Fluorosis, Dental: A chronic endemic form of hypoplasia of the dental enamel caused by drinking water with a high fluorine content during the time of tooth formation, and characterized by defective calcification that gives a white chalky appearance to the enamel, which gradually undergoes brown discoloration. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)Tooth Injuries: Traumatic or other damage to teeth including fractures (TOOTH FRACTURES) or displacements (TOOTH LUXATION).Tooth Avulsion: Partial or complete displacement of a tooth from its alveolar support. It is commonly the result of trauma. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p312)Tooth Fractures: Break or rupture of a tooth or tooth root.Tooth Replantation: Reinsertion of a tooth into the alveolus from which it was removed or otherwise lost.Mouth Protectors: Devices or pieces of equipment placed in or around the mouth or attached to instruments to protect the external or internal tissues of the mouth and the teeth.Fluoride PoisoningDental Care: The total of dental diagnostic, preventive, and restorative services provided to meet the needs of a patient (from Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982).First Aid: Emergency care or treatment given to a person who suddenly becomes ill or injured before full medical services become available.Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.Periodontal Splints: Fixed or removable devices that join teeth together. They are used to repair teeth that are mobile as a result of PERIODONTITIS.Insurance: Coverage by contract whereby one part indemnifies or guarantees another against loss by a specified contingency.Fluorides: Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.Health Education, Dental: Education which increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of dental health on a personal or community basis.Schools, Dental: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.Students, Dental: Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.Photography, Dental: Photographic techniques used in ORTHODONTICS; DENTAL ESTHETICS; and patient education.Fluoridation: Practice of adding fluoride to water for the purpose of preventing tooth decay and cavities.Incisor: Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)Lip: Either of the two fleshy, full-blooded margins of the mouth.Skiing: A snow sport which uses skis to glide over the snow. It does not include water-skiing.Dental Care for Chronically Ill: Dental care for patients with chronic diseases. These diseases include chronic cardiovascular, endocrinologic, hematologic, immunologic, neoplastic, and renal diseases. The concept does not include dental care for the mentally or physically disabled which is DENTAL CARE FOR DISABLED.Dental Pulp Necrosis: Death of pulp tissue with or without bacterial invasion. When the necrosis is due to ischemia with superimposed bacterial infection, it is referred to as pulp gangrene. When the necrosis is non-bacterial in origin, it is called pulp mummification.Dental Care for Children: The giving of attention to the special dental needs of children, including the prevention of tooth diseases and instruction in dental hygiene and dental health. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Dental Clinics: Facilities where dental care is provided to patients.Root Canal Therapy: A treatment modality in endodontics concerned with the therapy of diseases of the dental pulp. For preparatory procedures, ROOT CANAL PREPARATION is available.Dental Pulp: A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Cariostatic Agents: Substances that inhibit or arrest DENTAL CARIES formation. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Dental Hygienists: Persons trained in an accredited school or dental college and licensed by the state in which they reside to provide dental prophylaxis under the direction of a licensed dentist.Toothpastes: Dentifrices that are formulated into a paste form. They typically contain abrasives, HUMECTANTS; DETERGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; and CARIOSTATIC AGENTS.Faculty, Dental: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a dental school.Dental Care for Disabled: Dental care for the emotionally, mentally, or physically disabled patient. It does not include dental care for the chronically ill ( = DENTAL CARE FOR CHRONICALLY ILL).Dental Anxiety: Abnormal fear or dread of visiting the dentist for preventive care or therapy and unwarranted anxiety over dental procedures.Tooth Root: The part of a tooth from the neck to the apex, embedded in the alveolar process and covered with cementum. A root may be single or divided into several branches, usually identified by their relative position, e.g., lingual root or buccal root. Single-rooted teeth include mandibular first and second premolars and the maxillary second premolar teeth. The maxillary first premolar has two roots in most cases. Maxillary molars have three roots. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p690)Insurance, Dental: Insurance providing coverage for dental care.Dental Auxiliaries: Personnel whose work is prescribed and supervised by the dentist.Dental Health Services: Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.Dental Research: The study of laws, theories, and hypotheses through a systematic examination of pertinent facts and their interpretation in the field of dentistry. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982, p674)Dental Plaque: A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.Dental Care for Aged: The giving of attention to the special dental needs of the elderly for proper maintenance or treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Esthetics, Dental: Skills, techniques, standards, and principles used to improve the art and symmetry of the teeth and face to improve the appearance as well as the function of the teeth, mouth, and face. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p108)Dental Arch: The curve formed by the row of TEETH in their normal position in the JAW. The inferior dental arch is formed by the mandibular teeth, and the superior dental arch by the maxillary teeth.Dental Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to dental or oral health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Tooth Calcification: The process whereby calcium salts are deposited in the dental enamel. The process is normal in the development of bones and teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p43)Trauma Centers: Specialized hospital facilities which provide diagnostic and therapeutic services for trauma patients.Dental Offices: The room or rooms in which the dentist and dental staff provide care. Offices include all rooms in the dentist's office suite.Dental Records: Data collected during dental examination for the purpose of study, diagnosis, or treatment planning.Dental Staff: Personnel who provide dental service to patients in an organized facility, institution or agency.Dental Equipment: The nonexpendable items used by the dentist or dental staff in the performance of professional duties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p106)General Practice, Dental: Nonspecialized dental practice which is concerned with providing primary and continuing dental care.Dental Amalgam: An alloy used in restorative dentistry that contains mercury, silver, tin, copper, and possibly zinc.Dental Enamel Hypoplasia: An acquired or hereditary condition due to deficiency in the formation of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS). It is usually characterized by defective, thin, or malformed DENTAL ENAMEL. Risk factors for enamel hypoplasia include gene mutations, nutritional deficiencies, diseases, and environmental factors.Dental Assistants: Individuals who assist the dentist or the dental hygienist.BrazilEducation, Dental, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform dentists of recent advances in their fields.Anesthesia, Dental: A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.Dental Implants: Biocompatible materials placed into (endosseous) or onto (subperiosteal) the jawbone to support a crown, bridge, or artificial tooth, or to stabilize a diseased tooth.Dentifrices: Any preparations used for cleansing teeth; they usually contain an abrasive, detergent, binder and flavoring agent and may exist in the form of liquid, paste or powder; may also contain medicaments and caries preventives.Osteosclerosis: An abnormal hardening or increased density of bone tissue.Oral Hygiene: The practice of personal hygiene of the mouth. It includes the maintenance of oral cleanliness, tissue tone, and general preservation of oral health.Radiography, Dental: Radiographic techniques used in dentistry.Dental Models: Presentation devices used for patient education and technique training in dentistry.Education, Dental, Graduate: Educational programs for dental graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic dental sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced dental degree.Drinking Water: Water that is intended to be ingested.Multiple Trauma: Multiple physical insults or injuries occurring simultaneously.Ethics, Dental: The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the dentist, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the dentist in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Toothbrushing: The act of cleaning teeth with a brush to remove plaque and prevent tooth decay. (From Webster, 3d ed)Dental Service, Hospital: Hospital department providing dental care.Dentists: Individuals licensed to practice DENTISTRY.Societies, Dental: Societies whose membership is limited to dentists.Technology, Dental: The field of dentistry involved in procedures for designing and constructing dental appliances. It includes also the application of any technology to the field of dentistry.Licensure, Dental: The granting of a license to practice dentistry.DMF Index: "Decayed, missing and filled teeth," a routinely used statistical concept in dentistry.Laboratories, Dental: Facilities for the performance of services related to dental treatment but not done directly in the patient's mouth.Amelogenesis: The elaboration of dental enamel by ameloblasts, beginning with its participation in the formation of the dentino-enamel junction to the production of the matrix for the enamel prisms and interprismatic substance. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992).Dental Materials: Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.Specialties, Dental: Various branches of dental practice limited to specialized areas.Fees, Dental: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for dental services.Dental Technicians: Individuals responsible for fabrication of dental appliances.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Practice Management, Dental: The organization and operation of the business aspects of a dental practice.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Dental Sac: Dense fibrous layer formed from mesodermal tissue that surrounds the epithelial enamel organ. The cells eventually migrate to the external surface of the newly formed root dentin and give rise to the cementoblasts that deposit cementum on the developing root, fibroblasts of the developing periodontal ligament, and osteoblasts of the developing alveolar bone.Dentistry: The profession concerned with the teeth, oral cavity, and associated structures, and the diagnosis and treatment of their diseases including prevention and the restoration of defective and missing tissue.Dental Calculus: Abnormal concretion or calcified deposit that forms around the teeth or dental prostheses.Comprehensive Dental Care: Providing for the full range of dental health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and rehabilitation of patients.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Groundwater: Liquid water present beneath the surface of the earth.Dentist-Patient Relations: The psychological relations between the dentist and patient.Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.Trauma Severity Indices: Systems for assessing, classifying, and coding injuries. These systems are used in medical records, surveillance systems, and state and national registries to aid in the collection and reporting of trauma.Infection Control, Dental: Efforts to prevent and control the spread of infections within dental health facilities or those involving provision of dental care.Dental Papilla: Mesodermal tissue enclosed in the invaginated portion of the epithelial enamel organ and giving rise to the dentin and pulp.Dental Prosthesis: An artificial replacement for one or more natural teeth or part of a tooth, or associated structures, ranging from a portion of a tooth to a complete denture. The dental prosthesis is used for cosmetic or functional reasons, or both. DENTURES and specific types of dentures are also available. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p244 & Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p643)Smiling: A facial expression which may denote feelings of pleasure, affection, amusement, etc.Tooth DiseasesDental Audit: A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of dental care.Dental Instruments: Hand-held tools or implements especially used by dental professionals for the performance of clinical tasks.Dental Waste: Any waste product generated by a dental office, surgery, clinic, or laboratory including amalgams, saliva, and rinse water.Dental Implantation: The grafting or inserting of a prosthetic device of alloplastic material into the oral tissue beneath the mucosal or periosteal layer or within the bone. Its purpose is to provide support and retention to a partial or complete denture.Economics, Dental: Economic aspects of the dental profession and dental care.Dental Alloys: A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions for use in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.Ameloblasts: Cylindrical epithelial cells in the innermost layer of the ENAMEL ORGAN. Their functions include contribution to the development of the dentinoenamel junction by the deposition of a layer of the matrix, thus producing the foundation for the prisms (the structural units of the DENTAL ENAMEL), and production of the matrix for the enamel prisms and interprismatic substance. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dental Caries Susceptibility: The predisposition to tooth decay (DENTAL CARIES).Wounds, Nonpenetrating: Injuries caused by impact with a blunt object where there is no penetration of the skin.Dental Informatics: The application of computer and information sciences to improve dental practice, research, education and management.Gingivitis: Inflammation of gum tissue (GINGIVA) without loss of connective tissue.Tooth, Deciduous: The teeth of the first dentition, which are shed and replaced by the permanent teeth.Dental Enamel: A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)Jaw, Edentulous: The total absence of teeth from either the mandible or the maxilla, but not both. Total absence of teeth from both is MOUTH, EDENTULOUS. Partial absence of teeth in either is JAW, EDENTULOUS, PARTIALLY.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Dental Occlusion: The relationship of all the components of the masticatory system in normal function. It has special reference to the position and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth for the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p556, p472)Dental Scaling: Removal of dental plaque and dental calculus from the surface of a tooth, from the surface of a tooth apical to the gingival margin accumulated in periodontal pockets, or from the surface coronal to the gingival margin.IndiaDentistry, Operative: That phase of clinical dentistry concerned with the restoration of parts of existing teeth that are defective through disease, trauma, or abnormal development, to the state of normal function, health, and esthetics, including preventive, diagnostic, biological, mechanical, and therapeutic techniques, as well as material and instrument science and application. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 2d ed, p237)Dental Facilities: Use for material on dental facilities in general or for which there is no specific heading.Dental Devices, Home Care: Devices used in the home by persons to maintain dental and periodontal health. The devices include toothbrushes, dental flosses, water irrigators, gingival stimulators, etc.Preventive Dentistry: The branch of dentistry concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance and promotion of oral health.Dental Enamel Proteins: The proteins that are part of the dental enamel matrix.Odontogenesis: The process of TOOTH formation. It is divided into several stages including: the dental lamina stage, the bud stage, the cap stage, and the bell stage. Odontogenesis includes the production of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS), dentin (DENTINOGENESIS), and dental cementum (CEMENTOGENESIS).Tooth Extraction: The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Fluorides, Topical: Fluorides, usually in pastes or gels, used for topical application to reduce the incidence of DENTAL CARIES.Tooth Demineralization: A tooth's loss of minerals, such as calcium in hydroxyapatite from the tooth matrix, caused by acidic exposure. An example of the occurrence of demineralization is in the formation of dental caries.Molar: The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)Dental Porcelain: A type of porcelain used in dental restorations, either jacket crowns or inlays, artificial teeth, or metal-ceramic crowns. It is essentially a mixture of particles of feldspar and quartz, the feldspar melting first and providing a glass matrix for the quartz. Dental porcelain is produced by mixing ceramic powder (a mixture of quartz, kaolin, pigments, opacifiers, a suitable flux, and other substances) with distilled water. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Radiography, Dental, Digital: A rapid, low-dose, digital imaging system using a small intraoral sensor instead of radiographic film, an intensifying screen, and a charge-coupled device. It presents the possibility of reduced patient exposure and minimal distortion, although resolution and latitude are inferior to standard dental radiography. A receiver is placed in the mouth, routing signals to a computer which images the signals on a screen or in print. It includes digitizing from x-ray film or any other detector. (From MEDLINE abstracts; personal communication from Dr. Charles Berthold, NIDR)Community Dentistry: The practice of dentistry concerned with preventive as well as diagnostic and treatment programs in a circumscribed population.Stomatognathic Diseases: General or unspecified diseases of the stomatognathic system, comprising the mouth, teeth, jaws, and pharynx.Pediatric Dentistry: The practice of dentistry concerned with the dental problems of children, proper maintenance, and treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.American Dental Association: Professional society representing the field of dentistry.Dental Polishing: Creation of a smooth and glossy surface finish on a denture or amalgam.Dentist's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice in dentistry related to diagnosis and treatment.Enamel Organ: Epithelial cells surrounding the dental papilla and differentiated into three layers: the inner enamel epithelium, consisting of ameloblasts which eventually form the enamel, and the enamel pulp and external enamel epithelium, both of which atrophy and disappear before and upon eruption of the tooth, respectively.Dental Implantation, Endosseous: Insertion of an implant into the bone of the mandible or maxilla. The implant has an exposed head which protrudes through the mucosa and is a prosthodontic abutment.Craniocerebral Trauma: Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.Optical Imaging: The use of light interaction (scattering, absorption, and fluorescence) with biological tissue to obtain morphologically based information. It includes measuring inherent tissue optical properties such as scattering, absorption, and autofluorescence; or optical properties of exogenous targeted fluorescent molecular probes such as those used in optical MOLECULAR IMAGING, or nontargeted optical CONTRAST AGENTS.Toothache: Pain in the adjacent areas of the teeth.Tooth Abnormalities: Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the teeth.Legislation, Dental: Laws and regulations pertaining to the field of dentistry, proposed for enactment or recently enacted by a legislative body.Matrix Metalloproteinase 20: A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that is the predominant proteolytic activity in the enamel matrix. The enzyme has a high specificity for dental enamel matrix protein AMELOGENIN.Ion-Selective Electrodes: Electrodes which can be used to measure the concentration of particular ions in cells, tissues, or solutions.Periodontal Index: A numerical rating scale for classifying the periodontal status of a person or population with a single figure which takes into consideration prevalence as well as severity of the condition. It is based upon probe measurement of periodontal pockets and on gingival tissue status.Ligamentum Flavum: The paired bands of yellow elastic tissue that connect adjoining laminae of the vertebrae. With the laminae, it forms the posterior wall of the spinal canal and helps hold the body erect.Libraries, DentalDiagnosis, Oral: Examination of the mouth and teeth toward the identification and diagnosis of intraoral disease or manifestation of non-oral conditions.Fluorine: A nonmetallic, diatomic gas that is a trace element and member of the halogen family. It is used in dentistry as flouride (FLUORIDES) to prevent dental caries.Evidence-Based Dentistry: An approach or process of practicing oral health care that requires the judicious integration of systematic assessments of clinical relevant scientific evidence, relating to the patient's oral and medical condition and history, with the dentist's clinical expertise and the patient's treatment needs and preferences. (from J Am Dent Assoc 134: 689, 2003)Group Practice, Dental: Any group of three or more full-time dentists, organized in a legally recognized entity for the provision of dental care, sharing space, equipment, personnel and records for both patient care and business management, and who have a predetermined arrangement for the distribution of income.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Dental Pulp CalcificationDental Pulp Diseases: Endodontic diseases of the DENTAL PULP inside the tooth, which is distinguished from PERIAPICAL DISEASES of the tissue surrounding the root.Coal: A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.Dental Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of dental prostheses in general or a specific dental prosthesis. It does not include DENTURE DESIGN. The framework usually consists of metal.Dentition: The teeth collectively in the dental arch. Dentition ordinarily refers to the natural teeth in position in their alveoli. Dentition referring to the deciduous teeth is DENTITION, PRIMARY; to the permanent teeth, DENTITION, PERMANENT. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dental Cavity Preparation: An operation in which carious material is removed from teeth and biomechanically correct forms are established in the teeth to receive and retain restorations. A constant requirement is provision for prevention of failure of the restoration through recurrence of decay or inadequate resistance to applied stresses. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239-40)Dental Bonding: An adhesion procedure for orthodontic attachments, such as plastic DENTAL CROWNS. This process usually includes the application of an adhesive material (DENTAL CEMENTS) and letting it harden in-place by light or chemical curing.Dental Plaque Index: An index which scores the degree of dental plaque accumulation.Dental Restoration Failure: Inability or inadequacy of a dental restoration or prosthesis to perform as expected.Endodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the maintenance of the dental pulp in a state of health and the treatment of the pulp cavity (pulp chamber and pulp canal).Prosthodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the restoration and maintenance of oral function by the replacement of missing TEETH and related structures by artificial devices or DENTAL PROSTHESES.Injury Severity Score: An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.Dental Cements: Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.Periodontal Diseases: Pathological processes involving the PERIODONTIUM including the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.Dental Impression Technique: Procedure of producing an imprint or negative likeness of the teeth and/or edentulous areas. Impressions are made in plastic material which becomes hardened or set while in contact with the tissue. They are later filled with plaster of Paris or artificial stone to produce a facsimile of the oral structures present. Impressions may be made of a full complement of teeth, of areas where some teeth have been removed, or in a mouth from which all teeth have been extracted. (Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Dental Abutments: Natural teeth or teeth roots used as anchorage for a fixed or removable denture or other prosthesis (such as an implant) serving the same purpose.Mouth DiseasesDental Prophylaxis: Treatment for the prevention of periodontal diseases or other dental diseases by the cleaning of the teeth in the dental office using the procedures of DENTAL SCALING and DENTAL POLISHING. The treatment may include plaque detection, removal of supra- and subgingival plaque and calculus, application of caries-preventing agents, checking of restorations and prostheses and correcting overhanging margins and proximal contours of restorations, and checking for signs of food impaction.Gingival Hemorrhage: The flowing of blood from the marginal gingival area, particularly the sulcus, seen in such conditions as GINGIVITIS, marginal PERIODONTITIS, injury, and ASCORBIC ACID DEFICIENCY.Amelogenin: A major dental enamel-forming protein found in mammals. In humans the protein is encoded by GENES found on both the X CHROMOSOME and the Y CHROMOSOME.Age Determination by Teeth: A means of identifying the age of an animal or human through tooth examination.Dental Disinfectants: Chemicals especially for use on instruments to destroy pathogenic organisms. (Boucher, Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Microradiography: Production of a radiographic image of a small or very thin object on fine-grained photographic film under conditions which permit subsequent microscopic examination or enlargement of the radiograph at linear magnifications of up to several hundred and with a resolution approaching the resolving power of the photographic emulsion (about 1000 lines per millimeter).Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Forensic Dentistry: The application of dental knowledge to questions of law.Pit and Fissure Sealants: Agents used to occlude dental enamel pits and fissures in the prevention of dental caries.Psychosocial Deprivation: The absence of appropriate stimuli in the physical or social environment which are necessary for the emotional, social, and intellectual development of the individual.Traumatology: The medical specialty which deals with WOUNDS and INJURIES as well as resulting disability and disorders from physical traumas.Maxilla: One of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that form the upper jaw. A maxillary bone provides tooth sockets for the superior teeth, forms part of the ORBIT, and contains the MAXILLARY SINUS.Cuspid: The third tooth to the left and to the right of the midline of either jaw, situated between the second INCISOR and the premolar teeth (BICUSPID). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p817)Periodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the histology, physiology, and pathology of the tissues that support, attach, and surround the teeth, and of the treatment and prevention of disease affecting these tissues.Malocclusion: Such malposition and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth as to interfere with the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Manifest Anxiety Scale: True-false questionnaire made up of items believed to indicate anxiety, in which the subject answers verbally the statement that describes him.Dental Stress Analysis: The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.Dental Deposits: Accumulations of microflora that lead to pathological plaque and calculus which cause PERIODONTAL DISEASES. It can be considered a type of BIOFILMS. It is subtly distinguished from the protective DENTAL PELLICLE.Dentition, Permanent: The 32 teeth of adulthood that either replace or are added to the complement of deciduous teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)School Admission Criteria: Requirements for the selection of students for admission to academic institutions.Tooth Erosion: Progressive loss of the hard substance of a tooth by chemical processes that do not involve bacterial action. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p296)Streptococcus mutans: A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.Dental Pulp Capping: Application of a protective agent to an exposed pulp (direct capping) or the remaining thin layer of dentin over a nearly exposed pulp (indirect capping) in order to allow the pulp to recover and maintain its normal vitality and function.Sodium Fluoride: A source of inorganic fluoride which is used topically to prevent dental caries.Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)Dental Veneers: The use of a layer of tooth-colored material, usually porcelain or acrylic resin, applied to the surface of natural teeth, crowns, or pontics by fusion, cementation, or mechanical retention.Crowns: A prosthetic restoration that reproduces the entire surface anatomy of the visible natural crown of a tooth. It may be partial (covering three or more surfaces of a tooth) or complete (covering all surfaces). It is made of gold or other metal, porcelain, or resin.Root Planing: A procedure for smoothing of the roughened root surface or cementum of a tooth after subgingival curettage or scaling, as part of periodontal therapy.Tibet: An autonomous region located in central Asia, within China.Oral Surgical Procedures: Surgical procedures used to treat disease, injuries, and defects of the oral and maxillofacial region.Tooth Crown: The upper part of the tooth, which joins the lower part of the tooth (TOOTH ROOT) at the cervix (TOOTH CERVIX) at a line called the cementoenamel junction. The entire surface of the crown is covered with enamel which is thicker at the extremity and becomes progressively thinner toward the cervix. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p216)Surgery, Oral: A dental specialty concerned with the diagnosis and surgical treatment of disease, injuries, and defects of the human oral and maxillofacial region.Mouth, Edentulous: Total lack of teeth through disease or extraction.
Fluoride ingestion (dental fluorosis). Birth injury. Preterm birth. Infection. Trauma from a deciduous tooth. Turner's ... Dental Enamel Defects and Celiac Disease National Institute of Health (NIH) Ferraz EG, Campos Ede J, Sarmento VA, Silva LR ( ... Turner's hypoplasia usually affects the tooth enamel if the trauma occurs prior to the third year of life. Injuries occurring ... Nelson, S.J (2003). Dental anatomy, physiology, and occlusion (8th ed.). Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders. ISBN 0-7216-9382-2. CS1 ...
Dental trauma may result in discolorations. Following luxation injuries red discoloration may develop almost instantly. This is ... Fluorosis may occur when there is chronic and excessive exposure to fluoride during the years of tooth development. Fluoride is ... Teeth die mainly as a result of extensive tooth decay, however this may also occur following dental trauma or heavy drilling ... Internal resorption may sometimes follow dental trauma (although in other cases it appears unrelated). This is where the dentin ...
Fluorosis:[20] Dental fluorosis causes enamel to become opaque, chalky white, and porous. The enamel can break down and cause ... Dental trauma[12] which may cause staining either as a result of pulp necrosis or internal resorption. Alternatively the tooth ... Fejerskov, O.; Manji, F.; Baelum, V. (February 1990). "The Nature and Mechanisms of Dental Fluorosis in Man". Journal of Dental ... "Dental fluorosis: Exposure, prevention and management". ResearchGate. Retrieved 2019-05-13.. *^ a b Sánchez, AR; Rogers RS, 3rd ...
White spot lesions are also uncommon on incisors, hence ruling out dental caries. Fluorosis, which can result from an intake of ... Trauma to primary incisors resulting in discolouration of permanent incisors. Administration of tetracycline during pregnancy ... These conditions include: Dental caries, which is the most common cause of destruction of dental hard tissues. This is more ... Jälevik, B.; Klingberg, G. A. (January 2002). "Dental treatment, dental fear and behaviour management problems in children with ...
Fluorosis-resembling enamel defects are often misdiagnosed as dental caries. Dental Trauma: Mechanical trauma to the primary ... "Dental Fluorosis" (PDF). Alvarez JA; Rezende KMPC; Marocho SMS; Alves FBT; Celiberti P; Ciamponi AL (2009). "Dental fluorosis: ... Galen describes what is thought to be dental fluorosis. However, it was not until the early 20th century that dental fluorosis ... "Table 23, Surveillance for Dental Caries, Dental Sealants, Tooth Retention, Edentulism, and Enamel Fluorosis --- United States ...
Dental cyst • Dental dam • Dental disease • Dental drill • Dental emergency • Dental engine • Dental floss • Dental fluorosis ... Dental surgery • Dental syringe • Dental technician • Dental Technologists Association • Dental therapist • Dental trauma • ... Dental lamina • Dental laser • Dental midline • Dental notation • Dental papilla • Dental pathology • Dental pellicle • Dental ... Dental arches • Dental assistant • Dental avulsion • Dental auxiliary • Dental barotrauma • Dental braces • Dental bur • Dental ...
... dental fluorosis, birth injury, preterm birth, infection or trauma from a deciduous tooth.[59] Dental fluorosis is a condition ... American Dental Association. *^ Introduction to Dental Plaque Archived 2011-08-27 at the Wayback Machine. Leeds Dental ... Dental pulp[edit]. Main article: Pulp (tooth). The dental pulp is the central part of the tooth filled with soft connective ... "Dental caries", from the Disease Control Priorities Project. *^ Touger-Decker R, van Loveren C (2003). "Sugars and dental ...
Mottled teeth Dental fluorosis Mottling of enamel Nonfluoride enamel opacities (K00.4) Disturbances in tooth formation ... Gingival and edentulous alveolar ridge lesions associated with trauma (K06.8) Other specified disorders of gingiva and ... Arrested dental caries (K02.4) Odontoclasia (K02.8) Other dental caries (K02.9) Dental caries, unspecified (K03) Other diseases ... Retained dental root (K08.8) Other specified disorders of teeth and supporting structures Enlargement of alveolar ridge NOS ...
The differential diagnosis for dental caries includes dental fluorosis and developmental defects of the tooth including ... The incidence of cemental caries increases in older adults as gingival recession occurs from either trauma or periodontal ... dental mirror and explorer. Dental radiographs (X-rays) may show dental caries before it is otherwise visible, in particular ... A dental handpiece ("drill") is used to remove large portions of decayed material from a tooth. A spoon, a dental instrument ...
Columbia University College of Dental Medicine post-graduate dental lecture series, 2007 Bertazzo, S.; Bertran, C. A. (2006). " ... In advanced cases, skeletal fluorosis damages bones and joints and is painful. Osteoporosis is a disease of bone where there is ... In normal bone, fractures occur when there is significant force applied, or repetitive trauma over a long time. Fractures can ... Osteogenesis imperfecta Osteochondritis dissecans Arthritis Ankylosing spondylitis Skeletal fluorosis is a bone disease caused ...
Mechanical-tactile - dental probe during dental examination,[8] periodontal scaling and root planing,[8] toothbrushing.[7] ... Receding gums can be a sign of long-term trauma from excessive or forceful toothbrushing, or brushing with an abrasive ... Evaporation - air blast from a dental instrument.[8]. *Chemical - acids,[8] e.g. dietary, gastric, acid etch during dental ... Inflammation of the dental pulp, termed pulpitis, produces true hypersensitivity of the nerves in the dental pulp.[5] Pulpitis ...
To provide the best treatment option the dental clinician must determine the level of activity and predict possible progression ... If there are concerns around aesthetics or clinical consequences such as dentinal hypersensitivity, a dental restoration (white ... Australian Dental Journal. 54 (1): 2-8. doi:10.1111/j.1834-7819.2008.01080.x.. ... are some of the reasons why many dental clinicians are looking at the lesion with some scepticism. More research is needed to ...
Chronic trauma may produce an ulcer with a keratotic (white, thickened mucosa) margin.[5] Malignant lesions may ulcerate either ... Oral ulceration is a common reason for people to seek medical or dental advice.[19]:52 A breach of the oral mucosa probably ... Gottfried Schmalz; Dorthe Arenholt Bindslev (2008). Biocompatibility of Dental Materials. Springer. Retrieved March 5, 2014.. ... The two most common causes of oral ulceration are local trauma (e.g. rubbing from a sharp edge on a broken filling) and ...
... (BMS) is a burning sensation in the mouth with no underlying known dental or medical cause.[3] No ... Chronic low-grade trauma due to parafunctional habits (e.g. rubbing the tongue against the teeth or pressing it against the ... Kalantzis, Crispian Scully, Athanasios (2005). Oxford handbook of dental patient care (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University ... Often multiple consultations and unsuccessful attempts at dental and/or medical treatment ...
TMJ Disorders, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research *^ a b c d e f g h i j k Mujakperuo HR, Watson M, ... Trauma[edit]. Trauma, both micro and macrotrauma, is sometimes identified as a possible cause of TMD; however, the evidence for ... "American Association for Dental Research. Retrieved 6 June 2013.. *^ a b c d e f g Luther F, Layton S, McDonald F (July 2010). ... Zadik Y, Drucker S (September 2011). "Diving dentistry: a review of the dental implications of scuba diving". Australian Dental ...
It is however still used in Australia as an emergency analgesic for the initial management of pain due to acute trauma, as well ... A method of sedation analgesia in routine dentistry". Journal of the Dental Association of South Africa. 29 (2): 77-80. PMID ... Klemmer, P.; Hadler, N. (1978). "Subacute fluorosis: A consequence of abuse of an organofluoride anesthetic". Annals of ... A comparison between nitrous oxide and methoxyflurane". British dental journal. 139 (10): 398-402. doi:10.1038/sj.bdj.4803643. ...
History of dental restorations,[46] use of dental appliances, or oral exposure to substances that may cause oral lichenoid ... Papules are arranged in a line (the "Blaschko line").[15] This pattern may develop secondary to trauma (koebnerization) or, ... "IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences. 12: 61-69. doi:10.9790/0853-1216169.. ... dental composites, cobalt chromium based dentures etc). A full examination that includes the evaluation of the mucosal and ...
Cutaneous sinus of dental origin. *Cystic hygroma. *Gnathophyma. *Ludwig's angina. *Macrostomia. *Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome ...
A dental hygienist or dentist will also look for signs of periodontitis using X-rays or periodontal probing as well as other ... A dental hygienist or dentist will check for the symptoms of gingivitis, and may also examine the amount of plaque in the oral ... Dental Hygiene - E-Book: Theory and Practice, by Michele Leonardi Darby, Margaret Walsh, page 318 ... American Dental Hygienists' Association Position Paper on the Oral Prophylaxis Archived 2012-06-26 at the Wayback Machine., ...
Mothers infected with HSV are advised to avoid procedures that would cause trauma to the infant during birth (e.g. fetal scalp ... Balasubramaniam, R; Kuperstein, AS; Stoopler, ET (April 2014). "Update on oral herpes virus infections". Dental Clinics of ... Other identified triggers include local injury to the face, lips, eyes, or mouth; trauma; surgery; radiotherapy; and exposure ... after trauma". J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 66 (1): 136-38. doi:10.1016/j.joms.2006.07.019. PMID 18083428.. ...
Cutaneous sinus of dental origin. *Cystic hygroma. *Gnathophyma. *Ludwig's angina. *Macrostomia. *Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome ...
Surgical procedures such as dental or neural surgery, lip tattooing, or dermabrasion are also common triggers. HSV-1 can in ... Cold sore outbreaks may be influenced by stress, menstruation, sunlight, sunburn, fever, dehydration, or local skin trauma. ...
A reaction to past trauma or infection but it's difficult to rule out in some cases. ... Cutaneous sinus of dental origin. *Cystic hygroma. *Gnathophyma. *Ludwig's angina. *Macrostomia. *Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome ...
Trauma could occur during injections of local anesthetic in the mouth, or otherwise during dental treatments, frictional trauma ... Local trauma is also associated with aphthous stomatitis, and it is known that trauma can decrease the mucosal barrier. ... Tricarico A, Molteni G, Mattioli F, Guerra A, Mordini B, Presutti L, Iughetti L (November-December 2012). "Nipple trauma in ... Different individuals have different triggers, which may include nutritional deficiencies, local trauma, stress, hormonal ...
Hong Kong Dental Journal. 4: 113-21.. *^ Kinirons MJ. (June 1983). "Candidal invasion of dentine complicating hypodontia". ... Common environmental factors include infection, trauma and drugs which predispose to the condition. In hereditary cases, ... "Journal of the American Dental Association. 139 (2): 163-9. doi:10.14219/jada.archive.2008.0132. PMID 18245684.. ... "NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INST GREAT LAKES ILL by Keene, Harris J. Retrieved 2010-05-22.. ...
Common causes of fluorosis include inhalation of fluoride dusts/fumes by workers in industry, consumption of fluoride from drinking water (levels of fluoride in excess of levels that are considered safe[4]), and consumption of fluoride from drinking tea,[5] particularly brick tea. Skeletal fluorosis can be caused by cryolite (Na3AlF6, sodium hexafluoroaluminate), and the disease was first recognized among workers processing cryolite.[6]. In India, most in Nalgonda (Telangana), the most common cause of fluorosis is fluoride-laden drinking water which is sourced as groundwater from deep-bore wells. Over half of groundwater sources in India have fluoride above recommended levels.[7]. Fluorosis can also occur as a result of volcanic activity.[8] The 1783 eruption of the Laki volcano in Iceland is estimated to have killed about 22% of the Icelandic population, and 60% of livestock, as a result of fluorosis and sulfur dioxide ...
Kingston is a suburb of Logan City, Queensland, Australia. Kingston is a predominantly residential suburb, with a low mix of commercial and retail areas. At the 2011 Australian Census the suburb recorded a population of 10,184. The suburb is bounded in the south by Scrubby Creek, a tributary of the Logan River. It is the home of the Kingston Butter Factory. Kingston was also the site of an environmental disaster similar to Love Canal in Niagara Falls in the United States. In the 2011 census, Kingston recorded a population of 10,184 people, 49.9% female and 50.1% male. The median age of the Kingston population was 29 years, 8 years below the national median of 37. 60.8% of people living in Kingston were born in Australia. The other top responses for country of birth were New Zealand 9.5%, England 2.5%, Samoa 2.2%, Fiji 1%, Papua New Guinea 0.8%. 70.9% of people spoke only English at home; the next most common languages were 4.5% Samoan, 1.1% Tongan, 1% Hindi, 0.9% Khmer, 0.9% Arabic. Kingston ...
Until Putney Bridge was opened in 1729, Kingston Bridge was the only crossing of the river between London Bridge and Staines Bridge. According to 16th century antiquarian John Leland, the bridge existed in the centuries when Anglo-Saxon England existed (after Roman Britain and before 1066). He wrote "And yn the old tyme the commune saying ys that the bridge where the commun passage was over the Tamise was lower on the ryver then it is now. And when men began the new town in the Saxons tymes they toke from the very clive of Comeparke [cliff of Coombe Park] side to build on the Tamise side; and sette a new bridge hard by the same."[3] However, it is also claimed that the first Kingston Bridge was constructed in the 1190s.[4] Leland refers to a contemporary bridge and to an older wooden bridge that had existed at Kingston since the 13th century. This was downstream of the present bridge and where Old Bridge Street at Hampton Wick used to be matched by an Old Bridge Street on the Kingston side.[5] ...
Aluminum fluoride reported oral animal lethal dose (LD50) is 0.1 g/kg.[17] Repeated or prolonged inhalation exposure may cause asthma, and may have effects on the bone and nervous system, resulting in bone alterations (fluorosis), and nervous system impairment.[18]. Many of the neurotoxic effects of fluoride are due to the formation of aluminum fluoride complexes, which mimic the chemical structure of a phosphate and influence the activity of ATP phosphohydrolases and phospholipase D. Only micromolar concentrations of aluminum are needed to form aluminum fluoride.[19]. Human exposure to aluminum fluoride can occur in an industrial setting, such as emissions from an aluminum reduction processes,[20] or when a person ingests both a fluoride source (e.g., fluoride in drinking water or residue of fluoride-based pesticides) and an aluminum source; sources of human exposure to aluminum include drinking water, tea, food residues, infant formula, aluminum-containing antacids or medications, ...
In dentistry, the approximal surfaces are those surfaces which form points of contact between adjacent teeth. However, in diastemic individuals these surfaces may not make contact but are still considered approximal. Due to the topography of approximal sites the removal of plaque by brushing may be difficult and hence a significant build-up may occur increasing the risk of plaque-related diseases such as dental caries or gingivitis. It is recommended that teeth be professionally cleaned every six months, in part, to avoid this build-up and therefore maintain the health of the dentition and surrounding tissues. Fejerskov, O; Kidd, E (2008). Dental Caries: The Disease and Its Clinical Management, 2nd Edition. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4051-3889-5 ...
The red goats of Kingston is a controversial public art display which appeared in the stockade district of Kingston, New York, in October 2011. The artists responsible for the goats, which were stenciled on newly installed planters in front of area businesses, were apprehended and charged with several crimes. One, the owner of a tattoo shop in the area, had publicly praised the unknown vandals. His Facebook page showed a picture of a very similar goat that he had tattooed on several people in exchange for $37. Speculation that the graffiti was placed by opponents of the Pike Plan project was not supported by the suspects' testimony. Nevertheless, a debate emerged about whether to preserve the stencils as art or remove them as vandalism. The goats were removed by the contractors renovating the neighborhood. The red goats are stencils which were painted onto a number of white planters and other locations around Kingston's Stockade District from October 24-26, 2011. Varying reports claim that 32, ...
... is an Indian public health specialist, scholar and environmentalist. The Government of India honoured her, in 2014, by awarding her the Padma Shri, the fourth highest civilian award, for her contributions to the fields of public health and environment. Micronutrient deficiency is a serious public health concern in most developing countries. In India, iron deficiency, vitamin A deficiency, and iodine deficiency disorder are of greatest public health significance. In addition, subclinical zinc deficiency, fluorosis, and fluoride-deficient dental caries are important areas of concern, writes Dr. Indira Chakravarty. Chakravarty hails from West Bengal and secured a doctoral degree (PhD) in Biochemistry from Calcutta University. This was followed by a second doctoral degree (DSc). She has been active in the food safety and hygiene milieu of India and the world in general, and has participated in 30 research projects. She has been involved with two projects of ...
According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the Dietary Reference Intakes, which is the "highest level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects" specify 10 mg/day for most people, corresponding to 10 L of fluoridated water with no risk. For infants and young children the values are smaller, ranging from 0.7 mg/d for infants to 2.2 mg/d.[44] Water and food sources of fluoride include community water fluoridation, seafood, tea, and gelatin.[45] Soluble fluoride salts, of which sodium fluoride is the most common, are toxic, and have resulted in both accidental and self-inflicted deaths from acute poisoning.[4] The lethal dose for most adult humans is estimated at 5 to 10 g (which is equivalent to 32 to 64 mg/kg elemental fluoride/kg body weight).[46][47][48] A case of a fatal poisoning of an adult with 4 grams of sodium fluoride is documented,[49] and a dose of 120 g sodium fluoride has been survived.[50] For sodium fluorosilicate ...
During rule of Nizam of Hyderabad, State of Hyderabad was divided in many small Circars. Warangal was made as one the Circars in the early 1800s.[5] In 1866 Circars was Abolished and merged to create districts, Warangal district was created by merging Warungal,[6] Khummettu[7] and part of Bhonagheer circars. Jangaon area from Bhongir Circar was transferred to warangal and kamalpur area of warangal transferred to Karimnagra district. In 1905 when Princely state of Hyderabad sub divided into Four Division namely 1.Aurangabad Division, 2.Gulbarga Division, 3.Gulshanabad Division, 4.Warangal Division. During formation divisions again districts were delimited in 1905 Jangaon(Cherial) Taluka and Kodar(Kodad) Sub Taluka transferred to Nalgonda District from Warangal district.[8] In 1905 AD, Warangal district was formed with Warangal, Pakala, Khammam, Yellandu, Mahabubabad, Madhira, Palvancha taluks and some area of old palvancha sanstan and some jagirs.This was bigger than many districts of Hyderabad ...
During rule of Nizam of Hyderabad, State of Hyderabad was divided in many small Circars. Warangal was made as one the Circars in early 1800's.[5] In 1866 Circars was Abolished and merged to create districts, Warangal district was created by merging Warungal,[6] Khummettu[7] and part of Bhonagheer circars. Jangaon area from Bhongir Circar was transferred to warangal and kamalpur area of warangal transferred to Karimnagra district. In 1905 when Princely state of hyderabad sub divided into Four Division namely 1.Aurangabad Division, 2.Gulbarga Division, 3.Gulshanabad Division, 4.Warangal Division. During formation divisions again districts were delimited in 1905 Jangaon(Cherial) Taluka and Kodar(Kodad) Sub Taluka transferred to Nalgonda District from Warangal district.[8] In 1905 AD, Warangal district was formed with Warangal, Pakala, Khammam, Yellandu, Mahabubabad, Madhira, Palvancha taluks and some area of old palvancha sanstan and some jagirs.This was bigger than many districts of Hyderabad ...
... is a condition in which there are elevated levels of the fluoride ion in the body. Although fluoride is safe for dental health at low concentrations, sustained consumption of large amounts of soluble fluoride salts is dangerous. Referring to a common salt of fluoride, sodium fluoride (NaF), the lethal dose for most adult humans is estimated at 5 to 10 g (which is equivalent to 32 to 64 mg/kg elemental fluoride/kg body weight). Ingestion of fluoride can produce gastrointestinal discomfort at doses at least 15 to 20 times lower (0.2-0.3 mg/kg or 10 to 15 mg for a 50 kg person) than lethal doses. Although it is helpful for dental health in low dosage, chronic exposure to fluoride in large amounts interferes with bone formation. In this way, the most widespread examples of fluoride poisoning arise from consumption of ground water that is abnormally fluoride-rich. For optimal dental health, the World Health ...
Most of Downing Park was a farm belonging to a family named Smith. The Smith's 1750s farmhouse stood at the present location of the pergola. The idea to build a park originated with Mayor Benjamin B. Odell in the late 1880s. The 25-acre Smith estate was acquired and later ten more acres were added. The City offered the design commission to Olmstead and Vaux, who delivered the plans in 1889. It was the last collaboration between the two. Vaux and Olmsted were well known for creating open spaces that promoted the well-being of the public, and they favored naturalistic, rustic, and curving landscape designs. Downing Park's 35-acres were designed to be a passive, contemplative environment in the center of the city. Construction started in 1894 and the park was opened in 1897. In addition to the farmhouse, the park originally featured an observatory and a band shell. The observatory, designed by Calvert's son Downing Vaux, rested on the highest point in the park, commanding spectacular Hudson River ...
Lors du SmackDown du 11 novembre, il manage l'équipe d'Hunico et d'Epico, son cousin, contre The Usos. À la fin, l'équipe attaque, avec lui, The Usos[8]. Il forme ensuite une équipe avec Epico nommée le Latino Clan, managés par Rosa Mendes. L'équipe fait quelques match face à The Usos, avant d'entrer en rivalité face aux Champions par équipes de la WWE Air Boom, Kofi Kingston et Evan Bourne. Après quelques tentatives de s'emparer des titres, Primo et Epico parviennent à les remporter lors d'un house show à Oakland, en Californie[9]. Lors du Raw du 16 janvier 2012, ils conservent leurs titres contre Air Boom. Lors du Royal Rumble, pendant le Royal Rumble Match, il entre avec le no 6 et se fait éliminer par Mick Foley[10]. Lors du Raw du 20 février, il perd avec Epico contre Kofi Kingston et R-Truth. Lors du Raw du 27 février, ils conservent leurs titres contre Kofi Kingston et R-Truth, et Jack Swagger et Dolph Ziggler dans un Triple Threat Tag Team Match.Lors du SmackDown du 9 ...
Dental surgury options for a toddler? September 8, 2011. Which are your favorite teeth cleaning products? March 3, 2011. How ... Can fluorosis vanish in a week? February 4, 2014 10:35 AM Subscribe. Can fluorosis vanish in a week? I thought once you have it ... Gum trauma causes painful white blister? January 2, 2007. Tags. fluorosis teeth ... he/she most likely did not find evidence of fluorosis upon examination, nor suspect that you live in a place where fluorosis is ...
Fluoride ingestion (dental fluorosis). Birth injury. Preterm birth. Infection. Trauma from a deciduous tooth. Turners ... Dental Enamel Defects and Celiac Disease National Institute of Health (NIH) Ferraz EG, Campos Ede J, Sarmento VA, Silva LR ( ... Turners hypoplasia usually affects the tooth enamel if the trauma occurs prior to the third year of life. Injuries occurring ... Nelson, S.J (2003). Dental anatomy, physiology, and occlusion (8th ed.). Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders. ISBN 0-7216-9382-2. CS1 ...
... dental trauma, and enamel fluorosis; 2) assess efforts to prevent disease and disability, including prevalence of dental ... Dental fluorosis. See enamel fluorosis. Dental sealants. Also called pit-and-fissure sealants, these are thin plastic coatings ... selected elements of the dental component (i.e., dental caries, dental sealants, enamel fluorosis, tooth retention, and ... Kappa values ranged from 0.56 to 0.73 for enamel fluorosis and from 0.64 to 1.00 for dental caries and presence of dental ...
Fluorosis:[20] Dental fluorosis causes enamel to become opaque, chalky white, and porous. The enamel can break down and cause ... Dental trauma[12] which may cause staining either as a result of pulp necrosis or internal resorption. Alternatively the tooth ... Fejerskov, O.; Manji, F.; Baelum, V. (February 1990). "The Nature and Mechanisms of Dental Fluorosis in Man". Journal of Dental ... "Dental fluorosis: Exposure, prevention and management". ResearchGate. Retrieved 2019-05-13.. *^ a b Sánchez, AR; Rogers RS, 3rd ...
Dental trauma may result in discolorations. Following luxation injuries red discoloration may develop almost instantly. This is ... Fluorosis may occur when there is chronic and excessive exposure to fluoride during the years of tooth development. Fluoride is ... Teeth die mainly as a result of extensive tooth decay, however this may also occur following dental trauma or heavy drilling ... Internal resorption may sometimes follow dental trauma (although in other cases it appears unrelated). This is where the dentin ...
Consuming too much fluoride while the teeth are being formed lead to fluorosis, resulting in discoloration or enamel spots. ... In addition, high fevers or trauma (such as a fall that injures a tooth) in infants or young children may discolor teeth. Young ... Teeth affected by fluorosis are not diseased. Fluorosis will not result in cavities or other dental problems. Concerns about ... Fluorosis is a cosmetic condition, not a disease. Often, it is so mild that only a dental professional can detect it. Most ...
... community aspects of dental fluorosis; community aspects of dental trauma; the special needs patient; monitoring clinical ... Population Oral Health will provide the theoretical foundation of primary dental care; screening for dental caries; dental ... The student will be introduced to primary care clinical practice and the management and treatment of patients with dental ... More advanced aspects of Oral Pathobiology, Dental Biochemistry and Oral Biology will be covered to support understanding of ...
Dental Injury. *Dental Trauma. *Dry Mouth. *Dry Tooth Socket. *Excessive Tooth Wear ...
No treatment for dental caries in the past 12 months.. • No mention of the number of children in Maryland with dental fluorosis ... trauma, premature loss, and eruption status…". Arkansas. 64.4%. Too Few Visits to the Dentist? The Impact on Childrens Health ... No statitstics were given on dental fluorosis even though "More than 13,000 children received dental screenings." and "each ... plus a lower prevalence of dental sealants.. • No mention of the number of children in Missouri with dental fluorosis.Oral ...
Trauma does not cause dental fluorosis, "demarcated" or otherwise. There are distinct levels of dental fluorosis: very mild, ... I think you are confusing "endemic dental fluorosis," with "near universal dental fluorosis." ... Unlike dental fluorosis, which happens with exposure in the early years, irreversible skeletal fluorosis can occur at any time ... Skeletal fluorosis-first found in cattle and dental fluorosis. Bones and teeth affected.. • After discovered soft tissue ...
... dental trauma and dental enamel defects other than fluorosis) in this survey as they are of lesser importance or are difficult ... Dental fluorosis. The prevalence of dental fluorosis is presented in Table 4 for 12-year-olds and in Table 5 for 15-year-olds. ... Dental fluorosis. Deans criteria [3], as described in the WHO guidelines [1], were used to record dental fluorosis in the ... If the "questionable" grade of dental fluorosis is included within the "healthy" grade, the prevalence of dental fluorosis was ...
This issue reviews common pediatric dental injuries and provides a systematic emergency medicine-based approach for appropriate ... Key aspects of managing pediatric dental trauma involve determining whether the affected dentition is primary or permanent and ... A standardized photographic method for evaluating enamel opacities including fluorosis. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2004;32 ... dental trauma, oral trauma, emergency dental care, dental injury, dental fracture, dental intrusion, dental extrusion, dental ...
A review of common dental injuries, with a systematic approach for evaluation and management of injuries including fractured, ... A standardized photographic method for evaluating enamel opacities including fluorosis. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2004;32 ... dental trauma, oral trauma, emergency dental care, dental injury, dental fracture, dental intrusion, dental extrusion, dental ... Time delays in treating dental trauma at a childrens hospital and private pediatric dental practice. Pediatr Dent. 2014;36(3): ...
Categories: Bones/Joints, Bone Fracture, Bone Strength, Osteomalacia, Skeletal Fluorosis, Collagen Abstract. Minimal trauma ... fluoride prevents the development of dental caries; at doses of about 23 mg F /d, fluoride was proposed in the treatment of ... B. Abnormal mineral: fluorosis. The effects of fluoride on bone tissue depend on the cumulative dose: at very low dose, less ... Severe bone deformities in young children from vitamin D deficiency and fluorosis in Bihar-India. A case-control study was ...
What adverse effect does tetracycline have on developing dental structures?. Discoloration. What adverse effect does fluorosis ... What is the most common sequela of tooth formation seen from inflammation, trauma, infection, systemic dz, and endocrine ... What is the rule of dental succession?. No successional and deciduous precursor teeth should be erupted simultaneously or in ... The dental germ must move as it develops to keep position in the developing jaws. ...
An epidemiological survey for prevalence desription of dental morbidity (caries, gingivitis, dental trauma and fluorosis) among ... including the prevention of tooth diseases and instruction in dental hygiene and dental health. The dental care may include the ... Results of a two year dental health education program to reduce dental caries in young Aboriginal children in New South Wales, ... Dental Care For Children. The giving of attention to the special dental needs of children, ...
Adherence to the Dental Board of Australia Guidelines on dental records is not universal and remediation of deficient practice ... An epidemiological survey for prevalence desription of dental morbidity (caries, gingivitis, dental trauma and fluorosis) among ... Dental Record.". Adherence to the Dental Board of Australia Guidelines on dental records is not universal and remediation of ... Dental Anxiety Among Israeli Postgraduate Pediatric Dental Students and their Instructors.. To measure the dental anxiety ...
Management of dental trauma in primary care: A postal survey of general dental practitioners. British Dental Journal 2005, 198( ... Dental fluorosis. Preventing and managing dental caries in children: *I was Joint Chief Investigator and local Clinical Lead ... Al-Majed I, Murray JJ, Maguire A. Prevalence of dental trauma in 5-6- and 12-14-year-old boys in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Dental ... British Dental Journal 2003, 194(8), 429-436. * Al-Majed I, Maguire A, Murray JJ. Risk factors for dental erosion in 5-6 year ...
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study involves a group of 20 athletes (10 male and 10 female) who had suffered dental traumas of ... Four out of 6 cases of fluorosis disappeared. Diagnosis plays a key role in guiding the dental clinical selection of treatment ... AIM: The aim of the present work is to investigate whether dental decoronation is a procedure known by a sample of dental ... Preventive treatment of post-traumatic dental infraocclusion: study on the knowledge of dental decoronation in a sample of ...
... many different tooth-whitening procedures and products available on the market today from tooth-whitening toothpaste to dental ... These include tetracycline antibiotics taken during tooth formation, stains due to a trauma or an organic illness, and ... overexposure to fluoride that causes fluorosis and tooth discoloration. Dentists may suggest a take home bleaching procedure at ... Your First Dental Visit Consultation And Dental Exams. Intra-Oral Cameras also enable us to save your images during dental ...
... and to analyse if early trauma to the primary teeth and early... ... The relationship between dental fluorosis and the content of ... Well-known enamel defects are amelogenesis imperfecta, dental fluorosis, enamel defects in permanent teeth caused by trauma or ... Dental fluorosis is a well-known, environmental developmental defect of the enamel. The causal connection between fluorosis and ... Adolescents perceptions of the aesthetic impact of dental fluorosis vs. other dental conditions in areas with and without ...
... fluoridated water is not increasing dental fluorosis may be confusing true fluorosis with other dental injury caused by trauma ... I have read comments on Openparachute claiming that dental fluorosis can be though of as pretty, or at least of no concern. Now ... Your quote: "I have read comments on Openparachute claiming that dental fluorosis can be though of as pretty, or at least of no ... Second, "very mild or greater . . " That would be very mild or mild dental fluorosis. We already went over that. This is an ...
Fluorosis Fluoride ingested with drinking water may produce fluorosis, changes in the enamel. Fluorosis ranges from a few white ... Other dental findings include increased dental caries and delayed dental eruption. Individual teeth can be affected by more ... Trauma Trauma during tooth development may cause severe enamel hypoplasia or dilaceration of the teeth. Intrusion of the ... Oral sensitivity, dental health, and prevention. (AAMR).. The lower incisor periodontal (LIP) score: a dental screening tool ...
  • First year provides an introduction to the principles and concepts of Tooth Conservation, the early development of technical skills, an introduction to and use of the three principal restorative materials (glass ionomer cement, composite resin and dental amalgam), minimal intervention and preventive techniques. (edu.au)
  • Procedures requiring certain dental materials, such as silver amalgam restorations, can produce a grayish-black cast to teeth. (yourdentistryguide.com)
  • After initial dental assessment of your condition, the color of your tooth would be determined in order for comparison after teeth whitening. (intelligentdental.com)
  • Professional teeth whitening by Dr. Rezaiyan at Spring Dental Associates is one of the most popular cosmetic dental treatments he offers his dental patients in Silver Spring, MD. The use of a comparatively high concentration of bleaching gel is carefully monitored, unlike in-home use systems which use low-dose bleaching gel that are unsupervised. (silverspringbestdentist.com)
  • After the professional teeth whitening, Dr. Rezaiyan at Spring Dental Associates in Silver Spring, MD will examine your teeth. (silverspringbestdentist.com)
  • If the acceptable level of professional teeth whitening has not been accomplished, he might recommend either a follow-up for another in-office bleaching at Spring Dental Associates in or custom fitted take-home bleaching trays which are designed just for you to use at your Silver Spring, MD home. (silverspringbestdentist.com)
  • Teeth whitening at Metropolitan Dental Care is perhaps one of the most requested cosmetic dentistry treatments we perform. (metrodentalcare.com)
  • If you are interested in learning more about teeth whitening and how it can benefit you, contact our Denver or Lone Tree dental office today to schedule your consultation. (metrodentalcare.com)
  • The good news is, at Dental at Joondalup we can perform non-invasive teeth whitening treatments for a relatively low-cost! (dentalatjoondalup.com.au)
  • Prolonged dental plaque accumulation on the tooth surface can lead to enamel demineralisation and formation of white spot lesions which appear as an opaque milk-coloured lesion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Marshman Z, Kettle J, Holmes RD, Freeman R, Gibson BJ, McColl E, Maguire A, Douglas GVA, Clarkson JE, Innes N. Dental professionals' experiences of managing children with carious lesions in their primary teeth - a qualitative study within the FiCTION randomised controlled trial . (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Post-trauma lesions should be infiltrated with caution, and only after having informed the patient of the possible ineffective outcome. (bvsalud.org)
  • Initially as a Clinical Lecturer then Senior Clinical Lecturer in Child Dental Health and since 2013 as Professor (Clinical) of Preventive Dentistry as well as a Specialist in Paediatric Dentistry and now in retirement since January 2020, I maintain an active research interest in the prevention and management of dental caries and the use of fluorides, particularly in relation to fluoride exposure. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • He found different dentistry like Tadros Dental and many others provide quality tooth- whitening services around Texas. (sooperarticles.com)
  • If emergency dental conditions occur during submarine operations, dentistry services are not available. (jammonline.com)
  • This is the first study in humans showing an association between a routinely administered, minimally invasive clinical procedure and arrested third molar growth," said corresponding author, Anthony R. Silvestri, DMD, clinical professor in the department of prosthodontics and operative dentistry at Tufts University School of Dental Medicine. (odontovida.com)
  • Cosmetic dentistry has become very popular in the last several years, not only due to advances in cosmetic dental procedures and materials, but also because patients are becoming increasingly focused on improving their overall health. (upadhyaydentalvadodara.com)
  • Although Public Health Dentistry is concerned with oral health of the population rather than dental needs of an individual patient, the ultimate beneficiary of public health programs is an individual. (jaypeedigital.com)
  • Forensic dentistry, Occupational hazards, Ergonomics in dentistry and Financial aspects of dental health practice are attracting greater attention these days. (jaypeedigital.com)
  • A community dental clinic lies in the heart of the area and provides excellent dentistry for all. (pearldentalclinic.co.uk)
  • Proposed requirements for a European Doctorate in Dentistry: a discussion document prepared by a special interest group under the auspices of the Association for Dental Education in Europe. (rxdentistry.net)
  • An Introduction to Sports Injuries & Dentistry Dental injuries incurred during sports activities are highly treatable, and can involve positive outcomes if participants act quickly to see a dentist after an injury. (bordendentalarts.com)
  • Multidisciplinary dentistry in management of untreated Fluorosis in an adult using ceramic veneers. (drkamsiah.com)
  • Minimum Invasive Dentistry with DSD in a trauma case. (drkamsiah.com)
  • Much of the anti-fluoridation propaganda used by activists relies on studies done in areas of endemic fluorosis. (wordpress.com)
  • According to the UK Government's systematic scientific review on water fluoridation, carried out at York University, about forty eight per cent of people living in fluoridated areas are affected by dental fluorosis. (detailshere.com)
  • Moreover, in the persistent drive to extend fluoridation schemes across the country, dental and public health officials dismiss this distressing condition as an acceptable public health trade-off, insisting that 'the benefits outweigh the risks. (detailshere.com)
  • They say it is safe and effective and Australia wide and USA all in dental crisis after decades of the poison fluoridation commencing firstly in Australia 1953 and USA in 1945. (fluoride-class-action.com)
  • These data provide information for public health professionals in designing interventions to improve oral health and to reduce disparities in oral health, for researchers in assessing factors associated with disparities and dental caries in primary teeth, and in designing timely surveillance tools to monitor total fluoride exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • El-Yousfi S, Innes NPT, Holmes RD, Freeman R, Cunningham KB, McColl E, Maguire A, Douglas GVA, Clarkson JE, Marshman Z. Children and parents' perspectives on the acceptability of three management strategies for dental caries in primary teeth within the 'Filling Children's Teeth: Indicated Or Not' Randomised Controlled Trial - a qualitative study . (ncl.ac.uk)
  • This unit introduces the student to Cariology and the disease of dental caries, covering natural history, causation, prevention, diagnosis and differential diagnosis, treatment and clinical management, patient management and the roles of professional and home care. (edu.au)
  • Diagnosis plays a key role in guiding the dental clinical selection of treatment. (bvsalud.org)
  • Of the 98 students, the predominant success was dental fluorosis, where 93.9% answered the diagnosis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Over the past four decades, oral and dental health characteristics collected in national surveys supported by the Federal Government have been critical for monitoring health status, risk factors for disease, access to preventive and treatment services, and other health characteristics among the general population and special subpopulations. (cdc.gov)
  • Since 1996, a consortium formed by CDC and the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) has developed and implemented a plan to use the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to obtain epidemiologic estimates of dental conditions and preventive efforts. (cdc.gov)
  • This suggests the importance of developing immediate preventive intervention for dental fluorosis. (omicsonline.org)
  • A first dental visit by your child's first birthday is a good time to start preventive dental care. (kidsdental.ca)
  • Therefore, your child will benefit from early preventive care at our office through effective brushing and flossing, adequate fluoride, sealants, good nutrition and regular dental visits. (kidsdental.ca)
  • This textbook deliberately takes a broader international perspective of the dental preventive measures. (jaypeedigital.com)
  • However, more perceptive scientists and dentists are sensitive to the social stigma of dental fluorosis. (detailshere.com)
  • Most of the dentists offer this service in their dental offices. (dentist-manila.com)
  • The professional strength whitening gel used by dentists contains special ingredients designed to whiten teeth by up to several shades and counteract dental sensitivity. (metrodentalcare.com)
  • All thinking people must ask, who in their right minds would force an entire population to consume this in everything we eat, drink and bathe in, also ask why would Dentists and doctors fight to the death to enforce this pollutant on us all & our environment if as they say it is effective at reducing dental decay by between 30 & 60% thus reducing their income. (fluoride-class-action.com)
  • Top Dentists is your source for identifying dental conditions that affect you, browsing treatment options and then brushing up (literally! (topdentists.com)
  • With time being a precious commodity, patients are now turning to cosmetic dentists to provide all their dental and facial needs. (pearldentalclinic.co.uk)
  • A dental emergency can be extremely painful and worrying, therefore, you need to find out of hours dentists who you can trust to get you in quickly and provide the correct treatment for your problem. (pearldentalclinic.co.uk)
  • Low-income individuals also have a higher incidence of dental decay. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Studies conducted since the 1920s have documented the relationship between dental decay and increased ingestion of refined sugar and other carbohydrates in the Native population. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Alaska's caries experience rates (evidence of past or present dental decay) are higher than the national baseline of 52%, with 65 percent of Alaskan third grade children with caries experience at the time of the assessments. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Higher dental decay rates were seen in third graders from racial/ethnic minority groups. (fluoridealert.org)
  • High dental decay rates in Alaska Native children have been noted in previous Indian Health Service dental assessments, however the 2004 third-grade dental assessments in Alaska found similar caries experience rates in third-grade Asian and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander racial/ethnic groups (See Figure 1). (fluoridealert.org)
  • Similar patterns were seen in terms of untreated dental decay in Alaskan third-graders with higher rates in third-graders from racial/ethnic minorities (See Figure 2). (fluoridealert.org)
  • an NIHR-HTA funded multi-centre primary dental care based RCT, published in January 2020 which aimed to determine the best way of managing decay in childrens' primary teeth. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • 1994, H. Tala], and subjects were often chosen by convenience rather than by random sampling, although these surveys were sufficient to indicate an increasing problem of dental decay in young schoolchildren in the Emirates. (who.int)
  • Regular dental visits are important during your teens and early twenties because this is the time when teeth are most likely to decay. (issaquahdentalcare.com)
  • Dental plaque that contains bacteria or fungi can look green or orange, and accumulation of dental plaque can lead to decay. (dentagama.com)
  • Dental caries and fluorosis was re- dental decay in young schoolchildren in the corded in both age groups, 12 and 15 years, Emirates. (who.int)
  • The main reason to fix discoloured teeth is because it could be due to an underlying issue such as dental decay or dead tooth. (dentalatjoondalup.com.au)
  • Dental plaque: Although usually virtually invisible on the tooth surface, plaque may become stained by chromogenic bacteria such as Actinomyces species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dental plaque: even if it is not visible when it is at the tooth surface, the plaque can be stained through chromogenic bacteria like actinomyces species. (urbndental.com)
  • Dental plaque and calculus are very common among people, and the color of the calculus can vary from yellow, grey, brow or even black. (dentist-manila.com)
  • Without dental intervention, it is not possible, because only a doctor will be able to clean you all the teeth from plaque bacteria. (medicineinfo.net)
  • Het educatief programma bestond uit een theoretische les, plaque-onthulling met een praktische poetssessie, alsook lesmateriaal zoals posters en materialen om spelenderwijs te leren. (scriptiebank.be)
  • Bij 86.3% van de kinderen werd plaque gevonden en bij 38.7% van de kinderen werd tandsteen vastgesteld.De algemene kennis rond mondgezondheid bleek laag. (scriptiebank.be)
  • Your personal home care starts by eating balanced meals, reducing the number of snacks you eat, and correctly using the various dental aids that help control the plaque and bacteria that cause dental disease. (upadhyaydentalvadodara.com)