dentate gyrus lesions significantly decreased the proliferation and survival of new neurons following treatment. (uncg.edu)
  • Most lateral views of the dentate gyrus may appear to suggest a structure consisting of just one entity, but medial movement may provide evidence of the ventral and dorsal parts of the dentate gyrus. (wikipedia.org)
  • it caps the posterior (ascending) end of the superior temporal sulcus, and it is just ventral to the supramarginal gyrus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A tongue-shaped gyrus that, at its anterior end (tip), abuts the parahippocampal gyrus on the under surface (ventral) of the occipital lobe. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Analysis of ventral dentate gyrus from adults subjected to chronic corticosterone (CORT) to induce depression-like behaviors, followed by combined treatment of CORT and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The results indicate that, in this model, a subpopulation of GAD mRNA-containing neurons within the dentate gyrus is selectively vulnerable to seizure-induced damage. (qxmd.com)
  • Disrupted dentate granule cell chloride regulation enhances synaptic excitability during development of temporal lobe epilepsy," Journal of Neuroscience , vol. 27, no. 51, pp. 14012-14022, 2007. (hindawi.com)
  • http://www.opensourcebrain.org/projects/dentate and I am trying to run it through the Neuroscience Gateway (NSG) Portal using NEURON7.3. (yale.edu)
  • It contains a cortex of three layers, with a single cell layer, that is part of the hippocampal formation, and it is folded inside the hippocampal sulcus, where it lies against the subicular edge of the parahippocampal gyrus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The gyrus fornicatus comprises the subcallosal gyrus, the cingulate gyrus, the retrosplenial area, the parahippocampal gyrus, and the uncus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Parahippocampal gyrus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Wild red foxes, proverbially cunning carnivores, are investigated for adult hippocampal neurogenesis and morphological characteristics of the dentate gyrus. (uzh.ch)
  • A large gyrus on the medial surface of the cerebral hemisphere that lies directly above the corpus callosum and arches over its anterior end. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Using an established algorithm, the expression values of the dentate gyrus were compared to the values of the macro/parent-structure, in this case the hippocampal region, for the purpose of extracting regionally selective gene expression data. (openaire.eu)
  • Granule cell hyperexcitability in the early post-traumatic rat dentate gyrus: the 'irritable mossy cell' hypothesis," Journal of Physiology , vol. 524, no. 1, pp. 117-134, 2000. (hindawi.com)
  • The analysis of the effects of EGF on organotypic cultures of hippocampal slices depicted similar features: BrdU and Nestin immunoreactivities increased after EGF treatment in CA1 but not in the dentate gyrus. (inserm.fr)
  • Effects of a brief high-frequency stimulation or a prolonged low-frequency stimulation in the presence and absence of nicotine were studied in thin transverse slices of the dentate gyrus prepared from the guinea pig. (nih.gov)