Inability or inadequacy of a dental restoration or prosthesis to perform as expected.
The process of repairing broken or worn parts of a PERMANENT DENTAL RESTORATION.
A restoration designed to remain in service for not less than 20 to 30 years, usually made of gold casting, cohesive gold, or amalgam. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
An alloy used in restorative dentistry that contains mercury, silver, tin, copper, and possibly zinc.
A prosthetic restoration that reproduces the entire surface anatomy of the visible natural crown of a tooth. It may be partial (covering three or more surfaces of a tooth) or complete (covering all surfaces). It is made of gold or other metal, porcelain, or resin.
A prosthesis or restoration placed for a limited period, from several days to several months, which is designed to seal the tooth and maintain its position until a permanent restoration (DENTAL RESTORATION, PERMANENT) will replace it. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.
Occlusal wear of the surfaces of restorations and surface wear of dentures.
Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.
The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
The total of dental diagnostic, preventive, and restorative services provided to meet the needs of a patient (from Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982).
Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
Use for articles concerning dental education in general.
Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.
Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Dental care for patients with chronic diseases. These diseases include chronic cardiovascular, endocrinologic, hematologic, immunologic, neoplastic, and renal diseases. The concept does not include dental care for the mentally or physically disabled which is DENTAL CARE FOR DISABLED.
Facilities where dental care is provided to patients.
The giving of attention to the special dental needs of children, including the prevention of tooth diseases and instruction in dental hygiene and dental health. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.
A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Persons trained in an accredited school or dental college and licensed by the state in which they reside to provide dental prophylaxis under the direction of a licensed dentist.
The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a dental school.
Dental care for the emotionally, mentally, or physically disabled patient. It does not include dental care for the chronically ill ( = DENTAL CARE FOR CHRONICALLY ILL).
Abnormal fear or dread of visiting the dentist for preventive care or therapy and unwarranted anxiety over dental procedures.
Insurance providing coverage for dental care.
Personnel whose work is prescribed and supervised by the dentist.
The study of laws, theories, and hypotheses through a systematic examination of pertinent facts and their interpretation in the field of dentistry. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982, p674)
Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.
The giving of attention to the special dental needs of the elderly for proper maintenance or treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.
The curve formed by the row of TEETH in their normal position in the JAW. The inferior dental arch is formed by the mandibular teeth, and the superior dental arch by the maxillary teeth.
A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.
Data collected during dental examination for the purpose of study, diagnosis, or treatment planning.
The room or rooms in which the dentist and dental staff provide care. Offices include all rooms in the dentist's office suite.
A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.
Nonspecialized dental practice which is concerned with providing primary and continuing dental care.
The nonexpendable items used by the dentist or dental staff in the performance of professional duties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p106)
Personnel who provide dental service to patients in an organized facility, institution or agency.
Biocompatible materials placed into (endosseous) or onto (subperiosteal) the jawbone to support a crown, bridge, or artificial tooth, or to stabilize a diseased tooth.
Individuals who assist the dentist or the dental hygienist.
Educational programs designed to inform dentists of recent advances in their fields.
A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.
Presentation devices used for patient education and technique training in dentistry.
Hospital department providing dental care.
Radiographic techniques used in dentistry.
The field of dentistry involved in procedures for designing and constructing dental appliances. It includes also the application of any technology to the field of dentistry.
Individuals licensed to practice DENTISTRY.
An operation in which carious material is removed from teeth and biomechanically correct forms are established in the teeth to receive and retain restorations. A constant requirement is provision for prevention of failure of the restoration through recurrence of decay or inadequate resistance to applied stresses. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239-40)
Educational programs for dental graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic dental sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced dental degree.
The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the dentist, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the dentist in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Societies whose membership is limited to dentists.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to dental or oral health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
A chronic endemic form of hypoplasia of the dental enamel caused by drinking water with a high fluorine content during the time of tooth formation, and characterized by defective calcification that gives a white chalky appearance to the enamel, which gradually undergoes brown discoloration. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)
The granting of a license to practice dentistry.
Facilities for the performance of services related to dental treatment but not done directly in the patient's mouth.
Individuals responsible for fabrication of dental appliances.
Various branches of dental practice limited to specialized areas.
Skills, techniques, standards, and principles used to improve the art and symmetry of the teeth and face to improve the appearance as well as the function of the teeth, mouth, and face. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p108)
Amounts charged to the patient as payer for dental services.
The organization and operation of the business aspects of a dental practice.
Dense fibrous layer formed from mesodermal tissue that surrounds the epithelial enamel organ. The cells eventually migrate to the external surface of the newly formed root dentin and give rise to the cementoblasts that deposit cementum on the developing root, fibroblasts of the developing periodontal ligament, and osteoblasts of the developing alveolar bone.

Management of extensive carious lesions in permanent molars of a child with nonmetallic bonded restorations--a case report. (1/259)

The badly decayed molar teeth of a 12-year-old were restored using resin composite and ceramic restorations. The maxillary first left permanent molar, which had an extensive carious lesion that had destroyed most of the coronal hard tissues of the tooth, was restored to shape and function with a heat-treated resin composite onlay restoration. The restoration was followed up for two years. The mandibular right first molar had a failing large amalgam restoration with extensive recurrent caries. After a three-month period of pulp-capping, the tooth was restored with a bonded ceramic onlay restoration. A nine-month follow-up of this restoration is provided. The maxillary right first molar, which also had a failing large amalgam/resin composite restoration, was restored with a direct resin composite restoration. Under traditional treatment regimens, these extensive cavities would have been treated using more invasive procedures such as pin-retained restorations or elective root canal therapy, post placement, core build-up and crowning. Bonded non-metallic restorations avoid the trauma, time and cost that accompany such extensive procedures and offer a more conservative approach.  (+info)

The outcome of root canal treatment. A retrospective study within the armed forces (Royal Air Force). (2/259)

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the outcome of conventional root canal treatment in a general practice setting within the Royal Air Force dental service. Design Retrospective review. METHODS: Teeth that had been root-filled for 12 months or more by Royal Air Force dental practitioners in patients attending a large Royal Air Force dental centre were included in the study. Following clinical and radiographic review the root fillings were classified as 'definitely successful', 'probably successful' or 'failed' The effect on success of several variables on the outcome was investigated. RESULTS: Out of a total of 406 teeth, 59% were maxillary teeth and 41% were mandibular teeth. Sixty-nine per cent of the total sample had pre-existing periapical radiolucencies. Cold lateral condensation of gutta-percha was the most widely used filling technique (64% of all cases). Fifty per cent of the teeth had root fillings within 2 mm of the radiographic apex, 32% were greater than 2 mm from the radiographic apex and 18% were overfilled. Cold lateral condensation was the most successful (92% overall) filling technique. Maxillary anterior teeth had a better success rate (96%) than other tooth types. Teeth with pre-existing periapical radiolucencies had a higher success rate (87%) than those cases where there was no pre-existing periapical radiolucency (80%). Root fillings that were less than 2 mm from the radiographic apex of the tooth had a higher success rate (88% overall) than those that were greater than 2 mm from the radiographic apex (77% overall). Of the 406 cases, 57% (n=231) were classified as definitely successful, 28% (n=114) were classified as probably successful and 15% (n=62) were classified as failures. Thus, the overall success rate combining definitely successful and probably successful root fillings was 85% (n=344). CONCLUSIONS: Root fillings placed using cold lateral condensation of gutta-percha to within 2 mm of the radiographic apex of the tooth were associated with the best outcome.  (+info)

Restoration of endodontically treated teeth with carbon fibre posts--a prospective study. (3/259)

BACKGROUND: A prospective study was started in 1995 to evaluate the success of carbon fibre reinforced epoxy resin (CFRR) posts used to restore endodontically treated teeth. All the teeth in the study had lost more than 50% of their coronal structure. METHODS: Fifty-nine carbon fibre Composiposts cemented with Metabond and built up with Core Paste cores were placed into the teeth of 47 patients. Each tooth received a full-coverage restoration (porcelain fused to metal crown) and was followed for 6.7-45.4 months (average = 28.0 months, standard deviation = 10.7). RESULTS: Results for 52 teeth in 42 patients were analyzed. There were no fractures. The overall failure rate was 7.7% and the cumulative survival rate was 89.6% at the end of the follow-up period. The only statistically significant finding (p = 0.04) was that posts in lower premolars were at higher risk of failure. CONCLUSION: CFRR posts are among the most predictable systems available today. CFRR posts in the upper anterior teeth are associated with a higher success rate and longer life than those placed in premolars, especially lower premolars. This study contributes to the growing body of evidence that supports the use of CFRR posts in the restoration of endodontically treated teeth.  (+info)

Clinical performance of a condensable metal-reinforced glass ionomer cement in primary molars. (4/259)

OBJECTIVE: Aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical suitability of the condensable metal-reinforced glass ionomer cement Hi-Dense in classes I and II cavities of primary molars. METHODS: Seventeen children received a total of fifty four Hi-Dense fillings (nineteen class I and thirty five class II). The restorations were clinically assessed at baseline, after one and after two years of clinical service according to modified USPHS codes and criteria. The restorations were replicated in each recall and representative samples were qualitatively analysed under a SEM. RESULTS: Over the observation period of two years, five restorations failed due to total retention loss, two fillings needed replacement because of persisting hypersensitivity, one filling was lost because of an unsuccessful endodontic treatment, and four restorations remained intact until natural exfoliation (Two year survival rate: 92% for Class I and 66% for Class II). The SEM analysis of surfaces and marginal areas exhibited an inferior adhesive performance primarily in proximal areas, whereas a negative step formation due to wear was frequently observed in occlusal parts. CONCLUSIONS: The results clearly indicate that the condensable, metal-reinforced GIC Hi-Dense reveals no enhanced performance and lifetime expectancy for class II restorations in primary molars when compared to other non-resin-modified GICs.  (+info)

A multi-centre study of Osseotite implants supporting mandibular restorations: a 3-year report. (5/259)

This multi-centre study evaluated the performance of the Osseotite implant in the mandibular arch. Osseotite implants (n = 688) were placed in 172 patients; 43.5% were placed in the anterior mandible and 66.5% in the posterior mandible. Fifteen per cent of the implants were placed in soft bone, 56.9% in normal bone and 28.1% in dense bone. During placement, 49.9% of the implants were identified as having a tight fit, 48.6% a firm fit and 1.5% a loose fit. About one-third of the implants (32.4%) were short (10 mm in length or less). After 36 months, only 5 implants had been lost, for a cumulative survival rate of 99.3%. The 3-year results of this study indicate a high degree of predictability with placement of Osseotite implants in the mandibular arch.  (+info)

Fatigue of restorative materials. (6/259)

Failure due to fatigue manifests itself in dental prostheses and restorations as wear, fractured margins, delaminated coatings, and bulk fracture. Mechanisms responsible for fatigue-induced failure depend on material ductility: Brittle materials are susceptible to catastrophic failure, while ductile materials utilize their plasticity to reduce stress concentrations at the crack tip. Because of the expense associated with the replacement of failed restorations, there is a strong desire on the part of basic scientists and clinicians to evaluate the resistance of materials to fatigue in laboratory tests. Test variables include fatigue-loading mode and test environment, such as soaking in water. The outcome variable is typically fracture strength, and these data typically fit the Weibull distribution. Analysis of fatigue data permits predictive inferences to be made concerning the survival of structures fabricated from restorative materials under specified loading conditions. Although many dental-restorative materials are routinely evaluated, only limited use has been made of fatigue data collected in vitro: Wear of materials and the survival of porcelain restorations has been modeled by both fracture mechanics and probabilistic approaches. A need still exists for a clinical failure database and for the development of valid test methods for the evaluation of composite materials.  (+info)

Changing patterns and the need for quality. (7/259)

This series of articles is aimed at anybody who places crowns and other extra-coronal restorations (ie veneers and shims) on individual teeth. We hope that everyone from experienced practitioners to undergraduate students may find something of value. Whoever reads them, we would ask to do so with an open mind. We have tried not to be dogmatic, and the techniques and materials described are not the only ones available, but are the ones which accord with the principles we describe.  (+info)

Implant prosthodontic management of anterior partial edentulism: long-term follow-up of a prospective study. (8/259)

OBJECTIVE: This paper reports on the long-term outcome of patients with Kennedy Class IV partial edentulism treated in the Implant Prosthodontic Unit (IPU) at the University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario. METHODS: The information for this paper was gathered from the charts of the first 30 consecutive, partially edentulous patients treated at the IPU. These patients all had Class IV edentulism and formed part of the original prospective clinical studies that were initiated in 1983. The patients' dental history suggested maladaptive experiences with traditional removable prostheses or a reluctance to have intact or quasi-intact teeth prepared as retainers for fixed prostheses. Fifteen men and 15 women treated with 94 Br nemark dental implants, supporting 34 prostheses, were followed until June 2000 (25 patients) or until they were lost to follow-up (5 patients). The multiple missing teeth occurred in 19 maxillae and 15 mandibles. RESULTS: The original prosthodontic treatments were intended to result in 33 fixed partial prostheses and 1 overdenture. At the time of this report, 25 patients with 86 implants supporting 31 fixed prostheses and 3 overdentures had been followed for an average of 12 years (range 7 16 years). The overall survival of implants was 92%. The difference between men (94%) and women (89%) was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: This report is an interim update on an ongoing long-term prospective study. The results so far demonstrate a high survival rate for Br nemark implants supporting tissue-integrated prostheses for the management of anterior partial edentulism.  (+info)

Dental restoration failure refers to the breakdown or loss of functionality of a dental restoration, which is a procedure performed to restore the function, integrity, and morphology of a tooth that has been damaged due to decay, trauma, or wear. The restoration can include fillings, crowns, veneers, bridges, and implants. Failure of dental restorations can occur due to various reasons such as recurrent decay, fracture, poor fit, or material failure, leading to further damage or loss of the tooth.

Dental restoration repair refers to the process of fixing or replacing a dental restoration that has become damaged, worn, or failed. Dental restorations are procedures used to restore the function, integrity, and morphology of missing tooth structure due to decay or trauma. They include fillings, crowns, veneers, bridges, and implants.

Repairing a dental restoration may involve removing the damaged or failing material and replacing it with new restorative materials, or building up and reinforcing the existing restoration. The specific repair procedure will depend on the type and extent of damage to the restoration, as well as the patient's individual oral health needs and treatment goals.

The aim of dental restoration repair is to restore the function, aesthetics, and durability of the restored tooth, preventing further decay or damage and ensuring long-term oral health.

A dental restoration, permanent, is a type of dental treatment that involves the use of materials such as gold, silver amalgam, porcelain, or composite resin to repair and restore the function, form, and aesthetics of a damaged or decayed tooth. Unlike temporary restorations, which are meant to be replaced with a permanent solution, permanent restorations are designed to last for many years, if not a lifetime.

Examples of permanent dental restorations include:

1. Dental fillings: These are used to fill cavities caused by tooth decay. The decayed portion of the tooth is removed, and the resulting space is filled with a material such as amalgam, composite resin, or gold.
2. Inlays and onlays: These are similar to dental fillings but are made in a laboratory and then bonded to the tooth. They are used when there is not enough tooth structure left to support a filling.
3. Dental crowns: Also known as caps, these are used to cover and protect a tooth that has been damaged or weakened by decay, injury, or wear. The crown fits over the entire tooth, restoring its shape, size, and strength.
4. Dental bridges: These are used to replace one or more missing teeth. A bridge consists of one or more artificial teeth (pontics) that are held in place by crowns on either side.
5. Dental implants: These are used to replace missing teeth. An implant is a small titanium post that is surgically placed in the jawbone, where it functions as an anchor for a replacement tooth or bridge.

Permanent dental restorations are custom-made for each patient and require careful planning and preparation. They are designed to blend in with the surrounding teeth and provide a natural-looking appearance. With proper care and maintenance, these restorations can last for many years and help preserve the health and function of the teeth and mouth.

Dental amalgam is a commonly used dental filling material that consists of a mixture of metals, including silver, tin, copper, and mercury. The mercury binds the other metals together to form a strong, durable, and stable restoration that is resistant to wear and tear. Dental amalgam has been used for over 150 years to fill cavities and repair damaged teeth, and it remains a popular choice among dentists due to its strength, durability, and affordability.

However, there has been some controversy surrounding the use of dental amalgam due to concerns about the potential health effects of mercury exposure. While the majority of scientific evidence suggests that dental amalgam is safe for most people, some individuals may be more sensitive to mercury and may experience adverse reactions. As a result, some dentists may recommend alternative filling materials, such as composite resin or gold, for certain patients.

Overall, dental amalgam is a safe and effective option for filling cavities and restoring damaged teeth, but it is important to discuss any concerns or questions with a qualified dental professional.

A dental crown is a type of dental restoration that completely caps or encircles a tooth or dental implant. Crowns are used to restore the strength, functionality, and appearance of teeth that have been damaged or weakened due to various reasons such as decay, fracture, or large fillings. They can be made from various materials including porcelain, ceramic, metal, or a combination of these. The crown is custom-made to fit over the prepared tooth and is cemented into place, becoming a permanent part of the tooth. Crowns are also used for cosmetic purposes to improve the appearance of discolored or misshapen teeth.

A dental restoration, temporary, is a type of dental restorative material or device that is used for a short period of time to restore the function, shape, and aesthetics of a damaged or decayed tooth. It serves as a placeholder until a permanent restoration can be created and placed.

Temporary dental restorations are typically made of materials such as cotton, plastic, or metal alloys that are easy to manipulate and remove. They may be used in various situations, including:

1. To protect the tooth pulp from further damage or infection after a deep cavity preparation or root canal treatment.
2. To restore the shape and function of a fractured or chipped tooth while waiting for a permanent restoration to be fabricated.
3. As a provisional restoration during the period of healing following oral surgery, such as extraction or implant placement.
4. In some cases, temporary dental restorations may also serve as a diagnostic tool to evaluate the patient's comfort and function before proceeding with a permanent restoration.

It is important to note that temporary dental restorations are not intended for long-term use and should be replaced with a permanent restoration as soon as possible to ensure optimal oral health and functionality.

Dental materials are substances that are used in restorative dentistry, prosthodontics, endodontics, orthodontics, and preventive dentistry to restore or replace missing tooth structure, improve the function and esthetics of teeth, and protect the oral tissues from decay and disease. These materials can be classified into various categories based on their physical and chemical properties, including metals, ceramics, polymers, composites, cements, and alloys.

Some examples of dental materials include:

1. Amalgam: a metal alloy used for dental fillings that contains silver, tin, copper, and mercury. It is strong, durable, and resistant to wear but has been controversial due to concerns about the toxicity of mercury.
2. Composite: a tooth-colored restorative material made of a mixture of glass or ceramic particles and a bonding agent. It is used for fillings, veneers, and other esthetic dental treatments.
3. Glass ionomer cement: a type of cement used for dental restorations that releases fluoride ions and helps prevent tooth decay. It is often used for fillings in children's teeth or as a base under crowns and bridges.
4. Porcelain: a ceramic material used for dental crowns, veneers, and other esthetic restorations. It is strong, durable, and resistant to staining but can be brittle and prone to fracture.
5. Gold alloy: a metal alloy used for dental restorations that contains gold, copper, and other metals. It is highly biocompatible, corrosion-resistant, and malleable but can be expensive and less esthetic than other materials.
6. Acrylic resin: a type of polymer used for dental appliances such as dentures, night guards, and orthodontic retainers. It is lightweight, flexible, and easy to modify but can be less durable than other materials.

The choice of dental material depends on various factors, including the location and extent of the restoration, the patient's oral health status, their esthetic preferences, and their budget. Dental professionals must consider these factors carefully when selecting the appropriate dental material for each individual case.

Dental restoration wear refers to the progressive loss of structure and function of a dental restoration, such as a filling or crown, due to wear and tear over time. This can be caused by factors such as chewing, grinding, or clenching of teeth, as well as chemical dissolution from acidic foods and drinks. The wear can lead to changes in the shape and fit of the restoration, which may result in discomfort, sensitivity, or even failure of the restoration. Regular dental check-ups are important for monitoring dental restorations and addressing any issues related to wear before they become more serious.

Composite resins, also known as dental composites or filling materials, are a type of restorative material used in dentistry to restore the function, integrity, and morphology of missing tooth structure. They are called composite resins because they are composed of a combination of materials, including a resin matrix (usually made of bisphenol A-glycidyl methacrylate or urethane dimethacrylate) and filler particles (commonly made of silica, quartz, or glass).

The composite resins are widely used in modern dentistry due to their excellent esthetic properties, ease of handling, and ability to bond directly to tooth structure. They can be used for a variety of restorative procedures, including direct and indirect fillings, veneers, inlays, onlays, and crowns.

Composite resins are available in various shades and opacities, allowing dentists to match the color and translucency of natural teeth closely. They also have good wear resistance, strength, and durability, making them a popular choice for both anterior and posterior restorations. However, composite resins may be prone to staining over time and may require more frequent replacement compared to other types of restorative materials.

Dentin is the hard, calcified tissue that lies beneath the enamel and cementum of a tooth. It forms the majority of the tooth's structure and is composed primarily of mineral salts (hydroxyapatite), collagenous proteins, and water. Dentin has a tubular structure, with microscopic channels called dentinal tubules that radiate outward from the pulp chamber (the center of the tooth containing nerves and blood vessels) to the exterior of the tooth. These tubules contain fluid and nerve endings that are responsible for the tooth's sensitivity to various stimuli such as temperature changes, pressure, or decay. Dentin plays a crucial role in protecting the dental pulp while also providing support and structure to the overlying enamel and cementum.

Dental care refers to the practice of maintaining and improving the oral health of the teeth and gums. It involves regular check-ups, cleanings, and treatments by dental professionals such as dentists, hygienists, and dental assistants. Dental care also includes personal habits and practices, such as brushing and flossing, that help prevent tooth decay and gum disease.

Regular dental care is important for preventing common dental problems like cavities, gingivitis, and periodontal disease. It can also help detect early signs of more serious health issues, such as oral cancer or diabetes, which can have symptoms that appear in the mouth.

Dental care may involve a range of treatments, from routine cleanings and fillings to more complex procedures like root canals, crowns, bridges, and implants. Dental professionals use various tools and techniques to diagnose and treat dental problems, including X-rays, dental impressions, and local anesthesia.

Overall, dental care is a critical component of overall health and wellness, as poor oral health has been linked to a range of systemic health issues, including heart disease, stroke, and respiratory infections.

Methacrylates are a group of chemical compounds that contain the methacrylate functional group, which is a vinyl group (CH2=CH-) with a carbonyl group (C=O) at the β-position. This structure gives them unique chemical and physical properties, such as low viscosity, high reactivity, and resistance to heat and chemicals.

In medical terms, methacrylates are used in various biomedical applications, such as dental restorative materials, bone cements, and drug delivery systems. For example, methacrylate-based resins are commonly used in dentistry for fillings, crowns, and bridges due to their excellent mechanical properties and adhesion to tooth structures.

However, there have been concerns about the potential toxicity of methacrylates, particularly their ability to release monomers that can cause allergic reactions, irritation, or even mutagenic effects in some individuals. Therefore, it is essential to use these materials with caution and follow proper handling and safety protocols.

I'm happy to help! However, I must clarify that "materials testing" is not a medical term per se. It is a term used in various fields, including engineering and materials science, to describe the process of subjecting materials to different tests to evaluate their properties and performance under various conditions.

In the context of medical devices or implants, materials testing may refer to the evaluation of the physical and mechanical properties of materials used in their construction. These tests can include assessments of strength, durability, biocompatibility, and other factors that are critical to ensuring the safety and efficacy of medical devices.

Medical device manufacturers must comply with regulatory standards for materials testing to ensure that their products meet specific requirements for performance, safety, and quality. These standards may vary depending on the type of device, its intended use, and the country or region in which it will be marketed and sold.

Dental education refers to the process of teaching, training, and learning in the field of dentistry. It involves a curriculum of academic and clinical instruction that prepares students to become licensed dental professionals, such as dentists, dental hygienists, and dental assistants. Dental education typically takes place in accredited dental schools or programs and includes classroom study, laboratory work, and supervised clinical experience. The goal of dental education is to provide students with the knowledge, skills, and values necessary to deliver high-quality oral health care to patients and promote overall health and wellness.

"Schools, Dental" is not a recognized medical term or concept. It seems that there might be some confusion in the terminology used. If you are referring to "Dental Schools," they are educational institutions that offer professional training programs in dentistry, leading to a degree in dental surgery (DDS) or dental medicine (DMD).

If you meant something else, please clarify the term or concept, and I would be happy to provide more information.

Surface properties in the context of medical science refer to the characteristics and features of the outermost layer or surface of a biological material or structure, such as cells, tissues, organs, or medical devices. These properties can include physical attributes like roughness, smoothness, hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity, and electrical conductivity, as well as chemical properties like charge, reactivity, and composition.

In the field of biomaterials science, understanding surface properties is crucial for designing medical implants, devices, and drug delivery systems that can interact safely and effectively with biological tissues and fluids. Surface modifications, such as coatings or chemical treatments, can be used to alter surface properties and enhance biocompatibility, improve lubricity, reduce fouling, or promote specific cellular responses like adhesion, proliferation, or differentiation.

Similarly, in the field of cell biology, understanding surface properties is essential for studying cell-cell interactions, cell signaling, and cell behavior. Cells can sense and respond to changes in their environment, including variations in surface properties, which can influence cell shape, motility, and function. Therefore, characterizing and manipulating surface properties can provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of cellular processes and offer new strategies for developing therapies and treatments for various diseases.

I'm happy to help! However, I believe there may be a slight misunderstanding in your question. "Students, Dental" is not a medical term or definition. Instead, it likely refers to individuals who are studying to become dental professionals, such as dentists, dental hygienists, or dental assistants.

If you're looking for information about dental education or the field of dentistry, I would be happy to provide some resources or answer any questions you may have!

Dental caries, also known as tooth decay or cavities, refers to the damage or breakdown of the hard tissues of the teeth (enamel, dentin, and cementum) due to the activity of acid-producing bacteria. These bacteria ferment sugars from food and drinks, producing acids that dissolve and weaken the tooth structure, leading to cavities.

The process of dental caries development involves several stages:

1. Demineralization: The acidic environment created by bacterial activity causes minerals (calcium and phosphate) to be lost from the tooth surface, making it weaker and more susceptible to decay.
2. Formation of a white spot lesion: As demineralization progresses, a chalky white area appears on the tooth surface, indicating early caries development.
3. Cavity formation: If left untreated, the demineralization process continues, leading to the breakdown and loss of tooth structure, resulting in a cavity or hole in the tooth.
4. Infection and pulp involvement: As the decay progresses deeper into the tooth, it can reach the dental pulp (the soft tissue containing nerves and blood vessels), causing infection, inflammation, and potentially leading to toothache, abscess, or even tooth loss.

Preventing dental caries involves maintaining good oral hygiene, reducing sugar intake, using fluoride toothpaste and mouthwash, and having regular dental check-ups and cleanings. Early detection and treatment of dental caries can help prevent further progression and more severe complications.

Heart failure is a pathophysiological state in which the heart is unable to pump sufficient blood to meet the metabolic demands of the body or do so only at the expense of elevated filling pressures. It can be caused by various cardiac disorders, including coronary artery disease, hypertension, valvular heart disease, cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmias. Symptoms may include shortness of breath, fatigue, and fluid retention. Heart failure is often classified based on the ejection fraction (EF), which is the percentage of blood that is pumped out of the left ventricle during each contraction. A reduced EF (less than 40%) is indicative of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), while a preserved EF (greater than or equal to 50%) is indicative of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). There is also a category of heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF) for those with an EF between 40-49%.

Dental care for chronically ill refers to the oral health management and treatment provided to individuals who have chronic medical conditions. These patients often require specialized dental care due to their increased risk of developing oral health problems as a result of their underlying medical condition or its treatment. The goal of dental care for the chronically ill is to prevent and manage dental diseases, such as tooth decay and gum disease, in order to maintain overall health and quality of life. This may involve close collaboration between dental professionals, physicians, and other healthcare providers to ensure that the patient's oral health needs are being met in a comprehensive and coordinated manner.

A dental clinic is a healthcare facility that is primarily focused on providing oral health services to patients. These services may include preventative care, such as dental cleanings and exams, as well as restorative treatments like fillings, crowns, and bridges. Dental clinics may also offer specialized services, such as orthodontics, periodontics, or endodontics.

In a dental clinic, patients are typically seen by licensed dentists who have completed dental school and received additional training in their chosen area of specialty. Dental hygienists, dental assistants, and other support staff may also work in the clinic to provide care and assistance to patients.

Dental clinics can be found in a variety of settings, including hospitals, community health centers, private practices, and educational institutions. Some dental clinics may specialize in treating certain populations, such as children, elderly individuals, or low-income patients. Others may offer specialized services, such as oral surgery or cosmetic dentistry.

Overall, dental clinics play an important role in promoting oral health and preventing dental diseases and conditions. By providing access to high-quality dental care, dental clinics can help patients maintain healthy teeth and gums, prevent tooth decay and gum disease, and improve their overall quality of life.

Dental care for children, also known as pediatric dentistry, is a branch of dentistry that focuses on the oral health of children from infancy through adolescence. The medical definition of dental care for children includes:

1. Preventive Dentistry: This involves regular dental check-ups, professional cleaning, fluoride treatments, and sealants to prevent tooth decay and other dental diseases. Parents are also educated on proper oral hygiene practices for their children, including brushing, flossing, and dietary habits.
2. Restorative Dentistry: If a child develops cavities or other dental problems, restorative treatments such as fillings, crowns, or pulpotomies (baby root canals) may be necessary to restore the health and function of their teeth.
3. Orthodontic Treatment: Many children require orthodontic treatment to correct misaligned teeth or jaws. Early intervention can help guide proper jaw development and prevent more severe issues from developing later on.
4. Habit Counseling: Dental care for children may also involve habit counseling, such as helping a child stop thumb sucking or pacifier use, which can negatively impact their oral health.
5. Sedation and Anesthesia: For children who are anxious about dental procedures or have special needs, sedation or anesthesia may be used to ensure their comfort and safety during treatment.
6. Emergency Care: Dental care for children also includes emergency care for injuries such as knocked-out teeth, broken teeth, or severe toothaches. Prompt attention is necessary to prevent further damage and alleviate pain.
7. Education and Prevention: Finally, dental care for children involves educating parents and children about the importance of good oral hygiene practices and regular dental check-ups to maintain optimal oral health throughout their lives.

Dental pulp is the soft tissue located in the center of a tooth, surrounded by the dentin. It contains nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissue, and plays a vital role in the development and health of the tooth. The dental pulp helps to form dentin during tooth development and continues to provide nourishment to the tooth throughout its life. It also serves as a sensory organ, allowing the tooth to detect hot and cold temperatures and transmit pain signals to the brain. Injury or infection of the dental pulp can lead to serious dental problems, such as tooth decay or abscesses, and may require root canal treatment to remove the damaged tissue and save the tooth.

A dental hygienist is a licensed healthcare professional who works as part of the dental team, providing educational, clinical, and therapeutic services to prevent and control oral diseases. They are trained and authorized to perform various duties such as:

1. Cleaning and polishing teeth (prophylaxis) to remove plaque, calculus, and stains.
2. Applying fluoride and sealants to protect tooth surfaces from decay.
3. Taking dental radiographs (x-rays) to help diagnose dental issues.
4. Providing oral health education, including proper brushing, flossing techniques, and nutrition counseling.
5. Performing screenings for oral cancer and other diseases.
6. Documenting patient care and treatment plans in medical records.
7. Collaborating with dentists to develop individualized treatment plans for patients.
8. Managing infection control protocols and maintaining a safe, clean dental environment.
9. Providing supportive services, such as applying anesthetics or administering nitrous oxide, under the direct supervision of a dentist (depending on state regulations).

Dental hygienists typically work in private dental offices but can also be found in hospitals, clinics, public health settings, educational institutions, and research facilities. They must complete an accredited dental hygiene program and pass written and clinical exams to obtain licensure in their state of practice. Continuing education is required to maintain licensure and stay current with advancements in the field.

The Faculty of Dental Surgery (FDS) is a division or department within a medical or dental school that focuses on the study, research, and practice of dental surgery. The faculty may be responsible for providing undergraduate and postgraduate education and training in dental surgery, as well as conducting research in this field.

Dental surgery encompasses various procedures related to the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases and disorders that affect the teeth, gums, and other structures of the mouth and jaw. This may include procedures such as tooth extractions, root canals, dental implants, and oral cancer surgery, among others.

The Faculty of Dental Surgery is typically composed of a group of dental surgeons who are experts in their field and have a commitment to advancing the practice of dental surgery through education, research, and clinical excellence. Members of the faculty may include professors, researchers, clinicians, and other professionals who are involved in the delivery of dental care.

Dental care for disabled refers to the specialized oral health services and treatments provided to individuals with physical, cognitive, or developmental disabilities. This type of dental care aims to prevent and manage dental diseases and conditions that can be more prevalent and challenging to treat in this population due to factors such as limited mobility, difficulty communicating, behavioral challenges, and the need for specialized equipment and techniques. Dental care for disabled may include routine cleanings, fillings, extractions, and other procedures, as well as education and counseling on oral hygiene and dietary habits. It may also involve collaboration with other healthcare providers to manage overall health and well-being.

Dental anxiety is a common feeling of fear or apprehension associated with dental appointments, treatments, or procedures. It can range from mild feelings of unease to severe phobias that cause people to avoid dental care altogether. Dental anxiety may stem from various factors such as negative past experiences, fear of pain, needles, or loss of control. In some cases, dental anxiety may lead to physical symptoms like sweating, rapid heartbeat, and difficulty breathing. It is important for individuals with dental anxiety to communicate their feelings with their dentist so that they can receive appropriate care and support.

Dental insurance is a type of health insurance specifically designed to cover the costs associated with dental care. It typically helps pay for preventive, basic, and major restorative procedures, including routine checkups, cleanings, fillings, extractions, root canals, crowns, bridges, and in some cases, orthodontic treatment.

Dental insurance plans often have a network of participating dentists who agree to provide services at pre-negotiated rates, helping to keep costs down for both the insured individual and the insurance company. The plan may cover a certain percentage of the cost of each procedure or have set copayments and deductibles that apply.

Like other forms of insurance, dental insurance plans come with annual maximum coverage limits, which is the most the plan will pay for dental care within a given year. It's essential to understand the terms and conditions of your dental insurance policy to make informed decisions about your oral health care and maximize the benefits available to you.

Dental auxiliaries are healthcare professionals who provide support to dentists in the delivery of oral healthcare services. They work under the supervision of a licensed dentist and perform tasks that require specific technical skills and knowledge. Examples of dental auxiliaries include dental hygienists, dental assistants, and dental lab technicians.

Dental hygienists are responsible for providing preventive dental care to patients, including cleaning teeth, taking x-rays, and educating patients on oral hygiene practices. They may also perform certain clinical procedures under the direct supervision of a dentist.

Dental assistants work closely with dentists during dental procedures, preparing instruments, mixing materials, and providing patient care. They may also perform administrative tasks such as scheduling appointments and managing patient records.

Dental lab technicians create dental restorations such as crowns, bridges, and dentures based on impressions taken by the dentist. They use a variety of materials and techniques to fabricate these devices with precision and accuracy.

It's important to note that the specific roles and responsibilities of dental auxiliaries may vary depending on the jurisdiction and local regulations.

Dental research is a scientific discipline that focuses on the study of teeth, oral health, and related diseases. It involves various aspects of dental sciences such as oral biology, microbiology, biochemistry, genetics, epidemiology, biomaterials, and biotechnology. The main aim of dental research is to improve oral health care, develop new diagnostic tools, prevent dental diseases, and create better treatment options for various dental conditions. Dental researchers may study topics such as tooth development, oral cancer, periodontal disease, dental caries (cavities), saliva composition, and the effects of nutrition on oral health. The findings from dental research can help improve dental care practices, inform public health policies, and advance our understanding of overall human health.

Dental health services refer to medical care and treatment provided for the teeth and mouth. This can include preventative care, such as dental cleanings and exams, as well as restorative treatments like fillings, crowns, and root canals. Dental health services may also include cosmetic procedures, such as teeth whitening or orthodontic treatment to straighten crooked teeth. In addition to these services, dental health professionals may provide education on oral hygiene and the importance of maintaining good dental health. These services are typically provided by dentists, dental hygienists, and other dental professionals in a variety of settings, including private dental practices, community health clinics, and hospitals.

Dental care for the elderly, also known as geriatric dentistry, refers to the dental care services provided to meet the specific needs and challenges of older adults. As people age, they may experience various oral health issues such as:

* Dry mouth due to medication side effects or medical conditions
* Gum disease and periodontitis
* Tooth loss and decay
* Oral cancer
* Uneven jawbone or ill-fitting dentures

Dental care for the aged may include routine dental exams, cleanings, fillings, extractions, denture fittings, oral surgery, and education on proper oral hygiene. It is important for elderly individuals to maintain good oral health as it can impact their overall health and quality of life. Regular dental check-ups and good oral hygiene practices can help prevent or manage these common oral health problems in the elderly.

The dental arch refers to the curved shape formed by the upper or lower teeth when they come together. The dental arch follows the curve of the jaw and is important for proper bite alignment and overall oral health. The dental arches are typically described as having a U-shaped appearance, with the front teeth forming a narrower section and the back teeth forming a wider section. The shape and size of the dental arch can vary from person to person, and any significant deviations from the typical shape or size may indicate an underlying orthodontic issue that requires treatment.

Dental plaque is a biofilm or mass of bacteria that accumulates on the surface of the teeth, restorative materials, and prosthetic devices such as dentures. It is initiated when bacterial colonizers attach to the smooth surfaces of teeth through van der Waals forces and specific molecular adhesion mechanisms.

The microorganisms within the dental plaque produce extracellular polysaccharides that help to stabilize and strengthen the biofilm, making it resistant to removal by simple brushing or rinsing. Over time, if not regularly removed through oral hygiene practices such as brushing and flossing, dental plaque can mineralize and harden into tartar or calculus.

The bacteria in dental plaque can cause tooth decay (dental caries) by metabolizing sugars and producing acid that demineralizes the tooth enamel. Additionally, certain types of bacteria in dental plaque can cause periodontal disease, an inflammation of the gums that can lead to tissue damage and bone loss around the teeth. Regular professional dental cleanings and good oral hygiene practices are essential for preventing the buildup of dental plaque and maintaining good oral health.

Dental records are a collection of detailed documentation related to a patient's dental history and treatment. These records typically include:

1. Patient demographics: This includes the patient's name, date of birth, contact information, and other identifying details.
2. Dental charts: These are graphic representations of the patient's teeth and gums, noting any existing restorations, decay, periodontal disease, or other oral health conditions.
3. Radiographs (x-rays): These images help dentists visualize structures that aren't visible during a clinical examination, such as between teeth, below the gum line, and inside the jaw bones.
4. Treatment plans: This includes proposed dental procedures, their estimated costs, and the rationale behind them.
5. Progress notes: These are ongoing records of each dental appointment, detailing the treatments performed, the patient's response to treatment, and any home care instructions given.
6. Medical history: This includes any systemic health conditions that could impact dental treatment, such as diabetes or heart disease, as well as medications being taken.
7. Consent forms: These are documents signed by the patient (or their legal guardian) giving permission for specific treatments.
8. Communication notes: Any correspondence between dental professionals regarding the patient's care.

Dental records play a crucial role in continuity of care, allowing dentists to track changes in a patient's oral health over time and make informed treatment decisions. They are also important for medicolegal reasons, providing evidence in case of malpractice claims or other disputes.

A dental office is a healthcare facility where dental professionals, such as dentists, oral surgeons, and orthodontists, provide various dental treatments and services to patients. These services may include routine check-ups, teeth cleaning, fillings, extractions, root canals, crowns, bridges, implants, and orthodontic treatments like braces.

Dental offices typically have examination rooms equipped with dental chairs, dental instruments, and X-ray machines to diagnose and treat dental issues. They may also have a reception area where patients can schedule appointments, make payments, and complete paperwork.

In addition to clinical services, dental offices may also provide patient education on oral hygiene practices, nutrition, and lifestyle habits that can affect dental health. Some dental offices may specialize in certain areas of dentistry, such as pediatric dentistry or cosmetic dentistry.

Treatment failure is a term used in medicine to describe the situation when a prescribed treatment or intervention is not achieving the desired therapeutic goals or objectives. This may occur due to various reasons, such as:

1. Development of drug resistance by the pathogen or disease being treated.
2. Inadequate dosage or frequency of the medication.
3. Poor adherence or compliance to the treatment regimen by the patient.
4. The presence of underlying conditions or comorbidities that may affect the efficacy of the treatment.
5. The severity or progression of the disease despite appropriate treatment.

When treatment failure occurs, healthcare providers may need to reassess the patient's condition and modify the treatment plan accordingly, which may include adjusting the dosage, changing the medication, adding new medications, or considering alternative treatments.

"General practice dentistry" is a term used to describe the provision of primary dental care to patients of all ages. A general practice dentist provides a wide range of dental services, including preventative care (such as cleanings and fluoride treatments), restorative care (fillings, crowns, bridges), endodontics (root canals), oral surgery (extractions), periodontics (treatment of gum disease), prosthodontics (dentures, implants), and orthodontics (braces). They also diagnose and manage dental diseases and provide advice on oral health. General practice dentists aim to provide comprehensive and continuous care to their patients, coordinating with other dental and medical professionals as needed.

Dental equipment refers to the various instruments and devices used by dental professionals to perform oral health examinations, diagnose dental conditions, and provide treatment to patients. Here are some examples:

1. Dental chair: A specially designed chair that allows patients to recline while receiving dental care.
2. Examination light: A bright light used to illuminate the oral cavity during examinations and procedures.
3. Dental mirror: A small, angled mirror used to help dentists see hard-to-reach areas of the mouth.
4. Explorer: A sharp instrument used to probe teeth for signs of decay or other dental problems.
5. Dental probe: A blunt instrument used to measure the depth of periodontal pockets and assess gum health.
6. Scaler: A handheld instrument or ultrasonic device used to remove tartar and calculus from teeth.
7. Suction device: A vacuum-like tool that removes saliva, water, and debris from the mouth during procedures.
8. Dental drill: A high-speed instrument used to remove decayed or damaged tooth structure and prepare teeth for fillings, crowns, or other restorations.
9. Rubber dam: A thin sheet of rubber used to isolate individual teeth during procedures, keeping them dry and free from saliva.
10. Dental X-ray machine: A device that uses radiation to capture images of the teeth and surrounding structures, helping dentists diagnose conditions such as decay, infection, and bone loss.
11. Curing light: A special light used to harden dental materials, such as composite fillings and crowns, after they have been placed in the mouth.
12. Air/water syringe: A handheld device that delivers a stream of air and water to clean teeth and rinse away debris during procedures.

The term "dental staff" generally refers to the group of professionals who work together in a dental practice or setting to provide oral health care services to patients. The composition of a dental staff can vary depending on the size and type of the practice, but it typically includes:

1. Dentists: These are medical doctors who specialize in oral health. They diagnose and treat dental diseases, conditions, and disorders, and perform various procedures such as fillings, root canals, extractions, and crowns.
2. Dental Hygienists: These are licensed healthcare professionals who provide preventive dental care services to patients. They clean teeth, remove plaque and tartar, apply fluoride and sealants, take X-rays, and educate patients on proper oral hygiene practices.
3. Dental Assistants: These are trained professionals who assist dentists during procedures and perform various administrative tasks in a dental practice. They prepare patients for treatment, sterilize instruments, take impressions, and schedule appointments.
4. Front Office Staff: These are the receptionists, schedulers, and billing specialists who manage the administrative aspects of a dental practice. They handle patient inquiries, schedule appointments, process insurance claims, and maintain patient records.
5. Other Specialists: Depending on the needs of the practice, other dental professionals such as orthodontists, oral surgeons, endodontists, periodontists, or prosthodontists may also be part of the dental staff. These specialists have advanced training in specific areas of dentistry and provide specialized care to patients.

Overall, a well-functioning dental staff is essential for providing high-quality oral health care services to patients in a safe, efficient, and patient-centered manner.

Dental implants are artificial tooth roots that are surgically placed into the jawbone to replace missing or extracted teeth. They are typically made of titanium, a biocompatible material that can fuse with the bone over time in a process called osseointegration. Once the implant has integrated with the bone, a dental crown, bridge, or denture can be attached to it to restore function and aesthetics to the mouth.

Dental implants are a popular choice for tooth replacement because they offer several advantages over traditional options like dentures or bridges. They are more stable and comfortable, as they do not rely on adjacent teeth for support and do not slip or move around in the mouth. Additionally, dental implants can help to preserve jawbone density and prevent facial sagging that can occur when teeth are missing.

The process of getting dental implants typically involves several appointments with a dental specialist called a prosthodontist or an oral surgeon. During the first appointment, the implant is placed into the jawbone, and the gum tissue is stitched closed. Over the next few months, the implant will fuse with the bone. Once this process is complete, a second surgery may be necessary to expose the implant and attach an abutment, which connects the implant to the dental restoration. Finally, the crown, bridge, or denture is attached to the implant, providing a natural-looking and functional replacement for the missing tooth.

A dental assistant is a healthcare professional who works under the direction of a dentist and provides patient care, takes and develops x-rays, assists the dentist during procedures, performs infection control procedures, and helps with office management. They may also provide education to patients on oral hygiene and other dental health topics. Dental assistants must be trained and certified in many states and are an important part of the dental care team.

Continuing dental education (CDE) refers to the ongoing education and training that dentists and other oral health professionals engage in after completing their initial professional degrees. The purpose of CDE is to help these professionals stay current with advances in dental technology, research, and patient care so they can continue to provide the highest quality of care to their patients.

CDE programs may cover a wide range of topics, including new techniques for treating oral diseases, advances in dental materials and equipment, ethical issues in dental practice, and strategies for managing a successful dental practice. These programs may take many forms, such as lectures, workshops, seminars, online courses, or hands-on training sessions.

In most states, dentists are required to complete a certain number of CDE credits each year in order to maintain their licensure. This helps ensure that all dental professionals are up-to-date on the latest research and best practices in their field, which ultimately benefits patients by promoting better oral health outcomes.

Dental anesthesia is a type of local or regional anesthesia that is specifically used in dental procedures to block the transmission of pain impulses from the teeth and surrounding tissues to the brain. The most common types of dental anesthesia include:

1. Local anesthesia: This involves the injection of a local anesthetic drug, such as lidocaine or prilocaine, into the gum tissue near the tooth that is being treated. This numbs the area and prevents the patient from feeling pain during the procedure.
2. Conscious sedation: This is a type of minimal sedation that is used to help patients relax during dental procedures. The patient remains conscious and can communicate with the dentist, but may not remember the details of the procedure. Common methods of conscious sedation include nitrous oxide (laughing gas) or oral sedatives.
3. Deep sedation or general anesthesia: This is rarely used in dental procedures, but may be necessary for patients who are extremely anxious or have special needs. It involves the administration of drugs that cause a state of unconsciousness and prevent the patient from feeling pain during the procedure.

Dental anesthesia is generally safe when administered by a qualified dentist or oral surgeon. However, as with any medical procedure, there are risks involved, including allergic reactions to the anesthetic drugs, nerve damage, and infection. Patients should discuss any concerns they have with their dentist before undergoing dental anesthesia.

Dental models are replicas of a patient's teeth and surrounding oral structures, used in dental practice and education. They are typically created using plaster or other materials that harden to accurately reproduce the shape and position of each tooth, as well as the contours of the gums and palate. Dental models may be used for a variety of purposes, including treatment planning, creating custom-fitted dental appliances, and teaching dental students about oral anatomy and various dental procedures. They provide a tactile and visual representation that can aid in understanding and communication between dentists, patients, and other dental professionals.

A "Dental Service, Hospital" is a specialized department or unit within a hospital that provides comprehensive dental care services to patients. This type of service is typically equipped with advanced dental technology and staffed by oral health professionals such as dentists, oral surgeons, orthodontists, endodontists, periodontists, and dental hygienists.

The dental services offered in a hospital setting may include preventive care, restorative treatments, oral surgery, prosthodontics (dentures and implants), periodontal therapy, endodontic treatment (root canals), orthodontic treatment, and specialized care for patients with medical conditions that affect their oral health.

Hospital dental services often provide care to patients who require complex or extensive dental treatments, have medical conditions that make it difficult to receive dental care in a traditional dental office setting, or those who are recovering from surgery or other medical procedures. They may also provide emergency dental care for patients with severe dental pain, infection, or trauma.

In summary, a "Dental Service, Hospital" is a specialized unit within a hospital that provides comprehensive dental care services to patients, typically offering advanced technology and staffed by oral health professionals.

Dental radiography is a specific type of imaging that uses radiation to produce detailed images of the teeth, bones, and soft tissues surrounding them. It is a crucial tool in dental diagnostics and treatment planning. There are several types of dental radiographs, including:

1. Intraoral Radiographs: These are taken inside the mouth and provide detailed images of individual teeth or small groups of teeth. They can help detect cavities, assess periodontal health, plan for restorations, and monitor tooth development in children. Common types of intraoral radiographs include bitewing, periapical, and occlusal radiographs.
2. Extraoral Radiographs: These are taken outside the mouth and provide images of larger areas, such as the entire jaw or skull. They can help diagnose issues related to the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), detect impacted teeth, assess bone health, and identify any abnormalities in the facial structure. Common types of extraoral radiographs include panoramic, cephalometric, and sialography radiographs.
3. Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT): This is a specialized type of dental radiography that uses a cone-shaped X-ray beam to create detailed 3D images of the teeth, bones, and soft tissues. It is particularly useful in planning complex treatments such as dental implants, orthodontic treatment, and oral surgery.

Dental radiographs are typically taken using a specialized machine that emits a low dose of radiation. Patients are provided with protective lead aprons to minimize exposure to radiation. The frequency of dental radiographs depends on the patient's individual needs and medical history. Dentists follow strict guidelines to ensure that dental radiography is safe and effective for their patients.

Dental technology refers to the application of science and engineering in dentistry to prevent, diagnose, and treat dental diseases and conditions. It involves the use of various equipment, materials, and techniques to improve oral health and enhance the delivery of dental care. Some examples of dental technology include:

1. Digital radiography: This technology uses digital sensors instead of traditional X-ray films to produce images of the teeth and supporting structures. It provides higher quality images, reduces radiation exposure, and allows for easier storage and sharing of images.
2. CAD/CAM dentistry: Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology is used to design and fabricate dental restorations such as crowns, bridges, and veneers in a single appointment. This technology allows for more precise and efficient production of dental restorations.
3. Dental implants: These are artificial tooth roots that are placed into the jawbone to replace missing teeth. They provide a stable foundation for dental restorations such as crowns, bridges, and dentures.
4. Intraoral cameras: These are small cameras that can be inserted into the mouth to capture detailed images of the teeth and gums. These images can be used for diagnosis, treatment planning, and patient education.
5. Laser dentistry: Dental lasers are used to perform a variety of procedures such as cavity preparation, gum contouring, and tooth whitening. They provide more precise and less invasive treatments compared to traditional dental tools.
6. 3D printing: This technology is used to create dental models, surgical guides, and custom-made dental restorations. It allows for more accurate and efficient production of dental products.

Overall, dental technology plays a crucial role in modern dentistry by improving the accuracy, efficiency, and quality of dental care.

A dentist is a healthcare professional who specializes in the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases and conditions that affect the oral cavity and maxillofacial region. This includes the teeth, gums, jaw, and related structures. Dentists are trained to provide a wide range of services, including:

1. Routine dental exams and cleanings
2. Fillings, crowns, and other restorative treatments
3. Root canals and extractions
4. Dental implants and dentures
5. Orthodontic treatment (braces, aligners)
6. Treatment of gum disease
7. Oral cancer screenings
8. Cosmetic dental procedures (teeth whitening, veneers)
9. Management of temporomandibular joint disorders (TMJ)
10. Emergency dental care

To become a dentist, one must complete a Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS) or Doctor of Medical Dentistry (DMD) degree from an accredited dental school and pass written and clinical exams to obtain licensure in their state. Many dentists also choose to specialize in a particular area of dentistry, such as orthodontics, oral surgery, or pediatric dentistry, by completing additional training and residency programs.

Dental cavity preparation is the process of removing decayed and damaged tissue from a tooth and shaping the remaining healthy structure in order to prepare it for the placement of a filling or a crown. The goal of cavity preparation is to remove all traces of decay and create a clean, stable surface for the restoration to bond with, while also maintaining as much of the natural tooth structure as possible.

The process typically involves the use of dental drills and other tools to remove the decayed tissue and shape the tooth. The size and depth of the preparation will depend on the extent of the decay and the type of restoration that will be used. After the preparation is complete, the dentist will place the filling or crown, restoring the function and integrity of the tooth.

"Dental, Graduate Education" refers to the post-baccalaureate programs of study and training that lead to an advanced degree in the field of dentistry. These programs are designed to prepare students for specialized dental practice, research, or teaching careers. Examples of graduate dental degrees include:

1. Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS): A professional doctoral degree that qualifies the graduate to practice general dentistry.
2. Doctor of Medical Dentistry (DMD): A professional doctoral degree equivalent to the DDS; awarded by some universities in the United States and several other countries.
3. Master of Science (MS) in Dentistry: An academic master's degree focused on research, teaching, or advanced clinical practice in a specific dental discipline.
4. Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in Dental Sciences: A research-oriented doctoral degree that prepares students for careers in academia, research institutions, or the dental industry.
5. Specialty Training Programs: Postgraduate residency programs that provide advanced training in one of the nine recognized dental specialties, such as orthodontics, oral and maxillofacial surgery, or pediatric dentistry. These programs typically lead to a certificate or a master's degree in the respective specialty area.

Graduate dental education usually involves a combination of classroom instruction, laboratory work, clinical experience, and research. Admission to these programs typically requires a DDS or DMD degree from an accredited dental school and satisfactory scores on the Dental Admission Test (DAT).

Dental ethics refers to the principles and rules that guide the conduct of dental professionals in their interactions with patients, colleagues, and society. These ethical standards are designed to promote trust, respect, and fairness in dental care, and they are often based on fundamental ethical principles such as autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice.

Autonomy refers to the patient's right to make informed decisions about their own health care, free from coercion or manipulation. Dental professionals have an obligation to provide patients with accurate information about their dental conditions and treatment options, so that they can make informed choices about their care.

Beneficence means acting in the best interests of the patient, and doing what is medically necessary and appropriate to promote their health and well-being. Dental professionals have a duty to provide high-quality care that meets accepted standards of practice, and to use evidence-based treatments that are likely to be effective.

Non-maleficence means avoiding harm to the patient. Dental professionals must take reasonable precautions to prevent injuries or complications during treatment, and they should avoid providing unnecessary or harmful treatments.

Justice refers to fairness and equity in the distribution of dental resources and services. Dental professionals have an obligation to provide care that is accessible, affordable, and culturally sensitive, and to advocate for policies and practices that promote health equity and social justice.

Dental ethics also encompasses issues related to patient confidentiality, informed consent, research integrity, professional competence, and boundary violations. Dental professionals are expected to adhere to ethical guidelines established by their professional organizations, such as the American Dental Association (ADA) or the British Dental Association (BDA), and to comply with relevant laws and regulations governing dental practice.

A dental society is a professional organization composed of dentists who have come together to promote and advance the practice of dentistry. These societies can be local, regional, national or international in scope and may include general dentists as well as specialists in various fields of dentistry. The members of dental societies often engage in continuing education, advocacy, research, and community service activities to improve oral health and the delivery of dental care. Additionally, dental societies may establish guidelines for ethical practice and provide resources and support for their members.

Dental health surveys are epidemiological studies that aim to assess the oral health status and related behaviors of a defined population at a particular point in time. These surveys collect data on various aspects of oral health, including the prevalence and severity of dental diseases such as caries (tooth decay), periodontal disease (gum disease), and oral cancer. They also gather information on factors that influence oral health, such as dietary habits, oral hygiene practices, access to dental care, and socioeconomic status.

The data collected in dental health surveys are used to identify trends and patterns in oral health, plan and evaluate public health programs and policies, and allocate resources for oral health promotion and disease prevention. Dental health surveys may be conducted at the local, regional, or national level, and they can target specific populations such as children, adolescents, adults, or older adults.

The methods used in dental health surveys include clinical examinations, interviews, questionnaires, and focus groups. Clinical examinations are conducted by trained dentists or dental hygienists who follow standardized protocols to assess the oral health status of participants. Interviews and questionnaires are used to collect information on demographic characteristics, oral health behaviors, and attitudes towards oral health. Focus groups can provide insights into the perceptions and experiences of participants regarding oral health issues.

Overall, dental health surveys play a critical role in monitoring and improving the oral health of populations and reducing oral health disparities.

Dental fluorosis is a developmental disturbance of dental enamel caused by excessive exposure to fluoride during tooth development. It is characterized by hypomineralization of the enamel, resulting in various appearances ranging from barely noticeable white spots to brown staining and pitting of the teeth. The severity depends on the amount, duration, and timing of fluoride intake, as well as individual susceptibility. Mild dental fluorosis is typically asymptomatic but can affect the appearance of teeth, while severe cases may cause tooth sensitivity and increased susceptibility to tooth decay.

Dental licensure is the process by which a state or jurisdiction grants a dental professional the authority to practice dentistry within its borders. In order to obtain a dental license, individuals must meet certain education, examination, and other requirements established by the licensing body. These requirements typically include graduation from an accredited dental school, passing written and clinical examinations, and completion of continuing education courses.

The purpose of dental licensure is to protect the public by ensuring that dental professionals have the necessary knowledge, skills, and abilities to provide safe and effective dental care. Licensing boards are responsible for enforcing standards of practice and disciplining dentists who engage in unprofessional or unethical conduct.

It's important to note that dental licensure requirements may vary from state to state, so it's essential for dental professionals to familiarize themselves with the specific requirements of the state(s) in which they intend to practice.

Dental laboratories are specialized facilities where dental technicians create and manufacture various dental restorations and appliances based on the specific measurements, models, and instructions provided by dentists. These custom-made dental products are designed to restore or replace damaged, missing, or decayed teeth, improve oral function, and enhance the overall appearance of a patient's smile.

Some common dental restorations and appliances produced in dental laboratories include:

1. Dental crowns: Artificial caps that cover and protect damaged or weakened teeth, often made from ceramics, porcelain, metal alloys, or a combination of materials.
2. Dental bridges: Fixed or removable appliances used to replace one or more missing teeth by connecting artificial teeth (pontics) to adjacent natural teeth or dental implants.
3. Dentures: Removable prosthetic devices that replace all or most of the upper and/or lower teeth, providing improved chewing function, speech clarity, and aesthetics.
4. Orthodontic appliances: Devices used to correct malocclusions (improper bites) and misaligned teeth, such as traditional braces, clear aligners, palatal expanders, and retainers.
5. Custom dental implant components: Specialized parts designed for specific implant systems, which are used in conjunction with dental implants to replace missing teeth permanently.
6. Night guards and occlusal splints: Protective devices worn during sleep to prevent or manage bruxism (teeth grinding) and temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD).
7. Anti-snoring devices: Mandibular advancement devices that help reduce snoring by holding the lower jaw in a slightly forward position, preventing airway obstruction during sleep.
8. Dental whitening trays: Custom-fitted trays used to hold bleaching gel against tooth surfaces for professional teeth whitening treatments.
9. Specialty restorations: Including aesthetic veneers, inlays, onlays, and other customized dental solutions designed to meet specific patient needs.

Dental laboratories may be standalone facilities or part of a larger dental practice. They are typically staffed by skilled technicians who specialize in various aspects of dental technology, such as ceramics, orthodontics, implantology, and prosthodontics. Collaboration between dentists, dental specialists, and laboratory technicians ensures the highest quality results for patients undergoing restorative or cosmetic dental treatments.

A dental technician is a healthcare professional who designs, fabricates, and repairs custom-made dental devices, such as dentures, crowns, bridges, orthodontic appliances, and implant restorations. They work closely with dentists and other oral health professionals to meet the individual needs of each patient. Dental technicians typically have an associate's degree or certificate in dental technology and may be certified by a professional organization. Their work requires a strong understanding of dental materials, fabrication techniques, and the latest advances in dental technology.

Dental specialties are recognized areas of expertise in dental practice that require additional training and education beyond the general dentist degree. The American Dental Association (ADA) recognizes nine dental specialties:

1. Dental Public Health: This specialty focuses on preventing oral diseases and promoting oral health through population-level interventions, research, and policy development.
2. Endodontics: Endodontists are experts in diagnosing and treating tooth pain and performing root canal treatments to save infected or damaged teeth.
3. Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: This specialty involves the diagnosis and management of diseases that affect the oral cavity, jaws, and face, using clinical, radiographic, and microscopic examination techniques.
4. Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology: Oral and maxillofacial radiologists use advanced imaging technologies to diagnose and manage conditions affecting the head and neck region.
5. Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery: Oral surgeons perform surgical procedures on the face, jaws, and mouth, including tooth extractions, jaw alignment surgeries, and cancer treatments.
6. Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics: Orthodontists specialize in diagnosing and treating dental and facial irregularities, using appliances such as braces and aligners to straighten teeth and correct bite problems.
7. Pediatric Dentistry: Pediatric dentists are trained to care for the oral health needs of children, including those with special health care needs.
8. Periodontics: Periodontists diagnose and treat gum diseases, place dental implants, and perform surgical procedures to regenerate lost tissue and bone support around teeth.
9. Prosthodontics: Prosthodontists are experts in replacing missing teeth and restoring damaged or worn-out teeth using crowns, bridges, dentures, and implant-supported restorations.

Dental esthetics refers to the branch of dentistry concerned with the aesthetic appearance of teeth and smile. It involves the use of various dental treatments and procedures to improve the color, shape, alignment, and position of teeth, thereby enhancing the overall facial appearance and self-confidence of a person. Some common dental esthetic treatments include tooth whitening, dental veneers, composite bonding, orthodontic treatment (braces), and dental implants. It is important to note that dental esthetics not only focuses on improving the appearance but also maintaining or improving oral health and function.

Dental fees refer to the charges that dentists or dental professionals bill for their services, procedures, or treatments. These fees can vary based on several factors such as:

1. Location: Dental fees may differ depending on the region or country where the dental practice is located due to differences in cost of living and local market conditions.
2. Type of procedure: The complexity and duration of a dental treatment will impact the fee charged for that service. For example, a simple teeth cleaning will have a lower fee compared to more complex procedures like root canals or dental implants.
3. Dental professional's expertise and experience: Highly skilled and experienced dentists may charge higher fees due to their superior level of knowledge and proficiency in performing various dental treatments.
4. Type of dental practice: Fees for dental services at a private practice may differ from those charged by a community health center or non-profit organization.
5. Dental insurance coverage: The amount of coverage provided by a patient's dental insurance plan can also affect the final out-of-pocket cost for dental care, which in turn influences the fees that dentists charge.

Dental fee schedules are typically established by individual dental practices based on these factors and may be periodically updated to reflect changes in costs or market conditions. Patients should consult their dental providers to understand the specific fees associated with any recommended treatments or procedures.

Practice management in dentistry refers to the administration and operation of a dental practice. It involves various aspects such as:

1. Business Operations: This includes financial management, billing and coding, human resources, and office management.

2. Patient Care: This includes scheduling appointments, managing patient records, treatment planning, and ensuring quality care.

3. Marketing and Promotion: This includes advertising the practice, attracting new patients, and maintaining relationships with existing ones.

4. Compliance: This includes adhering to laws and regulations related to dental practices, such as HIPAA for patient privacy and OSHA for workplace safety.

5. Continuous Improvement: This involves regularly assessing the practice's performance, implementing changes to improve efficiency and effectiveness, and keeping up-to-date with advancements in dentistry and healthcare management.

The goal of dental practice management is to ensure the smooth running of the practice, provide high-quality patient care, and maintain a successful and profitable business.

The dental sac, also known as the dental follicle, is a soft tissue structure that surrounds the developing tooth crown during odontogenesis, which is the process of tooth development. It is derived from the ectoderm and mesenchyme of the embryonic oral cavity. The dental sac gives rise to several important structures associated with the tooth, including the periodontal ligament, cementum, and the alveolar bone that surrounds and supports the tooth in the jaw.

The dental sac plays a critical role in tooth development by regulating the mineralization of the tooth crown and providing a protective environment for the developing tooth. It also contains cells called odontoblasts, which are responsible for producing dentin, one of the hard tissues that make up the tooth. Abnormalities in the development or growth of the dental sac can lead to various dental anomalies, such as impacted teeth, dilacerated roots, and other developmental disorders.

"Restorations in primary teeth: a systematic review on survival and reasons for failures". BDJ. 224 (10): 787. 2018-05-25. doi: ... In dentistry, a crown or a dental cap is a type of dental restoration that completely caps or encircles a tooth or dental ... If the restoration fits well, the dentist can cement the restoration immediately. A dental CAD/CAM machine costs roughly $ ... In the production of dental restorations specifically made for one patient, dental technicians with their problem-solving ...
Tooth fractures, and repeated failure of dental restorations (fillings, crowns, etc.). Hypersensitive teeth, (e.g. dental pain ... since any dental work is likely to fail in the long term. Dental implants, dental ceramics such as Emax crowns and complex ... Bruxism can cause significant tooth wear if it is severe, and sometimes dental restorations (crowns, fillings etc.) are damaged ... Occlusal splints (also termed dental guards) are commonly prescribed, mainly by dentists and dental specialists, as a treatment ...
... study assessed the outcome of posterior extensive restorations and identified risk factors for failure of the restorations ... Medicine portal Dental curing light Dental dam Dental fear Dental braces Dental treatment Fixed prosthodontics Gold teeth Oral ... Dental implants are anchors placed in bone, usually made from titanium or titanium alloy. They can support dental restorations ... Removable dental prostheses (mainly dentures) are sometimes considered a form of indirect dental restoration, as they are made ...
... ultimately resulting in implant failure. In certain instances, cement retention is the only option. Dentures Dental restoration ... The concepts utilised to select the suitable repair, as with any dental restoration, include consideration of the materials to ... The cement-retained restorations ensure maximum aesthetics but have two downsides. One, the restoration is cemented to an ... An inlay is a restoration that lies within the confines of the cusps. These restorations are considered to be more conservative ...
Food packing is usually caused by failure to accurately reproduce the contact points when dental restorations are placed on the ... Other measures that are taken during management of the acute phase might include reducing the height of the tooth with a dental ... It is a type of dental abscess. A periodontal abscess occurs alongside a tooth, and is different from the more common ... If this does not work, incision and drainage is required, as described in Dental abscess#Treatment. Antibiotics are of ...
... comparing restorations done using rubber dams versus cotton roll isolation, the rubber dam group had a lower risk of failure ... dental restorations, endodontic treatments including root canal therapy, fissure sealants, preparation of dental crown, dental ... Dental dams are also used for safer oral sex. The technique used to apply the dental dam is selected according to the tooth ... The dental dam is prepared by punching one or more holes in the dental dam sheet to enable isolation of the appropriate number ...
... result in tooth mobility and drifting of teeth Loss in posterior occlusal stability Mechanical failure of restorations Dental ... In some cases, dental erosion is also associated with severe dental attrition. Dental erosion is tooth surface loss caused by ... British Dental Journal, 195 (5), 239. Khan F, Young W G, Daley TJ. Dental erosion and bruxism. A tooth wear analysis from South ... Many restorative options have been proposed, such as direct composite restorations, bonded cast metal restorations, removable ...
... dental restoration features a cantilevered crown to the left. Ronan Point: Structural failure of part of floors cantilevered ...
... a common reason for failure of dental restorations. This means that the longevity and efficacy of composite restorations may be ... Dental caries is a dental biofilm-related oral disease associated with increased consumption of dietary sugar and fermentable ... When dental biofilms remain on tooth surfaces, along with frequent exposure to sugars, acidogenic bacteria (members of dental ... Dental anxiety has knock-on effects for both dental professionals and patients. Treatment planning and therefore treatment ...
The pontic is usually made from dental porcelain. The whole restoration is thus a porcelain fused to metal restoration. Current ... One major advantage of the resin-retained bridge over a conventional bridge is the failure mode is likely to be debonding of ... It is one of many available dental restoration methods which is considered minimally invasive and conservative of tooth tissue ... These bridges can be fabricated in the mouth during a single visit or indirectly in a dental laboratory. Fracturing and wear of ...
An indirect restoration is one where the teeth are first prepared, then an impression is taken and sent to a dental technician ... Fillings have a finite lifespan; composites appear to have a higher failure rate than amalgam over five to seven years. How ... Dental cements are used most often to bond indirect restorations such as crowns to the natural tooth surface. Examples include ... Dental lining materials are used during restorations of large cavities, and are placed between the remaining tooth structure ...
... dental cavity lining MeSH E06.323.400 - dental restoration failure MeSH E06.323.428 - dental restoration, permanent MeSH ... dental prosthesis retention MeSH E06.780.345.725 - dental restoration failure MeSH E06.780.345.737 - dental restoration, ... dental MeSH E06.170.100 - dental care for aged MeSH E06.170.152 - dental care for children MeSH E06.170.205 - dental care for ... dental abutments MeSH E06.780.345.562 - dental clasps MeSH E06.780.345.593 - dental implants MeSH E06.780.345.593.185 - dental ...
The patients suffered from local and systemic symptoms attributed to their dental restorations. The effect of dental metal ... and joint failure. Many authors conclude that LTT-based blood tests like MELISA may be a better option for detecting systemic ... a subgroup of 111 patients who showed allergy to their dental metals replaced their restorations with non-metallic materials. ... Allergies to dental metals. Titanium: a new allergen. Rev Med Brux, pp. 31(1):44-49. (Wikipedia articles with undisclosed paid ...
The Nankali post system is a post and cores prosthesis, which is used in prosthodontology and dental restoration. This post and ... and is followed by a declining in the number of failures in treatments. The main indications are: Severely damaged crown Trauma ... This new modified post-core was under study till 2004 and then attested by the Dental Scientific Board of Ukraine. During the ... Tooth wear (erosion) Hypoplastic conditions As part of another restoration Combined indication Non-vital teeth The ...
Extensively restored or weakened teeth Repeated fracture or failure of previous direct restoration Restorations within body of ... If the onlay or inlay is made in a dental laboratory, a temporary is fabricated while the restoration is custom-made for the ... Patients need to be able to cope with dental impressions as these are required for the fabrication of the indirect restoration ... It is important to ensure adequate oral hygiene before providing any indirect restoration as failure to manage the caries risk ...
Liu, Chia-Hui; Lin, Cheng-Jyun; Hu, Ya-Han; You, Zi-Hung (May 2018). "Predicting the Failure of Dental Implants Using ... Single tooth restorations are individual freestanding units not connected to other teeth or implants, used to replace missing ... Common uses of dental implants The primary use of dental implants is to support dental prosthetics (i.e. false teeth). Modern ... A crown (the dental prosthesis) is then connected to the abutment with dental cement, a small screw, or fused with the abutment ...
The Class IV restorations had higher failure rates than Class III or V restorations. Operators should have detailed anatomical ... that perfectly emulate natural dental tissues even in anterior area. 3,4 Discolorations of teeth or restorations, dental ... For example, dental caries, tooth fracture, enamel defects and diastemas. Composite restoration can also improve aesthetic by ... These restorations are called minimally invasive, functional and long-lasting 'direct aesthetic restorations' ...
This can result in the child experiencing severe pain, extensive dental restorations or extractions. The good news is that ECC ... Low quality evidence indicates that ART may have a higher risk of filling failure when compared to usual care. Despite the ... The American Dental Association recognizes SDF as an effective approach to conservatively manage dental decay. Depending on the ... potentially experience less dental related issues and incur lower dental related costs throughout their lives. The current ...
Alternatively the appearance of the tooth can be hidden with dental restorations (e.g., composite fillings, veneers, crowns). ... Failure to completely clean out the necrotic soft tissue of the pulp system may cause staining, and certain root canal ... At the core of the tooth is soft connective tissue termed the dental pulp. The pulp is pink/red due to its vascularity, but is ... Dental caries (tooth decay) begins as an opaque white spot on the surface of the enamel. As demineralization progresses, the ...
... such as biomaterials used in next-generation dental restorations. The structure, composition, and morphological shape of the ... As a result, goethite nanofibers are able to maintain substantial failure strength despite the presence of defects. The second ... materials become insensitive to flaws that would otherwise decrease failure strength. ...
Dental restoration falling out or fracturing can also be considered a dental emergency as these can impact function in regards ... The failure is most likely due to infection of the implant. It is highly recommended to visit or refer patient to the ... Journal of Dental Research, Dental Clinics, Dental Prospects. 9 (3): 193-8. doi:10.15171/joddd.2015.035. PMC 4682017. PMID ... Many emergencies exist and can range from bacterial, fungal, or viral infections to a fractured tooth or dental restoration, ...
Dental applications: Some application of PEX has also been seen in dental restoration as a composite filling material. ... The failures are claimed to be a result of the brass fittings used in the PEX system. Generally, builders and manufacturers ... Leaving it exposed to direct sunlight for as little as 30 days may result in premature failure of the tubing due to ... There have been some claimed PEX systems failures in the U.S., Canada and Europe resulting in several pending class action ...
... and subsequent early failure of the restoration, and lack of marginal integrity (small gaps between the restoration and the ... refers to the number of bonded surfaces in an adhesive dental restoration. Because adhesive dental restorative material will ... Adhesive dental materials are generally used in a semi-liquid or semi-solid state that is then changed into a solid state ... From a very technical perspective, it can be said that "the developing curing contraction in a bonded restoration generates ...
Failure to accomplish these methods prior restorations can lead to the complexity or risk of failure of treatment such as ... An oral health therapist is a member of the dental team who is dual-qualified as a dental hygienist and dental therapist. They ... This phase aims to reduce and eliminate any gingival inflammation by removing dental plaque and calculus, restoration from ... Periodontal diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, the most prominent being dental plaque. Dental plaque forms a ...
Cosmetic dentistry Crown (dentistry) Dental restoration CAD/CAM Dentistry Prosthetic dentistry Light activated resin Mitchell, ... J Dental Res 77 (Special Issue A):233 Abstract 1017,1998 Friedman, MJ "A 15-year review of porcelain veneer failure- a ... A composite veneer may be directly placed (built-up in the mouth), or indirectly fabricated by a dental technician in a dental ... Porcelain dental veneers Pincus CL."Building mouth personality" A paper presented at: California State Dental Association;1937: ...
... dental restorations, mobile phones, and leather (from the tanning process). Metal hair fasteners may also leach allergens. The ... For metal allergens, patch test reproducibility is low, and the extent to which they predict implant failures is debated. If ... Implants and prosthetics, including dental repairs, are also an exposure; dental work is the main way in which the general ... population is sensitized to palladium, and dental workers may get occupational palladium allergies, though cross-sensitization ...
It is important to avoid invading the STA when fabricating dental restorations. If a dental restoration invades the STA, ... If multiple treatment procedures are necessary, each procedure costs time and money with potential for failures/complications. ... "Glossary of Dental Clinical Terms". Retrieved 2023-06-24. Ingber, Jeffrey; Rose, LF; Coslet, JG (1977). "The ... Frequently, however, restorations are performed without such a bevel. Recent studies suggest that, while adequate ferrule is ...
... is a biofilm that attaches to tooth surfaces, restorations and prosthetic appliances (including dentures and ... However, failure to remove plaque by regular tooth-brushing allows them to proliferate unchecked and thereby build up in a ... The most common way dental plaque is assessed is through dental assessment in the dental clinic where dental instruments are ... dental biofilm, dental plaque biofilm or bacterial plaque biofilm. Bacterial plaque is one of the major causes for dental decay ...
Dental restoration; this may be a good management option. However this procedure is invasive and usually requires local ... Failure may occur due to periodontal abscess or periradicular abscess if decay has progressed too far into the tooth for it to ... However, if the patient experiences pain/discomfort after the initial few days, consult your dental professional. A dental ... "The Australian and New Zealand journal of dental and oral health therapy / ADOHTA, New Zealand Dental Therapist' Association ...
In the past, dental fillings and other tooth restorations were made of gold, amalgam and other metals-some of which were ... are minimally invasive but do have a reputation for failure. Bridges require commitment to serious oral hygiene and carry risk ... Aesthetics are especially critical in anterior composite restorations. Dental bridges are used to replace one or more missing ... "Glossary of Dental Clinical and Administrative Terms". Retrieved 2017-05-17. "Crown to Root Ratio , Diamond Dental ...
"Restorations in primary teeth: a systematic review on survival and reasons for failures". BDJ. 224 (10): 787. 2018-05-25. doi: ... In dentistry, a crown or a dental cap is a type of dental restoration that completely caps or encircles a tooth or dental ... If the restoration fits well, the dentist can cement the restoration immediately. A dental CAD/CAM machine costs roughly $ ... In the production of dental restorations specifically made for one patient, dental technicians with their problem-solving ...
The possibility of a dental implant failure can often be determined before the implant takes place, lessening the risk of it ... dental implant failure is rare - implants are reported to be around 93% to 95% effective. Even if a dental implant failure ... These causes of dental implant failure can be reduced by using a fully qualified dental surgeon who will assess the implant ... While the risk of dental implant failure is low, as with any surgery, there is a small risk of it not being successful. The ...
Dental Restoration Failure * *Dental Restoration, Permanent * Dental Caries/diagnosis/*therapy * Practice Management, Dental/ ... OBJECTIVES: To (1) identify and quantify the types of treatment that dentists use to manage defective dental restorations and ( ... How dentists diagnose and treat defective restorations: evidence from the dental practice-based research network Journal ... 2) identify characteristics that are associated with these dentists decisions to replace existing restorations. The Dental ...
Dental Implantation, Endosseous / methods* * Dental Restoration Failure * Female * Follow-Up Studies * Guided Tissue ... Results: Overall, 122 dental implants were placed into augmented sites and have been followed from 12 to 180 months (mean: 76.5 ...
Clinical Evaluation of Reasons for Immediate Composite Restoration Failure Placed by Dental Students: A Cross-sectional Study ... Clinical Evaluation of Reasons for Immediate Composite Restoration Failure Placed by Dental Students: A Cross-sectional Study ... the most frequent reason for the immediate failure of resin composite restorations was the quick application of the restoration ... followed by Cl II restorations in molars (18.45%). Failure-associated factors were proper restoration manipulation, field ...
Lec 9 - Placing Implant Abutments How to place abutments on dental implants This is part of the Open.Michigan collection at: ... Dental Restoration - Dental Implant Failure. 00:35 , 4826 views Watch VIDEO. 4356 views ... "Lec 9 - Placing Implant Abutments" How to place abutments on dental implants This is part of the Open.Michigan collection at: ...
... detailed information for dental professionals from the ADA. ... Table 5. Annual Failure Rates and Survival Rates from recent ... Corrosion and Tarnish of Dental Alloys. Corrosion and Tarnish of Dental Alloys 2006;13(Corrosion and Tarnish of Dental Alloys). ... 36 Among the most common reasons for failures of gold restorations have been secondary caries and retention failure.5, 42 ... 69 Dental Ceramic; 2018.. *Wassell RW, Walls AW, Steele JG. Crowns and extra-coronal restorations: materials selection. Br Dent ...
Dental Prosthesis Design * Dental Prosthesis Retention / instrumentation* * Dental Restoration Failure * Evaluation Studies as ... Nine abutment posts fractured for a failure rate of 0.05 percent. Thirty one (1.7 percent) of the abutments loosened but were ... 1 Department of Restorative Dentistry, Tufts University School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, USA. ...
Fix Failing Dental Implants. Talk To A Dentist At Health Smiles Family Dental In Salem Today. Book an Appointment With Us! ... Dental Implant Restoration in Salem, OR. Implant failure? We can help. Dont wait to get the help you need. Dental implants are ... Whether you need a dental implant from a skilled dentist or a dental implant restoration in Salem, our team is here to help. ... Healthy Smiles Family Dental , Privacy Policy , Accessibility Statement , Website Design & Dental SEO by :Delmain ...
... implant tissues and esthetically pleasing results with dental implant restorations, influenced by factors, such as, implant ... First, potential causes of esthetic implant failures are reviewed, discussing anatomic factors such as horizontal or vertical ... the definitive restoration can be fabricated based on the contour of the provisional restoration, thereby achieving a congruent ... Final restorations included a custom abutment with a lithium disilicate fused to zirconia crown for the implant on site 11 and ...
More in Restorations. Neoss launches new multiunit abutment. Dental implant firm Neoss Group has launched a new multiunit ... Some of the first results suggest that their implants approach the low failure rates reported for titanium implants. Read about ... Roe Dental Laboratory will provide prosthetics to complement Stabili-Teeths full-mouth restorations. ... Komet unveils diamond, pearl dental bur. Komet has launched DIAO, a dental bur made with diamonds and ceramic pearls, that aims ...
Palavras-chave : Composite Resins.; Dental Restoration; Permanent.; Dental Restoration Failure.; Education; Higher.. ... PIZI, Eliane Cristina Gava et al. Dental students training on the evaluation of class II composite restorations using the ... The study aimed to evaluate the clinical conduct of dental undergraduate students regarding unsatisfactory Class II composite ... Students analyzed 22 digital images of class II composite restorations observing aesthetic parameters (i.e., surface gloss, ...
We, as a dental profession, are also well-skilled at demonstrating proper home care to patients with fixed restorations. ... Biological factors contributing to failures of osseointegrated oral implants I. Success criteria and epidemiology. Eur J Oral ... If we extrapolate that data and insert it into a modern dental practice, there is no reason why we cant have similar results ... 2) Restorations around natural teeth have taught us various methods of in-office debridement and treatment protocols. ...
After your dental implant has been placed, youll need to follow-up with an aftercare routine at home. Heres the basics of ... Failure of a dental implant or rejection is exceptionally rare, but to minimize risks its important for patients to follow ... Professional dental implant care is important after a dental implant restoration.. Dental implants are a wonderful restoration ... Maintain regular check-ups with Berrien Dental during the healing process and beyond.. After your dental implant has been ...
Risk factors for failure of class V restorations of carious cervical lesions in general dental practices. Wierichs, Richard ( ... Risk factors for failure of class V restorations of carious cervical lesions in general dental practices ... Sie sind hier:Risk factors for failure of class V restorations of carious cervical lesions in general dental practices ... Sie sind hier: Risk factors for failure of class V restorations of carious cervical lesions in general dental practices ...
... helping them better understand their dental health. Additionally, dental CAD/CAM systems enable same-day restorations, ... It is of importance for any dental clinic to comply with standards. Failure to do so can lead to fines, legal complications, ... Step 6: Dental Fitout should Streamline Processes within the Clinic Efficiency and workflow play a role in the success of a ... Achieving Success with a Dental Clinic Fitout: The Ultimate Guide. Bonnie J. Sung September 22, 2023. September 22, 2023. ...
Results: One hundred and thirty dental implants have been placed and rehabilitated by post-graduate students. Five implants ... failed before loading and none after restoration delivery; survival and success rates were 96.15% and 94.62%, respectively. ... Purpose: To record failure rates and identify the contributing factors to implant failure and marginal bone loss (MBL) of ... Implant failure rate, contributors to implant failure, and MBL were investigated among 24 variables related to patient health, ...
Baldwin today at his Truckee or Loyalton, CA dental office. ... If you want to learn more about dental implants, book your ... What type of dental restoration will I need?. This is determined by the number of teeth you are missing and where they are ... This is because tobacco use increases your risk of implant failure significantly. Once the implant fixtures are placed in the ... From start to finish, it can take up to year to replace your teeth with a dental implant restoration. It will also require at ...
Dental Bonding, Dental Restoration Failure, Dental Restoration, Permanent/methods, Dental Stress Analysis, Enamel Microabrasion ... Graduate School, Cariology and Operative Dentistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45, Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113- ... Acid Etching, Dental/methods, Analysis of Variance, Composite Resins, ... which stated that the association between parental smoking and SIDS could have been attributable to the failure to control ...
Zygomatic dental implants are extensively used for the treatment of severely edentulous atrophic maxillae as an alternative to ... Based on the results, the restoration of zygomatic implant together with conventional dental implants in the ... as the bending moments may cause the deformation of implant body that leading to the failure of implants or ... conventional dental implant support), Case 2 (one conventional dental implant support) and Case 3 (two ...
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Dental Restoration Failure. Inability or inadequacy of a dental restoration or prosthesis to perform as expected.. ... DentalInsurance, DentalDental AuxiliariesDental Health ServicesDental Care for AgedDental OfficesDental StaffDental Records ... DentalDental Health SurveysFluorosis, DentalLicensure, DentalLaboratories, DentalDental MaterialsFees, DentalDental Technicians ... Dental AmalgamDental ImplantsTechnology, DentalDental MaterialsDental AlloysDental PorcelainLaryngeal MasksDental CementsPit ...
restrict to non-dental prostheses: failure of dental prostheses of all types = DENTAL RESTORATION FAILURE; coordinate with ... Failure, Prosthesis Failures, Prosthesis Prosthesis Failures Prosthesis Survival - Related but not broader or narrower Concept ... Failure, Prosthesis. Failures, Prosthesis. Loosening, Prosthesis. Loosenings, Prosthesis. Migration, Prosthesis. Migrations, ... Prosthesis Failure - Preferred Concept UI. M0017837. Scope note. Malfunction of implantation shunts, valves, etc., and ...
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Numerous complications can contribute to failure of the porcelain laminate veneer (PLV) restoration. These include the ... Planning of Dental Veneer Placement. Preoperative protocol for dental veneer treatment requires that all sound dental and ... encoded search term (Dental Veneer Placement) and Dental Veneer Placement What to Read Next on Medscape ... Cupid Dental, Inc; Clinical Instructor, Boston University Henry M Goldman School of Dental Medicine. Abdullaibrahim Abdulwaheed ...
A root canal treatment is a dental procedure that can be quite daunting for many patients, particularly those facing dental ... Dental health is a correlating factor to our overall well-being. One aspect of this is the need to understand root canal ... Restoration Failure: If the dental crown or filling comes loose, the tooth is prone to new infections. Regular dental check-ups ... Potential Risks to Dental Crowns After the Procedure. Post-treatment, the tooth is capped with a dental crown. There may be ...
Aside from follow-up exams to check healing and progress, after this final step of restoration, the new tooth or teeth are good ... Well look at other prep and failure issues, next.. ... Dental Implant Abutments. ". " After an implant is surgically ... Dental implant procedures are increasingly two-step processes, but they can take three -- and often its by choice. After an ... the dental crown itself. When all of the bone-cutting, gum-incising work is over, the human body responds by growing bone and ...
Structural Adhesive Dental Restorations - a continuing education course at the UW School of Dentistry. ... incorrect material selection/placement and poor patient compliance will expedite failure of posterior composite restorations. ... IAD 2023 Seattle: Structural Adhesive Dental Restorations. Drs. Junji Tagami, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Japan; John ... tooth-colored dental restorative systems, the bonding of materials to dental tissues, and dental education. ...
As the application of external forces can lead to premature bonding failure, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect ... Dental hygienists are often faced with patients wearing lingual orthodontic therapy, as ultrasonic instrumentation (UI) is ... has been demonstrated to induce no modifications in shear bond strength values of resin cements used for composite restorations ... Dental hygienists therefore are and will be more and more involved in oral health maintenance of patients with these aesthetic ...
There are a variety of other options for tooth restoration that are cheaper and dont require implants. Although these ... Dental implants have a success rate that is 95, but they can also be a risk. Implant failure is just one instance of these ... Dental Implant Restoration Tyler Tx. June 6, 2022. by Catherine How Can I Avoid Dental Implants?. There are a variety of other ... Combining smoking with dental implant treatment may increase the chance of failure. To understand the risks and complications ...
  • Students analyzed 22 digital images of class II composite restorations observing aesthetic parameters (i.e., surface gloss, surface and marginal staining, color matching and translucency), anatomical aesthetic form, functional parameters (i.e., restoration fracture and retention, marginal adaptation, proximal anatomical shape/contour) and biological parameters (i.e., recurrence of caries and tooth integrity). (
  • ABSTRACT - Recurrent caries appears to be the most frequently occurring reason for replacement of amalgam dental restorations. (
  • Recurrent caries accounted for 53% of the registered reasons for replacement of amalgam restorations. (
  • When more than one reason for replacement was recorded, caries in association with marginal fractures dominated and was found in connection with 36 of all the restorations investigated. (
  • Recurrent caries appears to be the single most important factor leading to replacement of amalgam restorations, followed by marginal fractures (Table 1). (
  • In addition, proper contour and finishing of the restorations, particularly in the interproximal regions, eliminating plaque-retentive irregularities and restoring optimal oral hygiene conditions are of decisive caries-preventive importance. (
  • The main reason for failures in tooth restorations, says Xu, is secondary caries or decay at the restoration margins. (
  • Unfortunately, the reason for its failure is the development of secondary caries adjacent to the restoration. (
  • Caries is caused by acids produced by bacteria in dental plaque. (
  • Dental caries: An update on dental trends and therapy. (
  • Pulpitis Pulpitis is inflammation of the dental pulp resulting from untreated caries, trauma, or multiple restorations. (
  • Dental Caries Assessment Methods. (
  • The purpose of the NHANES oral health component is to assess the prevalence of dental caries, periodontal disease, edentulism, sealants, fluorosis, traumatic injury, and temporomandibular joint and other facial pain in a national sample. (
  • Dental caries, periodontal disease and tooth loss are significant problems affecting the Nation's oral health. (
  • Although average dental caries scores for school-aged children have declined, 50 percent of children still have caries. (
  • Dental sealants, an effective means of preventing caries, are underutilized in the United States, with only 19 percent of children aged 5-17 having them. (
  • While the predominant treatment success was that of caries lesions, where 86.7% opted for direct restoration. (
  • Professors and students of the Dentistry course had difficulty in making treatment decisions on teeth with amelogenesis imperfecta, with mild dental fluorosis and ease on teeth with hypoplasia and dental caries. (
  • In addition to the high prevalence of dental enamel anomalies, in many enamel alterations, its presence is absent or in small amount, and therefore there is a greater possibility of dental caries, since the dentin is unprotected 3 , which hinders or overlaps diagnosis of the initial lesion. (
  • Frightening as that all may sound, dental implant failure is rare - implants are reported to be around 93% to 95% effective. (
  • Worried about the health of your dental implants? (
  • Contact us to make your appointment in our office in Cedarhurst, NY so that our doctors can examine your mouth and discuss the risks of dental implants and how we can alleviate them for the future in our office. (
  • Ready To Learn How Full Mouth Dental Implants Are Cost-Effective? (
  • How Many Missing Teeth Can Dental Implants Replace? (
  • Overall, 122 dental implants were placed into augmented sites and have been followed from 12 to 180 months (mean: 76.5 months). (
  • Dental implants are an effective and safe way to repair missing and damaged teeth. (
  • Why do dental implants fail? (
  • The suggested guidelines are geared toward providing more stable and esthetic results when restoring dental implants in the esthetic zone. (
  • Some of the first results suggest that their implants approach the low failure rates reported for titanium implants. (
  • We know from the literature that many of the pathogens encountered around natural teeth are the same ones we are dealing with when it comes to implants and their restorations. (
  • Dental implants are a wonderful restoration option for patients who've experienced tooth loss. (
  • Purpose: To record failure rates and identify the contributing factors to implant failure and marginal bone loss (MBL) of implants placed and rehabilitated by inexperienced post-graduate students at the one-year follow-up. (
  • What do I need to know before getting dental implants? (
  • Before choosing dental implants, there are several things you need to know. (
  • Dental implants will require proper oral hygiene for the rest of your life. (
  • Can I get dental implants if I smoke? (
  • Do I qualify for dental implants? (
  • To see if you qualify for dental implants, Dr. Baldwin will conduct an oral examination, take x-rays and other diagnostics, and discuss your medical history. (
  • There should be enough available bone in the jaw to support the dental implants. (
  • Are dental implants worth the investment? (
  • Background: Zygomatic dental implants are extensively used for the treatment of severely edentulous atrophic maxillae as an alternative to the previous protocol treatment by bone grafting. (
  • In order to achieve a high stability in supporting the prosthesis, these implants are commonly used in conjunction with conventional dental implants placed in the anterior region. (
  • However, there is no consensus found on the effects of different numbers of conventional dental implants towards bone stress and zygomatic implant stability. (
  • Objective: To investigate the effects of different number of anterior conventional dental implants - 0, 1 and 2, for stress and displacement distribution within bone and zygomatic implant body, respectively, by using 3D FEA. (
  • Results: The result showed that the stability of zygomatic implant could be secured by the placement of conventional dental implants in the premaxillary region. (
  • The conventional dental implants have also reduced the tendency of zygomatic implant to highly displace from its original position. (
  • How Can I Avoid Dental Implants? (
  • There are a variety of other options for tooth restoration that are cheaper and don't require implants. (
  • Fortunately, proper regenerative treatment can help to restore gum health and reduce the need for dental implants. (
  • When it concerns dental implants, it is important to stay clear of drinks and foods that are high in sugar. (
  • If you're curious about the foods that you should avoid after dental implants, speak to your dentist. (
  • Additionally the dentist might offer some suggestions to prevent infections that can develop after dental implants. (
  • While dental implants are extremely efficient in restoring dental function, smoking cigarettes can negatively impact the effectiveness of dental implants. (
  • If you're thinking of having dental implants, it is best to stop smoking as soon as is possible. (
  • This means that their dental implants could fail as a result of the loss of bone around them. (
  • People who are planning to get dental implants should take steps to quit smoking as soon as possible. (
  • Quitting smoking can greatly improve the effectiveness of dental implants and improve your overall health. (
  • Dental implants have a success rate that is 95, but they can also be a risk. (
  • While it can be tempting to get active when you first wake up after having dental implants, intense exercise routine could increase blood flow to the surgical site which can aggravate the healing process. (
  • Restore your smile with All-on-4 implants at Shenton Park Village Dental. (
  • All-on-4 dental implants in Shenton Park are a cutting-edge treatment for these problems. (
  • Shenton Park Village Dental is the go-to provider for All-on-4 implants, offering quality dental care tailored to individual needs. (
  • All-on-4 dental implants in Shenton Park offer a stable and comfortable fit, improving the experience of eating and speaking without loose dentures. (
  • Those dissatisfied with traditional or removable dentures may find All-on-4 implants a more stable and comfortable dental treatment option. (
  • How do All-on-4 Dental Implants differ from traditional dentures or regular dental implants? (
  • All-on-4 dental implants in Shenton Park use four implants to support a full arch of teeth, providing a stable, long-term replacement that stimulates the jawbone, preventing bone loss. (
  • Dental implants can also provide support for bridgework or dentures, significantly enhancing your ability to eat and speak comfortably. (
  • Today, dental implants and bridges are great options for replacing teeth and getting your smile back to its best. (
  • This article will help you better understand dental implants and bridges and the differences between them. (
  • Dental Implants…What Are They? (
  • What Are The Benefits Of Dental Implants? (
  • Dental implants act like a normal tooth in that they have a "root" and a "crown. (
  • While implants restore chewing function and esthetics, they offer more benefits than a dental bridge. (
  • Dental implants also maintain bone levels where the tooth was once missing. (
  • Similar to a dental bridge, dental implants require an investment of time and money. (
  • Are Root Canals Better Than Dental Implants? (
  • In the case of implants, the guarantee is only valid if our dental clinic completes the work fully and in the country where the treatment was carried out. (
  • The guarantee of the implants is only valid if London Dental Implant has completed the full treatment (implant surgery and fitting the crowns and/or bridges) within time specified in the treatment plan. (
  • The mini implant is a dental implant that is fabricated with a reduced diameter (less than 3 mm) and a shorter length but with the same biocompatible material as compared with standard dental implants. (
  • Mini dental implants can be compared to conventional implant systems. (
  • Too Young For Dental Implants? (
  • One of the biggest misconceptions about dental implants is that they are for the old. (
  • In reality, seniors constitute only a small portion of people with dental implants. (
  • On matters of age and dental implants, there is, however, such a thing as being too young to have these dental restorations. (
  • While a natural tooth can adjust just fine to these changes, dental implants cannot. (
  • Additionally, if the jawbone has not fully developed, then there may not be enough bone mass onto which the dental implants can fuse. (
  • It all varies from one person to the next, and that's why a dentist may not be able to give a definite age at which you may be considered a good candidate for dental implants. (
  • That said, some dentists do have a set minimum age for their patients looking to get dental implants. (
  • That your child may not be a good candidate for dental implants as yet is no reason to subject them to the difficulty in chewing and other problems that may accompany tooth loss. (
  • When your child comes of age and achieves the bone development required, then you can always go back and get the dental implants. (
  • The thickness of the bone graft is limited to 33-50% of the cross-sectional area of the radius, which is typically inadequate to support osseointegrated dental implants. (
  • RESULTS: A total of 65% of dentists would replace a composite restoration when the defective margin was located on dentin and 49% would repair it when the defective margin was located on enamel. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: Dentists were more likely to intervene surgically when the restoration was an existing composite, compared to an amalgam restoration. (
  • The present study aims to investigate the reasons for the immediate failure of direct anterior and posterior resin composite restorations placed by dental students. (
  • A cross-sectional study on resin composite restorations placed by fourth- and fifth-year dental students (n=436). (
  • A total of 233 direct anterior and posterior resin composite restorations which were placed by 127 students were diagnosed as failed restorations. (
  • In the current study, the most frequent reason for the immediate failure of resin composite restorations was the quick application of the restoration either as the only associated factor or coupled with other failure-associated factors. (
  • The study aimed to evaluate the clinical conduct of dental undergraduate students regarding unsatisfactory Class II composite restorations with doubtful prognosis, in order to detect their difficulties and to improve learning methods using a Moodle online platform. (
  • Graduation students present a considerable high difficulty to determine the clinical success of composite restorations. (
  • The effect of UI has been demonstrated to induce no modifications in shear bond strength values of resin cements used for composite restorations [ 10 ]. (
  • Rather than just limiting decay with conventional fillings, the new composite is a revolutionary dental weapon to control harmful bacteria, which co-exist in the natural colony of microorganisms in the mouth, says professor Huakun (Hockin) Xu, PhD, MS. "Tooth decay means that the mineral content in the tooth has been dissolved by the organic acids secreted by bacteria residing in biofilms or plaques on the tooth surface. (
  • Factors influencing repair of dental restorations with resin composite. (
  • Composite dental restorations are commonly used to restore cavitated carious lesions. (
  • Polymerization shrinkage in Methacrylate-based composite is one of the most important factors in composite restorations failure. (
  • Coming this March 2023, an internationally acclaimed faculty from around the world for the Structural Adhesive Dental Restorations Forum. (
  • Advances in technology, particularly in the use of CAD/CAM systems, have increased the options of all-ceramic restorations, and have rapidly gained popularity due to appearance and increasing durability. (
  • Dr. Sorensen will review the current state of in vitro research and clinical trials from around the world on adhesive CADCAM ceramic restorations. (
  • He will detail a clinical trial at the UW on 50 posterior CADCAM adhesive ceramic restorations performed completely digitally. (
  • A very small percentage of bonded ceramic restorations display sensitivity that persists for longer periods of time. (
  • Assessment Choice of restoration Tooth preparation Construction and fit of temporary restoration Tooth preparation impressions Fit of definitive restoration Short-term follow up Long-term follow up In order to ensure optimum condition and longevity for the proposed crowns, several factors need to be explored by conducting a thorough and targeted patient history and clinical dental examination. (
  • Questions included clinical case scenarios that used text and clinical photographs of defective restorations. (
  • Indirect restorations can be conventionally cemented or may require adhesive bonding to the tooth depending upon the material properties and clinical scenario. (
  • Clinical significance Proper emergence profile design supports esthetic outcomes and provides favorable biological response to implant‐supported restorations. (
  • After the clinical exam is completed, dental maintenance is performed with proper armamentarium. (
  • Alternative treatments to replacement of defective amalgam restorations: results of a seven-year clinical study. (
  • Such individuals, when needing dental treatment, carry with them the consideration of which type of anesthetic to be used in clinical and surgical interventions. (
  • Research subjects needed dental treatment, with dental restorations, on the right and left lower dental arch in premolars and / or molars, thus receiving the model of a split-mouth clinical study. (
  • A range of water-based and resin-based cements are available, further expanding the array of material combinations for the completed restoration. (
  • Indirect restorations generally consist of five categories of materials: noble metal alloys, base metal alloys, ceramics, resin-based composites, and metal-ceramics. (
  • Implant-supported single crowns may trump resin-bonded fixed dental prostheses when it comes to replacing anterior teeth. (
  • Unfortunately, the imperfect adhesives leave spaces inside the collagen that are not properly infiltrated with resin, leading to the bonds' failure. (
  • In dentistry, a crown or a dental cap is a type of dental restoration that completely caps or encircles a tooth or dental implant. (
  • A total of 65 sixth semester students were enrolled, they were attending Operative-Restorative Dentistry discipline and received previous theoretical training on restorations evaluation according FDI (World Dental Federation) criteria and randomly selected as volunteers. (
  • The total of dental diagnostic, preventive, and restorative services provided to meet the needs of a patient (from Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry , 1982). (
  • Structural Adhesive Dental Restorations are the next step beyond Bioemulation and Biomimetic dentistry. (
  • The aim of the present investigation was to record the reasons for replacement of Class 2 amalgam restorations in patients treated at the Department of Operative Dentistry, University of Oslo. (
  • Caruth School of Dental Hygiene students collaborate with multiple advisors at the School of Dentistry through a structured course. (
  • Dental & Orthodontics Report: Can Innovative Products Brace up Dentistry Market Growth? (
  • You have just received the finest dental restoration advanced technology dentistry has to offer. (
  • Most (52%) dentists would not intervene surgically when the restoration in the scenario was amalgam. (
  • Reasons for replacement of amalgam dental restorations. (
  • Ease in manipulation, adequate mechanical properties and long experience are factors which have established amalgam as the most widely used dental restorative material. (
  • In a recent survey ALLAN (1977) concluded that 5096 of all amalgam restorations had to be replaced within 8 years of function. (
  • In the past decade many important advances have been made in the composition of dental amalgam alloys (see survey by HOWARD, BAUM, HAMILTON, PHILLIPS, PRUDEN & RAMFJORD 1977). (
  • 1976). It therefore remains to be seen to what extent the present improvements of dental amalgam alloys will positively influence the durability and thereby the rate of replacement of amalgam restorations. (
  • AMALGAM DENTAL RESTORATIONS ment correspond with factors leading to poor quality ratings of amalgam restorations. (
  • Material and methods The present recording of the reasons for replacement of Class 2 amalgam restorations was based on information obtained from accepted treatment plans in the student clinic. (
  • A total of 200 amalgam restorations of unknown age and past history were included in this study. (
  • Restore the form, function and appearance of badly broken down, worn or fractured teeth, where other simpler forms of restorations are unsuitable or have been found to fail clinically. (
  • Traditionally, it has been proposed that teeth which have undergone root canal treatment are more likely to fracture and therefore require cuspal protection by providing occlusal coverage with an indirect restoration like crowns. (
  • However, recent review of literature reveals that there is no strong evidence to show that crowns are better than other routine restorations to restore root-filled teeth. (
  • As a rule of thumb, the use of crowns and other indirect restorations for root treated teeth is justified when the surface area of the access cavity exceeds one third of the occlusal surface of the tooth, when the lingual or buccal walls are undermined or when the mesial and distal marginal ridges are missing. (
  • If you are a teeth-grinder, this may also cause dental implant issues, but with this knowledge your dentist should be able to supply a guard to protect against this. (
  • 2) Restorations around natural teeth have taught us various methods of in-office debridement and treatment protocols. (
  • From start to finish, it can take up to year to replace your teeth with a dental implant restoration. (
  • After your consultation with Dr. Baldwin at his Truckee or Loyalton, CA dentist office, he will determine the best teeth replacement restoration(s) for you. (
  • Several missing teeth in a row can be replaced by a dental bridge. (
  • They will prevent jaw bone deterioration, offer greater chewing force, will better stabilize the dental restoration, and feel like natural teeth. (
  • This gum ridge, located either on the roof of the mouth between the upper teeth and the hard palate or at the bottom of the mouth behind the lower teeth, is essential for proper dental functioning. (
  • A dental bridge is usually made of porcelain and spans over several teeth. (
  • Due to your dental bridge being attached to your existing teeth, it is crucial to keep these areas extra clean so you don't get decay. (
  • Second, dental bridges can affect healthy teeth around them. (
  • The implant fuses directly to the jawbone, but because it cannot adapt to these shifts, what you will end up with is the restoration looking distinctively awkward or abnormal among the natural teeth. (
  • Restore the visible portion of a single dental implant. (
  • Visit us at Healthy Smiles Family Dental, one of our dentists will assess your situation and recommend a solution to restore your implant. (
  • Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health. (
  • In this case, we will restore, repair or change any restorations free of charge. (
  • This session will focus on restorative success with structural adhesive fiber-reinforced direct restorations. (
  • As the application of external forces can lead to premature bonding failure, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of UI on shear bond strength (SBS) and on adhesive remnant index (ARI) of different lingual orthodontic brackets. (
  • The antibacterial and bonding capacity of commercial universal dental adhesive incorporated with the antibacterial agent was accessed. (
  • The antibacterial and bonding capacity of a commercial universal dental adhesive incorporated with the antibacterial agent tt-farnesol creating 3 experimental adhesives: 0.38% (v/v), 1.90% (v/v), and 3.80% (v/v), plus a control (no incorporation of tt-farnesol) were accessed. (
  • Adhesive failures were predominant in the groups that did not receive the antioxidant application. (
  • Fig. 2: Interproximal irrigator, Sonicare Air Flosser, being used by hygienist to demonstrate to patient how to clean a posterior single-tooth implant restoration overcontoured on the distal leading to a food trap. (
  • The most common method of crowning a tooth involves taking a dental impression of a tooth prepared by a dentist, then fabricating the crown outside of the mouth. (
  • The best way to ensure the success of your dental implant is to have it performed by an experienced dentist. (
  • Whether you need a dental implant from a skilled dentist or a dental implant restoration in Salem, our team is here to help. (
  • Your dentist will supply you with detailed instructions after your dental implant has been placed. (
  • Your dentist will likely recommend you not use a traditional mouthwash immediately after your dental implant surgery as it can be a bit too harsh. (
  • Intraoral cameras are another tool that allows patients to see what the dentist sees, helping them better understand their dental health. (
  • Persons trained in an accredited school or dental college and licensed by the state in which they reside to provide dental prophylaxis under the direction of a licensed dentist. (
  • Abnormal fear or dread of visiting the dentist for preventive care or therapy and unwarranted anxiety over dental procedures. (
  • These risks can be minimized by a dentist making suggestions prior to dental implant surgery. (
  • Following root canal therapy, a final restoration has to be placed on the treated tooth by your general dentist AS SOON AS POSSIBLE (less than 30 days). (
  • Reach out to a dentist to learn more about dental implant procedures . (
  • direct milled, full contour gold restorations from Strategy Gold Milling. (
  • Using Röders RXD5 mills, Strategy Milling produces milled full contour gold crowns and bridges superior in quality to restorations manufactured using the lost wax and cast method. (
  • Strategy Milling allows us to work full contour gold crowns into our digital production schedule, providing a superior restoration in less time. (
  • Typically a dental bridge is a similar financial investment to that of a few crowns. (
  • London Dental Implant uses a third party dental technician to prepare dental crowns and dentures. (
  • When Caruso Dental Lab started using Strategy Milling for gold crowns, our average seat time decreased to less than five minutes. (
  • Risk factors for failure of class V restorations of carious ce. (
  • In most cases, the direct technique does not require the temporization of the dentition and may be completed in a single dental visit. (
  • Discover how to select the optimal material for worn dentition restorations. (
  • These causes of dental implant failure can be reduced by using a fully qualified dental surgeon who will assess the implant site correctly and follow proper, sterile procedures during surgery. (
  • Failure-associated factors were proper restoration manipulation, field isolation, and patients' plaque index. (
  • Failure to maintain proper field isolation and the poor oral hygiene of the patient were the other two failure-associated factors. (
  • Overview The EBC concept considers specific parameters for proper design of the emergence profile of implant‐supported restorations. (
  • We, as a dental profession, are also well-skilled at demonstrating proper home care to patients with fixed restorations. (
  • The giving of attention to the special dental needs of the elderly for proper maintenance or treatment. (
  • We provide personalised dental services for the entire family so that each member receives proper care and a positive dental experience. (
  • Finally, restoration contours, esthetics, margins and occlusion are in the hands of the clinician. (
  • Une restauration temporaire a été mise en place immédiatement après chirurgie implantaire en sous-occlusion. (
  • 33 On the other hand, horizontal and vertical facial gingival tissues are generally well preserved in implant restoration with under-contoured emergence profile. (
  • Additionally, dental CAD/CAM systems enable same-day restorations, eliminating the need for appointments and temporary restorations. (
  • OBJECTIVES: To (1) identify and quantify the types of treatment that dentists use to manage defective dental restorations and (2) identify characteristics that are associated with these dentists' decisions to replace existing restorations. (
  • Treatment options ranged from no treatment to full replacement of the restoration with or without different preventive treatment options. (
  • Understanding the importance and specific design features of the EBC zones facilitates esthetic and biologically sound treatment outcomes with interim and definitive implant restorations. (
  • Dental implant firm Neoss Group has launched a new multiunit abutment for its Neoss4+ treatment system for full-arch restorations. (
  • Dental implant treatment is an oral surgery procedure, and implant aftercare is more intense compared to a root canal or even a tooth extraction. (
  • Furthermore, consider the well-being of both patients and dental staff when designing treatment rooms. (
  • The implant fixture is the portion of the dental implant treatment that is placed in the jaw bone. (
  • A root canal treatment is a dental procedure that can be quite daunting for many patients, particularly those facing dental infections or tooth decay. (
  • Enhanced Aesthetic Appearance: Post-treatment restoration usually involves a crown or a filling that protects the treated tooth and enhances the tooth's appearance. (
  • Using dental magnification during treatment and opting for a skilled endodontist can limit this risk. (
  • Post-treatment, the tooth is capped with a dental crown. (
  • Preoperative protocol for dental veneer treatment requires that all sound dental and medical principles be followed. (
  • Bond failure can influence treatment duration, total costs, and chair time, so it is undesirable both from the patients and from the clinicians [ 9 ]. (
  • Combining smoking with dental implant treatment may increase the chance of failure. (
  • This guide explains why smoking should be avoided by patients going through dental implant treatment. (
  • Experience a transformative dental treatment that enhances appearance and functionality. (
  • Choose Shenton Park Village Dental for this innovative treatment and take a step towards a confident and healthy smile. (
  • For those seeking a more natural-looking and long-lasting solution, dental implant restorative treatment can commence within four to six months. (
  • root canal treatment (root canal treatment has a higher risk failure factor for which a guarantee cannot be given. (
  • The anatomic differences and the large number of variations for each individual mean that we cannot assure everything even with the most careful dental treatment. (
  • Over the past four decades, oral and dental health characteristics collected in national surveys supported by the Federal Government have been critical for monitoring health status, risk factors for disease, access to preventive and treatment services, and other health characteristics among the general population and special subpopulations. (
  • While beneficial to dental health, the procedure and materials can be costly. (
  • A handy procedure for clearing dental abscesses, it offers relief with the right pain management techniques. (
  • Although a root canal may not be a dental procedure you look forward to, it has many advantages. (
  • Like any dental procedure, root canals have some associated risks, but you can minimize these effectively with the right preoperative preparation and postoperative care. (
  • With the advent of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology, it is now possible to complete an indirect restorative procedure in a single dental visit. (
  • Terri Briseno "Dental Implant Procedure" 7 September 2011. (
  • Here are some of the characteristics of ideal candidates for the revolutionary All-on-4 dental implant procedure. (
  • Dive into our FAQs for clear answers about this dental implant procedure. (
  • The dental & orthodontics report will address the challenges experienced by people undergoing the dental procedure and doctors facing technical constraints. (
  • Objective Emergence profile design is important for stable peri‐implant tissues and esthetically pleasing results with dental implant restorations, influenced by factors, such as, implant position and surrounding soft tissues. (
  • A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures. (
  • Two methods are currently being used to manufacture dental veneers-direct and indirect techniques. (
  • In 2003, the ADA Council on Scientific Affairs classified dental restorative materials into two broad groups distinguished according to whether laboratory work (sometimes in-office) or an additional visit was required to complete the restoration. (
  • Direct restoratives may generally be completed within one visit, while indirect restorations are fabricated in a laboratory based on impressions from a patient's tooth, and usually require several visits to mold, fabricate, and finally place the restoration. (
  • Roe Dental Laboratory will provide prosthetics to complement Stabili-Teeth's full-mouth restorations. (
  • The indirect method utilizes a dental laboratory for the manufacturing of the veneers. (
  • Now in our 66th year as a dental laboratory, we were early to incorporate CAD CAM technology in our work-flow. (
  • Caruso Dental Laboratory, Inc. (
  • Additionally, while Strategy manages these restorations, technicians can focus on manufacturing other products, increasing laboratory production. (
  • Failure of a dental implant or rejection is exceptionally rare, but to minimize risks it's important for patients to follow through with a thorough implant aftercare routine at home. (
  • The most often cited reason for failure of any dental restoration is failure to return for your routine hygiene visits. (
  • 1 Metals had been common in indirect restorations throughout history due to their durability and strength, but the desire for tooth-colored materials has led to a proliferation of ceramic options. (
  • However, the durability of such restorations seems to be shorter than generally anticipated. (
  • This indirect method of tooth restoration allows use of strong restorative material requiring time-consuming fabrication under intense heat, such as casting metal or firing porcelain, that would not be possible inside the mouth. (
  • the operative field isolation method, the time needed to complete the restoration after cavity preparation to polishing and finishing, and the plaque index of the patient. (
  • The giving of attention to the special dental needs of children, including the prevention of tooth diseases and instruction in dental hygiene and dental health. (
  • A crown may be needed when a large dental cavity threatens the health of a tooth. (
  • Restoration class distribution according to the type of tooth and cavity classification was examined and recorded. (
  • The reason we want to get the antibacterial agents also into primers and adhesives is that these are the first things that cover the internal surfaces of the tooth cavity and flow into tiny dental tubules inside the tooth," says Xu. (
  • Diagnosis is based on inspection, probing of the enamel surface with a fine metal instrument, and dental x-rays. (
  • Of the 98 students, the predominant success was dental fluorosis, where 93.9% answered the diagnosis. (
  • Failure soon after the implant is more likely than later failure and can be due to overheating of the bone or poor bone quality, incorrect force applied during or after the implant or contamination of the implant or the implant site. (
  • Conclusion: The use of one conventional dental implant is preferable although it has significantly increased the bone stress magnitude for about 1.5-fold. (
  • If you need a tooth extraction, our dedicated team at Coast Dental Acworth in Acworth can perform a simple bone graft during the same visit. (
  • At Coast Dental Acworth, we use a combination of materials, including your own bone, freeze-dried bone from a donor, animal bone, or synthetic bone substitutes, to rebuild the jawbone. (
  • Opting for a dental implant, which can last a lifetime, ensures a natural look and feel while preserving the bone and maintaining a youthful jawline. (
  • Our bone grafting techniques, combined with our expertise in denture placement, guarantee a beautiful and comfortable restoration. (
  • Following implant surgery, the bone needs about 3-4 months to heal before restoration can be added to the implant. (
  • Improper technique can result in implant failure, loss of supportive bone, or both. (
  • This poses a significant problem since a healthy jawbone is necessary for successful dental implant placement, denture fitting, or partial denture use. (
  • Once the area is fully healed, our skilled dentists or specialists can proceed with dental implant placement or denture fabrication, restoring your smile. (
  • Mild to moderate sensitivity to hot or cold food or drink is expected following placement of any bonded dental restoration. (
  • Regular dental check-ups can detect problems with tooth restoration at an early stage. (
  • We conducted IP, technology and market research to scout innovations in dental and orthodontics healthcare to solve the existing challenges. (
  • The competitive aspect of dental & orthodontics health along with future trends, emerging innovations, start-ups, and major players have been discussed in depth. (
  • Some of the most innovative products in the dental and orthodontics industry as mentioned below. (
  • This approach can stop in their tracks lesions that are not yet big enough to warrant a full restoration, but that are difficult to treat with a sealant -- such as small proximal lesions and orthodontic white spots. (
  • Both continuous UHMWPE and short fiber composites may be utilized to enhance restorations, support cusps internally, bridge dentin cracks, improve bond integrity, reduce the effects of polymerization shrinkage and arrest or deflect cracks. (
  • Dr. Baldwin will require you to quit using tobacco all together before inserting dental implant fixtures into the jaw. (
  • This is because tobacco use increases your risk of implant failure significantly. (
  • DEPRCFLG: Completion code: restorations and tooth conditions This variable was constructed to help the analyst decide whether or not to include an examinee with incomplete or missing data on the restorations and tooth conditions component in the analysis of that component. (
  • For examinees who were not in the age range to receive these assessments, the restoration and tooth conditions data and the completion code are blank. (
  • A crown is typically bonded to the tooth by dental cement. (
  • Overload is one of the key contributors to implant failure, particularly in the molar region where occlusal loads are typically the highest. (
  • While implant positioning and adequate amounts of soft and hard tissues are essential for achieving an esthetic outcome, the emergence profile of an abutment/restoration also plays an important role in the definitive appearance of implant prostheses. (
  • 1 Although advances in technologies (particularly CAD-CAM) since 2003 have blurred the division between direct and indirect materials, this Oral Health Topic follows the 2003 classification generally (see our Oral Health Topic on Direct Restorative Dental Materials ). (
  • General characteristics of classes of indirect dental materials. (
  • Despite this apprehension, root canals can be vital in maintaining dental health, especially when dealing with broken fillings. (
  • To understand the risks and complications associated with dental implant therapy, visit Dental Associates of New England. (
  • Comparing gold restorations that are direct milled using a digital workflow versus either the CAD Cast or analog workflow, is like comparing apples to oranges. (
  • These extra steps create opportunities for failures which simply don't exist in the direct milled, digital workflow. (
  • Take into account the requirements of dental treatments and ensure that each room is well equipped with all necessary tools and equipment. (
  • Explore financing options through Fund My Dental for affordable treatments. (
  • Dental hygienists are often faced with patients wearing lingual orthodontic therapy, as ultrasonic instrumentation (UI) is crucial for oral health. (
  • With a two year, $252,497 grant from the National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research, he will investigate guided tissue remineralization, a new nanotechnology process of growing extremely small, mineral-rich crystals and guiding them into the demineralized gaps between collagen fibers. (
  • When that happens, the restoration will eventually fail and come off the tooth. (
  • Also easy removal and healing in case of failure with minimal surgical trauma. (
  • There may be complications that arise from an ill-fitted dental crown. (
  • To improve the long-term survival of restorations, antibacterial agents have been added to dental materials. (
  • The most likely cause of failure is if unrecognized bacteria already existed in the implant site when the implant was placed. (
  • Water flossers are also very effective for dislodging food debris and bacteria, especially around the dental crown on your implant. (
  • Flossing around and under your dental bridge is very important as food and bacteria can hide out in these areas. (
  • A dental implant is a post, usually made of titanium, surgically put into your jawbone to replace a missing tooth. (
  • Failure to replace a missing tooth can lead to bite problems, cavities, and periodontal disease. (