The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.
The total of dental diagnostic, preventive, and restorative services provided to meet the needs of a patient (from Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982).
Use for articles concerning dental education in general.
Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.
Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.
Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.
Dental care for patients with chronic diseases. These diseases include chronic cardiovascular, endocrinologic, hematologic, immunologic, neoplastic, and renal diseases. The concept does not include dental care for the mentally or physically disabled which is DENTAL CARE FOR DISABLED.
The giving of attention to the special dental needs of children, including the prevention of tooth diseases and instruction in dental hygiene and dental health. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.
Facilities where dental care is provided to patients.
A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Persons trained in an accredited school or dental college and licensed by the state in which they reside to provide dental prophylaxis under the direction of a licensed dentist.
The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a dental school.
Dental care for the emotionally, mentally, or physically disabled patient. It does not include dental care for the chronically ill ( = DENTAL CARE FOR CHRONICALLY ILL).
Abnormal fear or dread of visiting the dentist for preventive care or therapy and unwarranted anxiety over dental procedures.
Insurance providing coverage for dental care.
Personnel whose work is prescribed and supervised by the dentist.
Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.
The study of laws, theories, and hypotheses through a systematic examination of pertinent facts and their interpretation in the field of dentistry. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982, p674)
The giving of attention to the special dental needs of the elderly for proper maintenance or treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.
The curve formed by the row of TEETH in their normal position in the JAW. The inferior dental arch is formed by the mandibular teeth, and the superior dental arch by the maxillary teeth.
A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.
An alloy used in restorative dentistry that contains mercury, silver, tin, copper, and possibly zinc.
The room or rooms in which the dentist and dental staff provide care. Offices include all rooms in the dentist's office suite.
Data collected during dental examination for the purpose of study, diagnosis, or treatment planning.
Personnel who provide dental service to patients in an organized facility, institution or agency.
The nonexpendable items used by the dentist or dental staff in the performance of professional duties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p106)
Nonspecialized dental practice which is concerned with providing primary and continuing dental care.
Presentation devices used for patient education and technique training in dentistry.
Individuals who assist the dentist or the dental hygienist.
Educational programs designed to inform dentists of recent advances in their fields.
A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.
Biocompatible materials placed into (endosseous) or onto (subperiosteal) the jawbone to support a crown, bridge, or artificial tooth, or to stabilize a diseased tooth.
Radiographic techniques used in dentistry.
Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.
Educational programs for dental graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic dental sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced dental degree.
The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the dentist, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the dentist in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Hospital department providing dental care.
Individuals licensed to practice DENTISTRY.
Societies whose membership is limited to dentists.
The field of dentistry involved in procedures for designing and constructing dental appliances. It includes also the application of any technology to the field of dentistry.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to dental or oral health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
A chronic endemic form of hypoplasia of the dental enamel caused by drinking water with a high fluorine content during the time of tooth formation, and characterized by defective calcification that gives a white chalky appearance to the enamel, which gradually undergoes brown discoloration. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)
The granting of a license to practice dentistry.
Facilities for the performance of services related to dental treatment but not done directly in the patient's mouth.
Various branches of dental practice limited to specialized areas.
Amounts charged to the patient as payer for dental services.
Individuals responsible for fabrication of dental appliances.
The organization and operation of the business aspects of a dental practice.
Dense fibrous layer formed from mesodermal tissue that surrounds the epithelial enamel organ. The cells eventually migrate to the external surface of the newly formed root dentin and give rise to the cementoblasts that deposit cementum on the developing root, fibroblasts of the developing periodontal ligament, and osteoblasts of the developing alveolar bone.
The profession concerned with the teeth, oral cavity, and associated structures, and the diagnosis and treatment of their diseases including prevention and the restoration of defective and missing tissue.
Skills, techniques, standards, and principles used to improve the art and symmetry of the teeth and face to improve the appearance as well as the function of the teeth, mouth, and face. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p108)
Providing for the full range of dental health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and rehabilitation of patients.
Education which increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of dental health on a personal or community basis.
The psychological relations between the dentist and patient.
One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.
Efforts to prevent and control the spread of infections within dental health facilities or those involving provision of dental care.
Mesodermal tissue enclosed in the invaginated portion of the epithelial enamel organ and giving rise to the dentin and pulp.
An artificial replacement for one or more natural teeth or part of a tooth, or associated structures, ranging from a portion of a tooth to a complete denture. The dental prosthesis is used for cosmetic or functional reasons, or both. DENTURES and specific types of dentures are also available. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p244 & Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p643)
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
'Tooth diseases' is a broad term referring to various conditions affecting the teeth, including dental caries (cavities), periodontal disease (gum disease), tooth wear, tooth sensitivity, oral cancer, and developmental anomalies, which can result in pain, discomfort, or loss of teeth if left untreated.
A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of dental care.
The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.
A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.
The plan and delineation of dental prostheses in general or a specific dental prosthesis. It does not include DENTURE DESIGN. The framework usually consists of metal.
Hand-held tools or implements especially used by dental professionals for the performance of clinical tasks.
Any waste product generated by a dental office, surgery, clinic, or laboratory including amalgams, saliva, and rinse water.
The grafting or inserting of a prosthetic device of alloplastic material into the oral tissue beneath the mucosal or periosteal layer or within the bone. Its purpose is to provide support and retention to a partial or complete denture.
Economic aspects of the dental profession and dental care.
"Decayed, missing and filled teeth," a routinely used statistical concept in dentistry.
A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions for use in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.
The predisposition to tooth decay (DENTAL CARIES).
A prosthesis that gains its support, stability, and retention from a substructure that is implanted under the soft tissues of the basal seat of the device and is in contact with bone. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
The application of computer and information sciences to improve dental practice, research, education and management.
The practice of personal hygiene of the mouth. It includes the maintenance of oral cleanliness, tissue tone, and general preservation of oral health.
The relationship of all the components of the masticatory system in normal function. It has special reference to the position and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth for the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p556, p472)
Removal of dental plaque and dental calculus from the surface of a tooth, from the surface of a tooth apical to the gingival margin accumulated in periodontal pockets, or from the surface coronal to the gingival margin.
That phase of clinical dentistry concerned with the restoration of parts of existing teeth that are defective through disease, trauma, or abnormal development, to the state of normal function, health, and esthetics, including preventive, diagnostic, biological, mechanical, and therapeutic techniques, as well as material and instrument science and application. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 2d ed, p237)
Use for material on dental facilities in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Devices used in the home by persons to maintain dental and periodontal health. The devices include toothbrushes, dental flosses, water irrigators, gingival stimulators, etc.
The branch of dentistry concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance and promotion of oral health.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Photographic techniques used in ORTHODONTICS; DENTAL ESTHETICS; and patient education.
The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A prosthetic restoration that reproduces the entire surface anatomy of the visible natural crown of a tooth. It may be partial (covering three or more surfaces of a tooth) or complete (covering all surfaces). It is made of gold or other metal, porcelain, or resin.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)
A type of porcelain used in dental restorations, either jacket crowns or inlays, artificial teeth, or metal-ceramic crowns. It is essentially a mixture of particles of feldspar and quartz, the feldspar melting first and providing a glass matrix for the quartz. Dental porcelain is produced by mixing ceramic powder (a mixture of quartz, kaolin, pigments, opacifiers, a suitable flux, and other substances) with distilled water. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
A rapid, low-dose, digital imaging system using a small intraoral sensor instead of radiographic film, an intensifying screen, and a charge-coupled device. It presents the possibility of reduced patient exposure and minimal distortion, although resolution and latitude are inferior to standard dental radiography. A receiver is placed in the mouth, routing signals to a computer which images the signals on a screen or in print. It includes digitizing from x-ray film or any other detector. (From MEDLINE abstracts; personal communication from Dr. Charles Berthold, NIDR)
The practice of dentistry concerned with preventive as well as diagnostic and treatment programs in a circumscribed population.
General or unspecified diseases of the stomatognathic system, comprising the mouth, teeth, jaws, and pharynx.
The practice of dentistry concerned with the dental problems of children, proper maintenance, and treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.
Professional society representing the field of dentistry.
Creation of a smooth and glossy surface finish on a denture or amalgam.
Patterns of practice in dentistry related to diagnosis and treatment.
Insertion of an implant into the bone of the mandible or maxilla. The implant has an exposed head which protrudes through the mucosa and is a prosthodontic abutment.
Pain in the adjacent areas of the teeth.
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
Laws and regulations pertaining to the field of dentistry, proposed for enactment or recently enacted by a legislative body.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the teeth.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
An acquired or hereditary condition due to deficiency in the formation of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS). It is usually characterized by defective, thin, or malformed DENTAL ENAMEL. Risk factors for enamel hypoplasia include gene mutations, nutritional deficiencies, diseases, and environmental factors.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
'Dental libraries' are collections of resources, including books, journals, databases, and multimedia materials, that provide information and knowledge to support dental education, research, and practice.
Examination of the mouth and teeth toward the identification and diagnosis of intraoral disease or manifestation of non-oral conditions.
An approach or process of practicing oral health care that requires the judicious integration of systematic assessments of clinical relevant scientific evidence, relating to the patient's oral and medical condition and history, with the dentist's clinical expertise and the patient's treatment needs and preferences. (from J Am Dent Assoc 134: 689, 2003)
Any group of three or more full-time dentists, organized in a legally recognized entity for the provision of dental care, sharing space, equipment, personnel and records for both patient care and business management, and who have a predetermined arrangement for the distribution of income.
The part of a tooth from the neck to the apex, embedded in the alveolar process and covered with cementum. A root may be single or divided into several branches, usually identified by their relative position, e.g., lingual root or buccal root. Single-rooted teeth include mandibular first and second premolars and the maxillary second premolar teeth. The maxillary first premolar has two roots in most cases. Maxillary molars have three roots. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p690)
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It supports a comprehensive research portfolio that focuses on the biological, social, behavioral and neuroscientific bases of drug abuse on the body and brain as well as its causes, prevention, and treatment. NIDA, NIAAA, and NIMH were created as coequal institutes within the Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Administration in 1974. It was established within the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH in 1992.
Endodontic diseases of the DENTAL PULP inside the tooth, which is distinguished from PERIAPICAL DISEASES of the tissue surrounding the root.
Traumatic or other damage to teeth including fractures (TOOTH FRACTURES) or displacements (TOOTH LUXATION).
Abnormal concretion or calcified deposit that forms around the teeth or dental prostheses.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
'Dental pulp calcification' is a pathological condition characterized by the deposition of hard tissue within the pulp chamber and root canal(s), which can result in the obliteration of pulpal space, potentially leading to various clinical symptoms such as pain or dental sensitivity.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
The teeth of the first dentition, which are shed and replaced by the permanent teeth.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
The teeth collectively in the dental arch. Dentition ordinarily refers to the natural teeth in position in their alveoli. Dentition referring to the deciduous teeth is DENTITION, PRIMARY; to the permanent teeth, DENTITION, PERMANENT. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
An operation in which carious material is removed from teeth and biomechanically correct forms are established in the teeth to receive and retain restorations. A constant requirement is provision for prevention of failure of the restoration through recurrence of decay or inadequate resistance to applied stresses. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239-40)
An adhesion procedure for orthodontic attachments, such as plastic DENTAL CROWNS. This process usually includes the application of an adhesive material (DENTAL CEMENTS) and letting it harden in-place by light or chemical curing.
An index which scores the degree of dental plaque accumulation.
The act of cleaning teeth with a brush to remove plaque and prevent tooth decay. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.
Inability or inadequacy of a dental restoration or prosthesis to perform as expected.
A dental specialty concerned with the maintenance of the dental pulp in a state of health and the treatment of the pulp cavity (pulp chamber and pulp canal).
A dental specialty concerned with the restoration and maintenance of oral function by the replacement of missing TEETH and related structures by artificial devices or DENTAL PROSTHESES.
Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
The process of TOOTH formation. It is divided into several stages including: the dental lamina stage, the bud stage, the cap stage, and the bell stage. Odontogenesis includes the production of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS), dentin (DENTINOGENESIS), and dental cementum (CEMENTOGENESIS).
Procedure of producing an imprint or negative likeness of the teeth and/or edentulous areas. Impressions are made in plastic material which becomes hardened or set while in contact with the tissue. They are later filled with plaster of Paris or artificial stone to produce a facsimile of the oral structures present. Impressions may be made of a full complement of teeth, of areas where some teeth have been removed, or in a mouth from which all teeth have been extracted. (Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)
Pathological processes involving the PERIODONTIUM including the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
Natural teeth or teeth roots used as anchorage for a fixed or removable denture or other prosthesis (such as an implant) serving the same purpose.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
'Mouth diseases' is a broad term referring to various conditions that cause inflammation, infection, or structural changes in any part of the mouth, including the lips, gums, tongue, palate, cheeks, and teeth, which can lead to symptoms such as pain, discomfort, difficulty in chewing or speaking, and altered aesthetics.
A means of identifying the age of an animal or human through tooth examination.
Chemicals especially for use on instruments to destroy pathogenic organisms. (Boucher, Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The application of dental knowledge to questions of law.
Agents used to occlude dental enamel pits and fissures in the prevention of dental caries.
A course of study offered by an educational institution.
The third tooth to the left and to the right of the midline of either jaw, situated between the second INCISOR and the premolar teeth (BICUSPID). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p817)
A dental specialty concerned with the histology, physiology, and pathology of the tissues that support, attach, and surround the teeth, and of the treatment and prevention of disease affecting these tissues.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
True-false questionnaire made up of items believed to indicate anxiety, in which the subject answers verbally the statement that describes him.
Accumulations of microflora that lead to pathological plaque and calculus which cause PERIODONTAL DISEASES. It can be considered a type of BIOFILMS. It is subtly distinguished from the protective DENTAL PELLICLE.
A tooth from which the dental pulp has been removed or is necrotic. (Boucher, Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
Requirements for the selection of students for admission to academic institutions.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Such malposition and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth as to interfere with the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)
Substances that inhibit or arrest DENTAL CARIES formation. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
Progressive loss of the hard substance of a tooth by chemical processes that do not involve bacterial action. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p296)
One of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that form the upper jaw. A maxillary bone provides tooth sockets for the superior teeth, forms part of the ORBIT, and contains the MAXILLARY SINUS.
A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.
Application of a protective agent to an exposed pulp (direct capping) or the remaining thin layer of dentin over a nearly exposed pulp (indirect capping) in order to allow the pulp to recover and maintain its normal vitality and function.
The 32 teeth of adulthood that either replace or are added to the complement of deciduous teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
The use of a layer of tooth-colored material, usually porcelain or acrylic resin, applied to the surface of natural teeth, crowns, or pontics by fusion, cementation, or mechanical retention.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Surgical procedures used to treat disease, injuries, and defects of the oral and maxillofacial region.
Complete or severe loss of the subjective sense of taste, frequently accompanied by OLFACTION DISORDERS.
Total lack of teeth through disease or extraction.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
Control, direction and financing of the total dental care of the population by a national government.
The branch of dentistry concerned with the dental problems of older people.

In vitro comparison of the retention capacity of new aesthetic brackets. (1/1055)

Tensile bond strength and bond failure location were evaluated in vitro for two types of aesthetic brackets (non-silanated ceramic, polycarbonate) and one stainless steel bracket, using bovine teeth as the substrate and diacrylate resin as the adhesive. The results show that metallic bracket had the highest bond strength (13.21 N) followed by the new plastic bracket (12.01 N), which does not require the use of a primer. The non-silanated ceramic bracket produced the lowest bond strength (8.88 N). Bond failures occurred mainly between bracket and cement, although a small percentage occurred between the enamel-cement interface with the metal and plastic brackets and within the cement for the plastic bracket. With the ceramic bracket all the failures occurred at the bracket-cement interface. This suggests that the problems of enamel lesions produced by this type of bracket may have been eliminated. The results also show that the enamel/adhesive bond is stronger than the adhesive/bracket bond in this in vitro study.  (+info)

The crystal growth technique--a laboratory evaluation of bond strengths. (2/1055)

An ex vivo study was carried out to determine differences in the bond strengths achieved with brackets placed using a crystal growth technique compared with a conventional acid-etch technique. A solution of 37 per cent phosphoric acid was used for acid-etching and a commercially available polyacrylic acid gel, Crystal-lok for crystal growth. A heavily-filled composite resin was used for all samples to bond brackets to healthy premolar teeth extracted for orthodontic purposes. Polycrystalline ceramic and stainless steel brackets were used and tested to both tensile and shear failure using an Instron Universal Testing machine. The tensile and shear bond strengths were recorded in kgF. In view of difficulties experienced with previous authors using different units to describe their findings, the data were subsequently converted to a range of units in order to facilitate direct comparison. The crystal growth technique produced significantly lower bond strengths than the acid-etch technique for ceramic and stainless steel brackets, both in tensile and shear mode. The tensile bond strength for stainless steel brackets with crystal growth was 2.2 kg compared with 6.01 kg for acid-etch, whilst with ceramic brackets the tensile bond strengths were 3.9 kg for crystal growth and 5.55 kg for acid-etch. The mean shear bond strength for stainless steel brackets with crystal growth was 12.61 kg compared with 21.55 kg for acid-etch, whilst with ceramic brackets the shear bond strengths were 7.93 kg with crystal growth compared with 16.55 kg for acid-tech. These bond strengths were below those previously suggested as clinically acceptable.  (+info)

The effects of increasing the reverse curve of Spee in a lower archwire examined using a dynamic photo-elastic gelatine model. (3/1055)

This paper describes the development and testing of a dynamic in vitro photo-elastic model for evaluating the effects of orthodontic mechanics on an entire arch of teeth. A model of a mandibular arch was made and the teeth were embedded in a gelatine material with a high level of mechanical creep which permitted tooth movement in response to orthodontic forces. The excellent photo-elastic properties of this material also facilitated the analysis of the stress distribution around the roots of the teeth. The model of a mandibular arch was used to investigate the tooth movements and stress distributions produced by increasing the reverse curve of Spee in a 0.018 x 0.025-inch stainless steel archwire. The results revealed that a 1-mm reverse curve of Spee increased the arch length by 1.6 mm, but increasing the reverse curve of Spee to 5 mm did not increase arch length further. Photo-elastic analysis showed an increased stress distribution around the roots of the incisors and molars as the reverse curve of Spee was increased in the archwire.  (+info)

Bone response to orthodontic loading of endosseous implants in the rabbit calvaria: early continuous distalizing forces. (4/1055)

The purpose of this experimental study was to evaluate the effect of early orthodontic loading on the stability and bone-implant interface of titanium implants in a rabbit model. Twenty-four short threaded titanium fixtures were inserted in the calvarial mid-sagittal suture of 10 rabbits. Two weeks following insertion, 20 implants (test group) were subjected to continuous distalization forces of 150 g for a period of 8 weeks. The remaining four implants (control group) were left unloaded for the same follow-up interval. Clinically, all implants except for one test fixture were stable, and exhibited no mobility or displacement throughout the experimental loading period. Histologically, all stable implants were well-integrated into bone. No differences could be found between the pressure and tension surfaces of the test implants relative to bone quality and density within a range of 1000 microns from the fixture surface. Similarly, qualitative differences were not observed between the apical and coronal portions of test fixtures. Morphometrically, a mean percentage bone-to-implant contact of 76.00 +/- 18.73 per cent was found at the test pressure sides, 75.00 +/- 11.54 per cent at the test tension sides, and 68.00 +/- 15.55 per cent at the control unloaded surfaces. No statistically significant differences in the percentage of bone-to-metal contact length fraction were found between test pressure surfaces, test tension surfaces, and unloaded control surfaces. Marginal bone resorption around the implant collar or immediately beneath it was found in roughly the same percentage of analysed sites in the test and control fixtures. In contrast, slight bone apposition was demonstrated at the implant collar of the test pressure surfaces, while no apposition or resorption were observed in the test tension zones. This study suggests that short endosseous implants can be used as anchoring units for orthodontic tooth movement early in the post-insertion healing period.  (+info)

The effects of sandblasting on the bond strength of molar attachments--an in vitro study. (5/1055)

This study evaluated the effect of sandblasting foil mesh molar tube bases on the shear bond strength obtained when bonding to first molar teeth. Fifty-two recently extracted first molar teeth were etched with 35 per cent phosphoric acid gel for 30 seconds. Twenty-six sandblasted 'A' Company molar tube attachments and 26 non-sandblasted attachments were then bonded to the teeth using Phase II orthodontic bonding resin. After storage in water for 24 hours at 37 degrees C, the specimens were debonded in a direction parallel to the buccal surface. Survival analysis using the Weibull function revealed that for a 90 per cent probability of survival, the predicted bond strengths for sandblasted and non-sandblasted bases were 1.76 and 1.66 MPa, respectively. For larger shear stresses, the probabilities of bond survival with sandblasted molar tubes were greater than with non-sandblasted molar tubes although the differences were small, which may be explained by the large proportion of bond failures which occurred at the resin to enamel interface in both groups. It was concluded that sandblasting foil mesh bases is likely to provide only a minimal improvement in clinical performance when bonding to molar teeth.  (+info)

A laboratory investigation to compare enamel preparation by sandblasting or acid etching prior to bracket bonding. (6/1055)

A laboratory investigation to compare the mean shear debonding force and mode of bond failure of metallic brackets bonded to sandblasted and acid-etched enamel is described. The buccal surfaces of 30 extracted human premolars were sandblasted for 5 seconds with 50 mu alumina and the buccal surfaces of a further 30 human premolars were etched with 37 per cent phosphoric acid for 15 seconds. Following storage for 24 hours at 37 degrees C in distilled water, shear debonding force was measured using an Instron Universal Testing Machine with a cross-head speed of 10 mm/minute. Mean shear debonding force was significantly lower for brackets bonded to sandblasted enamel compared to acid etched enamel (P < 0.001). Weibull analysis showed that at a given stress the probability of failure was significantly greater for brackets bonded to sandblasted enamel. Brackets bonded to etched enamel showed a mixed mode of bond failure whereas following sandblasting, failure was adhesive at the enamel/composite interface (P < 0.01).  (+info)

Factors affecting the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets to porcelain. (7/1055)

The aim of this investigation was to establish a regime for orthodontic bonding to feldspathic porcelain, which ensures adequate bond strength (6-8 MPa) with minimal damage on debond and consisted of an ex vivo investigation measuring the effects of porcelain surface preparation and thermocycling on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets. One-hundred-and-twenty feldspathic porcelain bonded crown surfaces were divided into 12 equally-sized groups to assess the effects of: (1) glaze removal, (2) application of hydrofluoric acid, phosphoric acid, or omission of acid treatment, and (3) silane priming upon the bond strength of premolar brackets bonded with Right-on (TM) composite resin adhesive. Specimens were subjected to thermocycling and then to shear debonding forces on an Instron machine. Removal of the porcelain glaze, or use of hydrofluoric acid, prior to bonding were found to be unnecessary to secure the target bond strength. Hydrofluoric acid application was associated with increased porcelain surface damage. Thermocycling caused a significant reduction in shear bond strength to porcelain (P < 0*001). The best regime for orthodontic bonding to feldspathic porcelain was to apply phosphoric acid for 60 seconds, and prime with silane prior to bonding. Usually the porcelain surfaces could be repolished. Refereed Paper  (+info)

Determination of the centre of resistance in an upper human canine and idealized tooth model. (8/1055)

The purpose of this investigation was to analyse the influence of geometric and material parameters of a human canine on initial tooth mobility, and the stress and strain profiles in the periodontal ligament. While the material parameters of tooth and bony structures are known within an uncertain limit of approximately a factor of 10, values reported for the elasticity parameters of the periodontal ligament differ significantly. In the course of this study, bilinear behaviour was assumed for the mechanical property of the periodontium. The finite element model of an elliptical paraboloid was created as an approximation to the geometry of a human canine to reduce calculation time and to determine influences of the geometry on numerical results. The results were compared with those obtained for a realistic human canine model. The root length of both models was 19.5 mm. By calculating pure rotational and pure tipping movements, the centre of resistance (CR) was determined for both models. They were located on the long axis of the tooth approximately 7.2 mm below the alveolar crest for the idealized model and 8.2 mm for the canine model. Thus, the centre of resistance of a human canine seems to be located around two-fifths of the root length from the alveolar margin. Using these results, uncontrolled tipping (1 N of mesializing force and 5 Nmm of derotating momentum), as well as pure translation (additionally about 10 Nmm of uprighting momentum) were calculated. Comparing the idealized and the realistic models, the uncontrolled tipping was described by the parabolic-shaped model within an accuracy limit of 10 per cent as compared with the canine model, whereas the results for bodily movement differed significantly showing that it is very difficult to achieve a pure translation with the realistic canine model.  (+info)

Dental stress analysis is a method used in dentistry to evaluate the amount and distribution of forces that act upon teeth and surrounding structures during biting, chewing, or other functional movements. This analysis helps dental professionals identify areas of excessive stress or strain that may lead to dental problems such as tooth fracture, mobility, or periodontal (gum) disease. By identifying these areas, dentists can develop treatment plans to reduce the risk of dental issues and improve overall oral health.

Dental stress analysis typically involves the use of specialized equipment, such as strain gauges, T-scan occlusal analysis systems, or finite element analysis software, to measure and analyze the forces that act upon teeth during various functional movements. The results of the analysis can help dentists determine the best course of treatment, which may include adjusting the bite, restoring damaged teeth with crowns or fillings, or fabricating custom-made oral appliances to redistribute the forces evenly across the dental arch.

Overall, dental stress analysis is an important tool in modern dentistry that helps dental professionals diagnose and treat dental problems related to occlusal (bite) forces, ensuring optimal oral health and function for their patients.

Dental care refers to the practice of maintaining and improving the oral health of the teeth and gums. It involves regular check-ups, cleanings, and treatments by dental professionals such as dentists, hygienists, and dental assistants. Dental care also includes personal habits and practices, such as brushing and flossing, that help prevent tooth decay and gum disease.

Regular dental care is important for preventing common dental problems like cavities, gingivitis, and periodontal disease. It can also help detect early signs of more serious health issues, such as oral cancer or diabetes, which can have symptoms that appear in the mouth.

Dental care may involve a range of treatments, from routine cleanings and fillings to more complex procedures like root canals, crowns, bridges, and implants. Dental professionals use various tools and techniques to diagnose and treat dental problems, including X-rays, dental impressions, and local anesthesia.

Overall, dental care is a critical component of overall health and wellness, as poor oral health has been linked to a range of systemic health issues, including heart disease, stroke, and respiratory infections.

Dental education refers to the process of teaching, training, and learning in the field of dentistry. It involves a curriculum of academic and clinical instruction that prepares students to become licensed dental professionals, such as dentists, dental hygienists, and dental assistants. Dental education typically takes place in accredited dental schools or programs and includes classroom study, laboratory work, and supervised clinical experience. The goal of dental education is to provide students with the knowledge, skills, and values necessary to deliver high-quality oral health care to patients and promote overall health and wellness.

"Schools, Dental" is not a recognized medical term or concept. It seems that there might be some confusion in the terminology used. If you are referring to "Dental Schools," they are educational institutions that offer professional training programs in dentistry, leading to a degree in dental surgery (DDS) or dental medicine (DMD).

If you meant something else, please clarify the term or concept, and I would be happy to provide more information.

I'm happy to help! However, I believe there may be a slight misunderstanding in your question. "Students, Dental" is not a medical term or definition. Instead, it likely refers to individuals who are studying to become dental professionals, such as dentists, dental hygienists, or dental assistants.

If you're looking for information about dental education or the field of dentistry, I would be happy to provide some resources or answer any questions you may have!

Dental caries, also known as tooth decay or cavities, refers to the damage or breakdown of the hard tissues of the teeth (enamel, dentin, and cementum) due to the activity of acid-producing bacteria. These bacteria ferment sugars from food and drinks, producing acids that dissolve and weaken the tooth structure, leading to cavities.

The process of dental caries development involves several stages:

1. Demineralization: The acidic environment created by bacterial activity causes minerals (calcium and phosphate) to be lost from the tooth surface, making it weaker and more susceptible to decay.
2. Formation of a white spot lesion: As demineralization progresses, a chalky white area appears on the tooth surface, indicating early caries development.
3. Cavity formation: If left untreated, the demineralization process continues, leading to the breakdown and loss of tooth structure, resulting in a cavity or hole in the tooth.
4. Infection and pulp involvement: As the decay progresses deeper into the tooth, it can reach the dental pulp (the soft tissue containing nerves and blood vessels), causing infection, inflammation, and potentially leading to toothache, abscess, or even tooth loss.

Preventing dental caries involves maintaining good oral hygiene, reducing sugar intake, using fluoride toothpaste and mouthwash, and having regular dental check-ups and cleanings. Early detection and treatment of dental caries can help prevent further progression and more severe complications.

Dental care for chronically ill refers to the oral health management and treatment provided to individuals who have chronic medical conditions. These patients often require specialized dental care due to their increased risk of developing oral health problems as a result of their underlying medical condition or its treatment. The goal of dental care for the chronically ill is to prevent and manage dental diseases, such as tooth decay and gum disease, in order to maintain overall health and quality of life. This may involve close collaboration between dental professionals, physicians, and other healthcare providers to ensure that the patient's oral health needs are being met in a comprehensive and coordinated manner.

Dental care for children, also known as pediatric dentistry, is a branch of dentistry that focuses on the oral health of children from infancy through adolescence. The medical definition of dental care for children includes:

1. Preventive Dentistry: This involves regular dental check-ups, professional cleaning, fluoride treatments, and sealants to prevent tooth decay and other dental diseases. Parents are also educated on proper oral hygiene practices for their children, including brushing, flossing, and dietary habits.
2. Restorative Dentistry: If a child develops cavities or other dental problems, restorative treatments such as fillings, crowns, or pulpotomies (baby root canals) may be necessary to restore the health and function of their teeth.
3. Orthodontic Treatment: Many children require orthodontic treatment to correct misaligned teeth or jaws. Early intervention can help guide proper jaw development and prevent more severe issues from developing later on.
4. Habit Counseling: Dental care for children may also involve habit counseling, such as helping a child stop thumb sucking or pacifier use, which can negatively impact their oral health.
5. Sedation and Anesthesia: For children who are anxious about dental procedures or have special needs, sedation or anesthesia may be used to ensure their comfort and safety during treatment.
6. Emergency Care: Dental care for children also includes emergency care for injuries such as knocked-out teeth, broken teeth, or severe toothaches. Prompt attention is necessary to prevent further damage and alleviate pain.
7. Education and Prevention: Finally, dental care for children involves educating parents and children about the importance of good oral hygiene practices and regular dental check-ups to maintain optimal oral health throughout their lives.

A dental clinic is a healthcare facility that is primarily focused on providing oral health services to patients. These services may include preventative care, such as dental cleanings and exams, as well as restorative treatments like fillings, crowns, and bridges. Dental clinics may also offer specialized services, such as orthodontics, periodontics, or endodontics.

In a dental clinic, patients are typically seen by licensed dentists who have completed dental school and received additional training in their chosen area of specialty. Dental hygienists, dental assistants, and other support staff may also work in the clinic to provide care and assistance to patients.

Dental clinics can be found in a variety of settings, including hospitals, community health centers, private practices, and educational institutions. Some dental clinics may specialize in treating certain populations, such as children, elderly individuals, or low-income patients. Others may offer specialized services, such as oral surgery or cosmetic dentistry.

Overall, dental clinics play an important role in promoting oral health and preventing dental diseases and conditions. By providing access to high-quality dental care, dental clinics can help patients maintain healthy teeth and gums, prevent tooth decay and gum disease, and improve their overall quality of life.

Dental pulp is the soft tissue located in the center of a tooth, surrounded by the dentin. It contains nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissue, and plays a vital role in the development and health of the tooth. The dental pulp helps to form dentin during tooth development and continues to provide nourishment to the tooth throughout its life. It also serves as a sensory organ, allowing the tooth to detect hot and cold temperatures and transmit pain signals to the brain. Injury or infection of the dental pulp can lead to serious dental problems, such as tooth decay or abscesses, and may require root canal treatment to remove the damaged tissue and save the tooth.

A dental hygienist is a licensed healthcare professional who works as part of the dental team, providing educational, clinical, and therapeutic services to prevent and control oral diseases. They are trained and authorized to perform various duties such as:

1. Cleaning and polishing teeth (prophylaxis) to remove plaque, calculus, and stains.
2. Applying fluoride and sealants to protect tooth surfaces from decay.
3. Taking dental radiographs (x-rays) to help diagnose dental issues.
4. Providing oral health education, including proper brushing, flossing techniques, and nutrition counseling.
5. Performing screenings for oral cancer and other diseases.
6. Documenting patient care and treatment plans in medical records.
7. Collaborating with dentists to develop individualized treatment plans for patients.
8. Managing infection control protocols and maintaining a safe, clean dental environment.
9. Providing supportive services, such as applying anesthetics or administering nitrous oxide, under the direct supervision of a dentist (depending on state regulations).

Dental hygienists typically work in private dental offices but can also be found in hospitals, clinics, public health settings, educational institutions, and research facilities. They must complete an accredited dental hygiene program and pass written and clinical exams to obtain licensure in their state of practice. Continuing education is required to maintain licensure and stay current with advancements in the field.

The Faculty of Dental Surgery (FDS) is a division or department within a medical or dental school that focuses on the study, research, and practice of dental surgery. The faculty may be responsible for providing undergraduate and postgraduate education and training in dental surgery, as well as conducting research in this field.

Dental surgery encompasses various procedures related to the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases and disorders that affect the teeth, gums, and other structures of the mouth and jaw. This may include procedures such as tooth extractions, root canals, dental implants, and oral cancer surgery, among others.

The Faculty of Dental Surgery is typically composed of a group of dental surgeons who are experts in their field and have a commitment to advancing the practice of dental surgery through education, research, and clinical excellence. Members of the faculty may include professors, researchers, clinicians, and other professionals who are involved in the delivery of dental care.

Dental care for disabled refers to the specialized oral health services and treatments provided to individuals with physical, cognitive, or developmental disabilities. This type of dental care aims to prevent and manage dental diseases and conditions that can be more prevalent and challenging to treat in this population due to factors such as limited mobility, difficulty communicating, behavioral challenges, and the need for specialized equipment and techniques. Dental care for disabled may include routine cleanings, fillings, extractions, and other procedures, as well as education and counseling on oral hygiene and dietary habits. It may also involve collaboration with other healthcare providers to manage overall health and well-being.

Dental anxiety is a common feeling of fear or apprehension associated with dental appointments, treatments, or procedures. It can range from mild feelings of unease to severe phobias that cause people to avoid dental care altogether. Dental anxiety may stem from various factors such as negative past experiences, fear of pain, needles, or loss of control. In some cases, dental anxiety may lead to physical symptoms like sweating, rapid heartbeat, and difficulty breathing. It is important for individuals with dental anxiety to communicate their feelings with their dentist so that they can receive appropriate care and support.

Dental insurance is a type of health insurance specifically designed to cover the costs associated with dental care. It typically helps pay for preventive, basic, and major restorative procedures, including routine checkups, cleanings, fillings, extractions, root canals, crowns, bridges, and in some cases, orthodontic treatment.

Dental insurance plans often have a network of participating dentists who agree to provide services at pre-negotiated rates, helping to keep costs down for both the insured individual and the insurance company. The plan may cover a certain percentage of the cost of each procedure or have set copayments and deductibles that apply.

Like other forms of insurance, dental insurance plans come with annual maximum coverage limits, which is the most the plan will pay for dental care within a given year. It's essential to understand the terms and conditions of your dental insurance policy to make informed decisions about your oral health care and maximize the benefits available to you.

Dental auxiliaries are healthcare professionals who provide support to dentists in the delivery of oral healthcare services. They work under the supervision of a licensed dentist and perform tasks that require specific technical skills and knowledge. Examples of dental auxiliaries include dental hygienists, dental assistants, and dental lab technicians.

Dental hygienists are responsible for providing preventive dental care to patients, including cleaning teeth, taking x-rays, and educating patients on oral hygiene practices. They may also perform certain clinical procedures under the direct supervision of a dentist.

Dental assistants work closely with dentists during dental procedures, preparing instruments, mixing materials, and providing patient care. They may also perform administrative tasks such as scheduling appointments and managing patient records.

Dental lab technicians create dental restorations such as crowns, bridges, and dentures based on impressions taken by the dentist. They use a variety of materials and techniques to fabricate these devices with precision and accuracy.

It's important to note that the specific roles and responsibilities of dental auxiliaries may vary depending on the jurisdiction and local regulations.

Dental health services refer to medical care and treatment provided for the teeth and mouth. This can include preventative care, such as dental cleanings and exams, as well as restorative treatments like fillings, crowns, and root canals. Dental health services may also include cosmetic procedures, such as teeth whitening or orthodontic treatment to straighten crooked teeth. In addition to these services, dental health professionals may provide education on oral hygiene and the importance of maintaining good dental health. These services are typically provided by dentists, dental hygienists, and other dental professionals in a variety of settings, including private dental practices, community health clinics, and hospitals.

Dental research is a scientific discipline that focuses on the study of teeth, oral health, and related diseases. It involves various aspects of dental sciences such as oral biology, microbiology, biochemistry, genetics, epidemiology, biomaterials, and biotechnology. The main aim of dental research is to improve oral health care, develop new diagnostic tools, prevent dental diseases, and create better treatment options for various dental conditions. Dental researchers may study topics such as tooth development, oral cancer, periodontal disease, dental caries (cavities), saliva composition, and the effects of nutrition on oral health. The findings from dental research can help improve dental care practices, inform public health policies, and advance our understanding of overall human health.

Dental care for the elderly, also known as geriatric dentistry, refers to the dental care services provided to meet the specific needs and challenges of older adults. As people age, they may experience various oral health issues such as:

* Dry mouth due to medication side effects or medical conditions
* Gum disease and periodontitis
* Tooth loss and decay
* Oral cancer
* Uneven jawbone or ill-fitting dentures

Dental care for the aged may include routine dental exams, cleanings, fillings, extractions, denture fittings, oral surgery, and education on proper oral hygiene. It is important for elderly individuals to maintain good oral health as it can impact their overall health and quality of life. Regular dental check-ups and good oral hygiene practices can help prevent or manage these common oral health problems in the elderly.

The dental arch refers to the curved shape formed by the upper or lower teeth when they come together. The dental arch follows the curve of the jaw and is important for proper bite alignment and overall oral health. The dental arches are typically described as having a U-shaped appearance, with the front teeth forming a narrower section and the back teeth forming a wider section. The shape and size of the dental arch can vary from person to person, and any significant deviations from the typical shape or size may indicate an underlying orthodontic issue that requires treatment.

Dental plaque is a biofilm or mass of bacteria that accumulates on the surface of the teeth, restorative materials, and prosthetic devices such as dentures. It is initiated when bacterial colonizers attach to the smooth surfaces of teeth through van der Waals forces and specific molecular adhesion mechanisms.

The microorganisms within the dental plaque produce extracellular polysaccharides that help to stabilize and strengthen the biofilm, making it resistant to removal by simple brushing or rinsing. Over time, if not regularly removed through oral hygiene practices such as brushing and flossing, dental plaque can mineralize and harden into tartar or calculus.

The bacteria in dental plaque can cause tooth decay (dental caries) by metabolizing sugars and producing acid that demineralizes the tooth enamel. Additionally, certain types of bacteria in dental plaque can cause periodontal disease, an inflammation of the gums that can lead to tissue damage and bone loss around the teeth. Regular professional dental cleanings and good oral hygiene practices are essential for preventing the buildup of dental plaque and maintaining good oral health.

Dental amalgam is a commonly used dental filling material that consists of a mixture of metals, including silver, tin, copper, and mercury. The mercury binds the other metals together to form a strong, durable, and stable restoration that is resistant to wear and tear. Dental amalgam has been used for over 150 years to fill cavities and repair damaged teeth, and it remains a popular choice among dentists due to its strength, durability, and affordability.

However, there has been some controversy surrounding the use of dental amalgam due to concerns about the potential health effects of mercury exposure. While the majority of scientific evidence suggests that dental amalgam is safe for most people, some individuals may be more sensitive to mercury and may experience adverse reactions. As a result, some dentists may recommend alternative filling materials, such as composite resin or gold, for certain patients.

Overall, dental amalgam is a safe and effective option for filling cavities and restoring damaged teeth, but it is important to discuss any concerns or questions with a qualified dental professional.

A dental office is a healthcare facility where dental professionals, such as dentists, oral surgeons, and orthodontists, provide various dental treatments and services to patients. These services may include routine check-ups, teeth cleaning, fillings, extractions, root canals, crowns, bridges, implants, and orthodontic treatments like braces.

Dental offices typically have examination rooms equipped with dental chairs, dental instruments, and X-ray machines to diagnose and treat dental issues. They may also have a reception area where patients can schedule appointments, make payments, and complete paperwork.

In addition to clinical services, dental offices may also provide patient education on oral hygiene practices, nutrition, and lifestyle habits that can affect dental health. Some dental offices may specialize in certain areas of dentistry, such as pediatric dentistry or cosmetic dentistry.

Dental records are a collection of detailed documentation related to a patient's dental history and treatment. These records typically include:

1. Patient demographics: This includes the patient's name, date of birth, contact information, and other identifying details.
2. Dental charts: These are graphic representations of the patient's teeth and gums, noting any existing restorations, decay, periodontal disease, or other oral health conditions.
3. Radiographs (x-rays): These images help dentists visualize structures that aren't visible during a clinical examination, such as between teeth, below the gum line, and inside the jaw bones.
4. Treatment plans: This includes proposed dental procedures, their estimated costs, and the rationale behind them.
5. Progress notes: These are ongoing records of each dental appointment, detailing the treatments performed, the patient's response to treatment, and any home care instructions given.
6. Medical history: This includes any systemic health conditions that could impact dental treatment, such as diabetes or heart disease, as well as medications being taken.
7. Consent forms: These are documents signed by the patient (or their legal guardian) giving permission for specific treatments.
8. Communication notes: Any correspondence between dental professionals regarding the patient's care.

Dental records play a crucial role in continuity of care, allowing dentists to track changes in a patient's oral health over time and make informed treatment decisions. They are also important for medicolegal reasons, providing evidence in case of malpractice claims or other disputes.

The term "dental staff" generally refers to the group of professionals who work together in a dental practice or setting to provide oral health care services to patients. The composition of a dental staff can vary depending on the size and type of the practice, but it typically includes:

1. Dentists: These are medical doctors who specialize in oral health. They diagnose and treat dental diseases, conditions, and disorders, and perform various procedures such as fillings, root canals, extractions, and crowns.
2. Dental Hygienists: These are licensed healthcare professionals who provide preventive dental care services to patients. They clean teeth, remove plaque and tartar, apply fluoride and sealants, take X-rays, and educate patients on proper oral hygiene practices.
3. Dental Assistants: These are trained professionals who assist dentists during procedures and perform various administrative tasks in a dental practice. They prepare patients for treatment, sterilize instruments, take impressions, and schedule appointments.
4. Front Office Staff: These are the receptionists, schedulers, and billing specialists who manage the administrative aspects of a dental practice. They handle patient inquiries, schedule appointments, process insurance claims, and maintain patient records.
5. Other Specialists: Depending on the needs of the practice, other dental professionals such as orthodontists, oral surgeons, endodontists, periodontists, or prosthodontists may also be part of the dental staff. These specialists have advanced training in specific areas of dentistry and provide specialized care to patients.

Overall, a well-functioning dental staff is essential for providing high-quality oral health care services to patients in a safe, efficient, and patient-centered manner.

Dental equipment refers to the various instruments and devices used by dental professionals to perform oral health examinations, diagnose dental conditions, and provide treatment to patients. Here are some examples:

1. Dental chair: A specially designed chair that allows patients to recline while receiving dental care.
2. Examination light: A bright light used to illuminate the oral cavity during examinations and procedures.
3. Dental mirror: A small, angled mirror used to help dentists see hard-to-reach areas of the mouth.
4. Explorer: A sharp instrument used to probe teeth for signs of decay or other dental problems.
5. Dental probe: A blunt instrument used to measure the depth of periodontal pockets and assess gum health.
6. Scaler: A handheld instrument or ultrasonic device used to remove tartar and calculus from teeth.
7. Suction device: A vacuum-like tool that removes saliva, water, and debris from the mouth during procedures.
8. Dental drill: A high-speed instrument used to remove decayed or damaged tooth structure and prepare teeth for fillings, crowns, or other restorations.
9. Rubber dam: A thin sheet of rubber used to isolate individual teeth during procedures, keeping them dry and free from saliva.
10. Dental X-ray machine: A device that uses radiation to capture images of the teeth and surrounding structures, helping dentists diagnose conditions such as decay, infection, and bone loss.
11. Curing light: A special light used to harden dental materials, such as composite fillings and crowns, after they have been placed in the mouth.
12. Air/water syringe: A handheld device that delivers a stream of air and water to clean teeth and rinse away debris during procedures.

"General practice dentistry" is a term used to describe the provision of primary dental care to patients of all ages. A general practice dentist provides a wide range of dental services, including preventative care (such as cleanings and fluoride treatments), restorative care (fillings, crowns, bridges), endodontics (root canals), oral surgery (extractions), periodontics (treatment of gum disease), prosthodontics (dentures, implants), and orthodontics (braces). They also diagnose and manage dental diseases and provide advice on oral health. General practice dentists aim to provide comprehensive and continuous care to their patients, coordinating with other dental and medical professionals as needed.

Dental models are replicas of a patient's teeth and surrounding oral structures, used in dental practice and education. They are typically created using plaster or other materials that harden to accurately reproduce the shape and position of each tooth, as well as the contours of the gums and palate. Dental models may be used for a variety of purposes, including treatment planning, creating custom-fitted dental appliances, and teaching dental students about oral anatomy and various dental procedures. They provide a tactile and visual representation that can aid in understanding and communication between dentists, patients, and other dental professionals.

A dental assistant is a healthcare professional who works under the direction of a dentist and provides patient care, takes and develops x-rays, assists the dentist during procedures, performs infection control procedures, and helps with office management. They may also provide education to patients on oral hygiene and other dental health topics. Dental assistants must be trained and certified in many states and are an important part of the dental care team.

Continuing dental education (CDE) refers to the ongoing education and training that dentists and other oral health professionals engage in after completing their initial professional degrees. The purpose of CDE is to help these professionals stay current with advances in dental technology, research, and patient care so they can continue to provide the highest quality of care to their patients.

CDE programs may cover a wide range of topics, including new techniques for treating oral diseases, advances in dental materials and equipment, ethical issues in dental practice, and strategies for managing a successful dental practice. These programs may take many forms, such as lectures, workshops, seminars, online courses, or hands-on training sessions.

In most states, dentists are required to complete a certain number of CDE credits each year in order to maintain their licensure. This helps ensure that all dental professionals are up-to-date on the latest research and best practices in their field, which ultimately benefits patients by promoting better oral health outcomes.

Dental anesthesia is a type of local or regional anesthesia that is specifically used in dental procedures to block the transmission of pain impulses from the teeth and surrounding tissues to the brain. The most common types of dental anesthesia include:

1. Local anesthesia: This involves the injection of a local anesthetic drug, such as lidocaine or prilocaine, into the gum tissue near the tooth that is being treated. This numbs the area and prevents the patient from feeling pain during the procedure.
2. Conscious sedation: This is a type of minimal sedation that is used to help patients relax during dental procedures. The patient remains conscious and can communicate with the dentist, but may not remember the details of the procedure. Common methods of conscious sedation include nitrous oxide (laughing gas) or oral sedatives.
3. Deep sedation or general anesthesia: This is rarely used in dental procedures, but may be necessary for patients who are extremely anxious or have special needs. It involves the administration of drugs that cause a state of unconsciousness and prevent the patient from feeling pain during the procedure.

Dental anesthesia is generally safe when administered by a qualified dentist or oral surgeon. However, as with any medical procedure, there are risks involved, including allergic reactions to the anesthetic drugs, nerve damage, and infection. Patients should discuss any concerns they have with their dentist before undergoing dental anesthesia.

Dental implants are artificial tooth roots that are surgically placed into the jawbone to replace missing or extracted teeth. They are typically made of titanium, a biocompatible material that can fuse with the bone over time in a process called osseointegration. Once the implant has integrated with the bone, a dental crown, bridge, or denture can be attached to it to restore function and aesthetics to the mouth.

Dental implants are a popular choice for tooth replacement because they offer several advantages over traditional options like dentures or bridges. They are more stable and comfortable, as they do not rely on adjacent teeth for support and do not slip or move around in the mouth. Additionally, dental implants can help to preserve jawbone density and prevent facial sagging that can occur when teeth are missing.

The process of getting dental implants typically involves several appointments with a dental specialist called a prosthodontist or an oral surgeon. During the first appointment, the implant is placed into the jawbone, and the gum tissue is stitched closed. Over the next few months, the implant will fuse with the bone. Once this process is complete, a second surgery may be necessary to expose the implant and attach an abutment, which connects the implant to the dental restoration. Finally, the crown, bridge, or denture is attached to the implant, providing a natural-looking and functional replacement for the missing tooth.

Dental radiography is a specific type of imaging that uses radiation to produce detailed images of the teeth, bones, and soft tissues surrounding them. It is a crucial tool in dental diagnostics and treatment planning. There are several types of dental radiographs, including:

1. Intraoral Radiographs: These are taken inside the mouth and provide detailed images of individual teeth or small groups of teeth. They can help detect cavities, assess periodontal health, plan for restorations, and monitor tooth development in children. Common types of intraoral radiographs include bitewing, periapical, and occlusal radiographs.
2. Extraoral Radiographs: These are taken outside the mouth and provide images of larger areas, such as the entire jaw or skull. They can help diagnose issues related to the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), detect impacted teeth, assess bone health, and identify any abnormalities in the facial structure. Common types of extraoral radiographs include panoramic, cephalometric, and sialography radiographs.
3. Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT): This is a specialized type of dental radiography that uses a cone-shaped X-ray beam to create detailed 3D images of the teeth, bones, and soft tissues. It is particularly useful in planning complex treatments such as dental implants, orthodontic treatment, and oral surgery.

Dental radiographs are typically taken using a specialized machine that emits a low dose of radiation. Patients are provided with protective lead aprons to minimize exposure to radiation. The frequency of dental radiographs depends on the patient's individual needs and medical history. Dentists follow strict guidelines to ensure that dental radiography is safe and effective for their patients.

Dental materials are substances that are used in restorative dentistry, prosthodontics, endodontics, orthodontics, and preventive dentistry to restore or replace missing tooth structure, improve the function and esthetics of teeth, and protect the oral tissues from decay and disease. These materials can be classified into various categories based on their physical and chemical properties, including metals, ceramics, polymers, composites, cements, and alloys.

Some examples of dental materials include:

1. Amalgam: a metal alloy used for dental fillings that contains silver, tin, copper, and mercury. It is strong, durable, and resistant to wear but has been controversial due to concerns about the toxicity of mercury.
2. Composite: a tooth-colored restorative material made of a mixture of glass or ceramic particles and a bonding agent. It is used for fillings, veneers, and other esthetic dental treatments.
3. Glass ionomer cement: a type of cement used for dental restorations that releases fluoride ions and helps prevent tooth decay. It is often used for fillings in children's teeth or as a base under crowns and bridges.
4. Porcelain: a ceramic material used for dental crowns, veneers, and other esthetic restorations. It is strong, durable, and resistant to staining but can be brittle and prone to fracture.
5. Gold alloy: a metal alloy used for dental restorations that contains gold, copper, and other metals. It is highly biocompatible, corrosion-resistant, and malleable but can be expensive and less esthetic than other materials.
6. Acrylic resin: a type of polymer used for dental appliances such as dentures, night guards, and orthodontic retainers. It is lightweight, flexible, and easy to modify but can be less durable than other materials.

The choice of dental material depends on various factors, including the location and extent of the restoration, the patient's oral health status, their esthetic preferences, and their budget. Dental professionals must consider these factors carefully when selecting the appropriate dental material for each individual case.

"Dental, Graduate Education" refers to the post-baccalaureate programs of study and training that lead to an advanced degree in the field of dentistry. These programs are designed to prepare students for specialized dental practice, research, or teaching careers. Examples of graduate dental degrees include:

1. Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS): A professional doctoral degree that qualifies the graduate to practice general dentistry.
2. Doctor of Medical Dentistry (DMD): A professional doctoral degree equivalent to the DDS; awarded by some universities in the United States and several other countries.
3. Master of Science (MS) in Dentistry: An academic master's degree focused on research, teaching, or advanced clinical practice in a specific dental discipline.
4. Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in Dental Sciences: A research-oriented doctoral degree that prepares students for careers in academia, research institutions, or the dental industry.
5. Specialty Training Programs: Postgraduate residency programs that provide advanced training in one of the nine recognized dental specialties, such as orthodontics, oral and maxillofacial surgery, or pediatric dentistry. These programs typically lead to a certificate or a master's degree in the respective specialty area.

Graduate dental education usually involves a combination of classroom instruction, laboratory work, clinical experience, and research. Admission to these programs typically requires a DDS or DMD degree from an accredited dental school and satisfactory scores on the Dental Admission Test (DAT).

Dental ethics refers to the principles and rules that guide the conduct of dental professionals in their interactions with patients, colleagues, and society. These ethical standards are designed to promote trust, respect, and fairness in dental care, and they are often based on fundamental ethical principles such as autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice.

Autonomy refers to the patient's right to make informed decisions about their own health care, free from coercion or manipulation. Dental professionals have an obligation to provide patients with accurate information about their dental conditions and treatment options, so that they can make informed choices about their care.

Beneficence means acting in the best interests of the patient, and doing what is medically necessary and appropriate to promote their health and well-being. Dental professionals have a duty to provide high-quality care that meets accepted standards of practice, and to use evidence-based treatments that are likely to be effective.

Non-maleficence means avoiding harm to the patient. Dental professionals must take reasonable precautions to prevent injuries or complications during treatment, and they should avoid providing unnecessary or harmful treatments.

Justice refers to fairness and equity in the distribution of dental resources and services. Dental professionals have an obligation to provide care that is accessible, affordable, and culturally sensitive, and to advocate for policies and practices that promote health equity and social justice.

Dental ethics also encompasses issues related to patient confidentiality, informed consent, research integrity, professional competence, and boundary violations. Dental professionals are expected to adhere to ethical guidelines established by their professional organizations, such as the American Dental Association (ADA) or the British Dental Association (BDA), and to comply with relevant laws and regulations governing dental practice.

A "Dental Service, Hospital" is a specialized department or unit within a hospital that provides comprehensive dental care services to patients. This type of service is typically equipped with advanced dental technology and staffed by oral health professionals such as dentists, oral surgeons, orthodontists, endodontists, periodontists, and dental hygienists.

The dental services offered in a hospital setting may include preventive care, restorative treatments, oral surgery, prosthodontics (dentures and implants), periodontal therapy, endodontic treatment (root canals), orthodontic treatment, and specialized care for patients with medical conditions that affect their oral health.

Hospital dental services often provide care to patients who require complex or extensive dental treatments, have medical conditions that make it difficult to receive dental care in a traditional dental office setting, or those who are recovering from surgery or other medical procedures. They may also provide emergency dental care for patients with severe dental pain, infection, or trauma.

In summary, a "Dental Service, Hospital" is a specialized unit within a hospital that provides comprehensive dental care services to patients, typically offering advanced technology and staffed by oral health professionals.

A dentist is a healthcare professional who specializes in the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases and conditions that affect the oral cavity and maxillofacial region. This includes the teeth, gums, jaw, and related structures. Dentists are trained to provide a wide range of services, including:

1. Routine dental exams and cleanings
2. Fillings, crowns, and other restorative treatments
3. Root canals and extractions
4. Dental implants and dentures
5. Orthodontic treatment (braces, aligners)
6. Treatment of gum disease
7. Oral cancer screenings
8. Cosmetic dental procedures (teeth whitening, veneers)
9. Management of temporomandibular joint disorders (TMJ)
10. Emergency dental care

To become a dentist, one must complete a Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS) or Doctor of Medical Dentistry (DMD) degree from an accredited dental school and pass written and clinical exams to obtain licensure in their state. Many dentists also choose to specialize in a particular area of dentistry, such as orthodontics, oral surgery, or pediatric dentistry, by completing additional training and residency programs.

A dental society is a professional organization composed of dentists who have come together to promote and advance the practice of dentistry. These societies can be local, regional, national or international in scope and may include general dentists as well as specialists in various fields of dentistry. The members of dental societies often engage in continuing education, advocacy, research, and community service activities to improve oral health and the delivery of dental care. Additionally, dental societies may establish guidelines for ethical practice and provide resources and support for their members.

Dental technology refers to the application of science and engineering in dentistry to prevent, diagnose, and treat dental diseases and conditions. It involves the use of various equipment, materials, and techniques to improve oral health and enhance the delivery of dental care. Some examples of dental technology include:

1. Digital radiography: This technology uses digital sensors instead of traditional X-ray films to produce images of the teeth and supporting structures. It provides higher quality images, reduces radiation exposure, and allows for easier storage and sharing of images.
2. CAD/CAM dentistry: Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology is used to design and fabricate dental restorations such as crowns, bridges, and veneers in a single appointment. This technology allows for more precise and efficient production of dental restorations.
3. Dental implants: These are artificial tooth roots that are placed into the jawbone to replace missing teeth. They provide a stable foundation for dental restorations such as crowns, bridges, and dentures.
4. Intraoral cameras: These are small cameras that can be inserted into the mouth to capture detailed images of the teeth and gums. These images can be used for diagnosis, treatment planning, and patient education.
5. Laser dentistry: Dental lasers are used to perform a variety of procedures such as cavity preparation, gum contouring, and tooth whitening. They provide more precise and less invasive treatments compared to traditional dental tools.
6. 3D printing: This technology is used to create dental models, surgical guides, and custom-made dental restorations. It allows for more accurate and efficient production of dental products.

Overall, dental technology plays a crucial role in modern dentistry by improving the accuracy, efficiency, and quality of dental care.

Dental health surveys are epidemiological studies that aim to assess the oral health status and related behaviors of a defined population at a particular point in time. These surveys collect data on various aspects of oral health, including the prevalence and severity of dental diseases such as caries (tooth decay), periodontal disease (gum disease), and oral cancer. They also gather information on factors that influence oral health, such as dietary habits, oral hygiene practices, access to dental care, and socioeconomic status.

The data collected in dental health surveys are used to identify trends and patterns in oral health, plan and evaluate public health programs and policies, and allocate resources for oral health promotion and disease prevention. Dental health surveys may be conducted at the local, regional, or national level, and they can target specific populations such as children, adolescents, adults, or older adults.

The methods used in dental health surveys include clinical examinations, interviews, questionnaires, and focus groups. Clinical examinations are conducted by trained dentists or dental hygienists who follow standardized protocols to assess the oral health status of participants. Interviews and questionnaires are used to collect information on demographic characteristics, oral health behaviors, and attitudes towards oral health. Focus groups can provide insights into the perceptions and experiences of participants regarding oral health issues.

Overall, dental health surveys play a critical role in monitoring and improving the oral health of populations and reducing oral health disparities.

Dental fluorosis is a developmental disturbance of dental enamel caused by excessive exposure to fluoride during tooth development. It is characterized by hypomineralization of the enamel, resulting in various appearances ranging from barely noticeable white spots to brown staining and pitting of the teeth. The severity depends on the amount, duration, and timing of fluoride intake, as well as individual susceptibility. Mild dental fluorosis is typically asymptomatic but can affect the appearance of teeth, while severe cases may cause tooth sensitivity and increased susceptibility to tooth decay.

Dental licensure is the process by which a state or jurisdiction grants a dental professional the authority to practice dentistry within its borders. In order to obtain a dental license, individuals must meet certain education, examination, and other requirements established by the licensing body. These requirements typically include graduation from an accredited dental school, passing written and clinical examinations, and completion of continuing education courses.

The purpose of dental licensure is to protect the public by ensuring that dental professionals have the necessary knowledge, skills, and abilities to provide safe and effective dental care. Licensing boards are responsible for enforcing standards of practice and disciplining dentists who engage in unprofessional or unethical conduct.

It's important to note that dental licensure requirements may vary from state to state, so it's essential for dental professionals to familiarize themselves with the specific requirements of the state(s) in which they intend to practice.

Dental laboratories are specialized facilities where dental technicians create and manufacture various dental restorations and appliances based on the specific measurements, models, and instructions provided by dentists. These custom-made dental products are designed to restore or replace damaged, missing, or decayed teeth, improve oral function, and enhance the overall appearance of a patient's smile.

Some common dental restorations and appliances produced in dental laboratories include:

1. Dental crowns: Artificial caps that cover and protect damaged or weakened teeth, often made from ceramics, porcelain, metal alloys, or a combination of materials.
2. Dental bridges: Fixed or removable appliances used to replace one or more missing teeth by connecting artificial teeth (pontics) to adjacent natural teeth or dental implants.
3. Dentures: Removable prosthetic devices that replace all or most of the upper and/or lower teeth, providing improved chewing function, speech clarity, and aesthetics.
4. Orthodontic appliances: Devices used to correct malocclusions (improper bites) and misaligned teeth, such as traditional braces, clear aligners, palatal expanders, and retainers.
5. Custom dental implant components: Specialized parts designed for specific implant systems, which are used in conjunction with dental implants to replace missing teeth permanently.
6. Night guards and occlusal splints: Protective devices worn during sleep to prevent or manage bruxism (teeth grinding) and temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD).
7. Anti-snoring devices: Mandibular advancement devices that help reduce snoring by holding the lower jaw in a slightly forward position, preventing airway obstruction during sleep.
8. Dental whitening trays: Custom-fitted trays used to hold bleaching gel against tooth surfaces for professional teeth whitening treatments.
9. Specialty restorations: Including aesthetic veneers, inlays, onlays, and other customized dental solutions designed to meet specific patient needs.

Dental laboratories may be standalone facilities or part of a larger dental practice. They are typically staffed by skilled technicians who specialize in various aspects of dental technology, such as ceramics, orthodontics, implantology, and prosthodontics. Collaboration between dentists, dental specialists, and laboratory technicians ensures the highest quality results for patients undergoing restorative or cosmetic dental treatments.

Dental specialties are recognized areas of expertise in dental practice that require additional training and education beyond the general dentist degree. The American Dental Association (ADA) recognizes nine dental specialties:

1. Dental Public Health: This specialty focuses on preventing oral diseases and promoting oral health through population-level interventions, research, and policy development.
2. Endodontics: Endodontists are experts in diagnosing and treating tooth pain and performing root canal treatments to save infected or damaged teeth.
3. Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: This specialty involves the diagnosis and management of diseases that affect the oral cavity, jaws, and face, using clinical, radiographic, and microscopic examination techniques.
4. Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology: Oral and maxillofacial radiologists use advanced imaging technologies to diagnose and manage conditions affecting the head and neck region.
5. Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery: Oral surgeons perform surgical procedures on the face, jaws, and mouth, including tooth extractions, jaw alignment surgeries, and cancer treatments.
6. Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics: Orthodontists specialize in diagnosing and treating dental and facial irregularities, using appliances such as braces and aligners to straighten teeth and correct bite problems.
7. Pediatric Dentistry: Pediatric dentists are trained to care for the oral health needs of children, including those with special health care needs.
8. Periodontics: Periodontists diagnose and treat gum diseases, place dental implants, and perform surgical procedures to regenerate lost tissue and bone support around teeth.
9. Prosthodontics: Prosthodontists are experts in replacing missing teeth and restoring damaged or worn-out teeth using crowns, bridges, dentures, and implant-supported restorations.

Dental fees refer to the charges that dentists or dental professionals bill for their services, procedures, or treatments. These fees can vary based on several factors such as:

1. Location: Dental fees may differ depending on the region or country where the dental practice is located due to differences in cost of living and local market conditions.
2. Type of procedure: The complexity and duration of a dental treatment will impact the fee charged for that service. For example, a simple teeth cleaning will have a lower fee compared to more complex procedures like root canals or dental implants.
3. Dental professional's expertise and experience: Highly skilled and experienced dentists may charge higher fees due to their superior level of knowledge and proficiency in performing various dental treatments.
4. Type of dental practice: Fees for dental services at a private practice may differ from those charged by a community health center or non-profit organization.
5. Dental insurance coverage: The amount of coverage provided by a patient's dental insurance plan can also affect the final out-of-pocket cost for dental care, which in turn influences the fees that dentists charge.

Dental fee schedules are typically established by individual dental practices based on these factors and may be periodically updated to reflect changes in costs or market conditions. Patients should consult their dental providers to understand the specific fees associated with any recommended treatments or procedures.

A dental technician is a healthcare professional who designs, fabricates, and repairs custom-made dental devices, such as dentures, crowns, bridges, orthodontic appliances, and implant restorations. They work closely with dentists and other oral health professionals to meet the individual needs of each patient. Dental technicians typically have an associate's degree or certificate in dental technology and may be certified by a professional organization. Their work requires a strong understanding of dental materials, fabrication techniques, and the latest advances in dental technology.

Practice management in dentistry refers to the administration and operation of a dental practice. It involves various aspects such as:

1. Business Operations: This includes financial management, billing and coding, human resources, and office management.

2. Patient Care: This includes scheduling appointments, managing patient records, treatment planning, and ensuring quality care.

3. Marketing and Promotion: This includes advertising the practice, attracting new patients, and maintaining relationships with existing ones.

4. Compliance: This includes adhering to laws and regulations related to dental practices, such as HIPAA for patient privacy and OSHA for workplace safety.

5. Continuous Improvement: This involves regularly assessing the practice's performance, implementing changes to improve efficiency and effectiveness, and keeping up-to-date with advancements in dentistry and healthcare management.

The goal of dental practice management is to ensure the smooth running of the practice, provide high-quality patient care, and maintain a successful and profitable business.

The dental sac, also known as the dental follicle, is a soft tissue structure that surrounds the developing tooth crown during odontogenesis, which is the process of tooth development. It is derived from the ectoderm and mesenchyme of the embryonic oral cavity. The dental sac gives rise to several important structures associated with the tooth, including the periodontal ligament, cementum, and the alveolar bone that surrounds and supports the tooth in the jaw.

The dental sac plays a critical role in tooth development by regulating the mineralization of the tooth crown and providing a protective environment for the developing tooth. It also contains cells called odontoblasts, which are responsible for producing dentin, one of the hard tissues that make up the tooth. Abnormalities in the development or growth of the dental sac can lead to various dental anomalies, such as impacted teeth, dilacerated roots, and other developmental disorders.

Dentistry is the branch of medicine that is concerned with the examination, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders, and conditions of the oral cavity (mouth), including the teeth, gums, and other supporting structures. Dentists use a variety of treatments and procedures to help patients maintain good oral health and prevent dental problems from developing or worsening. These may include:

* Routine cleanings and checkups to remove plaque and tartar and detect any potential issues early on
* Fillings, crowns, and other restorative treatments to repair damaged teeth
* Root canal therapy to treat infected or inflamed tooth pulp
* Extractions of severely decayed or impacted teeth
* Dentures, bridges, and implants to replace missing teeth
* Orthodontic treatment to align crooked or misaligned teeth
* Treatment for temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders and other issues affecting the jaw and surrounding muscles

Dental health is an important part of overall health and well-being. Poor oral health has been linked to a variety of systemic conditions, including heart disease, diabetes, and respiratory infections. Regular dental checkups and good oral hygiene practices can help prevent these and other dental problems from developing.

Dental esthetics refers to the branch of dentistry concerned with the aesthetic appearance of teeth and smile. It involves the use of various dental treatments and procedures to improve the color, shape, alignment, and position of teeth, thereby enhancing the overall facial appearance and self-confidence of a person. Some common dental esthetic treatments include tooth whitening, dental veneers, composite bonding, orthodontic treatment (braces), and dental implants. It is important to note that dental esthetics not only focuses on improving the appearance but also maintaining or improving oral health and function.

Comprehensive dental care is a broad term that refers to a dental approach that involves the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of a wide range of oral health issues. It aims to provide patients with complete and optimal oral health care, including:

1. Oral examination and assessment: This includes a thorough examination of the patient's oral cavity, head, and neck to identify any existing dental problems or potential issues that may arise in the future.
2. Preventive care: Comprehensive dental care emphasizes preventive measures such as regular dental cleanings, fluoride treatments, and sealants to help protect against tooth decay and gum disease.
3. Restorative dentistry: If dental problems are identified, comprehensive dental care includes restorative treatments like fillings, crowns, bridges, or implants to restore the function and appearance of damaged teeth.
4. Periodontal (gum) treatment: Comprehensive dental care also addresses periodontal health through deep cleanings, scaling and root planing, and other therapies to manage gum disease.
5. Oral surgery: In some cases, comprehensive dental care may involve oral surgery procedures like tooth extractions or jaw realignment.
6. Endodontic (root canal) treatment: If the pulp of a tooth becomes infected or inflamed, endodontic treatment may be necessary to save the tooth and alleviate pain.
7. Prosthodontics: This includes the replacement of missing teeth with dentures, bridges, or implants.
8. Orthodontic care: Comprehensive dental care can also involve orthodontic treatments like braces or aligners to straighten misaligned teeth and improve bite.
9. Oral cancer screening: Regular oral cancer screenings are an essential part of comprehensive dental care, as early detection significantly increases the chances of successful treatment.
10. Patient education: Comprehensive dental care also focuses on educating patients about proper oral hygiene practices, nutrition, and lifestyle choices that can impact their oral health. This helps empower patients to take an active role in maintaining their oral health between appointments.

In summary, comprehensive dental care is a holistic approach to dental care that aims to provide complete and personalized oral health solutions for each patient, addressing all aspects of their oral health and promoting long-term wellbeing.

Health education in the context of dentistry refers to the process of educating and informing individuals, families, and communities about oral health-related topics, including proper oral hygiene practices, the importance of regular dental checkups and cleanings, the risks and consequences of poor oral health, and the relationship between oral health and overall health. The goal of dental health education is to empower individuals to take control of their own oral health and make informed decisions about their dental care. This can be achieved through various methods such as lectures, demonstrations, printed materials, and interactive activities. Dental health education may also cover topics related to nutrition, tobacco and alcohol use, and the prevention and treatment of oral diseases and conditions.

Dentist-patient relations refer to the professional relationship between a licensed dentist and their patient. This relationship is based on trust, communication, and ethical obligations. The dentist is responsible for providing competent and appropriate dental care while considering the patient's needs, preferences, and values. The patient, on the other hand, should be honest with their dentist regarding their medical history, oral health habits, and any concerns they may have. Effective dentist-patient relations are crucial in ensuring positive dental experiences, treatment compliance, and overall satisfaction with dental care.

A tooth is a hard, calcified structure found in the jaws (upper and lower) of many vertebrates and used for biting and chewing food. In humans, a typical tooth has a crown, one or more roots, and three layers: the enamel (the outermost layer, hardest substance in the body), the dentin (the layer beneath the enamel), and the pulp (the innermost layer, containing nerves and blood vessels). Teeth are essential for proper nutrition, speech, and aesthetics. There are different types of teeth, including incisors, canines, premolars, and molars, each designed for specific functions in the mouth.

'Infection Control, Dental' refers to the practices and procedures implemented in dental settings to prevent the transmission of infectious agents from person to person, or from contaminated instruments, equipment, or environmental surfaces to patients or dental personnel. It includes a range of measures such as hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment (e.g., gloves, masks, eyewear), sterilization and disinfection of instruments and equipment, safe injection practices, and environmental cleaning and disinfection. The goal of infection control in dentistry is to eliminate or minimize the risk of infectious diseases, such as HIV, hepatitis B and C, and tuberculosis, among others, being transmitted in dental settings.

The dental papilla is a type of tissue found in the developing tooth within the jawbone. It is composed of cells that will eventually differentiate into odontoblasts, which are the cells responsible for producing dentin, one of the main hard tissues that make up the tooth. The dental papilla is located in the center of the tooth germ and is surrounded by the dental follicle, another type of tissue that helps to form the tooth. As the tooth develops, the dental papilla becomes smaller and eventually forms the pulp chamber, which contains the blood vessels, nerves, and connective tissue that support and nourish the tooth.

A dental prosthesis is a device that replaces one or more missing teeth or parts of teeth to correct deficiencies in chewing ability, speech, and aesthetics. It can be removable or fixed (permanent) and can be made from various materials such as acrylic resin, porcelain, metal alloys, or a combination of these. Examples of dental prostheses include dentures, bridges, crowns, and implants.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Tooth diseases are conditions that affect the teeth and can cause discomfort, pain, and even loss of teeth if left untreated. These diseases can be caused by various factors such as poor oral hygiene, bacterial infections, trauma, genetics, and certain medical conditions. Some common tooth diseases include:

1. Dental caries (tooth decay): This is a breakdown of the tooth enamel due to the action of acid-producing bacteria that feed on sugars and starches in the mouth. Over time, this can lead to cavities or holes in the teeth.
2. Gingivitis: This is an inflammation of the gums caused by the buildup of plaque and tartar at the gum line. If left untreated, gingivitis can progress to periodontitis, a more serious form of gum disease that can cause tooth loss.
3. Periodontitis: This is a severe infection of the gums and bones that support the teeth. It is caused by the buildup of plaque and tartar, which leads to the destruction of the tissue and bone that hold the teeth in place.
4. Abscess: This is a pocket of pus that forms in the tooth or gum due to a bacterial infection. An abscess can cause pain, swelling, and fever, and may require antibiotics or surgical drainage.
5. Tooth erosion: This is the loss of tooth structure due to acid wear, which can be caused by factors such as diet, stomach acid, and teeth grinding.
6. Hypersensitivity: This is a condition in which the teeth become sensitive to hot, cold, or sweet foods and drinks. It can be caused by factors such as gum recession, tooth decay, and tooth wear.
7. Oral cancer: This is a type of cancer that affects the mouth, lips, tongue, or throat. It can cause symptoms such as sores, lumps, or difficulty swallowing, and may require surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy for treatment.

A dental audit is a systematic review and evaluation of the dental records, procedures, and care provided by a dentist or dental practice. The purpose of a dental audit is to assess the quality of care, identify any areas for improvement, and ensure that appropriate policies and procedures are being followed. This can include reviews of patient records, treatment plans, billing practices, and adherence to infection control guidelines.

The results of a dental audit may be used to improve the quality of care provided to patients, reduce the risk of errors or complications, and ensure compliance with regulatory requirements. Dental audits may be conducted internally by dental practices themselves, or externally by dental organizations, insurance companies, or government agencies.

Oral health is the scientific term used to describe the overall health status of the oral and related tissues, including the teeth, gums, palate, tongue, and mucosal lining. It involves the absence of chronic mouth and facial pain, oral and pharyngeal (throat) cancers, oral soft tissue lesions, birth defects such as cleft lip and palate, and other diseases and disorders that affect the oral cavity.

Good oral health also means being free of decay, gum disease, and other oral infections that can damage the teeth, gums, and bones of the mouth. It is essential to maintain good oral hygiene through regular brushing, flossing, and dental check-ups to prevent dental caries (cavities) and periodontal disease (gum disease).

Additionally, oral health is closely linked to overall health and well-being. Poor oral health has been associated with various systemic diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, respiratory infections, and stroke. Therefore, maintaining good oral health can contribute to improved general health and quality of life.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Finite Element Analysis" (FEA) is not a medical term. It is a computational technique used in engineering and physical sciences. FEA is a computerized method for predicting how a product reacts to real-world forces, vibration, heat, fluid flow, and other physical effects. It's a way that engineers can simulate the performance of a product or system before it is built, which can help reduce costs, improve quality, and shorten the development time.

However, in a medical context, FEA might be used in the field of biomechanical engineering to analyze the mechanical behavior of biological systems, such as bones, joints, or soft tissues, under various loads and conditions. This can help researchers and clinicians better understand the mechanisms of injury, disease, or the effects of treatment, and develop more effective prevention, diagnostic, or therapeutic strategies.

A dental prosthesis is a device that replaces missing teeth or parts of teeth and restores their function and appearance. The design of a dental prosthesis refers to the plan and specifications used to create it, including the materials, shape, size, and arrangement of the artificial teeth and any supporting structures.

The design of a dental prosthesis is typically based on a variety of factors, including:

* The number and location of missing teeth
* The condition of the remaining teeth and gums
* The patient's bite and jaw alignment
* The patient's aesthetic preferences
* The patient's ability to chew and speak properly

There are several types of dental prostheses, including:

* Dentures: A removable appliance that replaces all or most of the upper or lower teeth.
* Fixed partial denture (FPD): Also known as a bridge, this is a fixed (non-removable) appliance that replaces one or more missing teeth by attaching artificial teeth to the remaining natural teeth on either side of the gap.
* Removable partial denture (RPD): A removable appliance that replaces some but not all of the upper or lower teeth.
* Implant-supported prosthesis: An artificial tooth or set of teeth that is supported by dental implants, which are surgically placed in the jawbone.

The design of a dental prosthesis must be carefully planned and executed to ensure a good fit, proper function, and natural appearance. It may involve several appointments with a dentist or dental specialist, such as a prosthodontist, to take impressions, make measurements, and try in the finished prosthesis.

Dental instruments are specialized tools that dentists, dental hygienists, and other oral healthcare professionals use to examine, clean, and treat teeth and gums. These instruments come in various shapes and sizes, and each one is designed for a specific purpose. Here are some common dental instruments and their functions:

1. Mouth mirror: A small, handheld mirror used to help the dentist see hard-to-reach areas of the mouth and reflect light onto the teeth and gums.
2. Explorer: A sharp, hooked instrument used to probe teeth and detect cavities, tartar, or other dental problems.
3. Sickle scaler: A curved, sharp-edged instrument used to remove calculus (tartar) from the tooth surface.
4. Periodontal probe: A blunt, calibrated instrument used to measure the depth of periodontal pockets and assess gum health.
5. Dental syringe: A device used to inject local anesthesia into the gums before dental procedures.
6. High-speed handpiece: Also known as a dental drill, it is used to remove decay, shape teeth, or prepare them for fillings and other restorations.
7. Low-speed handpiece: A slower, quieter drill used for various procedures, such as placing crowns or veneers.
8. Suction tip: A thin tube that removes saliva, water, and debris from the mouth during dental procedures.
9. Cotton rolls: Small squares of cotton used to isolate teeth, absorb fluids, and protect soft tissues during dental treatments.
10. Dental forceps: Specialized pliers used to remove teeth or hold them in place while restorations are being placed.
11. Elevators: Curved, wedge-shaped instruments used to loosen or lift teeth out of their sockets.
12. Rubber dam: A thin sheet of rubber or latex that isolates a specific tooth or area during dental treatment, keeping it dry and free from saliva and debris.

These are just a few examples of the many dental instruments used in modern dentistry. Each one plays an essential role in maintaining oral health and providing effective dental care.

Dental waste refers to the byproducts and discarded materials generated from dental treatments and procedures. This can include:

1. Amalgam waste: This consists of a mixture of metals, including mercury, used to fill dental cavities.
2. Sharps waste: Includes needles, scalpel blades, and other sharp instruments used in dental procedures.
3. Infectious waste: Materials that have been contaminated with blood or other bodily fluids during dental treatments, such as gloves, gauze, and used dental bibs.
4. Pharmaceutical waste: Unused or expired medications, including analgesics, antibiotics, and anesthetics.
5. Chemical waste: Includes fixer and developer solutions used in developing X-rays, as well as disinfectants and other chemicals used in dental practices.
6. Radioactive waste: Dental X-ray film packets and lead foil from X-ray processing.

Proper management and disposal of dental waste is essential to protect public health and the environment. Regulations governing dental waste disposal vary by location, so it's important for dental practices to be aware of and comply with local requirements.

Dental implantation is a surgical procedure in which a titanium post or frame is inserted into the jawbone beneath the gum line to replace the root of a missing tooth. Once the implant has integrated with the bone, a replacement tooth (crown) is attached to the top of the implant, providing a stable and durable restoration that looks, feels, and functions like a natural tooth. Dental implants can also be used to support dental bridges or dentures, providing added stability and comfort for patients who are missing multiple teeth.

Dental economics is a branch of economics that focuses on the financial aspects of oral health and dental care. It involves the study of various economic factors that influence the provision, accessibility, affordability, and utilization of dental services. This includes analyzing the costs of dental treatments, pricing strategies, financing options, and insurance policies related to dental care. Additionally, dental economics also examines the impact of government policies, regulations, and market dynamics on dental care delivery and oral health outcomes. The ultimate goal of dental economics is to improve the efficiency, effectiveness, and equity of dental care systems, ultimately leading to better oral health for individuals and populations.

I'm not aware of a medical definition for "DMF Index." The abbreviation "DMF" could potentially stand for many things, as it is used in various contexts across different fields. In the field of dentistry, DMF stands for Decayed, Missing, and Filled teeth/surfaces, which is a method for measuring dental caries or tooth decay. However, there is no standard medical definition for "DMF Index." If you could provide more context or specify the field of study or practice, I would be happy to help further!

Dental alloys are materials made by combining two or more metals to be used in dental restorations, such as crowns, bridges, fillings, and orthodontic appliances. These alloys can be classified into three main categories based on their composition:

1. Precious Alloys: Predominantly composed of precious metals like gold, platinum, palladium, and silver. They are highly corrosion-resistant, biocompatible, and durable, making them suitable for long-term use in dental restorations. Common examples include high noble (gold) alloys and noble alloys.
2. Base Metal Alloys: Contain primarily non-precious metals like nickel, chromium, cobalt, and beryllium. They are more affordable than precious alloys but may cause allergic reactions or sensitivities in some patients. Common examples include nickel-chromium alloys and cobalt-chromium alloys.
3. Castable Glass Ionomer Alloys: A combination of glass ionomer cement (GIC) powder and metal liquid, which can be cast into various dental restorations. They have the advantage of being both strong and adhesive to tooth structure but may not be as durable as other alloy types.

Each type of dental alloy has its unique properties and applications, depending on the specific clinical situation and patient needs. Dental professionals consider factors like cost, biocompatibility, mechanical properties, and esthetics when selecting an appropriate alloy for a dental restoration.

Dental caries susceptibility refers to the likelihood or predisposition of an individual to develop dental caries, also known as tooth decay or cavities. It is influenced by various factors such as oral hygiene practices, dietary habits, saliva composition, and the presence of certain bacteria in the mouth, particularly mutans streptococci and lactobacilli.

People with a higher dental caries susceptibility may have thinner or softer enamel, reduced saliva flow, or a greater concentration of cavity-causing bacteria in their mouths. Regular dental check-ups and good oral hygiene practices, such as brushing twice a day, flossing daily, and using fluoride toothpaste, can help reduce the risk of developing dental caries. Additionally, a balanced diet that limits sugary and starchy foods and beverages can also help lower the likelihood of tooth decay.

A dental prosthesis that is supported by dental implants is an artificial replacement for one or more missing teeth. It is a type of dental restoration that is anchored to the jawbone using one or more titanium implant posts, which are surgically placed into the bone. The prosthesis is then attached to the implants, providing a stable and secure fit that closely mimics the function and appearance of natural teeth.

There are several types of implant-supported dental prostheses, including crowns, bridges, and dentures. A single crown may be used to replace a single missing tooth, while a bridge or denture can be used to replace multiple missing teeth. The specific type of prosthesis used will depend on the number and location of the missing teeth, as well as the patient's individual needs and preferences.

Implant-supported dental prostheses offer several advantages over traditional removable dentures, including improved stability, comfort, and functionality. They also help to preserve jawbone density and prevent facial sagging that can occur when teeth are missing. However, they do require a surgical procedure to place the implants, and may not be suitable for all patients due to factors such as bone density or overall health status.

Dental Informatics is a branch of health informatics that deals with the application of information technology and computer systems to improve dental care delivery, oral health education, research, and management. It involves the development, implementation, and evaluation of information systems that support dental practice, including electronic health records (EHRs), imaging systems, decision support tools, and data analytics. The goal of dental informatics is to enhance patient care, improve clinical outcomes, increase efficiency, and reduce costs in dental care. It also includes the study of the structure, processing, and dissemination of biomedical and health data, information, and knowledge as it relates to dentistry.

Oral hygiene is the practice of keeping the mouth and teeth clean to prevent dental issues such as cavities, gum disease, bad breath, and other oral health problems. It involves regular brushing, flossing, and using mouthwash to remove plaque and food particles that can lead to tooth decay and gum disease. Regular dental check-ups and cleanings are also an essential part of maintaining good oral hygiene. Poor oral hygiene can lead to a range of health problems, including heart disease, diabetes, and respiratory infections, so it is important to prioritize oral health as part of overall health and wellbeing.

Dental occlusion refers to the alignment and contact between the upper and lower teeth when the jaws are closed. It is the relationship between the maxillary (upper) and mandibular (lower) teeth when they approach each other, as occurs during chewing or biting.

A proper dental occlusion, also known as a balanced occlusion, ensures that the teeth and jaw joints function harmoniously, reducing the risk of tooth wear, damage, and temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Malocclusion, on the other hand, refers to improper alignment or contact between the upper and lower teeth, which may require orthodontic treatment or dental restorations to correct.

Dental scaling is a professional dental cleaning procedure that involves the removal of plaque, tartar (calculus), and stains from the tooth surfaces. This is typically performed by a dentist or dental hygienist using specialized instruments called scalers and curettes. The procedure helps to prevent gum disease and tooth decay by removing bacterial deposits that can cause inflammation and infection of the gums. Dental scaling may be recommended as part of a routine dental check-up or if there are signs of periodontal disease, such as red, swollen, or bleeding gums. In some cases, local anesthesia may be used to numb the area and make the procedure more comfortable for the patient.

Operative dentistry is a branch of dental medicine that involves the diagnosis, treatment, and management of teeth with structural or functional damage due to decay, trauma, or other causes. It primarily focuses on restoring the function, form, and health of damaged teeth through various operative procedures such as fillings, crowns, inlays, onlays, and root canal treatments. The goal is to preserve natural tooth structure, alleviate pain, prevent further decay or damage, and restore the patient's oral health and aesthetics.

Here are some of the key aspects and procedures involved in operative dentistry:

1. Diagnosis: Operative dentists use various diagnostic tools and techniques to identify and assess tooth damage, including visual examination, dental X-rays, and special tests like pulp vitality testing. This helps them determine the most appropriate treatment approach for each case.
2. Preparation: Before performing any operative procedure, the dentist must prepare the tooth by removing decayed or damaged tissue, as well as any existing restorations that may be compromised or failing. This process is called tooth preparation and involves using specialized dental instruments like burs and excavators to shape the tooth and create a stable foundation for the new restoration.
3. Restoration: Operative dentistry encompasses various techniques and materials used to restore damaged teeth, including:
a. Fillings: Direct fillings are placed directly into the prepared cavity using materials like amalgam (silver), composite resin (tooth-colored), glass ionomer, or gold foil. The choice of filling material depends on factors such as the location and extent of the damage, patient's preferences, and cost considerations.
b. Indirect restorations: These are fabricated outside the mouth, usually in a dental laboratory, and then cemented or bonded to the prepared tooth. Examples include inlays, onlays, and crowns, which can be made from materials like gold, porcelain, ceramic, or resin composites.
c. Endodontic treatments: Operative dentistry also includes root canal therapy, which involves removing infected or inflamed pulp tissue from within the tooth's root canals, cleaning and shaping the canals, and then filling and sealing them to prevent reinfection.
d. Veneers: These are thin layers of porcelain or composite resin that are bonded to the front surfaces of teeth to improve their appearance, shape, or alignment.
4. Follow-up care: After placing a restoration, patients should maintain good oral hygiene practices and have regular dental checkups to ensure the long-term success of the treatment. In some cases, additional adjustments or repairs may be necessary over time due to wear, fracture, or secondary decay.

Dental facilities refer to establishments that provide dental care and treatment. These facilities can include private dental practices, community health centers, hospital dental departments, and specialized dental clinics. They are equipped with the necessary dental equipment and staffed by dental professionals such as dentists, dental hygienists, and dental assistants. Dental facilities offer a range of services including routine check-ups, cleanings, fillings, extractions, root canals, orthodontic treatment, and oral surgery. Some dental facilities may also offer specialized services such as periodontics, prosthodontics, and endodontics.

Dental devices for home care are products designed for use by individuals or their caregivers in a home setting to maintain oral hygiene, manage dental health issues, and promote overall oral health. These devices can include:

1. Toothbrushes: Manual, electric, or battery-operated toothbrushes used to clean teeth and remove plaque and food debris.
2. Dental floss: A thin string used to remove food particles and plaque from between the teeth and under the gum line.
3. Interdental brushes: Small brushes designed to clean between the teeth and around dental appliances, such as braces or implants.
4. Water flossers/oral irrigators: Devices that use a stream of water to remove food particles and plaque from between the teeth and under the gum line.
5. Tongue scrapers: Tools used to clean the tongue's surface, removing bacteria and reducing bad breath.
6. Rubber tips/gum stimulators: Devices used to massage and stimulate the gums, promoting blood circulation and helping to maintain gum health.
7. Dental picks/sticks: Pointed tools used to remove food particles and plaque from between the teeth and under the gum line.
8. Mouthguards: Protective devices worn over the teeth to prevent damage from grinding, clenching, or sports-related injuries.
9. Night guards: Similar to mouthguards, these are designed to protect the teeth from damage caused by nighttime teeth grinding (bruxism).
10. Dental retainers: Devices used to maintain the alignment of teeth after orthodontic treatment.
11. Whitening trays and strips: At-home products used to whiten teeth by applying a bleaching agent to the tooth surface.
12. Fluoride mouth rinses: Anticavity rinses containing fluoride, which help strengthen tooth enamel and prevent decay.
13. Oral pain relievers: Topical gels or creams used to alleviate oral pain, such as canker sores or denture irritation.

Proper use of these dental devices, along with regular dental check-ups and professional cleanings, can help maintain good oral health and prevent dental issues.

Preventive dentistry is a branch of dental medicine that focuses on preventing the occurrence or progression of oral diseases and maintaining optimal oral health. It encompasses a set of practices, behaviors, and interventions aimed at preserving the integrity and functionality of teeth and gums through early detection, intervention, and patient education.

The primary goal of preventive dentistry is to minimize the risk of dental caries (tooth decay), periodontal disease (gum disease), oral cancer, and other oral health conditions. This is achieved through a combination of professional dental care, personal oral hygiene habits, and lifestyle modifications.

Professional dental care includes regular dental examinations, cleanings, fluoride treatments, and sealants to protect tooth surfaces from decay. Patient education plays a crucial role in preventive dentistry, as it empowers individuals to take an active part in their oral health by teaching them proper brushing and flossing techniques, nutritional counseling, and the importance of regular dental visits.

Preventive dentistry also emphasizes the significance of risk assessment and early intervention for high-risk populations, such as children, elderly individuals, and those with medical conditions that may impact oral health. By promoting a proactive approach to dental care, preventive dentistry aims to improve overall quality of life, reduce healthcare costs, and enhance patient satisfaction.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Dental photography is a type of clinical photography that focuses on documenting the condition and treatment of teeth and oral structures. It involves using specialized cameras, lenses, and lighting to capture high-quality images of the mouth and related areas. These images can be used for diagnostic purposes, patient education, treatment planning, communication with other dental professionals, and monitoring progress over time. Dental photography may include various types of shots, such as extraoral (outside the mouth) and intraoral (inside the mouth) views, close-ups of individual teeth or restorations, and full-face portraits. It requires a strong understanding of dental anatomy, lighting techniques, and image composition to produce accurate and informative images.

Tooth extraction is a dental procedure in which a tooth that is damaged or poses a threat to oral health is removed from its socket in the jawbone. This may be necessary due to various reasons such as severe tooth decay, gum disease, fractured teeth, crowded teeth, or for orthodontic treatment purposes. The procedure is performed by a dentist or an oral surgeon, under local anesthesia to numb the area around the tooth, ensuring minimal discomfort during the extraction process.

A dental crown is a type of dental restoration that completely caps or encircles a tooth or dental implant. Crowns are used to restore the strength, functionality, and appearance of teeth that have been damaged or weakened due to various reasons such as decay, fracture, or large fillings. They can be made from various materials including porcelain, ceramic, metal, or a combination of these. The crown is custom-made to fit over the prepared tooth and is cemented into place, becoming a permanent part of the tooth. Crowns are also used for cosmetic purposes to improve the appearance of discolored or misshapen teeth.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

In the context of dentistry, a molar is a type of tooth found in the back of the mouth. They are larger and wider than other types of teeth, such as incisors or canines, and have a flat biting surface with multiple cusps. Molars are primarily used for grinding and chewing food into smaller pieces that are easier to swallow. Humans typically have twelve molars in total, including the four wisdom teeth.

In medical terminology outside of dentistry, "molar" can also refer to a unit of mass in the apothecaries' system of measurement, which is equivalent to 4.08 grams. However, this usage is less common and not related to dental or medical anatomy.

Dental porcelain is a type of biocompatible ceramic material that is commonly used in restorative and cosmetic dentistry to create tooth-colored restorations such as crowns, veneers, inlays, onlays, and bridges. It is made from a mixture of powdered porcelain and water, which is heated to high temperatures to form a hard, glass-like substance. Dental porcelain has several desirable properties for dental restorations, including:

1. High strength and durability: Dental porcelain is strong enough to withstand the forces of biting and chewing, making it suitable for use in load-bearing restorations such as crowns and bridges.
2. Natural appearance: Dental porcelain can be matched closely to the color, translucency, and texture of natural teeth, allowing for highly aesthetic restorations that blend seamlessly with the surrounding dentition.
3. Biocompatibility: Dental porcelain is biologically inert and does not cause adverse reactions or toxicity in the body, making it a safe choice for dental restorations.
4. Chemical resistance: Dental porcelain is resistant to staining and chemical attack from substances such as coffee, tea, red wine, and acidic foods and drinks.
5. Low thermal conductivity: Dental porcelain has low thermal conductivity, which means it does not transmit heat or cold readily, reducing the risk of temperature sensitivity in dental restorations.

Overall, dental porcelain is a versatile and reliable material for creating high-quality, natural-looking, and durable dental restorations.

Dental digital radiography is a type of medical imaging that uses digital sensors instead of traditional X-ray film to produce highly detailed images of the teeth, gums, and surrounding structures. This technology offers several advantages over conventional dental radiography, including:

1. Lower radiation exposure: Digital sensors require less radiation to produce an image compared to traditional film, making it a safer option for patients.
2. Instant results: The images captured by digital sensors are immediately displayed on a computer screen, allowing dentists to quickly assess the patient's oral health and discuss any findings with them during the appointment.
3. Improved image quality: Digital radiography produces clearer and more precise images compared to traditional film, enabling dentists to better detect issues such as cavities, fractures, or tumors.
4. Enhanced communication: The ability to easily manipulate and enhance digital images allows for better communication between dental professionals and improved patient education.
5. Environmentally friendly: Digital radiography eliminates the need for chemical processing and disposal of used film, making it a more environmentally conscious choice.
6. Easy storage and retrieval: Digital images can be stored electronically and accessed easily for future reference or consultation with other dental professionals.
7. Remote consultations: Digital images can be shared remotely with specialists or insurance companies, facilitating faster diagnoses and treatment planning.

Community dentistry, also known as public health dentistry, is a branch of dental science that focuses on the prevention and control of oral diseases and promoting oral health within communities and populations. It involves the application of epidemiological, social, behavioral, and administrative sciences to improve the oral health of populations. The goal of community dentistry is to reduce oral health disparities by providing accessible, affordable, and culturally competent dental care to all members of a community, particularly those who are underserved or vulnerable.

Community dentistry programs may include school-based dental sealant programs, fluoridation initiatives, oral health education campaigns, and policy advocacy efforts to improve access to dental care. Dental public health professionals work in a variety of settings, including public health departments, community health centers, academic institutions, and non-profit organizations. They collaborate with other healthcare providers, policymakers, and community stakeholders to promote oral health and prevent oral diseases.

Stomatognathic diseases are a group of disorders that affect the stomatognathic system, which includes the teeth, periodontal tissues, temporomandibular joints, muscles of mastication, and associated structures. These diseases can manifest as various symptoms such as pain, difficulty in chewing or swallowing, limited mouth opening, and abnormal jaw movements.

Some examples of stomatognathic diseases include temporomandibular disorders (TMD), oral mucosal diseases, dental caries, periodontal disease, oral cancer, and sleep-related breathing disorders. The diagnosis and management of these conditions often require a multidisciplinary approach involving dentists, oral surgeons, orthodontists, physicians, and other healthcare professionals.

Pediatric Dentistry is a specialty of dentistry that focuses on the oral health of children from infancy through adolescence. It involves comprehensive dental care that includes prevention, early detection and treatment of dental diseases, and counseling to promote healthy oral habits and behaviors. Pediatric dentists are trained to understand and meet the unique needs of children, including those with special healthcare needs. They provide services such as routine check-ups, cleanings, fluoride treatments, sealants, fillings, crowns, extractions, and interceptive orthodontics. The goal of pediatric dentistry is to ensure that children maintain good oral health throughout their lives.

The American Dental Association (ADA) is not a medical condition or diagnosis. It is the largest professional organization of dentists in the United States, with the mission to serve and advance the dental profession, promote oral health, and protect the public. The ADA develops and publishes guidelines and standards for the practice of dentistry, provides continuing education opportunities for dentists, advocates for oral health legislation and policies, and engages in scientific research and evidence-based dentistry.

Dental polishing is a procedure in dentistry that is performed to smooth and clean the surfaces of teeth after professional dental cleaning (prophylaxis), restoration, or other dental treatments. It is usually done using a slow-speed handpiece with a soft, rubber cup attached to it, which holds a polishing paste or a slurry of pumice and water. The polishing paste may contain an abrasive agent, fluoride, or a flavoring agent. The dental professional moves the handpiece in a circular motion over the tooth surface to remove stains, plaque, and minor surface roughness, leaving the teeth smooth and shiny. Dental polishing helps to prevent the buildup of plaque and tartar, reduce the risk of decay and gum disease, and improve the overall oral hygiene and aesthetics of the teeth.

Dentist's practice patterns refer to the typical habits, behaviors, and procedures followed by dental professionals when providing oral health care to patients. These patterns can encompass a wide range of factors, including:

1. Clinical Procedures: The types of dental treatments and services that a dentist routinely performs, such as fillings, crowns, root canals, extractions, cleanings, or orthodontic care.
2. Diagnostic Approaches: The methods used by the dentist to identify oral health issues, such as visual examinations, X-rays, or diagnostic tests.
3. Treatment Planning: How a dentist develops and communicates treatment plans to patients, including discussing various treatment options, potential risks and benefits, and costs.
4. Preventive Care: The emphasis placed on preventive dental care, such as regular cleanings, fluoride treatments, and patient education about oral hygiene practices.
5. Use of Technology: The adoption and integration of new technologies in dental practice, such as digital radiography, CAD/CAM systems for restorations, or 3D printing.
6. Referral Patterns: How often a dentist refers patients to specialists for more complex treatments, and which specialists they typically refer to.
7. Patient Communication: The manner in which a dentist communicates with patients, including explaining procedures, discussing treatment plans, and addressing concerns or questions.
8. Record Keeping: The systems used by the dentist to maintain patient records, including electronic health records (EHRs), treatment notes, and communication with other healthcare providers.
9. Infection Control: The practices and protocols in place to prevent the spread of infectious diseases within the dental practice.
10. Practice Management: The business aspects of running a dental practice, such as scheduling, billing, insurance management, and staffing.

Understanding dentist's practice patterns can provide valuable insights into the quality and consistency of dental care provided by different practitioners, as well as help identify areas for improvement in dental education, policy, and research.

Endosseous dental implantation is a medical procedure that involves the placement of an artificial tooth root (dental implant) directly into the jawbone. The term "endosseous" refers to the surgical placement of the implant within the bone (endo- meaning "within" and -osseous meaning "bony"). This type of dental implant is the most common and widely used method for replacing missing teeth.

During the procedure, a small incision is made in the gum tissue to expose the jawbone, and a hole is drilled into the bone to receive the implant. The implant is then carefully positioned and secured within the bone. Once the implant has integrated with the bone (a process that can take several months), a dental crown or bridge is attached to the implant to restore function and aesthetics to the mouth.

Endosseous dental implantation is a safe and effective procedure that has a high success rate, making it an excellent option for patients who are missing one or more teeth due to injury, decay, or other causes.

A toothache is defined as pain or discomfort in or around a tooth, usually caused by dental cavities, gum disease, tooth fracture, or exposed tooth roots. The pain may be sharp and stabbing, throbbing, or constant and dull. It can also be aggravated by hot, cold, sweet, or sour foods and drinks, or by biting or chewing. Toothaches are serious and should not be ignored as they can be a sign of more significant dental issues that require immediate professional attention from a dentist.

The mandible, also known as the lower jaw, is the largest and strongest bone in the human face. It forms the lower portion of the oral cavity and plays a crucial role in various functions such as mastication (chewing), speaking, and swallowing. The mandible is a U-shaped bone that consists of a horizontal part called the body and two vertical parts called rami.

The mandible articulates with the skull at the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) located in front of each ear, allowing for movements like opening and closing the mouth, protrusion, retraction, and side-to-side movement. The mandible contains the lower teeth sockets called alveolar processes, which hold the lower teeth in place.

In medical terminology, the term "mandible" refers specifically to this bone and its associated structures.

Dental legislation refers to laws, regulations, and policies that govern the practice of dentistry and oral health care. These laws are designed to protect the public's health and safety by establishing standards for dental education, licensure, and practice. They may also address issues related to dental insurance, Medicaid reimbursement, and access to oral health care for underserved populations. Dental legislation can be enacted at the federal, state, or local level, and it is typically overseen by a regulatory agency or board of dentistry. Examples of dental legislation include laws that require dentists to complete continuing education courses to maintain their licenses, regulations that establish infection control standards in dental offices, and policies that provide funding for dental clinics in underserved communities.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Tooth abnormalities refer to any variations or irregularities in the size, shape, number, structure, or development of teeth that deviate from the typical or normal anatomy. These abnormalities can occur in primary (deciduous) or permanent teeth and can be caused by genetic factors, environmental influences, systemic diseases, or localized dental conditions during tooth formation.

Some examples of tooth abnormalities include:

1. Microdontia - teeth that are smaller than normal in size.
2. Macrodontia - teeth that are larger than normal in size.
3. Peg-shaped teeth - teeth with a narrow, conical shape.
4. Talon cusps - additional cusps or points on the biting surface of a tooth.
5. Dens invaginatus - an abnormal development where the tooth crown has an extra fold or pouch that can trap bacteria and cause dental problems.
6. Taurodontism - teeth with large pulp chambers and short roots.
7. Supernumerary teeth - having more teeth than the typical number (20 primary and 32 permanent teeth).
8. Hypodontia - missing one or more teeth due to a failure of development.
9. Germination - two adjacent teeth fused together, usually occurring in the front teeth.
10. Fusion - two separate teeth that have grown together during development.

Tooth abnormalities may not always require treatment unless they cause functional, aesthetic, or dental health issues. A dentist can diagnose and manage tooth abnormalities through various treatments, such as fillings, extractions, orthodontic care, or restorative procedures.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

An incisor is a type of tooth that is primarily designed for biting off food pieces rather than chewing or grinding. They are typically chisel-shaped, flat, and have a sharp cutting edge. In humans, there are eight incisors - four on the upper jaw and four on the lower jaw, located at the front of the mouth. Other animals such as dogs, cats, and rodents also have incisors that they use for different purposes like tearing or gnawing.

Logistic models, specifically logistic regression models, are a type of statistical analysis used in medical and epidemiological research to identify the relationship between the risk of a certain health outcome or disease (dependent variable) and one or more independent variables, such as demographic factors, exposure variables, or other clinical measurements.

In contrast to linear regression models, logistic regression models are used when the dependent variable is binary or dichotomous in nature, meaning it can only take on two values, such as "disease present" or "disease absent." The model uses a logistic function to estimate the probability of the outcome based on the independent variables.

Logistic regression models are useful for identifying risk factors and estimating the strength of associations between exposures and health outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders, and predicting the probability of an outcome given certain values of the independent variables. They can also be used to develop clinical prediction rules or scores that can aid in decision-making and patient care.

Dental enamel hypoplasia is a condition characterized by the deficiency or reduction in the thickness of the tooth's enamel surface. This results in the enamel being thin, weak, and prone to wear, fractures, and dental cavities. The appearance of teeth with enamel hypoplasia may be yellowish, brownish, or creamy white, and they can have pits, grooves, or bands of varying widths and shapes.

Enamel hypoplasia can occur due to various factors, including genetics, premature birth, low birth weight, malnutrition, infections during childhood (such as measles or chickenpox), trauma, exposure to environmental toxins, and certain medical conditions that affect enamel formation.

The condition is usually diagnosed through a dental examination, where the dentist can observe and assess the appearance and structure of the teeth. Treatment options depend on the severity of the hypoplasia and may include fluoride treatments, sealants, fillings, crowns, or extractions in severe cases. Preventive measures such as maintaining good oral hygiene, a balanced diet, and regular dental check-ups can help reduce the risk of developing enamel hypoplasia.

Mechanical stress, in the context of physiology and medicine, refers to any type of force that is applied to body tissues or organs, which can cause deformation or displacement of those structures. Mechanical stress can be either external, such as forces exerted on the body during physical activity or trauma, or internal, such as the pressure changes that occur within blood vessels or other hollow organs.

Mechanical stress can have a variety of effects on the body, depending on the type, duration, and magnitude of the force applied. For example, prolonged exposure to mechanical stress can lead to tissue damage, inflammation, and chronic pain. Additionally, abnormal or excessive mechanical stress can contribute to the development of various musculoskeletal disorders, such as tendinitis, osteoarthritis, and herniated discs.

In order to mitigate the negative effects of mechanical stress, the body has a number of adaptive responses that help to distribute forces more evenly across tissues and maintain structural integrity. These responses include changes in muscle tone, joint positioning, and connective tissue stiffness, as well as the remodeling of bone and other tissues over time. However, when these adaptive mechanisms are overwhelmed or impaired, mechanical stress can become a significant factor in the development of various pathological conditions.

I'm not a medical professional, but I can provide some information on this topic. "Dental libraries" generally refer to collections of resources related to dental medicine and oral health. These libraries may contain various materials such as books, journals, articles, multimedia resources, and electronic databases. They serve as a valuable source of knowledge and information for dental professionals, students, researchers, and educators in the field of dentistry. Dental libraries play an essential role in supporting evidence-based practice, continuing education, and research advancements in oral health care.

A diagnosis that is made based on the examination and evaluation of the oral cavity, including the teeth, gums, tongue, and other soft tissues. This type of diagnosis may involve a visual exam, medical history review, and various diagnostic tests such as imaging studies or tissue biopsies. The goal of an oral diagnosis is to identify any underlying conditions or diseases that may be present in the oral cavity and determine the appropriate course of treatment. Dentists, dental specialists, and other healthcare professionals may perform oral diagnoses.

Evidence-Based Dentistry (EBD) is a systematic approach to professional dental practice that incorporates the best available scientific evidence from research, along with clinical expertise and patient values and preferences. The goal of EBD is to provide dental care that is safe, effective, efficient, and equitable. It involves the integration of three key components:

1. Clinical Judgment and Experience: The dentist's knowledge, training, and experience play a critical role in the application of evidence-based dentistry. Clinical expertise helps to identify patient needs, determine the most appropriate treatment options, and tailor care to meet individual patient preferences and values.
2. Patient Values and Preferences: EBD recognizes that patients have unique perspectives, values, and preferences that must be taken into account when making treatment decisions. Dentists should engage in shared decision-making with their patients, providing them with information about the benefits and risks of various treatment options and involving them in the decision-making process.
3. Best Available Scientific Evidence: EBD relies on high-quality scientific evidence from well-designed clinical studies to inform dental practice. This evidence is systematically reviewed, critically appraised, and applied to clinical decision-making. The strength of the evidence is evaluated based on factors such as study design, sample size, and statistical analysis.

In summary, Evidence-Based Dentistry is a method of practicing dentistry that combines clinical expertise, patient values and preferences, and the best available scientific evidence to provide high-quality, individualized care to dental patients.

A Group Practice, Dental is a type of dental care delivery model where two or more dentists collaborate and share resources to provide comprehensive dental services to patients. This can include sharing office space, equipment, staff, and support services. The goal of this arrangement is often to improve efficiency, reduce costs, and enhance the quality of patient care through collaboration and coordination of services.

In a group practice, dentists may work together as partners or employees, and they may share profits or salaries based on pre-determined agreements. Patients may have access to a wider range of dental services and specialists within the same practice, which can improve continuity of care and patient satisfaction. Additionally, group practices may be better equipped to invest in advanced technology and training, further enhancing the quality of care they provide.

A tooth root is the part of a tooth that is embedded in the jawbone and cannot be seen when looking at a person's smile. It is the lower portion of a tooth that typically has a conical shape and anchors the tooth to the jawbone through a periodontal ligament. The tooth root is covered by cementum, a specialized bone-like tissue, and contains nerve endings and blood vessels within its pulp chamber.

The number of roots in a tooth can vary depending on the type of tooth. For example, incisors typically have one root, canines may have one or two roots, premolars usually have one or two roots, and molars often have two to four roots. The primary function of the tooth root is to provide stability and support for the crown of the tooth, allowing it to withstand the forces of biting and chewing.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Dental pulp diseases are conditions that affect the soft tissue inside a tooth, known as dental pulp. The two main types of dental pulp diseases are pulpitis and apical periodontitis.

Pulpitis is inflammation of the dental pulp, which can be either reversible or irreversible. Reversible pulpitis is characterized by mild to moderate inflammation that can be treated with a dental filling or other conservative treatment. Irreversible pulpitis, on the other hand, involves severe inflammation that cannot be reversed and usually requires root canal therapy.

Apical periodontitis, also known as a tooth abscess, is an infection of the tissue surrounding the tip of the tooth's root. It occurs when the dental pulp dies and becomes infected, causing pus to accumulate in the surrounding bone. Symptoms of apical periodontitis may include pain, swelling, and drainage. Treatment typically involves root canal therapy or extraction of the affected tooth.

Other dental pulp diseases include pulp calcification, which is the hardening of the dental pulp due to age or injury, and internal resorption, which is the breakdown and destruction of the dental pulp by the body's own cells. These conditions may not cause any symptoms but can weaken the tooth and increase the risk of fracture.

Tooth injuries are damages or traumas that affect the teeth's structure and integrity. These injuries can occur due to various reasons, such as accidents, sports-related impacts, falls, fights, or biting on hard objects. The severity of tooth injuries may range from minor chips and cracks to more severe fractures, luxations (displacement), or avulsions (complete tooth loss).

Tooth injuries are typically classified into two main categories:

1. Crown injuries: These involve damages to the visible part of the tooth, including chipping, cracking, or fracturing. Crown injuries may be further categorized as:
* Uncomplicated crown fracture: When only the enamel and dentin are affected without pulp exposure.
* Complicated crown fracture: When the enamel, dentin, and pulp are all exposed.
2. Root injuries: These involve damages to the tooth root or the supporting structures, such as the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. Root injuries may include luxations (displacements), intrusions (teeth pushed into the socket), extrusions (teeth partially out of the socket), or avulsions (complete tooth loss).

Immediate medical attention is necessary for severe tooth injuries, as they can lead to complications like infection, tooth decay, or even tooth loss if not treated promptly and appropriately. Treatment options may include dental fillings, crowns, root canal therapy, splinting, or reimplantation in the case of avulsions. Preventive measures, such as wearing mouthguards during sports activities, can help reduce the risk of tooth injuries.

Dental calculus, also known as tartar, is a hardened deposit that forms on the surface of teeth. It's composed of mineralized plaque, which is a sticky film containing bacteria, saliva, and food particles. Over time, the minerals in saliva can cause the plaque to harden into calculus, which cannot be removed by brushing or flossing alone. Dental calculus can contribute to tooth decay and gum disease if not regularly removed by a dental professional through a process called scaling and root planing.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

Dental pulp calcification, also known as pulp stones or denticles, refers to the formation of hard tissue within the pulp chamber of a tooth. The pulp chamber is the central part of a tooth that contains its nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissues.

Pulp calcification occurs when the soft tissue of the pulp gradually transforms into a harder, calcified substance. This can happen as a result of aging, injury, or inflammation in the pulp chamber. Over time, these calcifications can build up and make the pulp chamber smaller, which can potentially lead to problems with the tooth's nerve and blood supply.

While dental pulp calcification is not usually harmful on its own, it can cause issues if it becomes severe enough to compress the tooth's nerve or restrict blood flow. In some cases, calcifications may also make root canal treatment more difficult, as there may be less space to work within the pulp chamber.

A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a type of clinical study in which participants are randomly assigned to receive either the experimental intervention or the control condition, which may be a standard of care, placebo, or no treatment. The goal of an RCT is to minimize bias and ensure that the results are due to the intervention being tested rather than other factors. This design allows for a comparison between the two groups to determine if there is a significant difference in outcomes. RCTs are often considered the gold standard for evaluating the safety and efficacy of medical interventions, as they provide a high level of evidence for causal relationships between the intervention and health outcomes.

A deciduous tooth, also known as a baby tooth or primary tooth, is a type of temporary tooth that humans and some other mammals develop during childhood. They are called "deciduous" because they are eventually shed and replaced by permanent teeth, much like how leaves on a deciduous tree fall off and are replaced by new growth.

Deciduous teeth begin to form in the womb and start to erupt through the gums when a child is around six months old. By the time a child reaches age three, they typically have a full set of 20 deciduous teeth, including incisors, canines, and molars. These teeth are smaller and less durable than permanent teeth, but they serve important functions such as helping children chew food properly, speak clearly, and maintain space in the jaw for the permanent teeth to grow into.

Deciduous teeth usually begin to fall out around age six or seven, starting with the lower central incisors. This process continues until all of the deciduous teeth have been shed, typically by age 12 or 13. At this point, the permanent teeth will have grown in and taken their place, with the exception of the wisdom teeth, which may not erupt until later in adolescence or early adulthood.

"Sex factors" is a term used in medicine and epidemiology to refer to the differences in disease incidence, prevalence, or response to treatment that are observed between males and females. These differences can be attributed to biological differences such as genetics, hormones, and anatomy, as well as social and cultural factors related to gender.

For example, some conditions such as autoimmune diseases, depression, and osteoporosis are more common in women, while others such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are more prevalent in men. Additionally, sex differences have been observed in the effectiveness and side effects of various medications and treatments.

It is important to consider sex factors in medical research and clinical practice to ensure that patients receive appropriate and effective care.

Dentition refers to the development, arrangement, and appearance of teeth in the dental arch. It includes the number, type, size, and shape of teeth, as well as their alignment and relationship with each other and the surrounding structures in the oral cavity. Dentition can be classified into two main types: deciduous (primary) dentition and permanent (secondary) dentition. Deciduous dentition consists of 20 temporary teeth that erupt during infancy and childhood, while permanent dentition consists of 32 teeth that replace the deciduous teeth and last for a lifetime, excluding the wisdom teeth which may or may not erupt. Abnormalities in dentition can indicate various dental and systemic conditions, making it an essential aspect of oral health assessment and diagnosis.

Dental cavity preparation is the process of removing decayed and damaged tissue from a tooth and shaping the remaining healthy structure in order to prepare it for the placement of a filling or a crown. The goal of cavity preparation is to remove all traces of decay and create a clean, stable surface for the restoration to bond with, while also maintaining as much of the natural tooth structure as possible.

The process typically involves the use of dental drills and other tools to remove the decayed tissue and shape the tooth. The size and depth of the preparation will depend on the extent of the decay and the type of restoration that will be used. After the preparation is complete, the dentist will place the filling or crown, restoring the function and integrity of the tooth.

Dental bonding is a cosmetic dental procedure in which a tooth-colored resin material (a type of plastic) is applied and hardened with a special light, which ultimately "bonds" the material to the tooth to improve its appearance. According to the American Dental Association (ADA), dental bonding can be used for various purposes, including:

1. Repairing chipped or cracked teeth
2. Improving the appearance of discolored teeth
3. Closing spaces between teeth
4. Protecting a portion of the tooth's root that has been exposed due to gum recession
5. Changing the shape and size of teeth

Dental bonding is generally a quick and painless procedure, often requiring little to no anesthesia. The surface of the tooth is roughened and conditioned to help the resin adhere properly. Then, the resin material is applied, molded, and smoothed to the desired shape. A special light is used to harden the material, which typically takes only a few minutes. Finally, the bonded material is trimmed, shaped, and polished to match the surrounding teeth.

While dental bonding can be an effective solution for minor cosmetic concerns, it may not be as durable or long-lasting as other dental restoration options like veneers or crowns. The lifespan of a dental bonding procedure typically ranges from 3 to 10 years, depending on factors such as oral habits, location of the bonded tooth, and proper care. Regular dental checkups and good oral hygiene practices can help extend the life of dental bonding.

The dental plaque index (DPI) is a clinical measurement used in dentistry to assess the amount of dental plaque accumulation on a person's teeth. It was first introduced by Silness and Löe in 1964 as a method to standardize the assessment of oral hygiene and the effectiveness of oral hygiene interventions.

The DPI is based on a visual examination of the amount of plaque present on four surfaces of the teeth, including the buccal (cheek-facing) and lingual (tongue-facing) surfaces of both upper and lower first molars and upper and lower incisors. The examiner assigns a score from 0 to 3 for each surface, with higher scores indicating greater plaque accumulation:

* Score 0: No plaque detected, even after probing the area with a dental explorer.
* Score 1: Plaque detected by visual examination and/or probing but is not visible when the area is gently dried with air.
* Score 2: Moderate accumulation of soft deposits that are visible upon visual examination before air drying, but which can be removed by scraping with a dental explorer.
* Score 3: Abundant soft matter, visible upon visual examination before air drying and not easily removable with a dental explorer.

The DPI is calculated as the average score of all surfaces examined, providing an overall measure of plaque accumulation in the mouth. It can be used to monitor changes in oral hygiene over time or to evaluate the effectiveness of different oral hygiene interventions. However, it should be noted that the DPI has limitations and may not accurately reflect the presence of bacterial biofilms or the risk of dental caries and gum disease.

Toothbrushing is the act of cleaning teeth and gums using a toothbrush to remove plaque, food debris, and dental calculus (tartar) from the surfaces of the teeth and gums. It is typically performed using a soft-bristled toothbrush and fluoride toothpaste, with gentle circular or back-and-forth motions along the gumline and on all surfaces of the teeth. Toothbrushing should be done at least twice a day, preferably after every meal and before bedtime, for two minutes each time, to maintain good oral hygiene and prevent dental diseases such as tooth decay and gum disease. It is also recommended to brush the tongue to remove bacteria and freshen breath.

Composite resins, also known as dental composites or filling materials, are a type of restorative material used in dentistry to restore the function, integrity, and morphology of missing tooth structure. They are called composite resins because they are composed of a combination of materials, including a resin matrix (usually made of bisphenol A-glycidyl methacrylate or urethane dimethacrylate) and filler particles (commonly made of silica, quartz, or glass).

The composite resins are widely used in modern dentistry due to their excellent esthetic properties, ease of handling, and ability to bond directly to tooth structure. They can be used for a variety of restorative procedures, including direct and indirect fillings, veneers, inlays, onlays, and crowns.

Composite resins are available in various shades and opacities, allowing dentists to match the color and translucency of natural teeth closely. They also have good wear resistance, strength, and durability, making them a popular choice for both anterior and posterior restorations. However, composite resins may be prone to staining over time and may require more frequent replacement compared to other types of restorative materials.

Dental restoration failure refers to the breakdown or loss of functionality of a dental restoration, which is a procedure performed to restore the function, integrity, and morphology of a tooth that has been damaged due to decay, trauma, or wear. The restoration can include fillings, crowns, veneers, bridges, and implants. Failure of dental restorations can occur due to various reasons such as recurrent decay, fracture, poor fit, or material failure, leading to further damage or loss of the tooth.

Endodontics is a branch of dentistry that deals with the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases or injuries of the dental pulp (the soft tissue inside the tooth that contains nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissue) and the tissues surrounding the root of the tooth. The most common endodontic procedure is root canal therapy, which involves removing infected or inflamed pulp tissue from within the tooth, cleaning and shaping the root canals, and filling and sealing the space to prevent reinfection. Endodontists are dental specialists who have undergone additional training in this field beyond dental school.

Prosthodontics is a specialized branch of dentistry that focuses on the diagnosis, restoration, and replacement of missing or damaged teeth. A prosthodontist is a dental professional who has completed additional training beyond dental school in this field, learning advanced techniques for creating and placing various types of dental prostheses, such as:

1. Dental crowns: Artificial restorations that cover damaged or weakened teeth to restore their function and appearance.
2. Dental bridges: Fixed or removable appliances used to replace one or more missing teeth by connecting artificial teeth to adjacent natural teeth or implants.
3. Complete dentures: Removable appliances that replace all the teeth in an arch, resting on the gums and supported by the underlying bone structure.
4. Partial dentures: Removable appliances that replace some missing teeth, typically attached to remaining natural teeth with clasps or precision attachments.
5. Dental implants: Titanium screws that are surgically placed into the jawbone to serve as anchors for crowns, bridges, or dentures, providing a more secure and stable solution for tooth replacement.
6. Maxillofacial prosthetics: Custom-made devices used to restore or improve the function and appearance of facial structures affected by congenital defects, trauma, or surgical removal of tumors.

Prosthodontists work closely with other dental specialists, such as oral surgeons, periodontists, and orthodontists, to develop comprehensive treatment plans for their patients, ensuring optimal functional and aesthetic outcomes.

Dental cements are materials used in dentistry to bond or seal restorative dental materials, such as crowns, fillings, and orthodontic appliances, to natural tooth structures. They can be made from various materials including glass ionomers, resin-modified glass ionomers, zinc oxide eugenol, polycarboxylate, and composite resins. The choice of cement depends on the specific clinical situation and the properties required, such as strength, durability, biocompatibility, and esthetics.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

Odontogenesis is the process of tooth development that involves the formation and calcification of teeth. It is a complex process that requires the interaction of several types of cells, including epithelial cells, mesenchymal cells, and odontoblasts. The process begins during embryonic development with the formation of dental lamina, which gives rise to the tooth bud. As the tooth bud grows and differentiates, it forms the various structures of the tooth, including the enamel, dentin, cementum, and pulp. Odontogenesis is completed when the tooth erupts into the oral cavity. Abnormalities in odontogenesis can result in developmental dental anomalies such as tooth agenesis, microdontia, or odontomas.

A dental impression technique is a method used in dentistry to create a detailed and accurate replica of a patient's teeth and oral structures. This is typically accomplished by using an impression material, which is inserted into a tray and then placed in the patient's mouth. The material sets or hardens, capturing every detail of the teeth, gums, and other oral tissues.

There are several types of dental impression techniques, including:

1. Irreversible Hydrocolloid Impression Material: This is a common type of impression material that is made of alginate powder mixed with water. It is poured into a tray and inserted into the patient's mouth. Once set, it is removed and used to create a cast or model of the teeth.

2. Reversible Hydrocolloid Impression Material: This type of impression material is similar to irreversible hydrocolloid, but it can be reused. It is made of agar and water and is poured into a tray and inserted into the patient's mouth. Once set, it is removed and reheated to be used again.

3. Polyvinyl Siloxane (PVS) Impression Material: This is a two-part impression material that is made of a base and a catalyst. It is poured into a tray and inserted into the patient's mouth. Once set, it is removed and used to create a cast or model of the teeth. PVS is known for its high accuracy and detail.

4. Addition Silicone Impression Material: This is another two-part impression material that is made of a base and a catalyst. It is similar to PVS, but it has a longer working time and sets slower. It is often used for full-arch impressions or when there is a need for a very detailed impression.

5. Elastomeric Impression Material: This is a type of impression material that is made of a rubber-like substance. It is poured into a tray and inserted into the patient's mouth. Once set, it is removed and used to create a cast or model of the teeth. Elastomeric impression materials are known for their high accuracy and detail.

The dental impression technique is an essential part of many dental procedures, including creating crowns, bridges, dentures, and orthodontic appliances. The accuracy and detail of the impression can significantly impact the fit and function of the final restoration or appliance.

According to the American Academy of Periodontology, periodontal diseases are chronic inflammatory conditions that affect the tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth. These tissues include the gums, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. The primary cause of periodontal disease is bacterial plaque, a sticky film that constantly forms on our teeth.

There are two major stages of periodontal disease:

1. Gingivitis: This is the milder form of periodontal disease, characterized by inflammation of the gums (gingiva) without loss of attachment to the teeth. The gums may appear red, swollen, and bleed easily during brushing or flossing. At this stage, the damage can be reversed with proper dental care and improved oral hygiene.
2. Periodontitis: If left untreated, gingivitis can progress to periodontitis, a more severe form of periodontal disease. In periodontitis, the inflammation extends beyond the gums and affects the deeper periodontal tissues, leading to loss of bone support around the teeth. Pockets filled with infection-causing bacteria form between the teeth and gums, causing further damage and potential tooth loss if not treated promptly.

Risk factors for developing periodontal disease include poor oral hygiene, smoking or using smokeless tobacco, genetic predisposition, diabetes, hormonal changes (such as pregnancy or menopause), certain medications, and systemic diseases like AIDS or cancer. Regular dental check-ups and good oral hygiene practices are crucial for preventing periodontal disease and maintaining overall oral health.

I apologize, but "Canada" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located in North America, known for its vast wilderness, multicultural cities, and significant natural resources. If you have any questions related to healthcare or medical terms, I would be happy to help answer those!

A dental abutment is a component of a dental implant restoration that connects the implant to the replacement tooth or teeth. It serves as a support structure and is attached to the implant, which is surgically placed in the jawbone. The abutment provides a stable foundation for the placement of a crown, bridge, or denture, depending on the patient's individual needs.

Dental abutments can be made from various materials such as titanium, zirconia, or other biocompatible materials. They come in different shapes and sizes to accommodate the specific requirements of each implant case. The selection of an appropriate dental abutment is crucial for ensuring a successful and long-lasting dental implant restoration.

Socioeconomic factors are a range of interconnected conditions and influences that affect the opportunities and resources a person or group has to maintain and improve their health and well-being. These factors include:

1. Economic stability: This includes employment status, job security, income level, and poverty status. Lower income and lack of employment are associated with poorer health outcomes.
2. Education: Higher levels of education are generally associated with better health outcomes. Education can affect a person's ability to access and understand health information, as well as their ability to navigate the healthcare system.
3. Social and community context: This includes factors such as social support networks, discrimination, and community safety. Strong social supports and positive community connections are associated with better health outcomes, while discrimination and lack of safety can negatively impact health.
4. Healthcare access and quality: Access to affordable, high-quality healthcare is an important socioeconomic factor that can significantly impact a person's health. Factors such as insurance status, availability of providers, and cultural competency of healthcare systems can all affect healthcare access and quality.
5. Neighborhood and built environment: The physical conditions in which people live, work, and play can also impact their health. Factors such as housing quality, transportation options, availability of healthy foods, and exposure to environmental hazards can all influence health outcomes.

Socioeconomic factors are often interrelated and can have a cumulative effect on health outcomes. For example, someone who lives in a low-income neighborhood with limited access to healthy foods and safe parks may also face challenges related to employment, education, and healthcare access that further impact their health. Addressing socioeconomic factors is an important part of promoting health equity and reducing health disparities.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Mouth diseases refer to a variety of conditions that affect the oral cavity, including the lips, gums, teeth, tongue, palate, and lining of the mouth. These diseases can be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or other organisms. They can also result from injuries, chronic illnesses, or genetic factors.

Some common examples of mouth diseases include dental caries (cavities), periodontal disease (gum disease), oral herpes, candidiasis (thrush), lichen planus, and oral cancer. Symptoms may include pain, swelling, redness, bleeding, bad breath, difficulty swallowing or speaking, and changes in the appearance of the mouth or teeth. Treatment depends on the specific diagnosis and may involve medications, dental procedures, or lifestyle changes.

"Age determination by teeth" is a method used in forensic dentistry to estimate the age of an individual based on the development and wear of their teeth. This process involves examining various features such as tooth eruption, crown and root formation, and dental attrition or wear.

The developmental stages of teeth can provide a rough estimate of age during childhood and adolescence, while dental wear patterns can offer insights into an individual's age during adulthood. However, it is important to note that there can be significant variation in tooth development and wear between individuals, making this method somewhat imprecise.

In addition to forensic applications, age determination by teeth can also be useful in archaeology and anthropology for studying past populations and their lifestyles.

Dental disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are used to inactivate or destroy microorganisms present on dental instruments, equipment, and surfaces in order to prevent the transmission of infectious diseases. These disinfectants are intended to reduce the number of pathogens to a level that is considered safe and poses minimal risk of infection.

Dental disinfectants can be classified based on their spectrum of activity, which ranges from low-level disinfectants that are effective against vegetative bacteria, fungi, and viruses, to high-level disinfectants that also inactivate bacterial spores. The choice of a particular dental disinfectant depends on the intended use, the level of contamination, and the type of microorganisms present.

It is important to follow the manufacturer's instructions for use, including the recommended contact time, concentration, and method of application, to ensure the effectiveness of dental disinfectants. Additionally, proper handling, storage, and disposal of these agents are essential to prevent harm to patients, staff, and the environment.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Forensic dentistry, also known as forensic odontology, is a specialty in forensic science that involves the examination, identification, and evaluation of dental evidence for legal purposes. It encompasses various aspects such as:

1. Identification of deceased individuals through dental records comparison (e.g., during mass disasters or unidentified human remains).
2. Analysis of bite marks found on victims or objects related to criminal investigations.
3. Assessment of age, sex, ancestry, and other personal characteristics based on dental features.
4. Examination of cases of abuse, neglect, or malpractice in dentistry.
5. Evaluation of occupational dental injuries and diseases.

Forensic dentists often work closely with law enforcement agencies, medical examiners, and other legal professionals to provide expert testimony in court proceedings.

Pit and fissure sealants are a preventive dental treatment that involves the application of a thin, plastic coating to the chewing surfaces of teeth, usually the molars and premolars. The goal of this treatment is to protect the pits and fissures, which are the grooves and depressions on the chewing surfaces of teeth, from decay.

The sealant material flows into the pits and fissures, creating a smooth, protective barrier that prevents food and bacteria from becoming trapped in these areas and causing cavities. The procedure is typically quick, painless, and non-invasive, and can be performed during a routine dental checkup. Sealants are most commonly recommended for children and adolescents, but they may also be appropriate for adults who are at high risk of tooth decay.

In the context of medical education, a curriculum refers to the planned and organized sequence of experiences and learning opportunities designed to achieve specific educational goals and objectives. It outlines the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that medical students or trainees are expected to acquire during their training program. The curriculum may include various components such as lectures, small group discussions, clinical rotations, simulations, and other experiential learning activities. It is typically developed and implemented by medical education experts and faculty members in consultation with stakeholders, including learners, practitioners, and patients.

A cuspid, also known as a canine tooth or cuspid tooth, is a type of tooth in mammals. It is the pointiest tooth in the dental arch and is located between the incisors and bicuspids (or premolars). Cuspids have a single cusp or pointed tip that is used for tearing and grasping food. In humans, there are four cuspids, two on the upper jaw and two on the lower jaw, one on each side of the dental arch.

Periodontics is a specialty of dentistry that focuses on the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases affecting the supporting structures of the teeth, including the gums, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. It deals with the maintenance of the health, function, and esthetics of these structures and the teeth themselves. Common periodontal treatments include scaling and root planing (deep cleanings), pocket reduction procedures, regenerative treatments, and dental implant placement. Periodontists are dentists who have completed additional training in this specialized field.

The double-blind method is a study design commonly used in research, including clinical trials, to minimize bias and ensure the objectivity of results. In this approach, both the participants and the researchers are unaware of which group the participants are assigned to, whether it be the experimental group or the control group. This means that neither the participants nor the researchers know who is receiving a particular treatment or placebo, thus reducing the potential for bias in the evaluation of outcomes. The assignment of participants to groups is typically done by a third party not involved in the study, and the codes are only revealed after all data have been collected and analyzed.

The Manifest Anxiety Scale (MAS) is a psychological self-reporting measurement tool used to assess the level of anxiety in individuals. It was developed by psychologist Charles D. Spielberger and his colleagues in the 1950s as part of their research on anxiety and stress. The MAS measures the subjective experience of anxiety or feelings of tension, worry, and nervousness that an individual may be experiencing.

The MAS consists of a series of statements or items that describe various symptoms or manifestations of anxiety. Respondents are asked to rate how well each statement describes their own experiences on a scale, typically ranging from "not at all" to "very much." The total score is calculated by summing up the ratings for all the items, with higher scores indicating greater levels of anxiety.

It's important to note that while the MAS can provide useful information about an individual's subjective experience of anxiety, it should not be used as a standalone diagnostic tool. A comprehensive assessment by a qualified mental health professional is necessary for a proper diagnosis and treatment plan.

Dental deposits, also known as dental plaque or calculus, are accumulations of bacteria and other substances on the surface of teeth. Plaque is a soft, sticky film that constantly forms on the teeth due to the presence of bacteria in the mouth. When plaque is not removed regularly through brushing and flossing, it can harden into a rough, crusty deposit called calculus or tartar.

Calculus can form above and below the gum line and can cause inflammation and irritation of the gums, leading to gum disease if left untreated. Dental deposits can also contribute to tooth decay, bad breath, and other oral health problems. Regular dental checkups and cleanings are necessary to remove dental deposits and prevent further buildup.

A nonvital tooth is one that no longer has a living or viable pulp, which contains the nerves and blood vessels inside the tooth. This condition can occur due to various reasons such as tooth decay that has progressed deeply into the tooth, dental trauma, or previous invasive dental procedures. As a result, the tooth loses its sensitivity to temperature changes and may darken in color. Nonvital teeth typically require root canal treatment to remove the dead pulp tissue, disinfect the canals, and fill them with an inert material to preserve the tooth structure and function.

"School Admission Criteria" is not a medical term. However, I can provide you with a general definition:

School admission criteria are the set of standards and qualifications that a student must meet in order to be considered for acceptance into a particular school or educational program. These criteria may include academic achievements, standardized test scores, behavioral records, extracurricular activities, interviews, and other factors that the school deems relevant to assess a student's potential for success in their learning environment.

While not medical, these criteria can impact a child's educational experience and overall well-being, which may have indirect effects on their health.

Regression analysis is a statistical technique used in medicine, as well as in other fields, to examine the relationship between one or more independent variables (predictors) and a dependent variable (outcome). It allows for the estimation of the average change in the outcome variable associated with a one-unit change in an independent variable, while controlling for the effects of other independent variables. This technique is often used to identify risk factors for diseases or to evaluate the effectiveness of medical interventions. In medical research, regression analysis can be used to adjust for potential confounding variables and to quantify the relationship between exposures and health outcomes. It can also be used in predictive modeling to estimate the probability of a particular outcome based on multiple predictors.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

Malocclusion is a term used in dentistry and orthodontics to describe a misalignment or misrelation between the upper and lower teeth when they come together, also known as the bite. It is derived from the Latin words "mal" meaning bad or wrong, and "occludere" meaning to close.

There are different types of malocclusions, including:

1. Class I malocclusion: The most common type, where the upper teeth slightly overlap the lower teeth, but the bite is otherwise aligned.
2. Class II malocclusion (overbite): The upper teeth significantly overlap the lower teeth, causing a horizontal or vertical discrepancy between the dental arches.
3. Class III malocclusion (underbite): The lower teeth protrude beyond the upper teeth, resulting in a crossbite or underbite.

Malocclusions can be caused by various factors such as genetics, thumb sucking, tongue thrusting, premature loss of primary or permanent teeth, and jaw injuries or disorders. They may lead to several oral health issues, including tooth decay, gum disease, difficulty chewing or speaking, and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction. Treatment for malocclusions typically involves orthodontic appliances like braces, aligners, or retainers to realign the teeth and correct the bite. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary.

Cariostatic agents are substances or medications that are used to prevent or inhibit the development and progression of dental caries, also known as tooth decay or cavities. These agents work by reducing the ability of bacteria in the mouth to produce acid, which can erode the enamel and dentin of the teeth and lead to cavities.

There are several types of cariostatic agents that are commonly used in dental care, including:

1. Fluorides: These are the most widely used and well-studied cariostatic agents. They work by promoting the remineralization of tooth enamel and making it more resistant to acid attacks. Fluoride can be found in toothpaste, mouthwashes, gels, varnishes, and fluoridated water supplies.
2. Antimicrobial agents: These substances work by reducing the population of bacteria in the mouth that contribute to tooth decay. Examples include chlorhexidine, triclosan, and xylitol.
3. Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP): This is a complex protein that has been shown to help remineralize tooth enamel and reduce the risk of dental caries. It can be found in some toothpastes and mouthwashes.
4. Silver diamine fluoride: This is a topical fluoride compound that contains silver ions, which have antimicrobial properties. It has been shown to be effective in preventing and arresting dental caries, particularly in high-risk populations such as young children and older adults with dry mouth.

It's important to note that while cariostatic agents can help reduce the risk of tooth decay, they are not a substitute for good oral hygiene practices such as brushing twice a day, flossing daily, and visiting the dentist regularly.

Tooth erosion is defined as the progressive, irreversible loss of dental hard tissue, primarily caused by chemical dissolution from acids, rather than mechanical forces such as abrasion or attrition. These acids can originate from extrinsic sources like acidic foods and beverages, or intrinsic sources like gastric reflux or vomiting. The erosion process leads to a reduction in tooth structure, altering the shape and function of teeth, and potentially causing sensitivity, pain, and aesthetical concerns. Early detection and management of tooth erosion are crucial to prevent further progression and preserve dental health.

The maxilla is a paired bone that forms the upper jaw in vertebrates. In humans, it is a major bone in the face and plays several important roles in the craniofacial complex. Each maxilla consists of a body and four processes: frontal process, zygomatic process, alveolar process, and palatine process.

The maxillae contribute to the formation of the eye sockets (orbits), nasal cavity, and the hard palate of the mouth. They also contain the upper teeth sockets (alveoli) and help form the lower part of the orbit and the cheekbones (zygomatic arches).

Here's a quick rundown of its key functions:

1. Supports the upper teeth and forms the upper jaw.
2. Contributes to the formation of the eye sockets, nasal cavity, and hard palate.
3. Helps shape the lower part of the orbit and cheekbones.
4. Partakes in the creation of important sinuses, such as the maxillary sinus, which is located within the body of the maxilla.

Streptococcus mutans is a gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, beta-hemolytic species of bacteria that's part of the normal microbiota of the oral cavity in humans. It's one of the primary etiological agents associated with dental caries, or tooth decay, due to its ability to produce large amounts of acid as a byproduct of sugar metabolism, which can lead to demineralization of tooth enamel and dentin. The bacterium can also adhere to tooth surfaces and form biofilms, further contributing to the development of dental caries.

Dental pulp capping is a dental procedure that involves the application of a small amount of medication or dressing to a small exposed area of the dental pulp, with the aim of promoting the formation of reparative dentin and preserving the vitality of the pulp. The dental pulp is the soft tissue located inside the tooth, containing nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissues that provide nutrients and sensory functions to the tooth.

Pulp capping may be recommended when the dental pulp is exposed due to tooth decay or trauma, but the pulp is still vital and has the potential to heal. The procedure typically involves cleaning and removing any infected or damaged tissue from the exposure site, followed by the application of a medicated dressing or cement to promote healing and protect the pulp from further injury or infection.

There are two types of pulp capping: direct and indirect. Direct pulp capping involves applying the medication directly to the exposed pulp, while indirect pulp capping involves placing the medication over a thin layer of dentin that has been created to protect the pulp. The success of pulp capping depends on various factors, including the size and depth of the exposure, the patient's age and overall health, and the skill and experience of the dental professional performing the procedure.

Permanent dentition is the second and final set of teeth that humans grow during their lifetime. These teeth are also known as adult or secondary teeth and typically begin to erupt in the mouth around the age of 6 or 7 years old, with all permanent teeth usually present by the time a person reaches their late teens or early twenties.

There are 32 teeth in a complete set of permanent dentition, including 8 incisors, 4 canines, 8 premolars (also called bicuspids), and 12 molars (including 4 third molars or wisdom teeth). The primary function of permanent teeth is to help with biting, chewing, and grinding food into smaller pieces that are easier to swallow and digest. Proper care and maintenance of permanent teeth through good oral hygiene practices, regular dental checkups, and a balanced diet can help ensure their longevity and health throughout a person's life.

Dental veneers, also known as dental porcelain laminates or just veneers, are thin custom-made shells of tooth-colored materials designed to cover the front surface of teeth to improve their appearance. These shells are bonded to the front of the teeth, changing their color, shape, size, or length.

Dental veneers can be made from porcelain or resin composite materials. Porcelain veneers are more stain-resistant and generally last longer than resin veneers. They also better mimic the light-reflecting properties of natural teeth. Resin veneers, on the other hand, are thinner and require less removal of the tooth's surface before placement.

Dental veneers are often used to treat dental conditions like discolored teeth, worn down teeth, chipped or broken teeth, misaligned teeth, irregularly shaped teeth, or gaps between teeth. The procedure usually requires three visits to the dentist: one for consultation and treatment planning, another to prepare the tooth and take an impression for the veneer, and a final visit to bond the veneer to the tooth.

It is important to note that while dental veneers can greatly improve the appearance of your teeth, they are not suitable for everyone. Your dentist will evaluate your oral health and discuss whether dental veneers are the right option for you.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

Longitudinal studies are a type of research design where data is collected from the same subjects repeatedly over a period of time, often years or even decades. These studies are used to establish patterns of changes and events over time, and can help researchers identify causal relationships between variables. They are particularly useful in fields such as epidemiology, psychology, and sociology, where the focus is on understanding developmental trends and the long-term effects of various factors on health and behavior.

In medical research, longitudinal studies can be used to track the progression of diseases over time, identify risk factors for certain conditions, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. For example, a longitudinal study might follow a group of individuals over several decades to assess their exposure to certain environmental factors and their subsequent development of chronic diseases such as cancer or heart disease. By comparing data collected at multiple time points, researchers can identify trends and correlations that may not be apparent in shorter-term studies.

Longitudinal studies have several advantages over other research designs, including their ability to establish temporal relationships between variables, track changes over time, and reduce the impact of confounding factors. However, they also have some limitations, such as the potential for attrition (loss of participants over time), which can introduce bias and affect the validity of the results. Additionally, longitudinal studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, requiring significant resources and a long-term commitment from both researchers and study participants.

Oral surgical procedures refer to various types of surgeries performed in the oral cavity and maxillofacial region, which includes the mouth, jaws, face, and skull. These procedures are typically performed by oral and maxillofacial surgeons, who are dental specialists with extensive training in surgical procedures involving the mouth, jaws, and face.

Some common examples of oral surgical procedures include:

1. Tooth extractions: This involves removing a tooth that is damaged beyond repair or causing problems for the surrounding teeth. Wisdom tooth removal is a common type of tooth extraction.
2. Dental implant placement: This procedure involves placing a small titanium post in the jawbone to serve as a replacement root for a missing tooth. A dental crown is then attached to the implant, creating a natural-looking and functional replacement tooth.
3. Jaw surgery: Also known as orthognathic surgery, this procedure involves repositioning the jaws to correct bite problems or facial asymmetry.
4. Biopsy: This procedure involves removing a small sample of tissue from the oral cavity for laboratory analysis, often to diagnose suspicious lesions or growths.
5. Lesion removal: This procedure involves removing benign or malignant growths from the oral cavity, such as tumors or cysts.
6. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) surgery: This procedure involves treating disorders of the TMJ, which connects the jawbone to the skull and allows for movement when eating, speaking, and yawning.
7. Facial reconstruction: This procedure involves rebuilding or reshaping the facial bones after trauma, cancer surgery, or other conditions that affect the face.

Overall, oral surgical procedures are an important part of dental and medical care, helping to diagnose and treat a wide range of conditions affecting the mouth, jaws, and face.

Ageusia is a medical term that refers to the complete loss of taste. It can affect a person's ability to detect sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and savory flavors. Ageusia can be caused by various factors such as damage to the nerves responsible for transmitting taste signals to the brain, exposure to certain chemicals or radiation therapy, and some medical conditions like diabetes, hypertension, and upper respiratory infections. In some cases, ageusia may be temporary, while in others, it can be permanent. It is important to consult a healthcare professional if experiencing a loss of taste, as it could be a sign of an underlying health issue.

"Edentulous mouth" is a medical term used to describe a condition where an individual has no remaining natural teeth in either their upper or lower jaw, or both. This situation can occur due to various reasons such as tooth decay, gum disease, trauma, or aging. Dentists often recommend dental prosthetics like dentures to restore oral function and aesthetics for individuals with edentulous mouths.

Multivariate analysis is a statistical method used to examine the relationship between multiple independent variables and a dependent variable. It allows for the simultaneous examination of the effects of two or more independent variables on an outcome, while controlling for the effects of other variables in the model. This technique can be used to identify patterns, associations, and interactions among multiple variables, and is commonly used in medical research to understand complex health outcomes and disease processes. Examples of multivariate analysis methods include multiple regression, factor analysis, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis.

Nonparametric statistics is a branch of statistics that does not rely on assumptions about the distribution of variables in the population from which the sample is drawn. In contrast to parametric methods, nonparametric techniques make fewer assumptions about the data and are therefore more flexible in their application. Nonparametric tests are often used when the data do not meet the assumptions required for parametric tests, such as normality or equal variances.

Nonparametric statistical methods include tests such as the Wilcoxon rank-sum test (also known as the Mann-Whitney U test) for comparing two independent groups, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for comparing two related groups, and the Kruskal-Wallis test for comparing more than two independent groups. These tests use the ranks of the data rather than the actual values to make comparisons, which allows them to be used with ordinal or continuous data that do not meet the assumptions of parametric tests.

Overall, nonparametric statistics provide a useful set of tools for analyzing data in situations where the assumptions of parametric methods are not met, and can help researchers draw valid conclusions from their data even when the data are not normally distributed or have other characteristics that violate the assumptions of parametric tests.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "State Dentistry" is not a recognized term in the field of dentistry or healthcare. It's possible that you may be referring to "Public Health Dentistry," which is a branch of dentistry that focuses on preventing oral diseases and promoting oral health within communities. This is often done through population-level interventions, policy development, research, and advocacy. However, without more context, it's difficult to provide a precise definition.

Geriatric dentistry is a specialized branch of dental medicine that focuses on the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of dental diseases in older adults. This field takes into account the unique oral health needs and challenges faced by this population, which can include factors such as:

* Increased risk of tooth decay and gum disease due to dry mouth (xerostomia), a common side effect of many medications taken by older adults
* Difficulty maintaining good oral hygiene due to physical limitations or cognitive impairments
* Greater susceptibility to oral infections and other complications due to weakened immune systems
* Higher rates of tooth loss, which can lead to problems with nutrition, speech, and self-esteem

Geriatric dentists are trained to provide comprehensive dental care to older adults, including routine cleanings and exams, fillings and extractions, dentures and other restorative treatments, and education on oral hygiene and disease prevention. They may also work closely with other healthcare providers to manage the overall health and well-being of their patients.

Dental and skeletal evidence show no signs of stress. However other analyses have shown injuries in the Chandman population ... The Chandman population likely practiced dairying, as dental remains show evidence of milk consumption. A 2020 study analyzed ... "A palaeopathological analysis of skeletal remains from Bronze Age Mongolia". HOMO. 69 (6): 324-334. doi:10.1016/j.jchb.2018.11. ...
A biomechanical analysis of the jaw showed that Archaeolemur was well suited for breaking apart large food items and dental ... Archaeolemur also has a fused mandibular symphysis, an adaptation for resisting chewing stress. ... "Dental microwear texture analysis of two families of subfossil lemurs from Madagascar". Journal of Human Evolution. 56 (4): 405 ... A comprehensive analysis of the hands and feet of Archaeolemur shows that its limbs are relatively short for its body size, as ...
... biomechanical stress analysis and stable isotope analysis, combined with other archaeological data, seem to support this ... Studies of dental enamel hypoplasia are used to study child health. Unlike bone, teeth are not remodeled, so they can provide a ... "What can bones tell about labour and occupation : the analysis of skeletal markers of occupational stress in the Identified ... Dental hypoplasias provide an indicator of health status during the time in childhood when the enamel of the tooth crown is ...
... supplemented by browsing during stressed periods. Dental wear patterns of specimens from the late Middle and Late Pleistocene ... A finite element analysis of the antlers suggested that during fighting, the antlers were likely to interlock around the middle ... A stable isotope analysis of the terminal Pleistocene Irish population suggests a grass and forb based diet, ... most other phylogenetic analyses support the thesis that their closest living relatives are fallow deer (Dama). The first ...
Tanne K, Sakuda M, Burstone CJ (December 1987). "Three-dimensional finite element analysis for stress in the periodontal tissue ... Periodontics is the dental specialty that relates specifically to the care and maintenance of these tissues. It provides the ... The bony trabeculae are aligned in the path of tensile and compressive stresses to provide maximum resistance to occlusal ...
Chen BP, Wolfgang CD, Hai T (March 1996). "Analysis of ATF3, a transcription factor induced by physiological stresses and ... Vasanwala FH, Kusam S, Toney LM, Dent AL (August 2002). "Repression of AP-1 function: a mechanism for the regulation of Blimp-1 ... Behrens A, Sibilia M, Wagner EF (March 1999). "Amino-terminal phosphorylation of c-Jun regulates stress-induced apoptosis and ... in stress-induced apoptosis and cellular proliferation is regulated by its N-terminal phosphorylation. Another study showed ...
Wang, B.; Zhou, L.; Du, J.; Cao, Y. (January 2023). "Analysis of residual stresses in electron beam welding with filler wire of ... Velasco-Ortega, E (Sep 2010). "In vitro evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of a commercial titanium alloy for dental ... Stress relief and annealing are the processes that can be employed for this class of titanium alloys. The heat treatment cycles ... Beta alloys can not only be stress relieved or annealed, but also can be solution treated and aged. The alpha-beta alloys are ...
Dejak, B; Młotkowski, A; Romanowicz, M (2003). "Finite element analysis of stresses in molars during clenching and mastication ... A No.12 scalpel is carefully used by the dental clinician to make a small indentation on the lesion, this is then closely ... The aim of this is to redirect the force of the load to the long axis of the tooth, therefore removing the stress on the lesion ... If teeth come together in a non-ideal bite the researchers state that this would create further stress in areas on the teeth. ...
Russian has five or six vowels in stressed syllables, /i, u, e, o, a/, and in some analyses /ɨ/, but in most cases these vowels ... Belarusian ць, дзь, or Polish ć, dź). The sounds /t, d, ts, s, z, n, rʲ/ are dental, that is, pronounced with the tip of the ... The standard language, based on the Moscow dialect, possesses heavy stress and moderate variation in pitch. Stressed vowels are ... Stress, which is often unpredictable, is not normally indicated orthographically, though an optional acute accent may be used ...
Controversially, some analyses suggest that all nouns end in an underlying consonant phoneme. Nouns apparently ending in a ... Also, the voiceless stops are slightly aspirated at the onset of words and before stressed syllables, behaving like English ... is pronounced as a voiceless dental fricative [θ]: /ɬ/→[θ]. The voiceless labiodental fricative /f/ is pronounced as a ...
Dental analyses showed no sign of periods of decay or arrested development, even where there was "considerable wear", ... The variation in musculoskeletal stress markers may indicate a mobile lifestyle for at least some of the males analysed. ... Whittle and Wysocki conclude, from the skeletal and dental analyses, that the lifestyles of the people who were to be interred ... However, analysis of the human remains found at Parc Cwm long cairn show the people interred in the cromlech continued to be ...
In 2021, Antonio Ballell and Humberto Ferrón used Finite Element Analysis modeling to examine the stress distribution of three ... an artificial dental formula was put together for megalodon in 1996.: 55 The dental formula of megalodon is: 2.1.7.43.0.8.4. As ... Shimada stated that the previously proposed methods were based on a less-reliable evaluation of the dental homology between ... Farrell, A.D. (2021). A Use-Wear and Functional Analysis of Precontact Shark Teeth Assemblages from Florida (MS). Florida State ...
... stress shielding, and 3-dimensional analysis and planning. He uses a 'surgery-first' approach in his orthognathic surgeries ... He is also the chief of the Dental Department and Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at Yale New Haven Health. He is known for his ... clinical work, research and incorporation of 3D analysis and printing into jaw surgery, craniofacial surgery and rhinoplasty. ...
Rada, R. E.; Johnson-Leong, C. (2004). "Stress, burnout, anxiety and depression among dentists". The Journal of the American ... A meta-analysis". Clinical Psychology Review. 28 (6): 1021-1037. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2008.02.007. ISSN 0272-7358. PMID 18410984. ... Dental Association. 135 (6): 788-794. doi:10.14219/jada.archive.2004.0279. PMID 15270165. S2CID 1707474. Pereira-Lima, K.; ... Adults with GAD can feel stressed by work-related concerns regarding everyday tasks, evaluations, and presentations. Social ...
Dental microwear analysis suggests Morenelaphus had a mixed-feeder diet, including grass and perhaps with the occasional ... possibly as a result of climate change and nutritional stress. Alline Rotti; Raúl Ignacio Vezzosi; Dimila Mothé; Leonardo dos ...
Disyllabic words are when the stress is placed on the final syllable. Polysyllabic words are when the stress is moved to the ... Analyses of this were given by Kisseberth (1970), Phelps (1973, 1975) and Noske (1993). The Tonkawa language is a syllabic ... vary freely between dental and postalveolar articulations, i.e. [ts~tʃ] and [s~ʃ]. There is a tendency for [ʃ] to occur at the ... Linguistic Analysis 1, 137-172. "The Tonkawa Language: Pronunciation Key". Retrieved October 12, 2005. For a list of words ...
Analysis of bones and dental traits of these women have led archaeologists to believe these individuals were not from the same ... consumption in the bones and cartilage of the women as well as pathologies indicative of poor health and nutritional stress; ... Non-metric dental traits have suggested that these individuals were not from the Cahokia area and were possibly immigrants new ... Radiocarbon dating and ceramic analysis of sherds found in the mound place its beginning construction date to the Lohmann Phase ...
Sleep analysis which will deepen understanding of sleep's impact on astronaut health. Radiation research which will help ... Immune system studies which will further illuminate the effects of stress on immune changes in healthy adults. Fluid science ... One will assess how microgravity affects cardio-postural interactions, while the other will study dental/oral cells in a ...
"Psychological Stress Among Dental Students at the University of Jordan". Journal of Dental Education. 75 (8): 1107-1114. doi: ... A meta-analysis in the American journal JAMA suggested depressive symptoms in 21% to 43% of all medical students. The students ... psychological stress, and physiological stress. These points of stress may be interrelated, and each may be at a different ... Dental students also suffer from excessive stress especially during the clinical years. This condition has become a focus of ...
Dental Anthropology Journal 20 (2/3):29-32. R.S. Corruccini, I. Shimada, K. Shinoda. 2002. Dental and mtDNA Relatedness Among ... Genetic Analysis of Occlusal Variation in Twins. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 78:140-154. B.A. ... Enamel Hypoplasias Related to Famine Stress in Living Chinese. Human Biology 10 (6):723-733. R.S. Corruccini, R.M. Beecher. ... Quantification of Dental Occlusal Variation: A Review of Methods. 2008. Dental Anthropology Journal 21 (1):1-11. R.S. ...
... has been used for a variety of stress analyses and even for routine use in design, particularly before the ... Dental Materials. 19 (2): 106-117. doi:10.1016/s0109-5641(02)00019-2. PMID 12543116. Bigoni, Davide; Noselli, Giovanni (2010 ... Dally, J.W. and Riley, W.F., Experimental Stress Analysis, 3rd edition, McGraw-Hill Inc., 1991 Ramesh, K., Digital ... The loading is then applied in the same way to ensure that the stress distribution in the model is similar to the stress in the ...
... with a basic understanding of veterinary and dental medicine. General healthcare and emergency healthcare are stressed in ... The Pineland Area Study will be used as the basis for analysis allowing for a comprehensive understanding of the training ... Butler sued the US government for $5 million for "emotional distress" and "post-traumatic stress disorder" as a result of ... The acronym PMESII-PT refers to a form of environmental analysis to examine the aspects of political, military, economic, ...
... meaning the severe stress was uncommon at Ghaba. These dental patterns show the people at Ghaba had good dental health, which ... Analysis of starch from dental calculus and the white power determined to be opal silica phytoliths left under skulls ... Dental calculus is mineralized dental plaque that preserves information about what a person eats during their lives. The dental ... Analysis of dental traits at many Neolithic Sudanese sites shows Ghaba fits in particularly well with upper Nubian dentition ...
Stress is not the sole cause. Additionally, when hypoplasias do occur the severity of the hypopplasia does not directly ... Stable isotope analysis is the final category of dental analysis for diet that can be considered, as the usual techniques of ... Forshaw, Roger (July 2015). "Unlocking the past: The role of dental analysis in archaeology". Dental Historian. 60 (2): 51-62. ... so the prevalence of cavities in dental remains suggests the existence of such foods in the diet. For example, dental analysis ...
"Polymerization shrinkage and contraction stress of dental resin composites". Dental Materials. 21 (12): 1150-7. doi:10.1016/j. ... Heintze, S. D.; Rousson, V. (2012). "Clinical effectiveness of direct class II restorations - a meta-analysis". The Journal of ... patients with poorer dental health (possibly due to poor dental hygiene, diet, genetics, frequency of dental checkups, etc.) ... Dental composite resins (better referred to as "resin-based composites" or simply "filled resins") are dental cements made of ...
Analysis of bone stress markers in populations of the Middle and Late Holocene of the Bogotá savanna, Colombia. Revista ... Datación de esmalte dental prehispánico proveniente del sitio arqueológico Checua (Cundinamarca) por resonancia paramagnética ... Analysis of the various stratigraphic levels and the tools found, led to the identification of four zones of human occupation ...
Zadik, Y (2006). "Dental Fractures on Acute Exposure to High Altitude". Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine. 77 (6): ... November 2005). "Cancer incidence among male military and civil pilots and flight attendants: an analysis on published data". ... and work-related stress. 1% rule (aviation medicine) Barany chair Barodontalgia Fear of flying Civil Aerospace Medical ... Zadik, Y; Chapnik, L; Goldstein, L (2007). "In-Flight Barodontalgia: Analysis of 29 Cases in Military Aircrew". Aviation, Space ...
... preceding a dental stop: /sh-t-uu-maay/ → stuumaay "to seek (pl)". /e/ is inserted in a pre-stress position between a non- ... Analysis of the term is complicated, so since the phoneme is only found in one native word, /b/ is not included in the above ... when stressed and followed by /j/ and [o] when unstressed and before /ʔ/. /uː/ is realized as [oː] when stressed and followed ... when following a stressed, non-front vowel. In a post-stress position, /t͡ʃ/ becomes [tʲ], while /x/ becomes [ɰ]. In final ...
Investigations of dental cement and bone showed that as a young man he had suffered at least two phases of stress and signs of ... A strontium isotope analysis of three of his molars showed that he had most probably lived in the Basel area until the age of ... As analyses of the arm and clavicle bones showed, Theo was most likely a right-handed craftsman. Theo died too young; the life ... But the analysis of his DNA showed that there was no relationship. Another candidate was removed from the list with certain ...
Primary stress will be on the main syllable, whilst the secondary stress will be on every alternate preceding syllable. Stress ... In this language, there are four fricatives, but in particular we can look at the dental fricative /z/ which has been recorded ... hence an analysis of two separate phonemes rather than a unit phoneme is required. The vowel phonemes in Longgu are: In Longgu ... The stress on both of these pronouns is on the first syllable (nga-ia and ga-oa). Furthermore, voiced stops may only occur in ...
Dental Implantation, Endosseous / methods* * Dental Implants* * Dental Stress Analysis / instrumentation* * Implants, ... Two dental implants were inserted 15-18 mm apart in the animals tibiae. After 3 months of healing, the implants were loaded ...
Dental Stress Analysis * Humans * Mandibular Fractures / prevention & control* * Models, Anatomic * Mouth Protectors* ... 1 Department of Sports Dentistry, Tokyo Dental College, Chiba, Japan. [email protected] ...
Risk-analysis; Skeletal-stress; Work-analysis; Worker-health; Author Keywords: Ergonomics; cumulative trauma disorders; ... Dental hygienists report even higher rates, from 54-83% for neck and 35-76% for shoulder, and dental assistants in between (38- ... The prevalence of and risk factors for neck and shoulder disorders among dental practitioners (dentists, dental hygienists, and ... musculoskeletal disorders; dental hygienists; dental assistants; risk factors; neck and shoulder disorders ...
Aim: To investigate by the finite element analysis comparison of stress distribution on the cortical and cancellous bone in an ... Dental biomechanics. London: Taylor and Francis; 2003. pp. 211-239.. * Natali AN, Pavan PG. A comparative analysis based on ... Biomechanical analysis of alveolar bone stress around implants with different thread designs and pitches in the mandibular ... Thread designs on stress distribution: a three-dimensional finite element analysis. J Indian Prosthodont Soc 2016;16(4):359-365 ...
Stress modifies nociception, and humans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) exhibit co-morbid chronic pain and amygdala ... mediates stress-induced hyperalgesia in rats with high stress reactivity. Adult male Wistar rats were exposed to predator odor ... Predator odor stress produces hyperalgesia in rodents. Systemic blockade of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) type 1 ... These data suggest that rats with high stress reactivity exhibit hyperalgesia that is mediated by CRF-CRFR1 signaling in CeA. ...
Comparison between experimental digital image processing and numerical methods for stress analysis in dental implants with ... Formulación de un material de impresión dental en forma de pasta.  García, R.; Wong, L.; Ferrer, A.; García, A.; Martínez, E. ... Objective: Dental device is a very broad term that can be used to include any foreign material or product that is introduced in ... Mechanical characterization of dental prostheses manufactured with PMMA-graphene composites.  Punset Fuste, Miquel; Brizuela ...
"Experimental determination and theoretical analysis of local residual stress at grain scale", by Indranil Basu, University of ... "Surface degradation of nanocrystalline Zirconia dental implants", by Vaclav Ocelík, University of Groningen, Netherlands.. • " ... residual stresses, and characterisation of deformation under fatigue and impact; macro-mechanical studies on metal plasticity, ...
Analyses of a Cantilever-Beam Based Instrument for Evaluating the Development of Polymerization Stresses. August 9, 2011 ... The mechanical properties of dental resin composites needs to be improved in order to extend their use to high stress-bearing ... Polymerization Stress Development in Dental Composites: Effect of Cavity Design Factor. March 13, 2009 ... Objective: Whiskers were recently used to reinforce dental composites to extend their use to large stress-bearing restorations ...
Dental and skeletal evidence show no signs of stress. However other analyses have shown injuries in the Chandman population ... The Chandman population likely practiced dairying, as dental remains show evidence of milk consumption. A 2020 study analyzed ... "A palaeopathological analysis of skeletal remains from Bronze Age Mongolia". HOMO. 69 (6): 324-334. doi:10.1016/j.jchb.2018.11. ...
Dental Bonding, Dental Cements, Dental Enamel/ultrastructure, Dental Stress Analysis, Humans, Microscopy, Electron, Scanning, ... Analyses indicated that the persons in the highest quarter of the radon exposure distribution had an odds ratio (OR) = 9.5 (95 ... Similar data were also used to estimate arsenic exposure for control in the analysis. Results indicate an increased risk of ... LR: 20121115; JID: 8610224; 0 (Composite Resins); 0 (Dental Cements); 0 (Phosphoric Acids); E4GA8884NN (phosphoric acid); ...
So, the aim of the current study was to find out the difference in the stresses induced by the one piece dental implants de... ... Furthermore, stress analysis studies showed comparable results between the different occlusal materials regarding the stress ... Conclusion: The one-piece dental implants can be concluded to induce less stress compared to the two piece dental implants when ... The null hypothesis was rejected as the one piece dental implant induced less stress values compared to the two piece dental ...
Analysis of dental cementum is yielding new insights into the ages when ancient people faced significant physiological stresses ... Analysis of dental cementum is yielding new insights into the ages when ancient people faced significant physiological stresses ... More interesting, cementum is one of several dental tissues that may record significant stresses in an individuals life. Such ... Part of figure 2 from Cerrito and coworkers 2022, showing the analysis for Krapina 172. The left panel shows a small portion of ...
... a team led by Lucas Delezene provides descriptions of the dental evidence from the Dinaledi Chamber. ... Analysis of dental cementum is yielding new insights into the ages when ancient people faced significant physiological stresses ... Of course, dental evidence was extremely important to the diagnosis of H. naledi and as a result we published a detailed ... A lot of work had to go into this paper beyond the basics of dental anatomy, taking in the condition of each tooth and its ...
Cost Analysis of Dental Implants in Australia. Dental health September 28, 2023. ... Unfortunately, stress and sleep can be a bit of a catch-22 - stress contributes to insomnia and insomnia contributes to stress. ... Start a Stress Journal. Obviously, there are many things that can trigger stress in the fall. But if youre not sure whats ... With these stress-busting ideas, you can find ways to manage your stress better and enjoy the season as its meant to be. ...
Mental Stress (5+). Metabolic Syndrome (100+) Overview. Mortality (296+) Multiple Sclerosis (395+) Overview ... An overview analysis of the time people spend outdoors - Dec 2010 4265 visitors, last modified 24 May, 2011, Copy URL. ... An overview analysis of the time people spend outdoors - Dec 2010. Br J Dermatol. 2010 Dec 3. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2133.2010. ... A number of published studies giving data on the time per day spent outdoors by people were reviewed and a meta-analysis ...
We performed item analysis of the stress scale and a documentary analysis of participant responses to assess the effectiveness ... Preclinical laboratory course in dental behavioral science: changing human behavior. April 1978 · Journal of Dental Education ... analysis were taken into consideration for further analyses (the calculation of. frequencies). When disagreements were noted ... In the focus group discussion, the participants described stress scale to be helpful for stress quantification, ABC tool to be ...
Mental Stress (5+). Metabolic Syndrome (99+) Overview. Mortality (293+) Multiple Sclerosis (391+) Overview ... Meta-analysis of Vitamin D category listing has 618. items. *It includes the many reasons that meta-analyses are not ... Vitamin D and fractures - 24 meta-analyses and counting - Dec 2014 The meta-analysis on this page is perhaps #25 ... Fractures not reduced by small amounts of vitamin D - meta-analysis Dec 2017 6101 visitors, last modified 12 Jun, 2018, Copy ...
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder - Contemporary Analysis of Medico-Legal Evidential Issues *. Medico Legal Details Aug 20 2019 ... Choosing a Dental Expert. The increase in dental litigation combined with the paucity of dental experts means that finding the ... Dental Education. Dental education has also impacted upon the current climate. Dental education has changed massively over the ... These teeth then need to be replaced, usually with dental implants. Dental implants are a very costly treatment and usually not ...
... employing a finite element analysis (FEA). METHODS: Dental implants (TitamaxCM) with 4x13 mm and 4x11 mm, and their respective ... TONIOLLO, Marcelo Bighetti et al. Morse taper implants at different bone levels: a finite element analysis of stress ... Von Mises equivalent stresses in cortical and trabecular bones were evaluated with the same design program. RESULTS: The ... reflecting a better dissipation of the stresses along the implant/bone interfaces. In addition, the search for anchoring the ...
Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) occurs when abdominal pressure, such as from coughing or sneezing, causes urine leakage. We ... YAG laser treatment in 327 patients with stress urinary incontinence: a case-matching analysis. Lasers Med Sci 37, 655-663 ( ... The study protocol was approved by the Ethical Review Board of the Kanagawa Association of Medical and Dental Practitioners ( ... analysis in women with SUI. No PS analysis studies have investigated urethral sling surgery using polypropylene TVT and VEL for ...
Is burning mouth syndrome associated with stress? A meta-analysis. J Oral Rehabil. 2023 Nov. 50 (11):1279-315. [QxMD MEDLINE ... Dental examination may reveal damage to enamel or worn teeth (a sign of bruxism/clenching) or protrusion of the front teeth/ ... Analysis of the cold detection and heat pain thresholds showed significantly less sensitivity to cold and heat on the tongues ... Suggested irritants include dental materials such as mercury (present in amalgam), methyl methacrylate, cobalt chloride, zinc ...
Dental engineering/Regenerative dentistry,Basic Section 57080:Social dentistry-related,Surgical dentistry,Basic Section 57060: ... Adrenergic Urticaria and Glossalgia Induced by Stress during Dental Therapy and Monitored by Heart Rate Variability Analysis: A ... Adrenergic Urticaria and Glossalgia Induced by Stress during Dental Therapy and Monitored by Heart Rate Variability Analysis: A ... Development of new dental identification method by remote analysis that can be used with COVID-19Principal Investigator. *. ...
In: 10th Dental Students Scientific Conference, 2021. In vitro cytotoxicity analysis of bioceramic root canal sealers on human ... Evaluation of the stress pattern in the resin-based composite restoration of an endodontically treated premolar tooth: a finite ... In: International Dental Students Conference 2021, 2021. In vitro cytotoxicity analysis of bioceramic root canal sealers on ... A Survey of The Understanding on Root Canal Disinfection Among Dental Students in Kulliyyah Of Dentistry, IIUM.. In: 7th Dental ...
... extremity computer models for predicting ligament strain and/or cartilage/bone stress during sports injury scenarios.Dental ... Vicon three dimensional (3D) optical motion analysis system for gait analysis, biomechanical tissue testing, and 3D computer ... The Rhythmic Breathing Coach can be used to increase endurance and reduce stress.*Withings Smart Body Analyzer is quick measure ... Computer aided design (CAD) and finite element analysis (FEA) software for engineering design and evaluation of static and ...
Biomechanical Stress Analysis of Platform Switch Implants of Varying Diameters on Different Densities of Bone. Mukherjee, S., ... Validation of ageism scale for dental students in India: (Ageism Scale for Dental Students- India) - a cross sectional study. ... Pottammal, N., Rao, A., Natarajan, S., Karuna, Y., Nayak, A. & Rao, S., 01-01-2023, In: Dental Research Journal. 20, 1, p. 21 1 ... Rao, M., Ashith, M. V., Nambiar, S., Shetty, S., Desai, A. & Jose, N. P., 2023, In: Journal of International Dental and Medical ...
Is burning mouth syndrome associated with stress? A meta-analysis. J Oral Rehabil. 2023 Nov. 50 (11):1279-315. [QxMD MEDLINE ... Dental examination may reveal damage to enamel or worn teeth (a sign of bruxism/clenching) or protrusion of the front teeth/ ... Analysis of the cold detection and heat pain thresholds showed significantly less sensitivity to cold and heat on the tongues ... Suggested irritants include dental materials such as mercury (present in amalgam), methyl methacrylate, cobalt chloride, zinc ...
"Analysis of residual stresses in electron beam welding with filler wire of Ti62A alloy". Journal of Materials Research and ... Although "commercially pure" titanium has acceptable mechanical properties and has been used for orthopedic and dental implants ... In commercial beta alloys, stress-relieving and aging treatments can be combined.. Applications[edit]. Aerospace structures[ ... Stress relief and annealing are the processes that can be employed for this class of titanium alloys. The heat treatment cycles ...
Dental curricula should include occupational health safety principles. Subject(s). Bread , Dental Stress Analysis , Dentists , ... Stress is prevalent among dental workers and students. A possible means to address this would be to include stress management ... Pain and stress are part of my profession: Using dental practitioners views of occupation-related factors to inform dental ... stress and self-care. The data were thematically analysed.Results. Dental training in the South African context, occupational ...
Comparative stress analysis of delayed and immediate loading of a single implant in an edentulous maxilla model. mimata2020-08- ... 05T13:35:25+09:00March 1st, 2014,Categories: Paper,Tags: 2014, Dental, Oral & Maxillofacial, ...
Stress Analyses in Dental Biomechanics. = Stress Analyses in Dental Biomechanics. In: 16th International Research/Expert ...
  • The Dental Night Guards Market Size, Market Share, Application Analysis, Regional Outlook, Growth Trends, Key Players, Competitive Strategies and Forecasts, 2023 To 2031 report has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.com's offering. (einpresswire.com)
  • In both cases, the maximum stress values on the cortical bone were in ADIN Touareg Closefit WP implants and the maximum stress on the cancellous bone was observed in the Nobel Speedy Groovy implants. (thejcdp.com)
  • Its implantation in the cortical bone has advantages with respect to better anchoring and locking, reflecting a better dissipation of the stresses along the implant/bone interfaces. (bvsalud.org)
  • In addition, the search for anchoring the implant in its apical region in cortical bone is of great value to improve stabilization and consequently better stress distribution. (bvsalud.org)
  • Materials and methods: Finite element analysis was performed using miniscrews inserted into 1mm of cortical bone and 10mm of trabecular bone at angles of 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 degrees to the alveolar bone. (sharif.edu)
  • The results showed that in both models, stress was mainly concentrated at the cortical bone adjacent to the neck of the implant. (sharif.edu)
  • Maximum stress values in the cortical bone. (sharif.edu)
  • Three-dimensional finite element analysis of stress distribution in peri-implant bone with relined dentures and different heights of healing caps[J]. J Oral Rehabil, 2011, 38(9):691-696. (francis-press.com)
  • A 3D finite element analysis of stress distribution on different thicknesses of mineral trioxide aggregate applied on various sizes of pulp perforation [J]. Clin Oral Investig, 2020, 24(10):3477-3483. (francis-press.com)
  • Two dental implants were inserted 15-18 mm apart in the animals' tibiae. (nih.gov)
  • A comparative analysis based on different strength criteria for evaluation of risk factor for dental implants. (thejcdp.com)
  • The aim of this study is to evaluate the stresses transferred to peri-implant areas from single implants restored with different restorative materials and subjected to a static vertical load with low eccentricity. (upc.edu)
  • So, the aim of the current study was to find out the difference in the stresses induced by the one piece dental implants designed to be used in the All-on-4 ® concept and the conventional two piece ones under simulated lateral occlusal schemes using nonlinear Finite Element Analysis. (researchsquare.com)
  • In the model TP, two piece dental implants were placed while in the model OP one piece dental implants were used. (researchsquare.com)
  • The one-piece dental implants can be concluded to induce less stress compared to the two piece dental implants when used in the All-on-4 ® implant supported prosthesis in the different lateral occlusal schemes. (researchsquare.com)
  • Dental implants offer a valid treatment option for rehabilitation of the edentulous arches. (researchsquare.com)
  • The All-on-four concept was introduced as a treatment modality for the rehabilitation of the atrophic edentulous maxilla using dental implants to overcome the previous disadvantages. (researchsquare.com)
  • The implant-abutment connection design also affects the implant survival rate, peri-implant bone resorption and frequency of screw loosening [ 12 ].However, different designs are commercially available as the one piece and two piece dental implants. (researchsquare.com)
  • The presence of microgaps between the implant fixture and the overlying abutment in the two piece dental implants was found to be associated with microleakage and bacterial contamination. (researchsquare.com)
  • To explore the biomechanical effects of the different implantation bone levels of Morse taper implants, employing a finite element analysis (FEA). (bvsalud.org)
  • Dental implants (TitamaxCM) with 4x13 mm and 4x11 mm, and their respective abutments with 3.5 mm height, simulating a screwed premolar metal-ceramic crown, had their design performed using the software AnsysWorkbench10.0. (bvsalud.org)
  • Although "commercially pure" titanium has acceptable mechanical properties and has been used for orthopedic and dental implants , for most applications titanium is alloyed with small amounts of aluminium and vanadium , typically 6% and 4% respectively, by weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dental implants are structures of high importance, as in other implant studies used in the biomedical field. (jdir.org)
  • This paper reviews studies using the finite element method for the numerical analysis of dental implants. (jdir.org)
  • This deterioration or dysfunction is corrected with dental implants. (jdir.org)
  • In this review, the finite element method solutions related to dental implants were examined and the findings were shared. (jdir.org)
  • In this review, the studies that are published in international journals between 2018 and 2022 were examined in view of finite element methods application to dental implants. (jdir.org)
  • After a detailed examination, the properties of dental implants analyzed by the finite element method were shared. (jdir.org)
  • This is perhaps the 25th meta-analysis of VItamin D and bone fractures. (vitamindwiki.com)
  • Findings In this meta-analysis of 33 randomized clinical trials that included 51 145 participants, the use of supplements that included calcium, vitamin D, or both was not associated with a significant difference in the risk of hip fractures compared with placebo or no treatment (risk ratio, 1.53, 1.21, and 1.09, respectively). (vitamindwiki.com)
  • Analysis of dental cementum is yielding new insights into the ages when ancient people faced significant physiological stresses. (johnhawks.net)
  • Such physiological stresses can disrupt the balance of minerals in the body and the synthesis of proteins that make up the cementum. (johnhawks.net)
  • Li J, Chen G, Zheng L, Luo S, Zhao Z (2007) Osteoblast cytoskeletal modulation in response to compressive stress at physiological levels. (isbweb.org)
  • Stress, Physiological. (bvsalud.org)
  • This relationship makes it possible to study past cultural behaviour through analyses of human skeletal remains. (lu.se)
  • Los sellantes dentales son materiales que se emplean en estomatología para sellar las fosas y fisuras oclusales de los dientes y evitar la adherencia del estreptococus mutans agente que produce la caries dental. (upc.edu)
  • The results from the papers show that there is a higher reliance on cereals and cattle in the Late Neolithic-Early Bronze Age than in previous periods, which is visible both in stable isotope results and the frequency of dental caries. (lu.se)
  • Objective: To assess the effect of the cavity design factor (C-factor) on polymerization stress development (PSD) in resin composites. (nist.gov)
  • The generated stress values in the twosurface (MO) restored cavity in the present study were less than that of the one-surface (O) or three-surface (MOD) restored cavities. (iium.edu.my)
  • Stress analyses of retrograde cavity preparation designs for surgical endodontics in the mesial root of the mandibular molar:a finite element analysis-part II[J]. J Endod, 2020, 46(4):539-544. (francis-press.com)
  • Approach towards the porous fibrous structure of the periodontal ligament using micro-computerized tomography and finite element analysis[J]. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater, 2018, 79:135-149. (francis-press.com)
  • Finite element analysis of the movement of upper and lower central incisors with different attachments under invisible orthodontic treatment [D]. Tangshan: North China University of Science and Technology, 2018. (francis-press.com)
  • Von Mises equivalent stresses in cortical and trabecular bones were evaluated with the same design program. (bvsalud.org)
  • Evaluation of tissue response to dental alloys by subcutaneous implantation. (cdc.gov)
  • I know that it will provide a strong foundation for future work on H. naledi biology, and it provides the essential data for integrating H. naledi teeth into other comparative studies of hominin dental morphology. (johnhawks.net)
  • To investigate by the finite element analysis comparison of stress distribution on the cortical and cancellous bone in an implant-supported yttrium tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZP FPD) in four different widely used implant systems under different loading conditions. (thejcdp.com)
  • Four 3-D finite element analysis (FEA) models of mandible having different implant systems with dimensions 8.0 mm × 5 mm in the second premolar and molar region were developed. (thejcdp.com)
  • A lateral force component of 100 N at 30° to the occlusal plane and a vertical intrusive force component of 250 N were applied to the central fossa of the FDP and the stress on bone around the implant was analyzed by FEA. (thejcdp.com)
  • In the four implant systems, the maximum stress values on the crestal bone differ for the different implant systems for the two loading conditions applied. (thejcdp.com)
  • The ADIN Touareg Closefit WP implant system induced maximum stress on the crestal bone in both axial and buccolingual loading. (thejcdp.com)
  • Influence of prosthesis material on stress distribution in bone and implant: a 3-dimensional finite element analysis. (thejcdp.com)
  • Analysis of bone-implant interaction phenomena by using a numerical approach. (thejcdp.com)
  • However, the maxillary arch is challenging for dental implant placement. (researchsquare.com)
  • By the results obtained, it can be suggested that positioning the implant completely in trabecular bone brings harm with respect to the generated stresses. (bvsalud.org)
  • The aim of this study was to use finite element analysis (FEA) to assess the influence of microthread design at the implant neck on stress distribution in the surrounding bone. (sharif.edu)
  • In addition, the level of trust increases in the living being where the dental implant is applied. (jdir.org)
  • Analyzing the implant area in terms of the amount of stress and deformation can provide information about the condition of the area and make an estimate about the health of the implant. (jdir.org)
  • Characterization of Dental Implant Design with Different Materials. (advanses.com)
  • Vicon three dimensional (3D) optical motion analysis system for gait analysis, biomechanical tissue testing, and 3D computer generated animation, including 10 Bonita cameras, and a Basler high speed reference video camera, with Nexus, Polygon and Plug In Gait software. (ltu.edu)
  • Part of figure 2 from Cerrito and coworkers 2022, showing the analysis for Krapina 172. (johnhawks.net)
  • This study report represents an analysis of each segment from 2021 to 2031 considering 2022 as the base year. (einpresswire.com)
  • According to the most recent dental night guard market prediction, North America will have the highest share from 2022 to 2031. (einpresswire.com)
  • 2022. "Towards the Quantitative Interpretability Analysis of Citizens Happiness Prediction. (edu.au)
  • Stress modifies nociception, and humans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) exhibit co-morbid chronic pain and amygdala dysregulation. (nature.com)
  • To gain input from participants regarding stress and burnout - their causes, implications and prevention - as linked to their practice in dentistry.Methods. (bvsalud.org)
  • Then, they were fixed in an artificial dental arch to simulate the clinical condition and were restored using three insertion methods: conventional, Centrix injection, and double-filling. (bvsalud.org)
  • A lot of work had to go into this paper beyond the basics of dental anatomy, taking in the condition of each tooth and its possible association with other teeth in the collection. (johnhawks.net)
  • Evaluation of the stress pattern in the resin-based composite restoration of an endodontically treated premolar tooth: a finite element analysis study. (iium.edu.my)
  • Stress and tooth grinding. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A three-dimensional (3D) structure for each individual layer, including the enamel, dentine, composite restoration, and the gutta-percha of the restored tooth complex, was generated with interactive medical image processing software, whereas the biomechanical behavior and stress pattern distribution were evaluated using a finite element analysis software programme. (iium.edu.my)
  • The results revealed that the MO-restored tooth complex showed lower stress values than the onesurface (O) and three-surface (MOD) restored cavities. (iium.edu.my)
  • It can be concluded that, by increasing the C-factor, higher stress values are more likely to occur in the restored tooth. (iium.edu.my)
  • Greater stress values were observed in endodontically treated tooth with MOD restoration, which might have negative consequences on the fracture strength of the whole structure. (iium.edu.my)
  • I nsufficient coronal structure of a tooth because of serious damage by decay and/or traumatic dental injury commonly requires the placement of a post system inside the root canal after adequate endodontic treatment to provide a retentive medium for core and coronal restoration (1). (docksci.com)
  • Effective bonding can contribute to reducing stress generated on the root canal walls, thereby strengthening the remaining tooth structure and decreasing the risk of fracture (10, 11). (docksci.com)
  • Finite element analysis on tooth and periodontal stress under simulated occlusal loads[J]. J Oral Rehabil, 2017, 44(7):526-536. (francis-press.com)
  • Effect of force direction and tooth angulation during traction of palatally impacted canines:a finite element analysis[J]. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop, 2020, 157(3):377-384. (francis-press.com)
  • The objective of this study was to systematically identify sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviors, health conditions and disabilities, and dental insurance coverage associated with tooth loss among noninstitutionalized adults in Rhode Island. (cdc.gov)
  • Finite element analysis is preferred in most of the studies to obtain stress and deformation values. (jdir.org)
  • Parts for use in the biomedical field can be produced using numerical analysis, thus saving time and cost. (jdir.org)
  • Data Sources The PubMed, Cochrane library, and EMBASE databases were systematically searched from the inception dates to December 24, 2016, using the keywords calcium, vitamin D, and fracture to identify systematic reviews or meta-analyses. (vitamindwiki.com)
  • The primary randomized clinical trials included in systematic reviews or meta-analyses were identified, and an additional search for recently published randomized trials was performed from July 16, 2012, to July 16, 2017. (vitamindwiki.com)
  • Musculoskeletal disorders of the neck and shoulder in the dental professions. (cdc.gov)
  • The participants believed that the causes of musculoskeletal disorders, and their impact, should be taught in dental training, as students do not perceive this as a potential problem. (bvsalud.org)
  • The prevalence of and risk factors for neck and shoulder disorders among dental practitioners (dentists, dental hygienists, and dental assistants) is reviewed. (cdc.gov)
  • The purpose of this study was to establish how the current cohort of dental practitioners incorporate occupational health and self-care principles into professional practice, and their potential relevance to future curriculum design.Objectives. (bvsalud.org)
  • To educate the public about oral health, dental practitioners, organizations, and governments conduct education and awareness programs. (einpresswire.com)
  • Research shows that exercise can be extremely helpful when dealing with stress and anxiety. (healthworkscollective.com)
  • Contingencies analysis showed that demandingness, awfulizing and global evaluation (GE) are most frequently associated with anxiety, while low frustration tolerance is associated with anger. (researchgate.net)
  • According to The Bruxism Association, bruxism is related to mental problems, anxiety, stress, and other negative psychosocial factors, as approximately 70% of bruxism instances are triggered by stress or worry. (einpresswire.com)
  • 1991). Heart rate, muscle tension , blood pressure, and subjective feelings of stress and anxiety all go down after exposure to nature. (berkeleywellbeing.com)
  • Stress is prevalent among dental workers and students. (bvsalud.org)
  • Finite element analysis of dental stress distribution after sarpe. (usp.br)
  • Finite element BVD-523 analysis (FEA) was performed to verify maximum principal stress distribution in the systems. (kspinhibitors.com)
  • Another issue affecting the stress distribution is the post type. (docksci.com)
  • Three dimensional finite element analysis of the effect of pulp opening and full crown restoration on the stress distribution of maxillary central incisors [J]. West China Journal of Stomatology, 2019, 37(6):642-647. (francis-press.com)
  • Changes in stress distribution of orthodontic miniscrews and surrounding bone evaluated by 3-dimensional finite element analysis[J]. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop, 2011, 140(6):e273-e280. (francis-press.com)
  • FEM analysis of a new miniplate: stress distribution on the plate, screws and the bone[J]. Eur J Dent, 2012, 6(1):9-15. (francis-press.com)
  • AdvanSES is an engineering services company specializing in mechanical and materials testing, Finite Element Analysis FEA consulting services, and prototype design. (advanses.com)
  • The three-dimensional finite element method is a theoretical mechanical application analysis method related to modern computer technology, and is also an important means in biomechanical research. (francis-press.com)
  • Dental hygienists report even higher rates, from 54-83% for neck and 35-76% for shoulder, and dental assistants in between (38-62% and 27-62% respectively). (cdc.gov)
  • The study population consisted of dentists, dental therapists, hygienists and specialists. (bvsalud.org)
  • Impact of stress and trauma on physical and emotional health: The stress emanating from the fast pace, overtime, noise from telemetry, fear of potentially dangerous patients, and chronic fatigue is insidious-out of the nurse's immediate awareness-but cumulative, eventually revealing itself in conditions such as dental pain, sleep deprivation, a compromised immune system, and subsequent increased vulnerability to infections and injuries from various exposures. (cdc.gov)
  • Digital dentistry and new techniques for the dental protheses' suprastructure fabrication have undergone a great evolution in recent years, revolutionizing the quality of dental prostheses. (upc.edu)
  • The outcomes of root canal treatment undertaken by dental students in Kulliyyah of dentistry, IIUM. (iium.edu.my)
  • reduce dental plaques and can therefore be useful in preventive dentistry [ 7,8 ]. (who.int)
  • Indeed, one study suggests that getting at least 30 minutes of exercise a day can boost a person's emotional resilience and help buffer the effects of stress. (healthworkscollective.com)
  • This study aimed to assess the stress values in an endodontically treated maxillary premolar restored with a direct placement of adhesive composite restoration. (iium.edu.my)
  • Li ZY, Howarth SPS, Tang T, Graves MJ, U-King-Im J, Trivedi RA, Kirkpatrick PJ, Gillard JH (2007) Structural analysis and magnetic resonance imaging predict plaque vulnerability: A study comparing symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. (isbweb.org)
  • The study is based on bioarchaeological analyses of human remains from 46 localities in the areas of Uppland, Närke, Östergötland, Västergötland, and Scania. (lu.se)
  • composite dies, aged 14 days in water and either single-loaded to failure or step-stress fatigue tested. (kspinhibitors.com)
  • However other analyses have shown injuries in the Chandman population related to horseback riding and combat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gonçales, A. G. B.. Tieghe Neto, V.. Analysis of the dento-skeletal effects using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) after surgically assisted maxillary expansion in adult patients. (usp.br)
  • Stress management techniques and workplace posture assessment should be taught in preclinical training to make students aware of managing stress and correct working postures. (bvsalud.org)
  • Canine guided occlusion can be concluded to cause lower stress values in comparison to the group function occlusal scheme. (researchsquare.com)
  • These products use the power of deep touch pressure therapy, a technique that is thought to calm the parasympathetic nervous system and help reduce chronic stress. (healthworkscollective.com)
  • 4 ,5 Many workers present with additional comorbid conditions like obesity, diabetes, smoking and drinking behaviors, and physical inactivity resulting from chronic stress. (cdc.gov)
  • Journal of International Dental and Medical Research. (manipal.edu)
  • Journal of International Dental and Medical Research, 15 (1). (iium.edu.my)
  • Journal of the Canadian Dental Association, 79, d147-d147. (ejmste.com)
  • Are Stress Associated with Temporomandibular Dysfunction? (bvsalud.org)
  • The present sudy aimed to investigate the association between stress and temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD) in university students in Brazil. (bvsalud.org)
  • Stress was associated with individuals with a higher prevalence of temporomandibular dysfunction. (bvsalud.org)
  • The health of the population seems to have been generally good with high stature, low prevalence of pathological lesions related to nutritional stress, possibility of gaining care if injured, many surviving into old ages, and low child mortality, which is indicative of low risk of infections due to low population density. (lu.se)
  • Conclusions: FEA showed higher levels of stress for both Y-TZP core designs and veneer layers compared to MCR. (kspinhibitors.com)
  • Raman Spectroscopy can be used to quickly identify a sample and to provide information about properties such as structure, phase, temperature, crystallinity, polymorphism, protein folding, hydrogen bonding, intrinsic stress and strain and contamination. (laserglow.com)
  • A chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were performed to investigate the socio-demographic factors related to the need for dentures. (jkaoh.org)
  • We were able to undertake two-sample MR for 71 of these 437 and found evidence of causal effects (with directionally concordant effect estimates across main and sensitivity analyses) for 30 of these. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A total of 36 participants participated in four focus-group discussions to explore dental education, occupational health, stress and self-care. (bvsalud.org)
  • Dental training in the South African context, occupational health experiences, self-care, coping strategies and education were the main themes that emerged. (bvsalud.org)
  • Increases in bruxism prevalence and oral health awareness are driving the growth of the worldwide dental night guard market. (einpresswire.com)
  • Increased awareness of the significance of oral health and the necessity to safeguard teeth has led to a rise in the use of dental night guards. (einpresswire.com)
  • In recent years, a significant shift in social attitudes toward oral health has fueled the growth of the dental night guard business. (einpresswire.com)
  • People are becoming increasingly aware of the relationship between dental health and general health and well-being. (einpresswire.com)
  • The expansion of the dental tourism industry in countries such as Thailand, India, and Malaysia, as well as an increase in oral health awareness, contribute to the regional growth of the dental night guard industry. (einpresswire.com)
  • Stress and mental health problems in 1st year medical students: a survey of two medical colleges in Kanpur, India. (ejmste.com)
  • Job stress has significant impacts on the short and long-term health and well-being of the U.S. workforce. (cdc.gov)
  • Here, we introduce three web-based Total Worker Health® training programs that promote supportive leadership behaviors to reduce employee exposure to workplace stressors and corresponding job stress to improve employees' physical and mental health, including cardiovascular disease risk factors such as hypertension. (cdc.gov)
  • The health consequences of job stress create a significant burden on the economy. (cdc.gov)
  • Work-family conflict can be a significant source of job stress that has been associated with multiple negative health outcomes including cardiovascular disease, depression and burnout, work-related injury, obesity, and addictive behaviors (i.e., smoking and alcohol use). (cdc.gov)
  • It reflects the medium-term analysis and consensus for cooperation, focusing on long-term capacity building in the Palestinian Ministry of Health, in order to enhance sustainability in the health sector, and addressing the continued need for humanitarian operations in case of crises. (who.int)
  • 1-3 Persistent job stress significantly increases workers' risk of experiencing stress cardiomyopathy, 3 incident coronary heart disease, and stroke. (cdc.gov)
  • In vitro cytotoxicity analysis of bioceramic root canal sealers on human gingival fibroblast cells. (iium.edu.my)
  • Bite analysis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Three-dimensional computer analysis of white shark jaw mechanics: How hard can a great white bite? (researchgate.net)
  • Here, we estimate the bite force of Zygophyseter varolai, a macroraptorial physeteroid from lower upper Miocene strata of the Pietra leccese formation (Apulia, Italy) using the finite element analysis (FEA). (researchgate.net)
  • Many TMJ-related symptoms are caused by the effects of physical stress on the structures around the joint. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Research shows that supportive leadership can be an important factor in reducing the negative effects of job stress. (cdc.gov)
  • These data suggest that rats with high stress reactivity exhibit hyperalgesia that is mediated by CRF-CRFR1 signaling in CeA. (nature.com)
  • A number of published studies giving data on the time per day spent outdoors by people were reviewed and a meta-analysis performed. (vitamindwiki.com)
  • The data were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier analysis, Mann-Whitney U test, and two-way ANOVA. (bvsalud.org)
  • A fracture strength test was performed on each specimen, and the data were statistically evaluated using 1-way analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc tests. (docksci.com)
  • Descriptive catalog of Homo naledi dental remains from the 2013 to 2015 excavations of the Dinaledi Chamber, site U.W. 101, within the Rising Star cave system, South Africa. (johnhawks.net)