The space in a tooth bounded by the dentin and containing the dental pulp. The portion of the cavity within the crown of the tooth is the pulp chamber; the portion within the root is the pulp canal or root canal.
A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Dentin formed by normal pulp after completion of root end formation.
'Dental pulp calcification' is a pathological condition characterized by the deposition of hard tissue within the pulp chamber and root canal(s), which can result in the obliteration of pulpal space, potentially leading to various clinical symptoms such as pain or dental sensitivity.
Application of a protective agent to an exposed pulp (direct capping) or the remaining thin layer of dentin over a nearly exposed pulp (indirect capping) in order to allow the pulp to recover and maintain its normal vitality and function.
Inflammation of the DENTAL PULP, usually due to bacterial infection in dental caries, tooth fracture, or other conditions causing exposure of the pulp to bacterial invasion. Chemical irritants, thermal factors, hyperemic changes, and other factors may also cause pulpitis.
Odontoblasts are columnar, highly differentiated, dentin-forming cells that originate from the ectodermal neural crest and reside within the pulp cavity of teeth, characterized by their production and secretion of the organic matrix component of dentin during amelogenesis.
The total of dental diagnostic, preventive, and restorative services provided to meet the needs of a patient (from Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982).
The result of pathological changes in the hard tissue of a tooth caused by carious lesions, mechanical factors, or trauma, which render the pulp susceptible to bacterial invasion from the external environment.
Endodontic diseases of the DENTAL PULP inside the tooth, which is distinguished from PERIAPICAL DISEASES of the tissue surrounding the root.
Use for articles concerning dental education in general.
Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.
Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.
Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.
The formation of dentin. Dentin first appears in the layer between the ameloblasts and odontoblasts and becomes calcified immediately. Formation progresses from the tip of the papilla over its slope to form a calcified cap becoming thicker by the apposition of new layers pulpward. A layer of uncalcified dentin intervenes between the calcified tissue and the odontoblast and its processes. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Materials used in DENTAL PULP CAPPING or PULPECTOMY.
Mesodermal tissue enclosed in the invaginated portion of the epithelial enamel organ and giving rise to the dentin and pulp.
Dental care for patients with chronic diseases. These diseases include chronic cardiovascular, endocrinologic, hematologic, immunologic, neoplastic, and renal diseases. The concept does not include dental care for the mentally or physically disabled which is DENTAL CARE FOR DISABLED.
Death of pulp tissue with or without bacterial invasion. When the necrosis is due to ischemia with superimposed bacterial infection, it is referred to as pulp gangrene. When the necrosis is non-bacterial in origin, it is called pulp mummification.
The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)
The giving of attention to the special dental needs of children, including the prevention of tooth diseases and instruction in dental hygiene and dental health. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.
Facilities where dental care is provided to patients.
The process whereby calcium salts are deposited in the dental enamel. The process is normal in the development of bones and teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p43)
Persons trained in an accredited school or dental college and licensed by the state in which they reside to provide dental prophylaxis under the direction of a licensed dentist.
The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a dental school.
The teeth of the first dentition, which are shed and replaced by the permanent teeth.
The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Dental care for the emotionally, mentally, or physically disabled patient. It does not include dental care for the chronically ill ( = DENTAL CARE FOR CHRONICALLY ILL).
Investigations conducted on the physical health of teeth involving use of a tool that transmits hot or cold electric currents on a tooth's surface that can determine problems with that tooth based on reactions to the currents.
One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.
The destruction of the vitality of the pulp of the tooth. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p243)
Pain in the adjacent areas of the teeth.
Abnormal fear or dread of visiting the dentist for preventive care or therapy and unwarranted anxiety over dental procedures.
Insurance providing coverage for dental care.
Dense fibrous layer formed from mesodermal tissue that surrounds the epithelial enamel organ. The cells eventually migrate to the external surface of the newly formed root dentin and give rise to the cementoblasts that deposit cementum on the developing root, fibroblasts of the developing periodontal ligament, and osteoblasts of the developing alveolar bone.
Personnel whose work is prescribed and supervised by the dentist.
Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.
The process of TOOTH formation. It is divided into several stages including: the dental lamina stage, the bud stage, the cap stage, and the bell stage. Odontogenesis includes the production of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS), dentin (DENTINOGENESIS), and dental cementum (CEMENTOGENESIS).
The study of laws, theories, and hypotheses through a systematic examination of pertinent facts and their interpretation in the field of dentistry. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982, p674)
The curve formed by the row of TEETH in their normal position in the JAW. The inferior dental arch is formed by the mandibular teeth, and the superior dental arch by the maxillary teeth.
The giving of attention to the special dental needs of the elderly for proper maintenance or treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.
A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.
The fibrous CONNECTIVE TISSUE surrounding the TOOTH ROOT, separating it from and attaching it to the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS).
The act or ceremony of putting a corpse into the ground or a vault, or into the sea; or the inurnment of CREMAINS.
Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)
The room or rooms in which the dentist and dental staff provide care. Offices include all rooms in the dentist's office suite.
Data collected during dental examination for the purpose of study, diagnosis, or treatment planning.
Personnel who provide dental service to patients in an organized facility, institution or agency.
The nonexpendable items used by the dentist or dental staff in the performance of professional duties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p106)
The profession concerned with the teeth, oral cavity, and associated structures, and the diagnosis and treatment of their diseases including prevention and the restoration of defective and missing tissue.
Nonspecialized dental practice which is concerned with providing primary and continuing dental care.
An alloy used in restorative dentistry that contains mercury, silver, tin, copper, and possibly zinc.
A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.
Cells with high proliferative and self renewal capacities derived from adults.
Fractures of the upper jaw.
Individuals who assist the dentist or the dental hygienist.
Educational programs designed to inform dentists of recent advances in their fields.
Biocompatible materials placed into (endosseous) or onto (subperiosteal) the jawbone to support a crown, bridge, or artificial tooth, or to stabilize a diseased tooth.
The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.
Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.
Radiographic techniques used in dentistry.
Physiologic loss of the primary dentition. (Zwemer, Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
Presentation devices used for patient education and technique training in dentistry.
Educational programs for dental graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic dental sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced dental degree.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the dentist, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the dentist in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
An operation in which carious material is removed from teeth and biomechanically correct forms are established in the teeth to receive and retain restorations. A constant requirement is provision for prevention of failure of the restoration through recurrence of decay or inadequate resistance to applied stresses. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239-40)
Hospital department providing dental care.
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
Individuals licensed to practice DENTISTRY.
Societies whose membership is limited to dentists.
The field of dentistry involved in procedures for designing and constructing dental appliances. It includes also the application of any technology to the field of dentistry.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to dental or oral health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
A chronic endemic form of hypoplasia of the dental enamel caused by drinking water with a high fluorine content during the time of tooth formation, and characterized by defective calcification that gives a white chalky appearance to the enamel, which gradually undergoes brown discoloration. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)
The granting of a license to practice dentistry.
Facilities for the performance of services related to dental treatment but not done directly in the patient's mouth.
The space enclosed by the peritoneum. It is divided into two portions, the greater sac and the lesser sac or omental bursa, which lies behind the STOMACH. The two sacs are connected by the foramen of Winslow, or epiploic foramen.
The lymph or fluid of dentin. It is a transudate of extracellular fluid, mainly cytoplasm of odontoblastic processes, from the dental pulp via the dentinal tubules. It is also called dental lymph. (From Stedman, 26th ed, p665)
Various branches of dental practice limited to specialized areas.
The aftermost permanent tooth on each side in the maxilla and mandible.
Amounts charged to the patient as payer for dental services.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PORPHYROMONAS, family Porphyromonadaceae. It is a key pathogen in endodontic infections.
A white powder prepared from lime that has many medical and industrial uses. It is in many dental formulations, especially for root canal filling.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Individuals responsible for fabrication of dental appliances.
The application of dental knowledge to questions of law.
The organization and operation of the business aspects of a dental practice.
One of the eight permanent teeth, two on either side in each jaw, between the canines (CUSPID) and the molars (MOLAR), serving for grinding and crushing food. The upper have two cusps (bicuspid) but the lower have one to three. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p822)
The process of converting analog data such as continually measured voltage to discrete, digital form.
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.

Arrested eruption of the permanent lower second molar. (1/423)

The incidence of retention/impaction of the permanent lower second molar (M2inf) lies between 0.6/1000 and 3/1000. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the craniofacial morphology, the frequency of dental anomalies and the inclination of the affected M2inf and the adjacent first molar in patients with arrested eruption of M2inf. The overall goal was to elucidate the aetiology of arrested tooth eruption and to present the characteristics of these patients in order to improve diagnosis and treatment planning. Radiographic material (profile radiographs and orthopantomograms) from 19 patients (nine females and 10 males; 13-19 years of age at the time of referral) were analysed. The ages of the patients when profile radiographs were taken for cephalometric analysis varied from 8 to 16 years. The study shows that this group of patients, compared with a reference group, had an increased sagittal jaw relationship (Class II). Specifically, the mandibular prognathism was less, the mandibular gonial angle smaller, the mandibular alveolar prognathism enlarged and the maxillary incisor inclination less than in the reference group. Furthermore, this group of patients had a more frequent occurrence of morphological tooth anomalies, such as root deflections, invaginations, and taurodontism. However, none of the patients with arrested eruption of M2inf had agenesis of the lower third molar. The study did not reveal an association between the degree of inclination of the M2inf and that of the first molar in the same region. The results of this investigation show that conditions such as the craniofacial morphology and deviations in the dentition are associated with arrested eruption of M2inf. Therefore, it is important to evaluate these conditions in future diagnosis and treatment planning of patients with arrested eruption of M2inf.  (+info)

Description of Mogibacterium pumilum gen. nov., sp. nov. and Mogibacterium vescum gen. nov., sp. nov., and reclassification of Eubacterium timidum (Holdeman et al. 1980) as Mogibacterium timidum gen. nov., comb. nov. (2/423)

A new genus, Mogibacterium, is proposed for anaerobic, non-spore-forming, Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria which have been isolated from the periodontal pockets of adult human patients with periodontal disease and infected root canals. The novel isolates, strains D2-18T, BA11a-f and D5-2T, were inert in most of the conventional biochemical tests and phenotypically resemble asaccharolytic Eubacterium species. The protein profiles of whole cells on SDS-PAGE gels and Western immunoblotting reaction analysis distinguished these organisms from type strains belonging to the previously described Eubacterium species. The G + C content of the DNA is 45-46 mol% for Mogibacterium pumilum and 46 mol% for Mogibacterium vescum. The levels of DNA-DNA relatedness of these new species to other Eubacterium species, including Eubacterium limosum, Eubacterium brachy, Eubacterium lentum, Eubacterium nodatum, Eubacterium saphenum, and the more recently proposed Eubacterium minutum and Eubacterium exiguum (reclassified as Slackia exigua), are less than 2%. The DNA-DNA hybridization value between M. pumilum and M. vescum was 30%. Eubacterium timidum exhibited DNA homologies with Mogibacterium species which were low (17 and 18%) but clearly higher than with all the other Eubacterium species. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the closest phylogenetic neighbour of Mogibacterium species was E. timidum, and that these three species represent a novel lineage distinct from the previously described genera of Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons, it is also proposed that E. timidum is transferred to the genus Mogibacterium gen. nov. as Mogibacterium timidum gen. nov., comb. nov. (type strain ATCC 33093T).  (+info)

Characterization of Actinomyces isolates from infected root canals of teeth: description of Actinomyces radicidentis sp. nov. (3/423)

Two strains of a previously undescribed Actinomyces-like bacterium were recovered in pure culture from infected root canals of teeth. Analysis by biochemical testing and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of whole-cell proteins indicated that the strains closely resembled each other phenotypically but were distinct from previously described Actinomyces and Arcanobacterium species. Comparative 16S rRNA gene-sequencing studies showed the bacterium to be a hitherto unknown subline within a group of Actinomyces species which includes Actinomyces bovis, the type species of the genus. Based on phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, we propose that the unknown bacterium isolated from human clinical specimens be classified as Actinomyces radicidentis sp. nov. The type strain of Actinomyces radicidentis is CCUG 36733.  (+info)

Application of high resolution microfocus X-ray CT for the observation of human tooth. (4/423)

The calcification degree of extracted human teeth was observed by using high resolution microfocus X-ray CT. As samples, upper and lower first premolars extracted from a 21-year-old female were used. The computed tomograms were produced by high resolution microfocus X-ray CT with a open vacuum X-ray source, rotating sample stage, and image sensor. The distinction between enamel and dentin was very clear, and the shape of the pulp cavity was also clearly identified. The secondary dentin was visible in the circumpulpal dentin. The color map displays showed the heterogeneity of the calcification degree not only in the dentin but also in the enamel. The enamel was divided into three layers according to the calcification degree. High resolution microfocus X-ray CT was very useful for the observation of the internal structure of human teeth without destroying the samples.  (+info)

Unusual maxillary first molar with 2 palatal canals within a single root: a case report. (5/423)

A case report is presented regarding a maxillary first molar with 5 canals. The morphology is atypical because it is characterized by a single palatal root with 2 canals with separate orifices joining in the apical third. A literature review pertaining to the morphology of maxillary first molars is discussed. Modifications to the normal access opening and examination of the pulpal floor for additional canals are stressed.  (+info)

Effect of NaClO treatment on bonding to root canal dentin using a new evaluation method. (6/423)

The purposes of this study were to investigate the reliability and efficiency of a new evaluation method for resin bonding to root canal dentin, which measures both marginal adaptation and shear bond strength simultaneously, and to determine the effects of root canal irrigants on resin bonding. A wet bonding system (Single Bond) and a self-etching primer system (Clearfil Mega Bond) were employed; NaClO was used as a root canal irrigant. No gaps or changes in bond strength were observed despite the NaClO treatment when the wet bonding system was employed, while the gap formation ratio increased, and bond strength decreased with longer NaClO treatment time when the self-etching primer system was employed. These findings suggested that this new experimental method was effective for evaluating resin systems to the root canal wall dentin which is affected by irrigation with NaClO.  (+info)

The formation of apical delta of the permanent teeth in dogs. (7/423)

To determine the process of formation of apical delta, a histological study on the permanent teeth was carried out in dogs. A litter of 7 clinically healthy beagle dogs and 33 adult dogs (4- to 15- year-old) of 12 breeds with periodontal disease were used for the experiments. Teeth extracted from 6-,7-,8- and 9-month-old beagles were sectioned and stained with HE solution. Tooth roots obtained from adult dogs with periodontal disease were ground. Each tooth was classified into the following root types under a light microscope: Type I (no apical delta = no apical closure), II (few apical delta), IIIA (low apical delta) and IIIB (high apical delta). In the 6-month-old beagles, more than half the tooth roots were classified as type I. In the 7-month-old beagles, type IIIB apical delta was the most predominant and types I, II and IIIA apical delta were occassionally seen. Apical closure and delta were observed in all beagles at 8 months of age histologically. In the 8- and 9-month-old beagles, all root apexes observed were type IIIB. Most of the 314 tooth roots extracted from 33 adult dogs were type IIIB, but a few were type IIIA.  (+info)

Molecular identification of microorganisms from endodontic infections. (8/423)

A relatively wide range of bacteria have been isolated from root canals using standard culture techniques. However, only 50% of the bacteria in the oral cavity are cultivable (S. S. Socransky et al., Arch. Oral Biol. 8:278-280, 1963); hence, bacterial diversity in endodontic infections is underestimated. This study used a PCR-based 16S rRNA gene assay, followed by cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons from a small subset of samples to assess the diversity of bacteria present in infected root canals. A total of 41 clinical samples from 15 de novo and 26 refractory cases of endodontic infections were assessed. Of these samples, 44% were positive by culture and 68% were positive by PCR. Eight samples were selected for further analysis. Of these, the two de novo cases yielded sequences related to those of the genera Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Propionibacterium, and Streptococcus and two clones were related to previously uncultivated bacteria, while the sinus-associated, de novo case yielded sequences related to those of the genera Lactobacillus, Pantoea, Prevotella, and Selenomonas. The five refractory cases produced clones which were related to the genera Capnocytophaga, Cytophaga, Dialister, Eubacterium, Fusobacterium, Gemella, Mogibacterium, Peptostreptococcus, Prevotella, Propionibacterium, Selenomonas, Solobacterium, Streptococcus, and Veillonella and two clones representing previously uncultivated bacteria. The phylogenetic positions of several clones associated with the Clostridiaceae and Sporomusa subgroups of the Firmicutes grouping are also shown. This study demonstrates that molecular techniques can detect the presence of bacteria in endodontic infections when culture techniques yield a negative result and can be used to identify a wider range of endodontic-infection-related bacteria including the presence of previously unidentified or unculturable bacteria.  (+info)

The dental pulp cavity, also known as the pulp chamber, is the innermost part of a tooth that contains the dental pulp. It is located in the crown portion of the tooth and is shaped like an upside-down pyramid with the narrow end point towards the root of the tooth.

The dental pulp is a soft tissue that contains nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissue. It plays an important role in the development and maintenance of the tooth, including providing nutrients to the dentin and producing reparative dentin.

The dental pulp cavity can become infected or inflamed due to tooth decay, trauma, or other factors, leading to symptoms such as pain, sensitivity, and swelling. In such cases, treatment options may include root canal therapy, which involves removing the infected or inflamed pulp tissue from the dental pulp cavity and sealing the space to prevent further infection.

Dental pulp is the soft tissue located in the center of a tooth, surrounded by the dentin. It contains nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissue, and plays a vital role in the development and health of the tooth. The dental pulp helps to form dentin during tooth development and continues to provide nourishment to the tooth throughout its life. It also serves as a sensory organ, allowing the tooth to detect hot and cold temperatures and transmit pain signals to the brain. Injury or infection of the dental pulp can lead to serious dental problems, such as tooth decay or abscesses, and may require root canal treatment to remove the damaged tissue and save the tooth.

Secondary dentin is a type of dentin that is formed after the initial development of the tooth. It is produced in response to stimuli such as tooth wear or injury and continues to form throughout an individual's life. Unlike primary dentin, which is laid down during tooth development and has a more uniform structure, secondary dentin is often deposited in a less organized manner and can vary in thickness. The formation of secondary dentin can help to protect the pulp tissue within the tooth from further damage or infection.

Dental pulp calcification, also known as pulp stones or denticles, refers to the formation of hard tissue within the pulp chamber of a tooth. The pulp chamber is the central part of a tooth that contains its nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissues.

Pulp calcification occurs when the soft tissue of the pulp gradually transforms into a harder, calcified substance. This can happen as a result of aging, injury, or inflammation in the pulp chamber. Over time, these calcifications can build up and make the pulp chamber smaller, which can potentially lead to problems with the tooth's nerve and blood supply.

While dental pulp calcification is not usually harmful on its own, it can cause issues if it becomes severe enough to compress the tooth's nerve or restrict blood flow. In some cases, calcifications may also make root canal treatment more difficult, as there may be less space to work within the pulp chamber.

Dental pulp capping is a dental procedure that involves the application of a small amount of medication or dressing to a small exposed area of the dental pulp, with the aim of promoting the formation of reparative dentin and preserving the vitality of the pulp. The dental pulp is the soft tissue located inside the tooth, containing nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissues that provide nutrients and sensory functions to the tooth.

Pulp capping may be recommended when the dental pulp is exposed due to tooth decay or trauma, but the pulp is still vital and has the potential to heal. The procedure typically involves cleaning and removing any infected or damaged tissue from the exposure site, followed by the application of a medicated dressing or cement to promote healing and protect the pulp from further injury or infection.

There are two types of pulp capping: direct and indirect. Direct pulp capping involves applying the medication directly to the exposed pulp, while indirect pulp capping involves placing the medication over a thin layer of dentin that has been created to protect the pulp. The success of pulp capping depends on various factors, including the size and depth of the exposure, the patient's age and overall health, and the skill and experience of the dental professional performing the procedure.

Pulpitis is a dental term that refers to the inflammation of the pulp, which is the soft tissue inside the center of a tooth that contains nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissue. The pulp helps to form the dentin, the hard layer beneath the enamel. Pulpitis can result from tooth decay, dental trauma, or other factors that cause damage to the tooth's protective enamel and dentin layers, exposing the pulp to irritants and bacteria.

There are two types of pulpitis: reversible and irreversible. Reversible pulpitis is characterized by mild inflammation that can be treated and potentially reversed with dental intervention, such as a filling or root canal treatment. Irreversible pulpitis, on the other hand, involves severe inflammation that cannot be reversed, and typically requires a root canal procedure to remove the infected pulp tissue and prevent further infection or damage to the tooth.

Symptoms of pulpitis may include tooth sensitivity to hot or cold temperatures, pain or discomfort when biting down or applying pressure to the tooth, and in some cases, spontaneous or radiating pain. If left untreated, pulpitis can lead to more serious dental issues, such as abscesses or bone loss around the affected tooth.

Odontoblasts are defined as columnar-shaped cells that are located in the pulp tissue of teeth, specifically within the predentin region. They are responsible for the formation of dentin, one of the main components of a tooth, by synthesizing and depositing collagenous and non-collagenous proteins, as well as the mineral hydroxyapatite.

Odontoblasts have a single process that extends into the dentinal tubules, which are microscopic channels within the dentin matrix. These cells play a crucial role in sensing external stimuli, such as heat, cold, or pressure, and transmitting signals to the nerves located in the pulp tissue, thereby contributing to the tooth's sensitivity.

In summary, odontoblasts are specialized dental cells that produce dentin, provide structural support for teeth, and contribute to their sensory functions.

Dental care refers to the practice of maintaining and improving the oral health of the teeth and gums. It involves regular check-ups, cleanings, and treatments by dental professionals such as dentists, hygienists, and dental assistants. Dental care also includes personal habits and practices, such as brushing and flossing, that help prevent tooth decay and gum disease.

Regular dental care is important for preventing common dental problems like cavities, gingivitis, and periodontal disease. It can also help detect early signs of more serious health issues, such as oral cancer or diabetes, which can have symptoms that appear in the mouth.

Dental care may involve a range of treatments, from routine cleanings and fillings to more complex procedures like root canals, crowns, bridges, and implants. Dental professionals use various tools and techniques to diagnose and treat dental problems, including X-rays, dental impressions, and local anesthesia.

Overall, dental care is a critical component of overall health and wellness, as poor oral health has been linked to a range of systemic health issues, including heart disease, stroke, and respiratory infections.

Dental pulp exposure is a condition in which the soft, living tissue inside a tooth (the dental pulp) becomes exposed due to damage or injury to the tooth. This can occur as a result of tooth decay that has progressed deeply into the tooth, trauma or fracture that exposes the pulp, or recession of the gums due to periodontal disease.

Exposure of the dental pulp can lead to infection, inflammation, and severe pain. If left untreated, it may result in the need for a root canal procedure or even extraction of the tooth. Therefore, prompt dental treatment is necessary to prevent further complications and preserve the tooth.

Dental pulp diseases are conditions that affect the soft tissue inside a tooth, known as dental pulp. The two main types of dental pulp diseases are pulpitis and apical periodontitis.

Pulpitis is inflammation of the dental pulp, which can be either reversible or irreversible. Reversible pulpitis is characterized by mild to moderate inflammation that can be treated with a dental filling or other conservative treatment. Irreversible pulpitis, on the other hand, involves severe inflammation that cannot be reversed and usually requires root canal therapy.

Apical periodontitis, also known as a tooth abscess, is an infection of the tissue surrounding the tip of the tooth's root. It occurs when the dental pulp dies and becomes infected, causing pus to accumulate in the surrounding bone. Symptoms of apical periodontitis may include pain, swelling, and drainage. Treatment typically involves root canal therapy or extraction of the affected tooth.

Other dental pulp diseases include pulp calcification, which is the hardening of the dental pulp due to age or injury, and internal resorption, which is the breakdown and destruction of the dental pulp by the body's own cells. These conditions may not cause any symptoms but can weaken the tooth and increase the risk of fracture.

Dental education refers to the process of teaching, training, and learning in the field of dentistry. It involves a curriculum of academic and clinical instruction that prepares students to become licensed dental professionals, such as dentists, dental hygienists, and dental assistants. Dental education typically takes place in accredited dental schools or programs and includes classroom study, laboratory work, and supervised clinical experience. The goal of dental education is to provide students with the knowledge, skills, and values necessary to deliver high-quality oral health care to patients and promote overall health and wellness.

Dental caries, also known as tooth decay or cavities, refers to the damage or breakdown of the hard tissues of the teeth (enamel, dentin, and cementum) due to the activity of acid-producing bacteria. These bacteria ferment sugars from food and drinks, producing acids that dissolve and weaken the tooth structure, leading to cavities.

The process of dental caries development involves several stages:

1. Demineralization: The acidic environment created by bacterial activity causes minerals (calcium and phosphate) to be lost from the tooth surface, making it weaker and more susceptible to decay.
2. Formation of a white spot lesion: As demineralization progresses, a chalky white area appears on the tooth surface, indicating early caries development.
3. Cavity formation: If left untreated, the demineralization process continues, leading to the breakdown and loss of tooth structure, resulting in a cavity or hole in the tooth.
4. Infection and pulp involvement: As the decay progresses deeper into the tooth, it can reach the dental pulp (the soft tissue containing nerves and blood vessels), causing infection, inflammation, and potentially leading to toothache, abscess, or even tooth loss.

Preventing dental caries involves maintaining good oral hygiene, reducing sugar intake, using fluoride toothpaste and mouthwash, and having regular dental check-ups and cleanings. Early detection and treatment of dental caries can help prevent further progression and more severe complications.

"Schools, Dental" is not a recognized medical term or concept. It seems that there might be some confusion in the terminology used. If you are referring to "Dental Schools," they are educational institutions that offer professional training programs in dentistry, leading to a degree in dental surgery (DDS) or dental medicine (DMD).

If you meant something else, please clarify the term or concept, and I would be happy to provide more information.

I'm happy to help! However, I believe there may be a slight misunderstanding in your question. "Students, Dental" is not a medical term or definition. Instead, it likely refers to individuals who are studying to become dental professionals, such as dentists, dental hygienists, or dental assistants.

If you're looking for information about dental education or the field of dentistry, I would be happy to provide some resources or answer any questions you may have!

Dentinogenesis is the process of dentin formation, which is one of the main components of teeth. Dentin is a hard, calcified tissue that lies beneath the tooth's enamel and cementum layers, providing structural support and protection to the pulp tissue containing nerves and blood vessels. The process of dentinogenesis involves the differentiation and activation of odontoblasts, which are specialized cells that synthesize and secrete the organic and inorganic components of dentin matrix. These components include collagenous proteins and hydroxyapatite crystals, which form a highly mineralized tissue that is both strong and flexible. Dentinogenesis continues throughout life as new layers of dentin are formed in response to various stimuli such as tooth wear, dental caries, or injury.

Pulp capping is a dental procedure that involves the application of a small amount of dressing to a small exposed area of the pulp in order to promote healing and maintain the vitality of the pulp. The agents used for pulp capping are known as pulp capping agents, which typically include calcium hydroxide-based materials and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). These materials stimulate the formation of a hard tissue barrier between the pulp and dentin, protecting the pulp from infection and further injury.

Pulpectomy, on the other hand, is a dental procedure that involves the complete removal of the pulp tissue from the root canal system. After the removal of the pulp tissue, the root canal system is cleaned, shaped, and filled with a suitable filling material to prevent reinfection and maintain the structural integrity of the tooth.

Pulpectomy agents are the materials used during the pulpectomy procedure to clean, shape, and fill the root canal system. These agents may include irrigants such as sodium hypochlorite or chlorhexidine, files and reamers for shaping the root canal system, and filling materials such as gutta-percha and root canal sealers. The choice of pulpectomy agents depends on various factors, including the size and shape of the root canal system, the presence of any infection or inflammation, and the patient's individual needs and preferences.

The dental papilla is a type of tissue found in the developing tooth within the jawbone. It is composed of cells that will eventually differentiate into odontoblasts, which are the cells responsible for producing dentin, one of the main hard tissues that make up the tooth. The dental papilla is located in the center of the tooth germ and is surrounded by the dental follicle, another type of tissue that helps to form the tooth. As the tooth develops, the dental papilla becomes smaller and eventually forms the pulp chamber, which contains the blood vessels, nerves, and connective tissue that support and nourish the tooth.

Dental care for chronically ill refers to the oral health management and treatment provided to individuals who have chronic medical conditions. These patients often require specialized dental care due to their increased risk of developing oral health problems as a result of their underlying medical condition or its treatment. The goal of dental care for the chronically ill is to prevent and manage dental diseases, such as tooth decay and gum disease, in order to maintain overall health and quality of life. This may involve close collaboration between dental professionals, physicians, and other healthcare providers to ensure that the patient's oral health needs are being met in a comprehensive and coordinated manner.

Dental pulp necrosis is the death of the soft tissue inside a tooth, known as the dental pulp. The dental pulp contains nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissue that help the tooth grow and develop. It also provides sensations like hot or cold. Dental pulp necrosis can occur due to various reasons such as tooth decay, trauma, or infection. When the dental pulp dies, it can no longer provide nutrients to the tooth, making it more susceptible to fractures and infections. Symptoms of dental pulp necrosis may include pain, sensitivity, swelling, or abscess formation. Treatment options for dental pulp necrosis typically involve root canal therapy or extraction of the affected tooth.

In the context of dentistry, a molar is a type of tooth found in the back of the mouth. They are larger and wider than other types of teeth, such as incisors or canines, and have a flat biting surface with multiple cusps. Molars are primarily used for grinding and chewing food into smaller pieces that are easier to swallow. Humans typically have twelve molars in total, including the four wisdom teeth.

In medical terminology outside of dentistry, "molar" can also refer to a unit of mass in the apothecaries' system of measurement, which is equivalent to 4.08 grams. However, this usage is less common and not related to dental or medical anatomy.

Dental care for children, also known as pediatric dentistry, is a branch of dentistry that focuses on the oral health of children from infancy through adolescence. The medical definition of dental care for children includes:

1. Preventive Dentistry: This involves regular dental check-ups, professional cleaning, fluoride treatments, and sealants to prevent tooth decay and other dental diseases. Parents are also educated on proper oral hygiene practices for their children, including brushing, flossing, and dietary habits.
2. Restorative Dentistry: If a child develops cavities or other dental problems, restorative treatments such as fillings, crowns, or pulpotomies (baby root canals) may be necessary to restore the health and function of their teeth.
3. Orthodontic Treatment: Many children require orthodontic treatment to correct misaligned teeth or jaws. Early intervention can help guide proper jaw development and prevent more severe issues from developing later on.
4. Habit Counseling: Dental care for children may also involve habit counseling, such as helping a child stop thumb sucking or pacifier use, which can negatively impact their oral health.
5. Sedation and Anesthesia: For children who are anxious about dental procedures or have special needs, sedation or anesthesia may be used to ensure their comfort and safety during treatment.
6. Emergency Care: Dental care for children also includes emergency care for injuries such as knocked-out teeth, broken teeth, or severe toothaches. Prompt attention is necessary to prevent further damage and alleviate pain.
7. Education and Prevention: Finally, dental care for children involves educating parents and children about the importance of good oral hygiene practices and regular dental check-ups to maintain optimal oral health throughout their lives.

A dental clinic is a healthcare facility that is primarily focused on providing oral health services to patients. These services may include preventative care, such as dental cleanings and exams, as well as restorative treatments like fillings, crowns, and bridges. Dental clinics may also offer specialized services, such as orthodontics, periodontics, or endodontics.

In a dental clinic, patients are typically seen by licensed dentists who have completed dental school and received additional training in their chosen area of specialty. Dental hygienists, dental assistants, and other support staff may also work in the clinic to provide care and assistance to patients.

Dental clinics can be found in a variety of settings, including hospitals, community health centers, private practices, and educational institutions. Some dental clinics may specialize in treating certain populations, such as children, elderly individuals, or low-income patients. Others may offer specialized services, such as oral surgery or cosmetic dentistry.

Overall, dental clinics play an important role in promoting oral health and preventing dental diseases and conditions. By providing access to high-quality dental care, dental clinics can help patients maintain healthy teeth and gums, prevent tooth decay and gum disease, and improve their overall quality of life.

Tooth calcification, also known as dental calculus or tartar formation, refers to the hardening of plaque on the surface of teeth. This process occurs when minerals from saliva combine with bacterial deposits and dental plaque, resulting in a hard, calcified substance that adheres to the tooth surface. Calcification can occur both above and below the gum line, and if not removed through professional dental cleanings, it can lead to periodontal disease, tooth decay, and other oral health issues.

A dental hygienist is a licensed healthcare professional who works as part of the dental team, providing educational, clinical, and therapeutic services to prevent and control oral diseases. They are trained and authorized to perform various duties such as:

1. Cleaning and polishing teeth (prophylaxis) to remove plaque, calculus, and stains.
2. Applying fluoride and sealants to protect tooth surfaces from decay.
3. Taking dental radiographs (x-rays) to help diagnose dental issues.
4. Providing oral health education, including proper brushing, flossing techniques, and nutrition counseling.
5. Performing screenings for oral cancer and other diseases.
6. Documenting patient care and treatment plans in medical records.
7. Collaborating with dentists to develop individualized treatment plans for patients.
8. Managing infection control protocols and maintaining a safe, clean dental environment.
9. Providing supportive services, such as applying anesthetics or administering nitrous oxide, under the direct supervision of a dentist (depending on state regulations).

Dental hygienists typically work in private dental offices but can also be found in hospitals, clinics, public health settings, educational institutions, and research facilities. They must complete an accredited dental hygiene program and pass written and clinical exams to obtain licensure in their state of practice. Continuing education is required to maintain licensure and stay current with advancements in the field.

The Faculty of Dental Surgery (FDS) is a division or department within a medical or dental school that focuses on the study, research, and practice of dental surgery. The faculty may be responsible for providing undergraduate and postgraduate education and training in dental surgery, as well as conducting research in this field.

Dental surgery encompasses various procedures related to the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases and disorders that affect the teeth, gums, and other structures of the mouth and jaw. This may include procedures such as tooth extractions, root canals, dental implants, and oral cancer surgery, among others.

The Faculty of Dental Surgery is typically composed of a group of dental surgeons who are experts in their field and have a commitment to advancing the practice of dental surgery through education, research, and clinical excellence. Members of the faculty may include professors, researchers, clinicians, and other professionals who are involved in the delivery of dental care.

A deciduous tooth, also known as a baby tooth or primary tooth, is a type of temporary tooth that humans and some other mammals develop during childhood. They are called "deciduous" because they are eventually shed and replaced by permanent teeth, much like how leaves on a deciduous tree fall off and are replaced by new growth.

Deciduous teeth begin to form in the womb and start to erupt through the gums when a child is around six months old. By the time a child reaches age three, they typically have a full set of 20 deciduous teeth, including incisors, canines, and molars. These teeth are smaller and less durable than permanent teeth, but they serve important functions such as helping children chew food properly, speak clearly, and maintain space in the jaw for the permanent teeth to grow into.

Deciduous teeth usually begin to fall out around age six or seven, starting with the lower central incisors. This process continues until all of the deciduous teeth have been shed, typically by age 12 or 13. At this point, the permanent teeth will have grown in and taken their place, with the exception of the wisdom teeth, which may not erupt until later in adolescence or early adulthood.

Dentin is the hard, calcified tissue that lies beneath the enamel and cementum of a tooth. It forms the majority of the tooth's structure and is composed primarily of mineral salts (hydroxyapatite), collagenous proteins, and water. Dentin has a tubular structure, with microscopic channels called dentinal tubules that radiate outward from the pulp chamber (the center of the tooth containing nerves and blood vessels) to the exterior of the tooth. These tubules contain fluid and nerve endings that are responsible for the tooth's sensitivity to various stimuli such as temperature changes, pressure, or decay. Dentin plays a crucial role in protecting the dental pulp while also providing support and structure to the overlying enamel and cementum.

Dental care for disabled refers to the specialized oral health services and treatments provided to individuals with physical, cognitive, or developmental disabilities. This type of dental care aims to prevent and manage dental diseases and conditions that can be more prevalent and challenging to treat in this population due to factors such as limited mobility, difficulty communicating, behavioral challenges, and the need for specialized equipment and techniques. Dental care for disabled may include routine cleanings, fillings, extractions, and other procedures, as well as education and counseling on oral hygiene and dietary habits. It may also involve collaboration with other healthcare providers to manage overall health and well-being.

A dental pulp test is a medical procedure used to determine if the pulp of a tooth is alive or dead. The pulp is the soft tissue inside the tooth that contains nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissue. There are several types of dental pulp tests, including:

1. Cold Test: This involves applying a cold stimulus to the tooth using a substance such as ice or a cold spray. A healthy pulp will respond to the cold by causing a brief, sharp pain. If the pulp is dead or damaged, there will be no response to the cold.
2. Heat Test: This involves applying a heat stimulus to the tooth using a hot substance such as gutta-percha or a hot water bath. A healthy pulp will respond to the heat by causing a brief, sharp pain. If the pulp is dead or damaged, there will be no response to the heat.
3. Electric Pulp Test: This involves applying a low-level electrical current to the tooth. A healthy pulp will respond to the electrical current by causing a tingling or buzzing sensation. If the pulp is dead or damaged, there will be no response to the electrical current.

The results of these tests can help dental professionals determine if a tooth needs root canal treatment or if it can be saved with other treatments.

A tooth is a hard, calcified structure found in the jaws (upper and lower) of many vertebrates and used for biting and chewing food. In humans, a typical tooth has a crown, one or more roots, and three layers: the enamel (the outermost layer, hardest substance in the body), the dentin (the layer beneath the enamel), and the pulp (the innermost layer, containing nerves and blood vessels). Teeth are essential for proper nutrition, speech, and aesthetics. There are different types of teeth, including incisors, canines, premolars, and molars, each designed for specific functions in the mouth.

Dental pulp devitalization is a medical term that refers to the removal of nerve, blood vessels and other living tissues inside a tooth. This procedure is also known as root canal treatment or endodontic therapy.

The goal of dental pulp devitalization is to preserve the natural tooth by removing infected or damaged tissue within the pulp chamber and root canals. Once the pulp is removed, the empty chamber is cleaned, shaped, and filled with a rubber-like material called gutta-percha. The access opening is then sealed with a filling or crown to restore the tooth's function and protect it from further damage or infection.

Devitalization of the dental pulp is necessary when the pulp becomes irreversibly inflamed or infected due to decay, trauma, or other causes. If left untreated, the infection can spread to the surrounding tissues, leading to an abscess, bone loss, and other complications. By devitalizing the dental pulp, the tooth can be saved from extraction and maintained in the mouth for proper chewing, biting, and speaking functions.

A toothache is defined as pain or discomfort in or around a tooth, usually caused by dental cavities, gum disease, tooth fracture, or exposed tooth roots. The pain may be sharp and stabbing, throbbing, or constant and dull. It can also be aggravated by hot, cold, sweet, or sour foods and drinks, or by biting or chewing. Toothaches are serious and should not be ignored as they can be a sign of more significant dental issues that require immediate professional attention from a dentist.

Dental anxiety is a common feeling of fear or apprehension associated with dental appointments, treatments, or procedures. It can range from mild feelings of unease to severe phobias that cause people to avoid dental care altogether. Dental anxiety may stem from various factors such as negative past experiences, fear of pain, needles, or loss of control. In some cases, dental anxiety may lead to physical symptoms like sweating, rapid heartbeat, and difficulty breathing. It is important for individuals with dental anxiety to communicate their feelings with their dentist so that they can receive appropriate care and support.

Dental insurance is a type of health insurance specifically designed to cover the costs associated with dental care. It typically helps pay for preventive, basic, and major restorative procedures, including routine checkups, cleanings, fillings, extractions, root canals, crowns, bridges, and in some cases, orthodontic treatment.

Dental insurance plans often have a network of participating dentists who agree to provide services at pre-negotiated rates, helping to keep costs down for both the insured individual and the insurance company. The plan may cover a certain percentage of the cost of each procedure or have set copayments and deductibles that apply.

Like other forms of insurance, dental insurance plans come with annual maximum coverage limits, which is the most the plan will pay for dental care within a given year. It's essential to understand the terms and conditions of your dental insurance policy to make informed decisions about your oral health care and maximize the benefits available to you.

The dental sac, also known as the dental follicle, is a soft tissue structure that surrounds the developing tooth crown during odontogenesis, which is the process of tooth development. It is derived from the ectoderm and mesenchyme of the embryonic oral cavity. The dental sac gives rise to several important structures associated with the tooth, including the periodontal ligament, cementum, and the alveolar bone that surrounds and supports the tooth in the jaw.

The dental sac plays a critical role in tooth development by regulating the mineralization of the tooth crown and providing a protective environment for the developing tooth. It also contains cells called odontoblasts, which are responsible for producing dentin, one of the hard tissues that make up the tooth. Abnormalities in the development or growth of the dental sac can lead to various dental anomalies, such as impacted teeth, dilacerated roots, and other developmental disorders.

Dental auxiliaries are healthcare professionals who provide support to dentists in the delivery of oral healthcare services. They work under the supervision of a licensed dentist and perform tasks that require specific technical skills and knowledge. Examples of dental auxiliaries include dental hygienists, dental assistants, and dental lab technicians.

Dental hygienists are responsible for providing preventive dental care to patients, including cleaning teeth, taking x-rays, and educating patients on oral hygiene practices. They may also perform certain clinical procedures under the direct supervision of a dentist.

Dental assistants work closely with dentists during dental procedures, preparing instruments, mixing materials, and providing patient care. They may also perform administrative tasks such as scheduling appointments and managing patient records.

Dental lab technicians create dental restorations such as crowns, bridges, and dentures based on impressions taken by the dentist. They use a variety of materials and techniques to fabricate these devices with precision and accuracy.

It's important to note that the specific roles and responsibilities of dental auxiliaries may vary depending on the jurisdiction and local regulations.

Dental health services refer to medical care and treatment provided for the teeth and mouth. This can include preventative care, such as dental cleanings and exams, as well as restorative treatments like fillings, crowns, and root canals. Dental health services may also include cosmetic procedures, such as teeth whitening or orthodontic treatment to straighten crooked teeth. In addition to these services, dental health professionals may provide education on oral hygiene and the importance of maintaining good dental health. These services are typically provided by dentists, dental hygienists, and other dental professionals in a variety of settings, including private dental practices, community health clinics, and hospitals.

Odontogenesis is the process of tooth development that involves the formation and calcification of teeth. It is a complex process that requires the interaction of several types of cells, including epithelial cells, mesenchymal cells, and odontoblasts. The process begins during embryonic development with the formation of dental lamina, which gives rise to the tooth bud. As the tooth bud grows and differentiates, it forms the various structures of the tooth, including the enamel, dentin, cementum, and pulp. Odontogenesis is completed when the tooth erupts into the oral cavity. Abnormalities in odontogenesis can result in developmental dental anomalies such as tooth agenesis, microdontia, or odontomas.

Dental research is a scientific discipline that focuses on the study of teeth, oral health, and related diseases. It involves various aspects of dental sciences such as oral biology, microbiology, biochemistry, genetics, epidemiology, biomaterials, and biotechnology. The main aim of dental research is to improve oral health care, develop new diagnostic tools, prevent dental diseases, and create better treatment options for various dental conditions. Dental researchers may study topics such as tooth development, oral cancer, periodontal disease, dental caries (cavities), saliva composition, and the effects of nutrition on oral health. The findings from dental research can help improve dental care practices, inform public health policies, and advance our understanding of overall human health.

The dental arch refers to the curved shape formed by the upper or lower teeth when they come together. The dental arch follows the curve of the jaw and is important for proper bite alignment and overall oral health. The dental arches are typically described as having a U-shaped appearance, with the front teeth forming a narrower section and the back teeth forming a wider section. The shape and size of the dental arch can vary from person to person, and any significant deviations from the typical shape or size may indicate an underlying orthodontic issue that requires treatment.

Dental care for the elderly, also known as geriatric dentistry, refers to the dental care services provided to meet the specific needs and challenges of older adults. As people age, they may experience various oral health issues such as:

* Dry mouth due to medication side effects or medical conditions
* Gum disease and periodontitis
* Tooth loss and decay
* Oral cancer
* Uneven jawbone or ill-fitting dentures

Dental care for the aged may include routine dental exams, cleanings, fillings, extractions, denture fittings, oral surgery, and education on proper oral hygiene. It is important for elderly individuals to maintain good oral health as it can impact their overall health and quality of life. Regular dental check-ups and good oral hygiene practices can help prevent or manage these common oral health problems in the elderly.

Dental plaque is a biofilm or mass of bacteria that accumulates on the surface of the teeth, restorative materials, and prosthetic devices such as dentures. It is initiated when bacterial colonizers attach to the smooth surfaces of teeth through van der Waals forces and specific molecular adhesion mechanisms.

The microorganisms within the dental plaque produce extracellular polysaccharides that help to stabilize and strengthen the biofilm, making it resistant to removal by simple brushing or rinsing. Over time, if not regularly removed through oral hygiene practices such as brushing and flossing, dental plaque can mineralize and harden into tartar or calculus.

The bacteria in dental plaque can cause tooth decay (dental caries) by metabolizing sugars and producing acid that demineralizes the tooth enamel. Additionally, certain types of bacteria in dental plaque can cause periodontal disease, an inflammation of the gums that can lead to tissue damage and bone loss around the teeth. Regular professional dental cleanings and good oral hygiene practices are essential for preventing the buildup of dental plaque and maintaining good oral health.

The periodontal ligament, also known as the "PDL," is the soft tissue that connects the tooth root to the alveolar bone within the dental alveolus (socket). It consists of collagen fibers organized into groups called principal fibers and accessory fibers. These fibers are embedded into both the cementum of the tooth root and the alveolar bone, providing shock absorption during biting and chewing forces, allowing for slight tooth movement, and maintaining the tooth in its position within the socket.

The periodontal ligament plays a crucial role in the health and maintenance of the periodontium, which includes the gingiva (gums), cementum, alveolar bone, and the periodontal ligament itself. Inflammation or infection of the periodontal ligament can lead to periodontal disease, potentially causing tooth loss if not treated promptly and appropriately.

Burial is the act or process of placing a deceased person or animal, usually in a specially dug hole called a grave, into the ground. The body may be placed in a casket, coffin, or shroud before burial. Burial is a common funeral practice in many cultures and religions, and it is often seen as a way to respect and honor the dead. In some cases, burial may also serve as a means of preventing the spread of disease. The location of the burial can vary widely, from a designated cemetery or graveyard to a private plot of land or even a body of water.

An incisor is a type of tooth that is primarily designed for biting off food pieces rather than chewing or grinding. They are typically chisel-shaped, flat, and have a sharp cutting edge. In humans, there are eight incisors - four on the upper jaw and four on the lower jaw, located at the front of the mouth. Other animals such as dogs, cats, and rodents also have incisors that they use for different purposes like tearing or gnawing.

A dental office is a healthcare facility where dental professionals, such as dentists, oral surgeons, and orthodontists, provide various dental treatments and services to patients. These services may include routine check-ups, teeth cleaning, fillings, extractions, root canals, crowns, bridges, implants, and orthodontic treatments like braces.

Dental offices typically have examination rooms equipped with dental chairs, dental instruments, and X-ray machines to diagnose and treat dental issues. They may also have a reception area where patients can schedule appointments, make payments, and complete paperwork.

In addition to clinical services, dental offices may also provide patient education on oral hygiene practices, nutrition, and lifestyle habits that can affect dental health. Some dental offices may specialize in certain areas of dentistry, such as pediatric dentistry or cosmetic dentistry.

Dental records are a collection of detailed documentation related to a patient's dental history and treatment. These records typically include:

1. Patient demographics: This includes the patient's name, date of birth, contact information, and other identifying details.
2. Dental charts: These are graphic representations of the patient's teeth and gums, noting any existing restorations, decay, periodontal disease, or other oral health conditions.
3. Radiographs (x-rays): These images help dentists visualize structures that aren't visible during a clinical examination, such as between teeth, below the gum line, and inside the jaw bones.
4. Treatment plans: This includes proposed dental procedures, their estimated costs, and the rationale behind them.
5. Progress notes: These are ongoing records of each dental appointment, detailing the treatments performed, the patient's response to treatment, and any home care instructions given.
6. Medical history: This includes any systemic health conditions that could impact dental treatment, such as diabetes or heart disease, as well as medications being taken.
7. Consent forms: These are documents signed by the patient (or their legal guardian) giving permission for specific treatments.
8. Communication notes: Any correspondence between dental professionals regarding the patient's care.

Dental records play a crucial role in continuity of care, allowing dentists to track changes in a patient's oral health over time and make informed treatment decisions. They are also important for medicolegal reasons, providing evidence in case of malpractice claims or other disputes.

The term "dental staff" generally refers to the group of professionals who work together in a dental practice or setting to provide oral health care services to patients. The composition of a dental staff can vary depending on the size and type of the practice, but it typically includes:

1. Dentists: These are medical doctors who specialize in oral health. They diagnose and treat dental diseases, conditions, and disorders, and perform various procedures such as fillings, root canals, extractions, and crowns.
2. Dental Hygienists: These are licensed healthcare professionals who provide preventive dental care services to patients. They clean teeth, remove plaque and tartar, apply fluoride and sealants, take X-rays, and educate patients on proper oral hygiene practices.
3. Dental Assistants: These are trained professionals who assist dentists during procedures and perform various administrative tasks in a dental practice. They prepare patients for treatment, sterilize instruments, take impressions, and schedule appointments.
4. Front Office Staff: These are the receptionists, schedulers, and billing specialists who manage the administrative aspects of a dental practice. They handle patient inquiries, schedule appointments, process insurance claims, and maintain patient records.
5. Other Specialists: Depending on the needs of the practice, other dental professionals such as orthodontists, oral surgeons, endodontists, periodontists, or prosthodontists may also be part of the dental staff. These specialists have advanced training in specific areas of dentistry and provide specialized care to patients.

Overall, a well-functioning dental staff is essential for providing high-quality oral health care services to patients in a safe, efficient, and patient-centered manner.

Dental equipment refers to the various instruments and devices used by dental professionals to perform oral health examinations, diagnose dental conditions, and provide treatment to patients. Here are some examples:

1. Dental chair: A specially designed chair that allows patients to recline while receiving dental care.
2. Examination light: A bright light used to illuminate the oral cavity during examinations and procedures.
3. Dental mirror: A small, angled mirror used to help dentists see hard-to-reach areas of the mouth.
4. Explorer: A sharp instrument used to probe teeth for signs of decay or other dental problems.
5. Dental probe: A blunt instrument used to measure the depth of periodontal pockets and assess gum health.
6. Scaler: A handheld instrument or ultrasonic device used to remove tartar and calculus from teeth.
7. Suction device: A vacuum-like tool that removes saliva, water, and debris from the mouth during procedures.
8. Dental drill: A high-speed instrument used to remove decayed or damaged tooth structure and prepare teeth for fillings, crowns, or other restorations.
9. Rubber dam: A thin sheet of rubber used to isolate individual teeth during procedures, keeping them dry and free from saliva.
10. Dental X-ray machine: A device that uses radiation to capture images of the teeth and surrounding structures, helping dentists diagnose conditions such as decay, infection, and bone loss.
11. Curing light: A special light used to harden dental materials, such as composite fillings and crowns, after they have been placed in the mouth.
12. Air/water syringe: A handheld device that delivers a stream of air and water to clean teeth and rinse away debris during procedures.

Dentistry is the branch of medicine that is concerned with the examination, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders, and conditions of the oral cavity (mouth), including the teeth, gums, and other supporting structures. Dentists use a variety of treatments and procedures to help patients maintain good oral health and prevent dental problems from developing or worsening. These may include:

* Routine cleanings and checkups to remove plaque and tartar and detect any potential issues early on
* Fillings, crowns, and other restorative treatments to repair damaged teeth
* Root canal therapy to treat infected or inflamed tooth pulp
* Extractions of severely decayed or impacted teeth
* Dentures, bridges, and implants to replace missing teeth
* Orthodontic treatment to align crooked or misaligned teeth
* Treatment for temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders and other issues affecting the jaw and surrounding muscles

Dental health is an important part of overall health and well-being. Poor oral health has been linked to a variety of systemic conditions, including heart disease, diabetes, and respiratory infections. Regular dental checkups and good oral hygiene practices can help prevent these and other dental problems from developing.

"General practice dentistry" is a term used to describe the provision of primary dental care to patients of all ages. A general practice dentist provides a wide range of dental services, including preventative care (such as cleanings and fluoride treatments), restorative care (fillings, crowns, bridges), endodontics (root canals), oral surgery (extractions), periodontics (treatment of gum disease), prosthodontics (dentures, implants), and orthodontics (braces). They also diagnose and manage dental diseases and provide advice on oral health. General practice dentists aim to provide comprehensive and continuous care to their patients, coordinating with other dental and medical professionals as needed.

Dental amalgam is a commonly used dental filling material that consists of a mixture of metals, including silver, tin, copper, and mercury. The mercury binds the other metals together to form a strong, durable, and stable restoration that is resistant to wear and tear. Dental amalgam has been used for over 150 years to fill cavities and repair damaged teeth, and it remains a popular choice among dentists due to its strength, durability, and affordability.

However, there has been some controversy surrounding the use of dental amalgam due to concerns about the potential health effects of mercury exposure. While the majority of scientific evidence suggests that dental amalgam is safe for most people, some individuals may be more sensitive to mercury and may experience adverse reactions. As a result, some dentists may recommend alternative filling materials, such as composite resin or gold, for certain patients.

Overall, dental amalgam is a safe and effective option for filling cavities and restoring damaged teeth, but it is important to discuss any concerns or questions with a qualified dental professional.

Dental anesthesia is a type of local or regional anesthesia that is specifically used in dental procedures to block the transmission of pain impulses from the teeth and surrounding tissues to the brain. The most common types of dental anesthesia include:

1. Local anesthesia: This involves the injection of a local anesthetic drug, such as lidocaine or prilocaine, into the gum tissue near the tooth that is being treated. This numbs the area and prevents the patient from feeling pain during the procedure.
2. Conscious sedation: This is a type of minimal sedation that is used to help patients relax during dental procedures. The patient remains conscious and can communicate with the dentist, but may not remember the details of the procedure. Common methods of conscious sedation include nitrous oxide (laughing gas) or oral sedatives.
3. Deep sedation or general anesthesia: This is rarely used in dental procedures, but may be necessary for patients who are extremely anxious or have special needs. It involves the administration of drugs that cause a state of unconsciousness and prevent the patient from feeling pain during the procedure.

Dental anesthesia is generally safe when administered by a qualified dentist or oral surgeon. However, as with any medical procedure, there are risks involved, including allergic reactions to the anesthetic drugs, nerve damage, and infection. Patients should discuss any concerns they have with their dentist before undergoing dental anesthesia.

Adult stem cells, also known as somatic stem cells, are undifferentiated cells found in specialized tissues or organs throughout the body of a developed organism. Unlike embryonic stem cells, which are derived from blastocysts and have the ability to differentiate into any cell type in the body (pluripotency), adult stem cells are typically more limited in their differentiation potential, meaning they can only give rise to specific types of cells within the tissue or organ where they reside.

Adult stem cells serve to maintain and repair tissues by replenishing dying or damaged cells. They can divide and self-renew over time, producing one daughter cell that remains a stem cell and another that differentiates into a mature, functional cell type. The most well-known adult stem cells are hematopoietic stem cells, which give rise to all types of blood cells, and mesenchymal stem cells, which can differentiate into various connective tissue cells such as bone, cartilage, fat, and muscle.

The potential therapeutic use of adult stem cells has been explored in various medical fields, including regenerative medicine and cancer therapy. However, their limited differentiation capacity and the challenges associated with isolating and expanding them in culture have hindered their widespread application. Recent advances in stem cell research, such as the development of techniques to reprogram adult cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), have opened new avenues for studying and harnessing the therapeutic potential of these cells.

Maxillary fractures, also known as Le Fort fractures, are complex fractures that involve the upper jaw or maxilla. Named after the French surgeon René Le Fort who first described them in 1901, these fractures are categorized into three types (Le Fort I, II, III) based on the pattern and level of bone involvement.

1. Le Fort I fracture: This type of maxillary fracture involves a horizontal separation through the lower part of the maxilla, just above the teeth's roots. It often results from direct blows to the lower face or chin.

2. Le Fort II fracture: A Le Fort II fracture is characterized by a pyramidal-shaped fracture pattern that extends from the nasal bridge through the inferior orbital rim and maxilla, ending at the pterygoid plates. This type of fracture usually results from forceful impacts to the midface or nose.

3. Le Fort III fracture: A Le Fort III fracture is a severe craniofacial injury that involves both the upper and lower parts of the face. It is also known as a "craniofacial dysjunction" because it separates the facial bones from the skull base. The fracture line extends through the nasal bridge, orbital rims, zygomatic arches, and maxilla, ending at the pterygoid plates. Le Fort III fractures typically result from high-impact trauma to the face, such as car accidents or assaults.

These fractures often require surgical intervention for proper alignment and stabilization of the facial bones.

A dental assistant is a healthcare professional who works under the direction of a dentist and provides patient care, takes and develops x-rays, assists the dentist during procedures, performs infection control procedures, and helps with office management. They may also provide education to patients on oral hygiene and other dental health topics. Dental assistants must be trained and certified in many states and are an important part of the dental care team.

Continuing dental education (CDE) refers to the ongoing education and training that dentists and other oral health professionals engage in after completing their initial professional degrees. The purpose of CDE is to help these professionals stay current with advances in dental technology, research, and patient care so they can continue to provide the highest quality of care to their patients.

CDE programs may cover a wide range of topics, including new techniques for treating oral diseases, advances in dental materials and equipment, ethical issues in dental practice, and strategies for managing a successful dental practice. These programs may take many forms, such as lectures, workshops, seminars, online courses, or hands-on training sessions.

In most states, dentists are required to complete a certain number of CDE credits each year in order to maintain their licensure. This helps ensure that all dental professionals are up-to-date on the latest research and best practices in their field, which ultimately benefits patients by promoting better oral health outcomes.

Dental implants are artificial tooth roots that are surgically placed into the jawbone to replace missing or extracted teeth. They are typically made of titanium, a biocompatible material that can fuse with the bone over time in a process called osseointegration. Once the implant has integrated with the bone, a dental crown, bridge, or denture can be attached to it to restore function and aesthetics to the mouth.

Dental implants are a popular choice for tooth replacement because they offer several advantages over traditional options like dentures or bridges. They are more stable and comfortable, as they do not rely on adjacent teeth for support and do not slip or move around in the mouth. Additionally, dental implants can help to preserve jawbone density and prevent facial sagging that can occur when teeth are missing.

The process of getting dental implants typically involves several appointments with a dental specialist called a prosthodontist or an oral surgeon. During the first appointment, the implant is placed into the jawbone, and the gum tissue is stitched closed. Over the next few months, the implant will fuse with the bone. Once this process is complete, a second surgery may be necessary to expose the implant and attach an abutment, which connects the implant to the dental restoration. Finally, the crown, bridge, or denture is attached to the implant, providing a natural-looking and functional replacement for the missing tooth.

The nasal cavity is the air-filled space located behind the nose, which is divided into two halves by the nasal septum. It is lined with mucous membrane and is responsible for several functions including respiration, filtration, humidification, and olfaction (smell). The nasal cavity serves as an important part of the upper respiratory tract, extending from the nares (nostrils) to the choanae (posterior openings of the nasal cavity that lead into the pharynx). It contains specialized structures such as turbinate bones, which help to warm, humidify and filter incoming air.

Dental materials are substances that are used in restorative dentistry, prosthodontics, endodontics, orthodontics, and preventive dentistry to restore or replace missing tooth structure, improve the function and esthetics of teeth, and protect the oral tissues from decay and disease. These materials can be classified into various categories based on their physical and chemical properties, including metals, ceramics, polymers, composites, cements, and alloys.

Some examples of dental materials include:

1. Amalgam: a metal alloy used for dental fillings that contains silver, tin, copper, and mercury. It is strong, durable, and resistant to wear but has been controversial due to concerns about the toxicity of mercury.
2. Composite: a tooth-colored restorative material made of a mixture of glass or ceramic particles and a bonding agent. It is used for fillings, veneers, and other esthetic dental treatments.
3. Glass ionomer cement: a type of cement used for dental restorations that releases fluoride ions and helps prevent tooth decay. It is often used for fillings in children's teeth or as a base under crowns and bridges.
4. Porcelain: a ceramic material used for dental crowns, veneers, and other esthetic restorations. It is strong, durable, and resistant to staining but can be brittle and prone to fracture.
5. Gold alloy: a metal alloy used for dental restorations that contains gold, copper, and other metals. It is highly biocompatible, corrosion-resistant, and malleable but can be expensive and less esthetic than other materials.
6. Acrylic resin: a type of polymer used for dental appliances such as dentures, night guards, and orthodontic retainers. It is lightweight, flexible, and easy to modify but can be less durable than other materials.

The choice of dental material depends on various factors, including the location and extent of the restoration, the patient's oral health status, their esthetic preferences, and their budget. Dental professionals must consider these factors carefully when selecting the appropriate dental material for each individual case.

Dental radiography is a specific type of imaging that uses radiation to produce detailed images of the teeth, bones, and soft tissues surrounding them. It is a crucial tool in dental diagnostics and treatment planning. There are several types of dental radiographs, including:

1. Intraoral Radiographs: These are taken inside the mouth and provide detailed images of individual teeth or small groups of teeth. They can help detect cavities, assess periodontal health, plan for restorations, and monitor tooth development in children. Common types of intraoral radiographs include bitewing, periapical, and occlusal radiographs.
2. Extraoral Radiographs: These are taken outside the mouth and provide images of larger areas, such as the entire jaw or skull. They can help diagnose issues related to the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), detect impacted teeth, assess bone health, and identify any abnormalities in the facial structure. Common types of extraoral radiographs include panoramic, cephalometric, and sialography radiographs.
3. Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT): This is a specialized type of dental radiography that uses a cone-shaped X-ray beam to create detailed 3D images of the teeth, bones, and soft tissues. It is particularly useful in planning complex treatments such as dental implants, orthodontic treatment, and oral surgery.

Dental radiographs are typically taken using a specialized machine that emits a low dose of radiation. Patients are provided with protective lead aprons to minimize exposure to radiation. The frequency of dental radiographs depends on the patient's individual needs and medical history. Dentists follow strict guidelines to ensure that dental radiography is safe and effective for their patients.

Tooth exfoliation is not a term that is commonly used in dental or medical literature. However, I believe you may be referring to the natural process of tooth loss that occurs with the shedding of primary (baby) teeth to make way for permanent (adult) teeth. This process is also known as physical or physiological tooth exfoliation.

Exfoliation in this context refers to the separation and shedding of the primary tooth's root from the underlying permanent tooth, allowing the permanent tooth to erupt into its proper position. The primary tooth becomes loose due to the resorption of its roots by the developing permanent tooth beneath it. Eventually, the primary tooth falls out, making room for the adult tooth to emerge and take its place in the dental arch.

It is essential to maintain good oral hygiene during this process to prevent any potential complications such as infection or premature loss of primary teeth.

Dental models are replicas of a patient's teeth and surrounding oral structures, used in dental practice and education. They are typically created using plaster or other materials that harden to accurately reproduce the shape and position of each tooth, as well as the contours of the gums and palate. Dental models may be used for a variety of purposes, including treatment planning, creating custom-fitted dental appliances, and teaching dental students about oral anatomy and various dental procedures. They provide a tactile and visual representation that can aid in understanding and communication between dentists, patients, and other dental professionals.

"Dental, Graduate Education" refers to the post-baccalaureate programs of study and training that lead to an advanced degree in the field of dentistry. These programs are designed to prepare students for specialized dental practice, research, or teaching careers. Examples of graduate dental degrees include:

1. Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS): A professional doctoral degree that qualifies the graduate to practice general dentistry.
2. Doctor of Medical Dentistry (DMD): A professional doctoral degree equivalent to the DDS; awarded by some universities in the United States and several other countries.
3. Master of Science (MS) in Dentistry: An academic master's degree focused on research, teaching, or advanced clinical practice in a specific dental discipline.
4. Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in Dental Sciences: A research-oriented doctoral degree that prepares students for careers in academia, research institutions, or the dental industry.
5. Specialty Training Programs: Postgraduate residency programs that provide advanced training in one of the nine recognized dental specialties, such as orthodontics, oral and maxillofacial surgery, or pediatric dentistry. These programs typically lead to a certificate or a master's degree in the respective specialty area.

Graduate dental education usually involves a combination of classroom instruction, laboratory work, clinical experience, and research. Admission to these programs typically requires a DDS or DMD degree from an accredited dental school and satisfactory scores on the Dental Admission Test (DAT).

According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), stem cells are "initial cells" or "precursor cells" that have the ability to differentiate into many different cell types in the body. They can also divide without limit to replenish other cells for as long as the person or animal is still alive.

There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells, which come from human embryos, and adult stem cells, which are found in various tissues throughout the body. Embryonic stem cells have the ability to differentiate into all cell types in the body, while adult stem cells have more limited differentiation potential.

Stem cells play an essential role in the development and repair of various tissues and organs in the body. They are currently being studied for their potential use in the treatment of a wide range of diseases and conditions, including cancer, diabetes, heart disease, and neurological disorders. However, more research is needed to fully understand the properties and capabilities of these cells before they can be used safely and effectively in clinical settings.

Dental ethics refers to the principles and rules that guide the conduct of dental professionals in their interactions with patients, colleagues, and society. These ethical standards are designed to promote trust, respect, and fairness in dental care, and they are often based on fundamental ethical principles such as autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice.

Autonomy refers to the patient's right to make informed decisions about their own health care, free from coercion or manipulation. Dental professionals have an obligation to provide patients with accurate information about their dental conditions and treatment options, so that they can make informed choices about their care.

Beneficence means acting in the best interests of the patient, and doing what is medically necessary and appropriate to promote their health and well-being. Dental professionals have a duty to provide high-quality care that meets accepted standards of practice, and to use evidence-based treatments that are likely to be effective.

Non-maleficence means avoiding harm to the patient. Dental professionals must take reasonable precautions to prevent injuries or complications during treatment, and they should avoid providing unnecessary or harmful treatments.

Justice refers to fairness and equity in the distribution of dental resources and services. Dental professionals have an obligation to provide care that is accessible, affordable, and culturally sensitive, and to advocate for policies and practices that promote health equity and social justice.

Dental ethics also encompasses issues related to patient confidentiality, informed consent, research integrity, professional competence, and boundary violations. Dental professionals are expected to adhere to ethical guidelines established by their professional organizations, such as the American Dental Association (ADA) or the British Dental Association (BDA), and to comply with relevant laws and regulations governing dental practice.

Dental cavity preparation is the process of removing decayed and damaged tissue from a tooth and shaping the remaining healthy structure in order to prepare it for the placement of a filling or a crown. The goal of cavity preparation is to remove all traces of decay and create a clean, stable surface for the restoration to bond with, while also maintaining as much of the natural tooth structure as possible.

The process typically involves the use of dental drills and other tools to remove the decayed tissue and shape the tooth. The size and depth of the preparation will depend on the extent of the decay and the type of restoration that will be used. After the preparation is complete, the dentist will place the filling or crown, restoring the function and integrity of the tooth.

A "Dental Service, Hospital" is a specialized department or unit within a hospital that provides comprehensive dental care services to patients. This type of service is typically equipped with advanced dental technology and staffed by oral health professionals such as dentists, oral surgeons, orthodontists, endodontists, periodontists, and dental hygienists.

The dental services offered in a hospital setting may include preventive care, restorative treatments, oral surgery, prosthodontics (dentures and implants), periodontal therapy, endodontic treatment (root canals), orthodontic treatment, and specialized care for patients with medical conditions that affect their oral health.

Hospital dental services often provide care to patients who require complex or extensive dental treatments, have medical conditions that make it difficult to receive dental care in a traditional dental office setting, or those who are recovering from surgery or other medical procedures. They may also provide emergency dental care for patients with severe dental pain, infection, or trauma.

In summary, a "Dental Service, Hospital" is a specialized unit within a hospital that provides comprehensive dental care services to patients, typically offering advanced technology and staffed by oral health professionals.

The mandible, also known as the lower jaw, is the largest and strongest bone in the human face. It forms the lower portion of the oral cavity and plays a crucial role in various functions such as mastication (chewing), speaking, and swallowing. The mandible is a U-shaped bone that consists of a horizontal part called the body and two vertical parts called rami.

The mandible articulates with the skull at the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) located in front of each ear, allowing for movements like opening and closing the mouth, protrusion, retraction, and side-to-side movement. The mandible contains the lower teeth sockets called alveolar processes, which hold the lower teeth in place.

In medical terminology, the term "mandible" refers specifically to this bone and its associated structures.

A dentist is a healthcare professional who specializes in the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases and conditions that affect the oral cavity and maxillofacial region. This includes the teeth, gums, jaw, and related structures. Dentists are trained to provide a wide range of services, including:

1. Routine dental exams and cleanings
2. Fillings, crowns, and other restorative treatments
3. Root canals and extractions
4. Dental implants and dentures
5. Orthodontic treatment (braces, aligners)
6. Treatment of gum disease
7. Oral cancer screenings
8. Cosmetic dental procedures (teeth whitening, veneers)
9. Management of temporomandibular joint disorders (TMJ)
10. Emergency dental care

To become a dentist, one must complete a Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS) or Doctor of Medical Dentistry (DMD) degree from an accredited dental school and pass written and clinical exams to obtain licensure in their state. Many dentists also choose to specialize in a particular area of dentistry, such as orthodontics, oral surgery, or pediatric dentistry, by completing additional training and residency programs.

A dental society is a professional organization composed of dentists who have come together to promote and advance the practice of dentistry. These societies can be local, regional, national or international in scope and may include general dentists as well as specialists in various fields of dentistry. The members of dental societies often engage in continuing education, advocacy, research, and community service activities to improve oral health and the delivery of dental care. Additionally, dental societies may establish guidelines for ethical practice and provide resources and support for their members.

Dental technology refers to the application of science and engineering in dentistry to prevent, diagnose, and treat dental diseases and conditions. It involves the use of various equipment, materials, and techniques to improve oral health and enhance the delivery of dental care. Some examples of dental technology include:

1. Digital radiography: This technology uses digital sensors instead of traditional X-ray films to produce images of the teeth and supporting structures. It provides higher quality images, reduces radiation exposure, and allows for easier storage and sharing of images.
2. CAD/CAM dentistry: Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology is used to design and fabricate dental restorations such as crowns, bridges, and veneers in a single appointment. This technology allows for more precise and efficient production of dental restorations.
3. Dental implants: These are artificial tooth roots that are placed into the jawbone to replace missing teeth. They provide a stable foundation for dental restorations such as crowns, bridges, and dentures.
4. Intraoral cameras: These are small cameras that can be inserted into the mouth to capture detailed images of the teeth and gums. These images can be used for diagnosis, treatment planning, and patient education.
5. Laser dentistry: Dental lasers are used to perform a variety of procedures such as cavity preparation, gum contouring, and tooth whitening. They provide more precise and less invasive treatments compared to traditional dental tools.
6. 3D printing: This technology is used to create dental models, surgical guides, and custom-made dental restorations. It allows for more accurate and efficient production of dental products.

Overall, dental technology plays a crucial role in modern dentistry by improving the accuracy, efficiency, and quality of dental care.

Dental health surveys are epidemiological studies that aim to assess the oral health status and related behaviors of a defined population at a particular point in time. These surveys collect data on various aspects of oral health, including the prevalence and severity of dental diseases such as caries (tooth decay), periodontal disease (gum disease), and oral cancer. They also gather information on factors that influence oral health, such as dietary habits, oral hygiene practices, access to dental care, and socioeconomic status.

The data collected in dental health surveys are used to identify trends and patterns in oral health, plan and evaluate public health programs and policies, and allocate resources for oral health promotion and disease prevention. Dental health surveys may be conducted at the local, regional, or national level, and they can target specific populations such as children, adolescents, adults, or older adults.

The methods used in dental health surveys include clinical examinations, interviews, questionnaires, and focus groups. Clinical examinations are conducted by trained dentists or dental hygienists who follow standardized protocols to assess the oral health status of participants. Interviews and questionnaires are used to collect information on demographic characteristics, oral health behaviors, and attitudes towards oral health. Focus groups can provide insights into the perceptions and experiences of participants regarding oral health issues.

Overall, dental health surveys play a critical role in monitoring and improving the oral health of populations and reducing oral health disparities.

Dental fluorosis is a developmental disturbance of dental enamel caused by excessive exposure to fluoride during tooth development. It is characterized by hypomineralization of the enamel, resulting in various appearances ranging from barely noticeable white spots to brown staining and pitting of the teeth. The severity depends on the amount, duration, and timing of fluoride intake, as well as individual susceptibility. Mild dental fluorosis is typically asymptomatic but can affect the appearance of teeth, while severe cases may cause tooth sensitivity and increased susceptibility to tooth decay.

Dental licensure is the process by which a state or jurisdiction grants a dental professional the authority to practice dentistry within its borders. In order to obtain a dental license, individuals must meet certain education, examination, and other requirements established by the licensing body. These requirements typically include graduation from an accredited dental school, passing written and clinical examinations, and completion of continuing education courses.

The purpose of dental licensure is to protect the public by ensuring that dental professionals have the necessary knowledge, skills, and abilities to provide safe and effective dental care. Licensing boards are responsible for enforcing standards of practice and disciplining dentists who engage in unprofessional or unethical conduct.

It's important to note that dental licensure requirements may vary from state to state, so it's essential for dental professionals to familiarize themselves with the specific requirements of the state(s) in which they intend to practice.

Dental laboratories are specialized facilities where dental technicians create and manufacture various dental restorations and appliances based on the specific measurements, models, and instructions provided by dentists. These custom-made dental products are designed to restore or replace damaged, missing, or decayed teeth, improve oral function, and enhance the overall appearance of a patient's smile.

Some common dental restorations and appliances produced in dental laboratories include:

1. Dental crowns: Artificial caps that cover and protect damaged or weakened teeth, often made from ceramics, porcelain, metal alloys, or a combination of materials.
2. Dental bridges: Fixed or removable appliances used to replace one or more missing teeth by connecting artificial teeth (pontics) to adjacent natural teeth or dental implants.
3. Dentures: Removable prosthetic devices that replace all or most of the upper and/or lower teeth, providing improved chewing function, speech clarity, and aesthetics.
4. Orthodontic appliances: Devices used to correct malocclusions (improper bites) and misaligned teeth, such as traditional braces, clear aligners, palatal expanders, and retainers.
5. Custom dental implant components: Specialized parts designed for specific implant systems, which are used in conjunction with dental implants to replace missing teeth permanently.
6. Night guards and occlusal splints: Protective devices worn during sleep to prevent or manage bruxism (teeth grinding) and temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD).
7. Anti-snoring devices: Mandibular advancement devices that help reduce snoring by holding the lower jaw in a slightly forward position, preventing airway obstruction during sleep.
8. Dental whitening trays: Custom-fitted trays used to hold bleaching gel against tooth surfaces for professional teeth whitening treatments.
9. Specialty restorations: Including aesthetic veneers, inlays, onlays, and other customized dental solutions designed to meet specific patient needs.

Dental laboratories may be standalone facilities or part of a larger dental practice. They are typically staffed by skilled technicians who specialize in various aspects of dental technology, such as ceramics, orthodontics, implantology, and prosthodontics. Collaboration between dentists, dental specialists, and laboratory technicians ensures the highest quality results for patients undergoing restorative or cosmetic dental treatments.

The peritoneal cavity is the potential space within the abdominal and pelvic regions, bounded by the parietal peritoneum lining the inner aspect of the abdominal and pelvic walls, and the visceral peritoneum covering the abdominal and pelvic organs. It contains a small amount of serous fluid that allows for the gliding of organs against each other during normal physiological activities such as digestion and movement. This cavity can become pathologically involved in various conditions, including inflammation, infection, hemorrhage, or neoplasia, leading to symptoms like abdominal pain, distention, or tenderness.

Dentinal fluid refers to the fluid present within the dentinal tubules, which are tiny microscopic channels that run through the dentin layer of a tooth. Dentin is the hard, calcified tissue that lies beneath the tooth's enamel and cementum layers and forms the majority of the tooth's structure.

The dentinal fluid is primarily made up of water and various organic components, including proteins and other molecules. It flows through the dentinal tubules in response to changes in pressure or temperature, which can stimulate nerve endings within the dentin and cause a sensation of pain or discomfort. This phenomenon is known as dentinal hypersensitivity.

The movement of dentinal fluid also plays a role in the transmission of sensory information from the tooth to the nervous system, allowing us to perceive different sensations such as hot, cold, or pressure. Understanding the properties and behavior of dentinal fluid is important for developing effective treatments for dental conditions such as tooth sensitivity and decay.

Dental specialties are recognized areas of expertise in dental practice that require additional training and education beyond the general dentist degree. The American Dental Association (ADA) recognizes nine dental specialties:

1. Dental Public Health: This specialty focuses on preventing oral diseases and promoting oral health through population-level interventions, research, and policy development.
2. Endodontics: Endodontists are experts in diagnosing and treating tooth pain and performing root canal treatments to save infected or damaged teeth.
3. Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: This specialty involves the diagnosis and management of diseases that affect the oral cavity, jaws, and face, using clinical, radiographic, and microscopic examination techniques.
4. Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology: Oral and maxillofacial radiologists use advanced imaging technologies to diagnose and manage conditions affecting the head and neck region.
5. Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery: Oral surgeons perform surgical procedures on the face, jaws, and mouth, including tooth extractions, jaw alignment surgeries, and cancer treatments.
6. Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics: Orthodontists specialize in diagnosing and treating dental and facial irregularities, using appliances such as braces and aligners to straighten teeth and correct bite problems.
7. Pediatric Dentistry: Pediatric dentists are trained to care for the oral health needs of children, including those with special health care needs.
8. Periodontics: Periodontists diagnose and treat gum diseases, place dental implants, and perform surgical procedures to regenerate lost tissue and bone support around teeth.
9. Prosthodontics: Prosthodontists are experts in replacing missing teeth and restoring damaged or worn-out teeth using crowns, bridges, dentures, and implant-supported restorations.

A third molar is the most posterior of the three molars present in an adult human dental arch. They are also commonly known as wisdom teeth, due to their late eruption period which usually occurs between the ages of 17-25, a time traditionally associated with gaining maturity and wisdom.

Anatomically, third molars have four cusps, making them the largest of all the teeth. However, not everyone develops third molars; some people may have one, two, three or no third molars at all. In many cases, third molars do not have enough space to fully erupt and align properly with the rest of the teeth, leading to impaction, infection, or other dental health issues. As a result, third molars are often extracted if they cause problems or if there is a risk they will cause problems in the future.

Dental fees refer to the charges that dentists or dental professionals bill for their services, procedures, or treatments. These fees can vary based on several factors such as:

1. Location: Dental fees may differ depending on the region or country where the dental practice is located due to differences in cost of living and local market conditions.
2. Type of procedure: The complexity and duration of a dental treatment will impact the fee charged for that service. For example, a simple teeth cleaning will have a lower fee compared to more complex procedures like root canals or dental implants.
3. Dental professional's expertise and experience: Highly skilled and experienced dentists may charge higher fees due to their superior level of knowledge and proficiency in performing various dental treatments.
4. Type of dental practice: Fees for dental services at a private practice may differ from those charged by a community health center or non-profit organization.
5. Dental insurance coverage: The amount of coverage provided by a patient's dental insurance plan can also affect the final out-of-pocket cost for dental care, which in turn influences the fees that dentists charge.

Dental fee schedules are typically established by individual dental practices based on these factors and may be periodically updated to reflect changes in costs or market conditions. Patients should consult their dental providers to understand the specific fees associated with any recommended treatments or procedures.

Porphyromonas endodontalis is a gram-negative, black-pigmented anaerobic bacterium that is commonly found in the oral cavity and is associated with periodontal disease and endodontic infections. It is a member of the Bacteroidetes phylum and Human Oral Microbiome Database (HOMD).

The bacterium has a polarly flagellated, curved or spiral-shaped morphology and can form biofilms on dental surfaces. P. endodontalis is asaccharolytic, meaning it cannot ferment sugars, and obtains energy by degrading amino acids and proteins.

P. endodontalis has been implicated in the development of periodontal disease due to its ability to produce virulence factors such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), fimbriae, and various enzymes that contribute to tissue destruction and inflammation. It is also associated with apical periodontitis, an infection of the dental pulp and surrounding tissues, and has been isolated from root canals and periapical abscesses.

Effective control and prevention of P. endodontalis infections require good oral hygiene practices, regular dental check-ups, and appropriate treatment of periodontal disease and endodontic infections.

Calcium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ca(OH)2. It is also known as slaked lime or hydrated lime. Calcium hydroxide is a white, odorless, tasteless, and alkaline powder that dissolves in water to form a caustic solution.

Medically, calcium hydroxide is used as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid and relieve symptoms of heartburn, indigestion, and upset stomach. It is also used as a topical agent to treat skin conditions such as poison ivy rash, sunburn, and minor burns. When applied to the skin, calcium hydroxide helps to reduce inflammation, neutralize irritants, and promote healing.

In dental applications, calcium hydroxide is used as a filling material for root canals and as a paste to treat tooth sensitivity. It has the ability to stimulate the formation of new dentin, which is the hard tissue that makes up the bulk of the tooth.

It's important to note that calcium hydroxide should be used with caution, as it can cause irritation and burns if it comes into contact with the eyes or mucous membranes. It should also be stored in a cool, dry place away from heat and open flames.

Cell differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell, or stem cell, becomes a more specialized cell type with specific functions and structures. This process involves changes in gene expression, which are regulated by various intracellular signaling pathways and transcription factors. Differentiation results in the development of distinct cell types that make up tissues and organs in multicellular organisms. It is a crucial aspect of embryonic development, tissue repair, and maintenance of homeostasis in the body.

A dental technician is a healthcare professional who designs, fabricates, and repairs custom-made dental devices, such as dentures, crowns, bridges, orthodontic appliances, and implant restorations. They work closely with dentists and other oral health professionals to meet the individual needs of each patient. Dental technicians typically have an associate's degree or certificate in dental technology and may be certified by a professional organization. Their work requires a strong understanding of dental materials, fabrication techniques, and the latest advances in dental technology.

Forensic dentistry, also known as forensic odontology, is a specialty in forensic science that involves the examination, identification, and evaluation of dental evidence for legal purposes. It encompasses various aspects such as:

1. Identification of deceased individuals through dental records comparison (e.g., during mass disasters or unidentified human remains).
2. Analysis of bite marks found on victims or objects related to criminal investigations.
3. Assessment of age, sex, ancestry, and other personal characteristics based on dental features.
4. Examination of cases of abuse, neglect, or malpractice in dentistry.
5. Evaluation of occupational dental injuries and diseases.

Forensic dentists often work closely with law enforcement agencies, medical examiners, and other legal professionals to provide expert testimony in court proceedings.

Practice management in dentistry refers to the administration and operation of a dental practice. It involves various aspects such as:

1. Business Operations: This includes financial management, billing and coding, human resources, and office management.

2. Patient Care: This includes scheduling appointments, managing patient records, treatment planning, and ensuring quality care.

3. Marketing and Promotion: This includes advertising the practice, attracting new patients, and maintaining relationships with existing ones.

4. Compliance: This includes adhering to laws and regulations related to dental practices, such as HIPAA for patient privacy and OSHA for workplace safety.

5. Continuous Improvement: This involves regularly assessing the practice's performance, implementing changes to improve efficiency and effectiveness, and keeping up-to-date with advancements in dentistry and healthcare management.

The goal of dental practice management is to ensure the smooth running of the practice, provide high-quality patient care, and maintain a successful and profitable business.

A bicuspid valve, also known as a mitral valve in the heart, is a heart valve that has two leaflets or cusps. It lies between the left atrium and the left ventricle and helps to regulate blood flow between these two chambers of the heart. In a healthy heart, the bicuspid valve opens to allow blood to flow from the left atrium into the left ventricle and closes tightly to prevent blood from flowing back into the left atrium during contraction of the ventricle.

A congenital heart defect known as a bicuspid aortic valve occurs when the aortic valve, which normally has three leaflets or cusps, only has two. This can lead to narrowing of the valve (aortic stenosis) or leakage of the valve (aortic regurgitation), which can cause symptoms and may require medical treatment.

Analog-digital conversion, also known as analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) or digitization, is the process of converting a continuous physical quantity or analog signal into a discrete numerical representation or digital signal. This process typically involves sampling the analog signal at regular intervals and then quantizing each sample by assigning it to a specific numerical value within a range. The resulting digital signal can be processed, stored, and transmitted more easily than an analog signal. In medical settings, this type of conversion is often used in devices such as electrocardiograms (ECGs) and blood pressure monitors to convert physiological signals into digital data that can be analyzed and interpreted by healthcare professionals.

Physiologic calcification is the normal deposit of calcium salts in body tissues and organs. It is a natural process that occurs as part of the growth and development of the human body, as well as during the repair and remodeling of tissues.

Calcium is an essential mineral that plays a critical role in many bodily functions, including bone formation, muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and blood clotting. In order to maintain proper levels of calcium in the body, excess calcium that is not needed for these functions may be deposited in various tissues as a normal part of the aging process.

Physiologic calcification typically occurs in areas such as the walls of blood vessels, the lungs, and the heart valves. While these calcifications are generally harmless, they can sometimes lead to complications, particularly if they occur in large amounts or in sensitive areas. For example, calcification of the coronary arteries can increase the risk of heart disease, while calcification of the lung tissue can cause respiratory symptoms.

It is important to note that pathologic calcification, on the other hand, refers to the abnormal deposit of calcium salts in tissues and organs, which can be caused by various medical conditions such as chronic kidney disease, hyperparathyroidism, and certain infections. Pathologic calcification is not a normal process and can lead to serious health complications if left untreated.

"Dental Pulp Cavity Definition". Berggreen E, Bletsa A, Heyeraas KJ (September 2007). "Circulation in normal and inflamed dental ... Yu, C; Abbott, PV (2007). "An overview of the dental pulp: its functions and responses to injury". Australian Dental Journal. ... "Early detection of pulp necrosis and dental vitality after traumatic dental injuries in children and adolescents by 3-Tesla ... Dental Caries Dental Trauma Dental Treatment Pulpitis Infection The influx of bacteria and growth of a carious lesion (if gross ...
Zinc oxide eugenol can be used as linings in deep cavities without causing harm to the pulp, due to its obtundant effect on the ... Dental restorative materials are used to replace tooth structure loss, usually due to dental caries (cavities), but also tooth ... Dental lining materials are used during restorations of large cavities, and are placed between the remaining tooth structure ... Another layer might be applied if the cavity is very large and deep. There are many functions to dental lining materials, some ...
The dental pulp is essentially a mature dental papilla. The development of dental pulp can also be split into two stages: ... The overall pulp cavity may become smaller by the addition of secondary or tertiary dentin and cause pulp recession. The lack ... The dental papilla is the origin of dental pulp. Cells at the periphery of the dental papilla undergo cell division and ... Dental pulp stem cells Dental pulp test "Endodontium". Archived from the original on 2017-02-20. Retrieved 2013-07-23. ...
Root canal treatment is a dental procedure used to treat infected tooth pulp which would be otherwise extracted. The pulp is ... This is usually caused when bacteria enter the pulp through a deep cavity or failed filling. Root canal treatment is required ... or all of the dental pulp in health, or removing all of the pulp in irreversible disease. This includes teeth with irreversibly ... is the dental specialty concerned with the study and treatment of the dental pulp. Endodontics encompasses the study (practice ...
... dentin and dental pulp are formed from ectomesenchyme which is derived from ectoderm (specifically neural crest cells and ... Epithelium of the mouth and nasal cavity and glands of the mouth and nasal cavity Tooth enamel (as a side note, ...
Pulp mark/dental star: After some wear has occurred on the teeth, the central pulp cavity is exposed, and the tooth is marked ... by a "dental star" or "pulp mark" that is smaller than the incisor cups. These begin as a dark line in front of the dental cup ... To help prevent dental problems, it is recommended to get a horse's teeth checked by a vet or equine dental technician every 6 ... Like all mammals, horses can develop a variety of dental problems, with a variety of dental services available to minimise ...
... or by a deep cavity that reaches the center of the tooth causing the pulp to die. When dental caries is removed from a tooth, ... Pulp capping is a technique used in dental restorations to prevent the dental pulp from necrosis, after being exposed, or ... To prevent the pulp from deteriorating when a dental restoration gets near the pulp, the dentist will place a small amount of a ... The ultimate goal of pulp capping or stepwise caries removal is to protect a healthy dental pulp and avoid the need for root ...
Seltzer and Bender's Dental Pulp. Quintessence, 2002 Eugene Chen and Paul V. Abbott, "Dental Pulp Testing: A Review," ... When the pulp becomes inflamed, pressure begins to build up in the pulp cavity, exerting pressure on the nerve of the tooth and ... In addition, dental caries is more likely to develop pulpitis due to less time for the dental pulp to react and protect itself ... Therefore, test cavities are not generally used in practice as a means of testing pulp sensibility. Once the pulp has become ...
A root canal filling, for example, is a restorative technique used to fill the space where the dental pulp normally resides. ... They can be used in direct restorations to fill in the cavities created by dental caries and trauma, minor buildup for ... Medicine portal Dental curing light Dental dam Dental fear Dental braces Dental treatment Fixed prosthodontics Gold teeth Oral ... The process of preparation usually involves cutting the tooth with a rotary dental handpiece and dental burrs, a dental laser, ...
A compound odontoma consists of the four separate dental tissues (enamel, dentine, cementum and pulp) embedded in fibrous ... Bhargavan Sarojini S, Khosla E, Varghese T, Johnson Arakkal L (2014). "Eruption of odontomas into the oral cavity: a report of ... Specifically, it is a dental hamartoma, meaning that it is composed of normal dental tissue that has grown in an irregular way ... Though most cases are found impacted within the jaw there are instances where odontomas have erupted into the oral cavity. ...
ART can be used for small, medium and deep cavities (where decay has not reached the tooth nerve dental pulp) caused by dental ... If too deep and close to the pulp, only the soft decayed tissue is removed from the cavity floor to avoid the risk of pulp ... The filling seals the cavity preventing food debris and dental plaque stagnating inside the cavity. It also promotes ... dental hatchet and spoon-excavator) and placing a filling. It does not use rotary dental instruments (dental drills) to prepare ...
The test cavity technique is only used as a last resort when results produced by all other methods above are inconclusive. High ... Dental pulpal testing is a clinical and diagnostic aid used in dentistry to help establish the health of the dental pulp within ... Ehrmann, EH (August 1977). "Pulp testers and pulp testing with particular reference to the use of dry ice". Australian Dental ... The use of dual wavelength light establishes the contents within the pulp chamber. Chen, Eugene (September 2009). "Dental Pulp ...
Dentin is the substance between enamel or cementum and the pulp chamber. It is secreted by the odontoblasts of the dental pulp ... Leeds Dental Institute. Ophardt, Charles E. "Sugar and tooth decay", Elmhurst College. Dental Cavities, MedlinePlus Medical ... Dentistry Dental auxiliary Dental assistant Dental hygienist Dental technician Dental braces Dental notation Dental tourism ... American Dental Association. Introduction to Dental Plaque Archived 2011-08-27 at the Wayback Machine. Leeds Dental Institute. ...
... called dental pulp. The dental pulp is the tissue of which the dentin portion of the tooth is composed. The dental pulp helps ... Also, small cavities within the canal such as the buccal or lingual recesses may not be instrumented within the tooth, ... Root canal anatomy consists of the pulp chamber and root canals. Both contain the dental pulp. The smaller branches, referred ... The dental pulp also nourishes and hydrates the tooth structure, making the tooth more resilient, less brittle and less prone ...
In case of an infestation of the tooth pulp a treatment of the root canal is needed. "AVDS Cavities information page - Dog ... "Dental Caries". WikiVet. Retrieved 20 November 2013. Dvorsky, George (9 September 2021). "Scientists Discover Oldest Cavities ... Prehistoric primates eating fruit suffer from cavities. The term feline cavities is commonly used to refer to feline ... an increase of scratching in the face and renunciation of solid food could be signs for dental caries. A main reason for dental ...
Radiographically, a clear band of dentine should be able to be seen between the carious lesion and the dental pulp, the carious ... and there is a clear dentine bridge between the pulp and the cavity. Restoration of fractured primary molars In primary molars ... However, if the patient experiences pain/discomfort after the initial few days, consult your dental professional. A dental ... "The Australian and New Zealand journal of dental and oral health therapy / ADOHTA, New Zealand Dental Therapist' Association ...
... significant contributors to dental cavities. Dental restorations are susceptible to unacceptable colour change even when using ... Dental trauma which may cause staining either as a result of pulp necrosis or internal resorption. Alternatively the tooth may ... Dental Materials. 20 (9): 852-861. doi:10.1016/j.dental.2004.04.002. ISSN 0109-5641. PMID 15451241. American Dental Association ... Bleaching agents are only allowed to be given by dental practitioners, dental therapists, and dental hygienists. Bleaching is ...
A pulp polyp may be found in an open carious lesion (tooth cavity), a fractured tooth, or within a cavity with a missing dental ... A pulp polyp, also known as chronic hyperplastic pulpitis, is a "productive" (i.e., growing) inflammation of dental pulp in ... To differentiate from a polyp of gingival origin, the pulp polyp may be lifted from the walls of the cavity with an excavator ... Clinically, pulp polyps present as a small, pink-red, lobulated mass protruding from the pulp chamber and filling or ...
... circumscribed areas of bacterial infection originating from either dental pulp, periodontal tissues surrounding the involved ... This infection may then proliferate coronally to communicate with the margin of the alveolar bone and the oral cavity by ... infection from the pulp tissue within a tooth may spread into the bone immediately surrounding the tip, or apex, or the tooth ...
Dental caries, also known as tooth decay and cavities, is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases among children worldwide. ... In pulp therapy, areas of decay and infected pulp tissue are removed, then the pulp is sealed with medicaments. Medicaments are ... Treatment options include: Indirect pulp capping (IPC) Direct pulp capping (DPC) Pulpotomy Pulpectomy Indirect pulp capping ( ... The entire coronal pulp is removed and the radicular pulp bleeding is stopped. The remaining radicular pulp is treated with a ...
By doing so, the bacterium can elude the host's immune system and infect the dental pulp more deeply. Additionally, P. ... This genus was first reported in the oral cavity and is found specifically in the salivary microbiome. Porphyromonas are also ... The diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of conditions that affect the dental pulp-the soft tissue inside the tooth that ... It has been isolated from infected dental root canals and submucous abscesses of endodontal origin. Dental root canal ...
However, in the case of dental decay, aesthetic concerns or defects close to the pulp a restoration may be completed. Further ... There are several reasons to treat abrasion lesion(s) (also known as 'Class V cavity') such as: Sensitivity. Presence of ... If abrasion is the result of an ill-fitting dental appliance, this should be corrected or replaced by a dental practitioner and ... Evidence suggest there is a decrease in the effect of dental abrasion with dental erosion when fluoride varnish is applied onto ...
Dentinal tubules or dental canaliculi: minute channels in the dentine of a tooth that extend from the pulp cavity to the ... any of the excretory organs in insects that lie in the abdominal body cavity and empty into the junction between the midgut and ...
Inflammation of the dental pulp, termed pulpitis, produces true hypersensitivity of the nerves in the dental pulp. Pulpitis is ... Animal research has demonstrated that potassium ions placed in deep dentin cavities cause nerve depolarization and prevent re- ... coolant water jet from a dental instrument. Electrical - electric pulp testers. Mechanical-tactile - dental probe during dental ... Movement of dentinal fluid away from the pulp can be caused by triggers such as cold and drying and movement towards the pulp ...
... the pressure from the dental explorer could cause a cavity. Since the carious process is reversible before a cavity is present ... In response to dental caries, there may be production of more dentin toward the direction of the pulp. This new dentin is ... and lack of access to professional dental care which may be expensive. The most common bacteria associated with dental cavities ... "cavity"). Before the cavity forms, the process is reversible, but once a cavity forms, the lost tooth structure cannot be ...
A crown may be needed when a large dental cavity threatens the health of a tooth. A crown is typically bonded to the tooth by ... CHRISTENSEN, GORDON J. (March 1997). "Tooth Preparation and Pulp Degeneration". The Journal of the American Dental Association ... In dentistry, a crown or a dental cap is a type of dental restoration that completely caps or encircles a tooth or dental ... ISBN 978-953-51-3593-7. Media related to Dental crowns at Wikimedia Commons Dental Health: Dental Crowns Videos from Sheffield ...
... flat wear facet on the occlusal surface of the tooth Test cavity which has an absence of pain sensation and has an empty pulp ... It is a challenging task to differentiate between a true periapical lesion and a normal periapical radiolucency of a dental ... Wide pulp horns (34%) Narrow pulp horns (22%) Constricted pulp horns (14%) Isolated pulp horn remnants (20%) No pulp horn (10 ... Occlusion, restoration, pulp and periapex assessment should be done yearly. When there is adequate pulp recession, tubercle can ...
Medicine portal American Association of Endodontists Dental implant Dental pulp Dentistry Gum inflammation Nickel titanium ... To minimise the risk of endodontic files fracturing: Ensure access cavity allows straight-line introduction of files into ... the dentist drills into the pulp chamber and removes the infected pulp. To eliminate bacteria from the pulp chamber and root ... The dentist may also remove just the coronal portion of the dental pulp, which contains 90% of the nerve tissue, and leave ...
In dogs, the teeth are less likely than humans to form dental cavities because of the very high pH of dog saliva, which ... In such a case, the 'skeleton' of the teeth would consist of the dentine, with a hollow pulp cavity. The organic part of ... ISBN 0-8343-0051-6 Dental Anatomy & Care for Rabbits and Rodents Brown, Susan. Rabbit Dental Diseases Archived 2007-10-14 at ... The growth or eruption is held in balance by dental abrasion from chewing a diet high in fiber. Rodents have upper and lower ...
... dental pellicle MeSH A14.549.167.900.260 - dental pulp MeSH A14.549.167.900.265 - dental pulp cavity MeSH A14.549.167.900.280 ... dental papilla MeSH A14.549.167.900.720.255 - dental sac MeSH A14.549.167.900.720.265 - enamel organ MeSH A14.549.167.900.750 ... dental cementum MeSH A14.549.167.900.255 - dental enamel MeSH A14.549.167.900.255.500 - ... MeSH A14.521.125 - alveolar process MeSH A14.521.125.800 - tooth socket MeSH A14.521.320 - dental arch MeSH A14.521.632 - ...
"Dental Pulp Cavity Definition". Berggreen E, Bletsa A, Heyeraas KJ (September 2007). "Circulation in normal and inflamed dental ... Yu, C; Abbott, PV (2007). "An overview of the dental pulp: its functions and responses to injury". Australian Dental Journal. ... "Early detection of pulp necrosis and dental vitality after traumatic dental injuries in children and adolescents by 3-Tesla ... Dental Caries Dental Trauma Dental Treatment Pulpitis Infection The influx of bacteria and growth of a carious lesion (if gross ...
Dental cavities are holes (or structural damage) in the teeth. ... Dental cavities are holes (or structural damage) in the teeth. ... A root canal is recommended if the pulp is exposed to bacteria, or if the nerve in a tooth dies from decay or injury. The ... Dental x-rays may show some cavities before they can be seen just by just looking at the teeth. ... Dental sealants can prevent some cavities. Sealants are thin plastic-like coatings applied to the chewing surfaces of the ...
View our dental topics specific to caring for a childs teeth that are important for parents. ... Dental caries (cavities) and traumatic injury are the main reasons for a tooth to require pulp therapy. Pulp therapy is often ... What Is Pulp Therapy?. The pulp of a tooth is the inner, central core of the tooth. The pulp contains nerves, blood vessels, ... Without them, certain dental conditions can and will be missed.. Radiographs detect much more than cavities. For example, ...
Dental caries, Periodontal disease, and tooth fracture are the three main factor for tooth loss. ... Rapidly increasing Dental cavities and periodontal diseases are the major drivers in the Tooth Regenerations market. The global ... The tooth is a biological organ and consists of multiple tissues including the cementum, dentin, enamel, and pulp. Dental ... Tooth Regeneration is the specialty concerned with the treatment of dental diseases such as a cavity, periodontal disease and ...
... diseases are broadly divided into reversible and irreversible pulpitis and are based on the ability of the inflamed dental pulp ... The pulp polyp, also known as chronic hyperplastic pulpitis or proliferative pulpitis, is an uncommon and specific type of ... Furthermore, because the tooth is open to the oral cavity, transudates and exudates from the inflamed pulpal tissue drain ... Pulp polyps involving the primary, first, and second mandibular molars in a young child with extensive dental caries. View ...
The molar features a longitudinal section through the crown, two roots and the pulp cavity.Depicting functions and locations, ... Giant molar with dental cavities on stand.. Accessories information: For information about 3B smart anatomy, please see the ... The molar features a longitudinal section through the crown, two roots and the pulp cavity.. ... The giant molar contains removable pulp and three tooth inserts with different stages of advanced cavities. ...
Dental Pulp Cavity *Pretraži slične. Endodontics *Pretraži slične. Root Canal Therapy *Pretraži slične ... The main goal of endodontic dental treatment is to remove the cause of the infection and create the preconditions for the ...
The aim of this study was to evaluate the variation of temperature on the dental pulp cavity when bleaching teeth using ... It could therefore be concluded that halogen light increased the temperature of the dental pulp cavity, whereas LED light ... Evaluation of the pulp chamber temperature during external dental bleaching with different light activation sources and ...
Dental, Digital, Facial Pain, Denture, Partial, Fixed, Denture, Partial, Removable, Dental Veneers, 28908, Dental Pulp Cavity, ... Dental, Oral Hygiene, Oral Medicine, Dental Instruments, Dental Equipment, Mouth Diseases, Dental Health Services, Mouth ... Dental, Oral Hygiene, Oral Medicine, Dental Instruments, Dental Equipment, Mouth Diseases, Dental Health Services, Mouth ... Dental, Oral Hygiene, Oral Medicine, Dental Instruments, Dental Equipment, Mouth Diseases, Dental Health Services, Mouth ...
Dental Pulp Cavity 36% * Tooth Apex 24% * ADHD in childhood predicts BMI and body composition measurements over time in a ... 2023, En: Dental and medical problems. 60, 1, p. 47-53 7 p.. Producción científica: Contribución a una revista › Artículo › ... PAPILLON-LEFÈVRE SYNDROME: 17-YEAR DENTAL FOLLOW-UP. CASE REPORT. Título traducido de la contribución. : Síndrome De Papillon- ... Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice. 24, 11, p. 821-825 5 p.. Producción científica: Contribución a una revista › Artículo ...
The NF-kB and Collagen Type 1 Expression in Dental Pulp after Treated Calcium Hydroxide Combined with Propolis. Pribadi, N., ... Combinations of propolis and Ca(OH)2 in dental pulp capping treatment for the stimulation of reparative dentin formation in a ... Dianawati, N., Setyarini, W., Widjiastuti, I., Ridwan, R. D. & Kuntaman, K., Mar 2020, In: Dental Journal. 53, 1, p. 36-39 4 p. ... Pribadi, N., Rosselle, V. R., Zubaidah, N. & Widjiastuti, I., 1 Jul 2020, In: Indian Journal of Dental Research. 31, 4, p. 557- ...
Dental Pulp Cavity 82% * Bacteria 50% * In Vitro Techniques 10% Powered by Pure, Scopus & Elsevier Fingerprint Engine™ ...
Dental Pulp Cavity 100% * Social Security 66% * Tooth 65% * Tooth Root 46% ... Journal of Dental Research. 100, 6, p. 608-614 7 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › peer-review ...
From the dental history, it was learned that the tooth had been treated by pulp mummification8 (also referred to as "mortal ... Case 4. (A) A fracture line running from the mesial surface to the distal side of a cavity of the maxillary right second molar ... From the dental history, it was learned that the tooth had been treated by pulp mummification previously. The clinical ... From the dental history, it was learned that the tooth had been treated by pulp mummification previously. The clinical ...
The scenario worsens if the cavity is deep and close to the nerve (pulp) causing intermittent pain. ... If left unattended with pulp exposed, the bacteria from our mouth would enter the pulp causing inflammation and toothache. ... When the nerve (pulp) is starting to die, it heightens its sensitivity to most symptoms. Thus, cold or hot substances which are ... Cracked or broken teeth due to trauma contribute towards exposure of dentine and pulp which requires intervention to remedy the ...
Procedure For Filling A Cavity. Prolonged pain may additionally indicate a tooth that has an infected pulp, and requires origin ... Tooth Cavities: Symptoms, Creates & Tooth Dental Fillings. Cavities: Signs And Symptoms, Creates & Tooth Dental Fillings If ... The majority of tooth cavities uncovered during a dental evaluation will certainly need to be treated. Early dental cavities ... Examining ones background of dental caries, currentdiet, and dental health may lead the dental practitioner to be more hostile ...
Dental Pulp Cavity, Endodontics, Ultrasom Temas de endodontia: Mecanismo de Ação dos Instrumentos Rotatórios em Níquel-Titânio. ... Tooth/anatomy & histology, Dental Pulp Cavity/anatomy & histology, Dentistry, Endodontics Temas de endodontia: Hidróxido de ... Education, Distance, Education, Dental, Lasers/22074, Educação contínua em odontologia, Laser em odontologia ... Education, Distance, Education, Dental, Lasers, Educação contínua em odontologia, Laser em odontologia ...
Can you recommend a research as a reference? Pulp capping is a technique used in dental restorations to prevent the dental pulp ... pulp, which includes nerves and blood vessels, treats cavities in the tooth (without exposing pulp) and places the protective ... 0000040387 00000 n Direct pulp cap. If the pulp shows no signs of infection, your dental professional can use a pulp cap ... Your dental professional will perform direct pulp capping when the healthy pulp becomes completely exposed. 2020 Jun 12;13(12): ...
It protects against plaque, gingivitis, sensitivity, and cavities. And its also the only toothpaste with the American Dental ... Is there dental store.. Best Dentists in Little Rock, AR - Arkansas Family Dental, Markham Street Dental, Little Rock Dentistry ... Dental bridges are a common alternative to dental implants for those with missing teeth. A dental bridge is made of crowns on ... Filed Under: Dental Health Tagged With: dental hygiene, Oral Health. Reader Interactions.The dental experts at Arkansas Family ...
... shows that non-linear optical imaging tools can significantly contribute to achieve a better understanding of oral cavity ... shows that nonlinear optical imaging tools can significantly contribute to achieve a better understanding of oral cavity ... MRI can be used for imaging pulp attached to the periodontal membrane, and obviously other soft tissues in the oral cavity. ... Hard and soft tissues of the oral cavity imaged with routinely used investigation techniques. (a) Panoramic dental radiograph. ...
The pulp fills not only the tooth canals but also its cavity. During root canal treatment, it must be removed completely to ... It is used for dental pulp inflammation. It can occur due to complications of untreated caries and developing bacteria. Tooth ... The pulp fills not only the tooth canals but also its cavity. During root canal treatment, it must be removed completely to ... It is used for dental pulp inflammation. It can occur due to complications of untreated caries and developing bacteria. Tooth ...
... is typically caused by advanced cavities but also may be due to pulp damage from extensive or defective previous dental work or ... Cavities Cavities Cavities are decayed areas in the teeth, the result of a process that gradually dissolves a tooths hard ... Pulp inflammation frequently causes the pulp to die. Once the pulp dies, pain ends briefly (for hours to weeks). Then, pain may ... Pulpitis Pulpitis Pulpitis is painful inflammation of the tooth pulp, the innermost part of the tooth that contains the nerves ...
Treatment of oral cavity electric burns. Cleanse an electric burn wound of the oral cavity with poloxamer 188 and then treat ... The injured tooth has a vital pulp, a shorter root than crown, and a wrinkled, pitted, brownish labial surface. Abnormal growth ... The earliest indication of these impending dental problems is forward protrusion of the upper lip beyond the reconstructed ... Oral cavity damage. Low-voltage electricity also can damage the oral cavity, leaving a permanent scar. These injuries occur ...
It is filled with the dental pulp that comprises the blood vessels and ner... ... Every single tooth in our mouth houses a central cavity called the root canal cavity. ... Every single tooth in our mouth houses a central cavity called the root canal cavity. It is filled with the dental pulp that ... A tiny hole will be made on the tooth using high-precision dental instruments to access the infected pulp. Using dental files ...
Dental barotrauma can be also be stratified by incidence. Faulty restorations and dental caries without pulp involvement were ... It is most commonly related to pulp disease or issues with restorations, including fillings in cavities and crowns. ... Vital pulp pathology accounted for 13.9% of the events. Finally, recent postoperative dental treatment was the cause 11.1% of ... As these are above the oral cavity, the sensation of pain usually involves the upper teeth and as it is frequently due to an ...
Whenever the tooth is decayed due to the cavity, a root canal treatment is done. This treatment involves cleaning the pulp area ... Discolored teeth can also be covered with a dental crown, or a dental bridge or implant. Be it any reason, a dental crown only ... How often should you get dental checkup?. Dental Checkup should be done every 6 months or biannually to detect any dental ... A dental crown usually lasts for a time period of seven years. In many cases, the dental crowns may even last for a period of ...
A cavity treatment involves filling the tooth with composite material, and then getting rid of decay. A root canal is a ... The bacteria that have gotten into the pulp may cause the rest of the tooth to die, if left untreated. A pulp infection can ... Previously Treated Root Canal Pulp Diagnosis. November 29, 2022. by Catherine Do I Really Need a Root Canal?. If you have a ... The need for a root canal is when bacteria have invaded or exposed the pulp. This is the most important of the tooths vital ...
  • Dental cavities are holes (or structural damage) in the teeth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Dental x-rays may show some cavities before they can be seen just by just looking at the teeth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Neglected cavities can and frequently do lead to problems which affect developing permanent teeth. (dentists4kids.com)
  • In another way instead of whole teeth regeneration, Different part of the teeth regenerates such as Enamel regeneration, Dentin regeneration, Pulp regeneration, and periodontal regeneration. (persistencemarketresearch.com)
  • Pulp polyp involving the permanent second mandibular molar in a young adult with multiple carious teeth. (medscape.com)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the variation of temperature on the dental pulp cavity when bleaching teeth using different external light sources and bleaching materials. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cracked or broken teeth due to trauma contribute towards exposure of dentine and pulp which requires intervention to remedy the problem. (intelligentdental.com)
  • Cavities: Signs And Symptoms, Creates & Tooth Dental Fillings If you're experiencing pain or pain in your teeth, your dentist may recommend getting a cavity filling. (digitaloceanspaces.com)
  • In some cases, tailored trays can be utilized while you sleep to deliver greater doses of fluoride and help reinforce teeth to avoid dental caries. (digitaloceanspaces.com)
  • You might additionally utilize a special toothpaste for sensitive teeth for some time, and attempt to stay clear of biting down directly on the dental filling. (digitaloceanspaces.com)
  • Compound dental fillings, also called tooth-colored or white fillings, are made from a composite resin product that is matched to the color of your natural teeth. (digitaloceanspaces.com)
  • Ceramic dental fillings, additionally referred to as porcelain dental fillings, are made from a tooth-colored material that blends in with the all-natural teeth. (digitaloceanspaces.com)
  • In general, all the structures in the oral cavity, including teeth and soft tissues will be at some point affected during one's life by various types of pathologies, or by age related modifications. (frontiersin.org)
  • Teeth are hard bony structures in the oral cavity that are variously modified to capture, tear, cut or grind food material before it is swallowed. (iaszoology.com)
  • Teeth develop over the jaw bone where certain malpighian cells start actively multiplying forming a mass of cells called dental lamina or enamel organ. (iaszoology.com)
  • Cavities are more likely to occur on the back teeth because these teeth have plenty of tiny grooves and pits for bacteria to hide in. (sanfranciscoaestheticdentistry.com)
  • If you have noticed any differences in the way your teeth look, are experiencing sensitivity or tooth pain, or are due for your next dental exam, Dr. Ayoub invites you to schedule an appointment at our San Francisco practice today. (sanfranciscoaestheticdentistry.com)
  • A root canal is considered a restorative procedure meant to help protect your teeth from damage that has occurred in the pulp, or insides of the teeth. (capitaldentalcenter.com)
  • Patients who practice good dental hygiene with regular teeth brushing and flossing will find the root canal lasts longer. (capitaldentalcenter.com)
  • Regular dental exams are the best way to take care of your teeth and discover weakened or damaged pulp in the teeth. (capitaldentalcenter.com)
  • Dental caries(cavities), chipped teeth, cracked dental fillings, and injury to the teeth can cause damage to the dental pulp. (anatomicaclinic.com)
  • Fractured teeth can expose the pulp. (anatomicaclinic.com)
  • Injury to the teeth can cause pulp damage even if there are no external signs of damage to the inside of the teeth. (anatomicaclinic.com)
  • At NYDC Dubai, our adept dental team combines expertise and compassionate care to reshape, whiten, and bridge teeth gaps. (nydcdubai.com)
  • A dentist's prime mission: safeguard your teeth for lasting dental health. (nydcdubai.com)
  • MTA was placed in the cavities of teeth belonging to the ProRoot MTA (MTA) and RetroMTA (RMTA) groups. (bvsalud.org)
  • For teeth belonging to the ProRoot + DBA (MTA-B) and RetroMTA + DBA (RMTA-B) groups, DBA was first applied to the cavities prior to the addition of MTA. (bvsalud.org)
  • In a Brazilian clinical study of traumatized primary teeth, the occurrence of pulp polyps was 2.3% in young children. (medscape.com)
  • Using cluster sampling techniques of form, function or position of the variations in the prevalence of dental 500 children (aged 4-6 years) were teeth, bones and tissues of the jaw and and soft tissue anomalies. (who.int)
  • Students who were aged only cause aesthetic problems but also Furthermore, since dental anomalies 4-12 years and showed good coopera- can lead to dental problems such as such as missing teeth, supernumerary tion during examination were recruited functional disorders, dental caries, pulp teeth and gemination problems are for the study. (who.int)
  • Naturally occurring deep grooves or clefts in the surface of teeth equivalent to class 1 cavities in Black's classification of dental caries. (bvsalud.org)
  • It is often the end result of many cases of dental trauma, caries and irreversible pulpitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dental caries, Periodontal disease, and tooth fracture are the three main factor for tooth loss. (persistencemarketresearch.com)
  • Dental caries is also known as tooth decay is the main oral health problems in most of the industrialized countries. (persistencemarketresearch.com)
  • The global Tooth Regenerations market is expected to be dominated by North America due to higher adoption and significant geriatrics population which also increase the demand for dental service for Dental caries and Periodontal disease. (persistencemarketresearch.com)
  • Pulp polyps involving the primary, first, and second mandibular molars in a young child with extensive dental caries. (medscape.com)
  • The pulp polyp is the result of both mechanical irritation and bacterial invasion into the pulp of a tooth that exhibits significant crown destruction due to trauma or caries. (medscape.com)
  • If you haven't had a dental caries filled up before, you might be questioning what the process includes and what products are made use of. (digitaloceanspaces.com)
  • Recognizing dental caries fillings, consisting of the kinds of materials made use of, the process, and aftercare, can help you https://nyc3.digitaloceanspaces.com/dentists/dental-health-tips/toothbrushes/youngsterss-oral-health-basics-childrens-oral-wellness-department-of-oral.html feel extra enlightened and comfy during your next dental visit. (digitaloceanspaces.com)
  • Staying clear of highly acidic foods, cold foods, and sticky foods for an evening after your dental caries will make certain the cavity seals completely and assist you stay clear of continuous pain and difficulties. (digitaloceanspaces.com)
  • Examining one's background of dental caries, currentdiet, and dental health may lead the dental practitioner to be more hostile or a lot more traditional with his suggestions. (digitaloceanspaces.com)
  • Besides toxic food, tobacco and alcohol, other environmental factors may also be responsible for the occurrence of various oral diseases, ranging from dental caries [ 1 , 2 ] to oral squamous cell carcinoma [ 3 - 5 ]. (frontiersin.org)
  • If dental caries are not treated in time, the decay spreads inwards into the tooth pulp causing nerve damage. (anatomicaclinic.com)
  • Although this lesion is reported to be uncommon with only isolated references in the literature, the true prevalence of this reactive pulpal disease is likely to be underestimated because it is a well-recognized sequela of extensive dental caries in children. (medscape.com)
  • Pulp polyps tend to be asymptomatic and are not associated with any significant morbidity or mortality except for gross caries destruction with premature tooth loss in many cases. (medscape.com)
  • Various interventions have been explored to limit caries activity leading to cavities, but little is known about the long-term effects and costs of these interventions. (cdc.gov)
  • Caries is the disease process that causes cavities (Figure 1). (cdc.gov)
  • Surcos o hendiduras naturales profundas en la superficie de los dientes equivalentes a las lesiones de clase 1 en la clasificación de las caries dentales de Black. (bvsalud.org)
  • Bacteria invade the pulp which causes the root canal system to become infected. (wikipedia.org)
  • A root canal is recommended if the pulp is exposed to bacteria, or if the nerve in a tooth dies from decay or injury. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If left unattended with pulp exposed, the bacteria from our mouth would enter the pulp causing inflammation and toothache. (intelligentdental.com)
  • Cracked dental fillings allow saliva and harmful bacteria to reach the root canal and infect the pulp. (anatomicaclinic.com)
  • This is to prevent fluids and bacteria from entering the cavity. (anatomicaclinic.com)
  • Biofilm is a thin, slimy film of bacteria that sticks to moist surfaces, such as those inside dental unit waterlines. (cdc.gov)
  • 1 As a result, high numbers of common water bacteria can be found in untreated dental unit water systems. (cdc.gov)
  • For all non-surgical dental treatment output water, dental health care personnel should use water that meets environmental protection agency regulatory standards for drinking water (i.e., ≤500 colony forming units (CFU)/mL of heterotrophic water bacteria). (cdc.gov)
  • 9,10 In reported cases, water samples taken from the dental clinics demonstrated levels of bacteria much higher than the recommended levels and reported breakdowns in infection prevention procedures to maintain and monitor dental water quality. (cdc.gov)
  • Multiple outbreaks of nontuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) infections have occurred in children who received pulpotomies in pediatric dental clinics where the dental treatment water contained high levels of bacteria. (cdc.gov)
  • Because of the potential to form biofilm, CDC recommends that all dental unit waterlines be treated regularly with disinfectants to meet the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulatory standards for drinking water (i.e., ≤500 colony forming units (CFU)/mL of heterotrophic water bacteria). (cdc.gov)
  • The tooth is a biological organ and consists of multiple tissues including the cementum, dentin, enamel, and pulp. (persistencemarketresearch.com)
  • Tooth regeneration not only regrowth the entire tooth but also the restoration of individual components of the tooth such as dentin, cementum, enamel and dental pulp and these individual regeneration process is anticipate the boost the market growth of tooth regeneration market. (persistencemarketresearch.com)
  • Early dental cavities that have not spread to the dentin or have actually gone through cavitation should not be treated, as they can be healed or re-mineralized with fluoride. (digitaloceanspaces.com)
  • When the nerves inside the tooth pulp die, the tooth dentin and enamel can no longer receive organic nutrients and moisture. (anatomicaclinic.com)
  • This study aimed to determine the impact of dentinal tubule orientation on dentin bond strength to provide a reference for clinical cavity preparation in resin-bonded restoration. (bvsalud.org)
  • Next, selective removal of the decayed dentin will be carried out, using manual instruments on the pulp wall of the cavity. (who.int)
  • Necrosis is a histological term that means death of the pulp. (wikipedia.org)
  • a collection of pus around the root of the tooth) may occur when infection leads to death of the pulp and inflammation develops around the root of the tooth. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Usage of composite (white) fillings could also cause post-treatment sensitivity as the placement of it could be rather technique sensitive which requires proper handling of dental materials. (intelligentdental.com)
  • These filling materials can be damaged down into 2 sorts of dental fillings, straight and indirect. (digitaloceanspaces.com)
  • Resin-based composite and glass ionomer dental fillings are less long lasting than amalgam dental fillings. (digitaloceanspaces.com)
  • The expense of dental fillings is directly tied to the material utilized, the degree of damages, and the surface covered. (digitaloceanspaces.com)
  • The pulp-capping component costs $75, but this does not include additional restorations (like fillings or dental crowns). (l-zebra.pl)
  • Less common options for cavity fillings include using ceramic and glass materials. (l-zebra.pl)
  • They are not nearly as strong as gold fillings, …At Shannon Family Dental Care, let our father daughter team of Dr. John and Dr. Jodi take care of your family at your hometown Jonesboro Dentist Office. (l-zebra.pl)
  • There are several reasons why your tooth may become irritated and inflamed, such as: deep decay, big fillings, trauma to the tooth, a chipped tooth or even repeated dental work. (anatomicaclinic.com)
  • The most common clinical signs present in a tooth with a necrosed pulp would be a grey discoloration of the crown and/or periapical radiolucency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further stages of destruction of pulp necrosis often leads to periapical pathosis, causing bone resorption (visible on radiographs) following bacterial invasion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The periapical lesion will enlarged with time and consequently, the pulp will be diagnosed as necrotic. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main goal of endodontic dental treatment is to remove the cause of the infection and create the preconditions for the healing of periapical tissues. (unizg.hr)
  • A root canal is the natural space or cavity within the tooth's center. (nydcdubai.com)
  • In contrast to most cases of irreversible pulpitis, the pulp polyp is usually an incidental finding that occasionally mimics reactive and neoplastic diseases of the gingiva and adjacent periodontium. (medscape.com)
  • The pulp can respond (reversible pulpitis, irreversible pulpitis, partial necrosis, total necrosis) in a variety of ways to irritants. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pulp polyp, also known as chronic hyperplastic pulpitis or proliferative pulpitis, is an uncommon and specific type of inflammatory hyperplasia that is associated with a nonvital tooth. (medscape.com)
  • Pulpal diseases are broadly divided into reversible and irreversible pulpitis and are based on the ability of the inflamed dental pulp to return to a healthy state once the noxious stimulus has been removed. (medscape.com)
  • Toothaches are usually caused by tooth decay (cavities) and its resulting consequences, such as pulpitis and abscess. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Tooth trauma can damage the pulp and cause pulpitis, an apical abscess, and sometimes discoloration of the tooth, which may begin soon after the injury or up to decades later. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Children's Dentistry.If you are having a dental emergency outside of business hours you may contact our office at 501-683-8886 to leave a message with our answering service and we will return your call as soon as possible. (l-zebra.pl)
  • Cosmetic Dentistry.Northwest Arkansas Family Dental - 659 E Appleby Rd, Fayetteville. (l-zebra.pl)
  • Experience the art of Prosthodontics, a facet of cosmetic dentistry aimed at revitalizing dental and facial aspects. (nydcdubai.com)
  • Biofilm occurs in dental unit waterlines because of the long, small-diameter tubing and low flow rates used in dentistry, the frequent periods of stagnation, and the potential for retraction of oral fluids. (cdc.gov)
  • 6 Biofilms occur in dental unit waterlines due to the long, small-diameter tubing and low flow rates used in dentistry and the frequent periods of stagnation. (cdc.gov)
  • Normal interstitial fluid pressure in the pulp ranges from 5-20mm Hg, marked increases in pressure in the pulp due to inflammation can go up to 60mm Hg. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following the spread of local inflammation, chemical mediators such as IL-8, IL-6 and IL-1 are released from necrotic tissues leading to further inflammation and odema, which advances to total necrosis of the pulp. (wikipedia.org)
  • inflammation of the tooth pulp) is typically caused by advanced cavities but also may be due to pulp damage from extensive or defective previous dental work or trauma. (msdmanuals.com)
  • If the damaged pulp is not treated, bacterial infection and inflammation can loosen the tooth and it may have to be removed. (anatomicaclinic.com)
  • Pulp necrosis is a clinical diagnostic category indicating the death of cells and tissues in the pulp chamber of a tooth with or without bacterial invasion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The possible role of a type 1 hypersensitivity reaction has been hypothesized because of an increased presence and concentration of immunoglobulin E (IgE), histamine, and interleukin-4 (IL-4) within the pulp polyps when compared with healthy pulpal tissues. (medscape.com)
  • The surveyed literature shows that non-linear optical imaging tools can significantly contribute to achieve a better understanding of oral cavity tissues, by allowing the accurate analysis of morphological structures and relevant biochemical processes. (frontiersin.org)
  • At present, various complementary imaging techniques are being used for characterizing hard and soft tissues in the oral cavity, each exhibiting its own strengths and limitations. (frontiersin.org)
  • When the nerve (pulp) is starting to die, it heightens its sensitivity to most symptoms. (intelligentdental.com)
  • Visit our office right away for a thorough dental exam if you are showing any of these symptoms. (capitaldentalcenter.com)
  • If these symptoms reveal inflamed and infected pulp inside the tooth then your dentist may recommend a root canal procedure. (anatomicaclinic.com)
  • Treatment of a pulp polyp in a permanent tooth includes either root canal therapy or extraction of the tooth. (medscape.com)
  • 1 Crown-root fractures are usually oblique and involve both the crown and root, splitting the crown and extending subgingivally to the root surface, and they are often complicated by pulp exposure and extensive loss of tooth structure. (allenpress.com)
  • Here at Capital Dental Center, we can provide all the necessary dental cleaning and exams, and discuss all your options if we determine a root canal is necessary. (capitaldentalcenter.com)
  • A root canal is a dental procedure we can perform in our office. (capitaldentalcenter.com)
  • Our team may decide that you need a root canal when we notice the soft inner pulp is injured. (capitaldentalcenter.com)
  • We will likely notice that the pulp is infected or inflamed during the exam, and we may choose to take a closer look at it to see whether you need a root canal or not. (capitaldentalcenter.com)
  • When you are ready to schedule an exam with our office and to discuss a root canal, contact Capital Dental Center at 202-978-8778. (capitaldentalcenter.com)
  • An endodontist performs root canal treatment to treat problems related to the soft inner pulp of a tooth. (anatomicaclinic.com)
  • Without root canal treatment, the infection in the tooth pulp can result in an abscess, which in turn can cause damage to the jawbone. (anatomicaclinic.com)
  • In the second step of the root canal procedure, the dentist will seal off the cleaned root canal cavity. (anatomicaclinic.com)
  • METHODS: The roots of 50 premolars were randomly divided into five groups (n = 10) and cavities were prepared from resected root surfaces. (bvsalud.org)
  • Pulp polyps are usually asymptomatic. (medscape.com)
  • Pulp polyps are reportedly uncommon in the United States, and no epidemiologic studies specifically document the frequency of this entity. (medscape.com)
  • Pulp polyps are uncommon in countries with routine access to dental care, but they are encountered more frequently in developing countries. (medscape.com)
  • citation needed] Tests for a necrotic pulp include: vitality testing using a thermal test or an electric pulp tester. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diagnosis and determination of the most appropriate treatment options are based on adjunctive tests, including response to percussion, thermal stimuli, and electric pulp testing. (medscape.com)
  • citation needed] The dental pulp is located in the centre of a tooth, made up of living connective tissue and cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pulp contains connective tissue, nerves, and blood vessels that are responsible for helping the tooth grow. (capitaldentalcenter.com)
  • If your child is complaining of a toothache, it might be because he or she has a large cavity. (adsmayfair.com)
  • The center of the tooth, including the nerve and blood vessel tissue (pulp), is removed along with decayed portions of the tooth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The scenario worsens if the cavity is deep and close to the nerve (pulp) causing intermittent pain. (intelligentdental.com)
  • The dental papilla inside the pulp cavity remains active along with its blood supply and nerve intact. (iaszoology.com)
  • This tissue also becomes ischaemic which suppresses the cellular metabolism in the area of the pulp that is affected. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pulp revascularization of an immature permanent tooth is another treatment approach that results in the formation of vital pulpal tissue. (medscape.com)
  • The hyperplastic tissue reaction occurs because the young dental pulp has a rich blood supply and favorable immune response that is more resistant to bacterial infection . (medscape.com)
  • Furthermore, because the tooth is open to the oral cavity, transudates and exudates from the inflamed pulpal tissue drain freely and do not accumulate within the restricted and rigid confines of the tooth. (medscape.com)
  • During a pulpotomy, we first remove damaged tissue, sterilize the area, and then replace the pulp with a medicated filling. (adsmayfair.com)
  • An untreated cavity can lead to an infection in the tooth called a tooth abscess . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Sequelae of a necrotic pulp include acute apical periodontitis, dental abscess or radicular cyst and discolouration of the tooth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oral hygiene is necessary to prevent cavities. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The pediatric dentist has an extra two to three years of specialized training after dental school, and is dedicated to the oral health of children from infancy through the teenage years. (dentists4kids.com)
  • This is why everyone has to locate a dental expert that echoes his/her ideology regarding aggressive versus conservative oral therapy. (digitaloceanspaces.com)
  • The oral cavity represents the first part of the digestive tract, and the main entry for nutrients and different environmental components in the human body. (frontiersin.org)
  • The appearance of cavities may cause pain and other consequent oral problems. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, these are not the most severed pathologies the oral cavity is exposed to. (frontiersin.org)
  • According to current data, half of all cancers in humans appear in the squamous epithelium, which is also lining the soft surfaces in the oral cavity [ 6 ]. (frontiersin.org)
  • More specifically, oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) represents about 90% of the malignant lesions developed in the oral cavity [ 7 ]. (frontiersin.org)
  • Educating kids about oral health is crucial, but expert dental care is equally essential. (nydcdubai.com)
  • A dental record is a combination of any written, oral, diagnostic artifact, or other transmission of information that identifies the patient and relates to his or her health care. (cdeworld.com)
  • In the case of the pulp polyp, the disease process is irreversible. (medscape.com)
  • These practices can lead to dental problems like cavities and discomfort. (nydcdubai.com)
  • X-rays may be taken yearly to detect possible cavity development in high-risk areas of the mouth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Radiographs detect much more than cavities. (dentists4kids.com)
  • Yes, in October 2022 CDC released a Health Advisory, Outbreaks of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Infections Highlight Importance of Maintaining and Monitoring Dental Waterlines to provide information about infections associated with contaminated water used during dental procedures. (cdc.gov)
  • In March 2022, CDC was notified of a new cluster of suspected NTM infections in children following dental procedures at a pediatric dental clinic. (cdc.gov)
  • In the initial stage of the infection, the pulp chamber is partially necrosed for a period of time and if left untreated, the area of cell death expands until the entire pulp necroses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pulp chamber provides nutrients to the tooth and houses its nerves. (nydcdubai.com)
  • If your tooth level of sensitivity after a dental filling is truly bothering you, an anti-inflammatory pain reliever like ibuprofen must help. (digitaloceanspaces.com)
  • Andreasen and Andreasen 1 noted that this procedure should be limited to superficial fractures that do not involve the pulp. (allenpress.com)
  • Different things may cause damage to the pulp and require this procedure. (capitaldentalcenter.com)
  • The goal sought when laughing gas is used is to eliminate dental anxiety, making the patient more comfortable while the sedation dentist is able to more effectively complete the planned dental care procedure while the patient is sedated. (concordsedationdentist.com)
  • The sedation dentist will talk with the patient throughout the dental care procedure and the individual will be able to respond without any problem. (concordsedationdentist.com)
  • Globally increasing incidence and prevalence of dental problems such as a cavity, periodontal disease, and tooth fracture are the major factors driving the growth of the Tooth Regenerations market. (persistencemarketresearch.com)
  • Cavities usually do not hurt, unless they grow very large and affect nerves or cause a tooth fracture. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This means using the lowest X-ray exposure necessary to achieve precise diagnostic results for all dental and medical patients. (southparkdentistry.com)
  • Prolonged pain may additionally indicate a tooth that has an infected pulp, and requires origin canal therapy. (digitaloceanspaces.com)
  • It is surrounded by a rigid, hard and dense layer of dentine which limits the ability of the pulp to tolerate excessive build up of fluid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epidermal cells of the dental lamina that cover the growing dentine are called ameloblasts . (iaszoology.com)
  • Tooth Regeneration is the specialty concerned with the treatment of dental diseases such as a cavity, periodontal disease and fracture of the tooth. (persistencemarketresearch.com)
  • Rapidly increasing Dental cavities and periodontal diseases are the major drivers in the Tooth Regenerations market. (persistencemarketresearch.com)
  • Contaminated water from dental units has been linked to outbreaks of Mycobacteria infections in children. (cdc.gov)
  • 7,8 Case reports also document infections with Mycobacteria and Legionella following endodontic procedures, third molar extractions, and general dental work. (cdc.gov)
  • In 2016, an outbreak occurred at a pediatric dental clinic in Orange County, California, with 71 patients identified as having odontogenic NTM infections following pulpotomy procedures. (cdc.gov)
  • In 2015, 24 cases of odontogenic NTM infections were reported in children receiving pulpotomy treatment from a pediatric dental clinic in Georgia. (cdc.gov)
  • The more conservative pulpotomy treatment has been successful in selected cases when only the coronal pulp is affected. (medscape.com)
  • Our goal is to provide you with quality, pain-free treatment for your long term dental health. (concordsedationdentist.com)
  • This same sensation may develop in the mouth - a benefit to the sedation dentist (and patient) during the dental care treatment. (concordsedationdentist.com)
  • Dental anomalies not sel patients who seek treatment ( 1 ). (who.int)
  • Dental providers should be familiar with these recommendations on how to properly maintain and monitor their dental equipment to ensure that dental treatment water is safe for patient care. (cdc.gov)
  • All water samples tested from the dental units showed microbial counts higher than the level recommended by CDC and multiple species of NTM were identified in syringe water samples from five of the six treatment rooms. (cdc.gov)
  • In fact, the dental radiographs represent a far smaller risk than an undetected and untreated dental problem. (dentists4kids.com)
  • Components of the patient record may include the patient chart, radiographs and dental casts, and certain documentation required by law. (cdeworld.com)
  • People are very keen interested in the tooth regeneration and they are also giving more importance to the aesthetic aspects of dental products, which is expected to increase the Tooth Regenerations and dental market over the forecast period. (persistencemarketresearch.com)
  • The increasing demand for a customized Tooth Regeneration with the specifications and other dental decorative installations is the key factor anticipated to propel the demand for Tooth Regenerations worldwide. (persistencemarketresearch.com)
  • In cases of more serious cavities that have destroyed a significant portion of tooth structure, the decayed tooth structure is removed and a crown is placed over the tooth to restore and protect it. (sanfranciscoaestheticdentistry.com)
  • Kerr, Bioggio, Switzerland) bonding agent was used and cavities were filled using composite material Gradia Direct (f. (bvsalud.org)
  • The very young, pre-teens, and teenagers all need different approaches in dealing with their behavior, guiding their dental growth and development, and helping them avoid future dental problems. (dentists4kids.com)
  • If dental problems are found and treated early, dental care is more comfortable for your child and more affordable for you. (dentists4kids.com)
  • Please note that if you are experiencing large amounts of swelling or bleeding that will not stop you may need to visit the …To receive care for your child's common dental problems, call 501-683-8886 today or schedule an appointment at Arkansas Family Dental in Little Rock. (l-zebra.pl)
  • Cavities are one of the most common dental problems Dr. Samir Ayoub sees at his practice. (sanfranciscoaestheticdentistry.com)
  • Monitoring dental unit water quality can help identify problems in performance or adherence with maintenance protocols and provide documentation of compliance. (cdc.gov)

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