A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to dental or oral health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.
The total of dental diagnostic, preventive, and restorative services provided to meet the needs of a patient (from Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982).
Education which increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of dental health on a personal or community basis.
The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.
Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.
The giving of attention to the special dental needs of children, including the prevention of tooth diseases and instruction in dental hygiene and dental health. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.
'Tooth diseases' is a broad term referring to various conditions affecting the teeth, including dental caries (cavities), periodontal disease (gum disease), tooth wear, tooth sensitivity, oral cancer, and developmental anomalies, which can result in pain, discomfort, or loss of teeth if left untreated.
The practice of personal hygiene of the mouth. It includes the maintenance of oral cleanliness, tissue tone, and general preservation of oral health.
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.
Use for articles concerning dental education in general.
Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.
Insurance providing coverage for dental care.
The branch of dentistry concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance and promotion of oral health.
Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.
Dental care for patients with chronic diseases. These diseases include chronic cardiovascular, endocrinologic, hematologic, immunologic, neoplastic, and renal diseases. The concept does not include dental care for the mentally or physically disabled which is DENTAL CARE FOR DISABLED.
Abnormal fear or dread of visiting the dentist for preventive care or therapy and unwarranted anxiety over dental procedures.
Personnel whose work is prescribed and supervised by the dentist.
"Decayed, missing and filled teeth," a routinely used statistical concept in dentistry.
Facilities where dental care is provided to patients.
Personnel who provide dental service to patients in an organized facility, institution or agency.
Individuals licensed to practice DENTISTRY.
Individuals who assist the dentist or the dental hygienist.
Skills, techniques, standards, and principles used to improve the art and symmetry of the teeth and face to improve the appearance as well as the function of the teeth, mouth, and face. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p108)
Persons trained in an accredited school or dental college and licensed by the state in which they reside to provide dental prophylaxis under the direction of a licensed dentist.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
Hospital department providing dental care.
The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.
'Mouth diseases' is a broad term referring to various conditions that cause inflammation, infection, or structural changes in any part of the mouth, including the lips, gums, tongue, palate, cheeks, and teeth, which can lead to symptoms such as pain, discomfort, difficulty in chewing or speaking, and altered aesthetics.
A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
General or unspecified diseases of the stomatognathic system, comprising the mouth, teeth, jaws, and pharynx.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
The state wherein the person is well adjusted.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.
Practice of adding fluoride to water for the purpose of preventing tooth decay and cavities.
A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.
A dental health survey developed to evaluate a patient's orthodontic treatment need and priority for orthodontic care. The index is based on an assessment of degree of MALOCCLUSION and the potential aesthetic and dental health benefit of the treatment under consideration.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Pathological processes involving the PERIODONTIUM including the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.
The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a dental school.
A combination of the debris index and the dental calculus index to determine the status of oral hygiene.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
Dental care for the emotionally, mentally, or physically disabled patient. It does not include dental care for the chronically ill ( = DENTAL CARE FOR CHRONICALLY ILL).
Providing for the full range of dental health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and rehabilitation of patients.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Treatment for the prevention of periodontal diseases or other dental diseases by the cleaning of the teeth in the dental office using the procedures of DENTAL SCALING and DENTAL POLISHING. The treatment may include plaque detection, removal of supra- and subgingival plaque and calculus, application of caries-preventing agents, checking of restorations and prostheses and correcting overhanging margins and proximal contours of restorations, and checking for signs of food impaction.
Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.
Such malposition and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth as to interfere with the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)
The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.
The act of cleaning teeth with a brush to remove plaque and prevent tooth decay. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Total lack of teeth through disease or extraction.
A diet that contributes to the development and advancement of DENTAL CARIES.
Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.
The giving of attention to the special dental needs of the elderly for proper maintenance or treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.
Pain in the adjacent areas of the teeth.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
The profession concerned with the teeth, oral cavity, and associated structures, and the diagnosis and treatment of their diseases including prevention and the restoration of defective and missing tissue.
The failure to retain teeth as a result of disease or injury.
The study of laws, theories, and hypotheses through a systematic examination of pertinent facts and their interpretation in the field of dentistry. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982, p674)
The phase of orthodontics concerned with the correction of malocclusion with proper appliances and prevention of its sequelae (Jablonski's Illus. Dictionary of Dentistry).
Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)
Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.
The curve formed by the row of TEETH in their normal position in the JAW. The inferior dental arch is formed by the mandibular teeth, and the superior dental arch by the maxillary teeth.
The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
Dentifrices that are formulated into a paste form. They typically contain abrasives, HUMECTANTS; DETERGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; and CARIOSTATIC AGENTS.
The room or rooms in which the dentist and dental staff provide care. Offices include all rooms in the dentist's office suite.
Data collected during dental examination for the purpose of study, diagnosis, or treatment planning.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.
A dental specialty concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance of oral health through promoting organized dental health programs at a community, state, or federal level.
The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Nonspecialized dental practice which is concerned with providing primary and continuing dental care.
A dental specialty concerned with the prevention and correction of dental and oral anomalies (malocclusion).
Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.
The nonexpendable items used by the dentist or dental staff in the performance of professional duties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p106)
The practice of dentistry concerned with preventive as well as diagnostic and treatment programs in a circumscribed population.
True-false questionnaire made up of items believed to indicate anxiety, in which the subject answers verbally the statement that describes him.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
Fluorides, usually in pastes or gels, used for topical application to reduce the incidence of DENTAL CARIES.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)
Substances that inhibit or arrest DENTAL CARIES formation. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.
An alloy used in restorative dentistry that contains mercury, silver, tin, copper, and possibly zinc.
The status of health in rural populations.
A numerical rating scale for classifying the periodontal status of a person or population with a single figure which takes into consideration prevalence as well as severity of the condition. It is based upon probe measurement of periodontal pockets and on gingival tissue status.
Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.
Agents used to occlude dental enamel pits and fissures in the prevention of dental caries.
The total absence of teeth from either the mandible or the maxilla, but not both. Total absence of teeth from both is MOUTH, EDENTULOUS. Partial absence of teeth in either is JAW, EDENTULOUS, PARTIALLY.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
The branch of dentistry concerned with the dental problems of older people.
Educational programs designed to inform dentists of recent advances in their fields.
Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.
The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.
The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.
The status of health in urban populations.
A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.
Biocompatible materials placed into (endosseous) or onto (subperiosteal) the jawbone to support a crown, bridge, or artificial tooth, or to stabilize a diseased tooth.
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "India" is not a medical term that can be defined in a medical context. It is a geographical location, referring to the Republic of India, a country in South Asia. If you have any questions related to medical topics or definitions, I would be happy to help with those!
Management of public health organizations or agencies.
A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.
Radiographic techniques used in dentistry.
Organized services to provide mental health care.
Educational programs for dental graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic dental sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced dental degree.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
Societies whose membership is limited to dentists.
A restoration designed to remain in service for not less than 20 to 30 years, usually made of gold casting, cohesive gold, or amalgam. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the dentist, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the dentist in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Presentation devices used for patient education and technique training in dentistry.
The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.
Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.
The field of dentistry involved in procedures for designing and constructing dental appliances. It includes also the application of any technology to the field of dentistry.
Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.
An index which scores the degree of dental plaque accumulation.
A chronic endemic form of hypoplasia of the dental enamel caused by drinking water with a high fluorine content during the time of tooth formation, and characterized by defective calcification that gives a white chalky appearance to the enamel, which gradually undergoes brown discoloration. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)
Facilities for the performance of services related to dental treatment but not done directly in the patient's mouth.
The granting of a license to practice dentistry.
Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.
Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.
Organized services to provide health care for children.
Various branches of dental practice limited to specialized areas.
Amounts charged to the patient as payer for dental services.
Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.
The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.
A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)
Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.
Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.
The organization and operation of the business aspects of a dental practice.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.
Individuals responsible for fabrication of dental appliances.
Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.
Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.
Dense fibrous layer formed from mesodermal tissue that surrounds the epithelial enamel organ. The cells eventually migrate to the external surface of the newly formed root dentin and give rise to the cementoblasts that deposit cementum on the developing root, fibroblasts of the developing periodontal ligament, and osteoblasts of the developing alveolar bone.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.
(To the best of my knowledge,) 'Alaska' is not a medical term or concept, it is rather a geographical location, being the largest and northernmost state in the United States.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.
Size and composition of the family.
Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
The psychological relations between the dentist and patient.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
A person's view of himself.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Great Britain is not a medical term, but a geographical name for the largest island in the British Isles, which comprises England, Scotland, and Wales, forming the major part of the United Kingdom.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.
Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.
The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.
Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
Female parents, human or animal.
The physical condition of human reproductive systems.
One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.
An artificial replacement for one or more natural teeth or part of a tooth, or associated structures, ranging from a portion of a tooth to a complete denture. The dental prosthesis is used for cosmetic or functional reasons, or both. DENTURES and specific types of dentures are also available. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p244 & Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p643)
The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.
Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.
Efforts to prevent and control the spread of infections within dental health facilities or those involving provision of dental care.
Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.
Mesodermal tissue enclosed in the invaginated portion of the epithelial enamel organ and giving rise to the dentin and pulp.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Brazil" is not a medical term or concept, it is a country located in South America, known officially as the Federative Republic of Brazil. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or science, I'd be happy to help answer those!
I'm sorry for any confusion, but 'England' is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom, known for its rich history, cultural heritage, and contributions to medical science. However, in a medical context, it may refer to the location of a patient, healthcare provider, or research study, but it is not a term with a specific medical meaning.
A self-governing territory formed from the central and eastern portions of the Northwest Territories. It was officially established April 1, 1999. The capital is Iqaluit.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of dental care.
Any waste product generated by a dental office, surgery, clinic, or laboratory including amalgams, saliva, and rinse water.

Relationship between oral health and nutrition in very old people. (1/193)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between oral health status and nutritional deficiency. DESIGN: Cross-sectional clinical study. SUBJECTS: 324 institutionalized frail older adults (mean age 85). MEASUREMENTS: Structured oral examination including an evaluation of mucosa, periodontal state, caries prevalence and denture quality. The nutritional status was assessed using serum albumin concentration and the body mass index. Physical dependence was assessed using the Barthel index. To identify oral health disorders associated with markers of malnutrition we performed the Pearson chi2 test separately for edentulous and dentate patients. Subjects with at least one of the identified oral disorders were classified as having compromised oral functional status. RESULTS: About two-thirds of the subjects were functionally dependent and half had either a body mass index <21 kg/m2 or serum albumin <33 g/l. Among the edentulous, wearing dentures with defective bases or not wearing dentures at all were the factors most associated with malnutrition. In dentate subjects, corresponding identifiers were the number of occluding pairs of teeth (five or fewer, either natural or prosthetic), the number of retained roots (four or more), and the presence of mobile teeth. According to these criteria, 31% of the subjects had a compromised oral functional status. This was more frequently found in dependent subjects (37%) than semi-dependent subjects (18%; odds ratio, 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-4.8). Those with compromised oral functional status had a significantly lower body mass index and serum albumin concentration. CONCLUSION: Specific detrimental oral conditions are associated with nutritional deficiency in very old people.  (+info)

Predicting population dental disease experience at a small area level using Census and health service data. (2/193)

BACKGROUND: Information on the dental disease patterns of child populations is required at a small area level. At present, this can be provided only by expensive whole population surveys. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of Census data combined with health service information to provide estimates of population dental disease experience at the small area level. METHOD: Clinical dental data were collected from a large cross-sectional survey of 5-year-old children. A preliminary series of bivariate linear regression analyses were undertaken at ward level with the mean number of decayed, missing or filled teeth per child (dmft) as the dependent variable, and the Census and health service and lifestyle variables suspected of having a strong relationship with dmft as independent variables. This was followed by fitting a multiple linear regression model using a stepwise procedure to include independent variables that explain most of the variability in the dependent variable dmft. RESULTS: All deprivation indicators derived from the Census showed a highly significant (p<0.001) bivariate linear relationship with ward dmft. The Jarman deprivation score gave the highest R2 value (0.45), but the Townsend index (R2=0.43) and the single Census variable 'percentage of households with no car' (R2 = 0.42) gave very similar results. The health and lifestyle indicators also showed highly significant (p<0.001) linear relationships with dmft. The R2 values were generally much lower than the deprivation-related Census variables, with the exception of the percentage of residents who smoked (R2 = 0.42). None of the health or lifestyle variables was included in the final dental disadvantage model. This model explained 51 per cent of the variability of ward dmft. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate the strong relationship between dental decay and deprivation, and all of the commonly used measures of deprivation exhibited a similar performance. For this population of young children health and health services shelf data did not improve on the ability of deprivation-related Census variables to predict population dental caries experience at a small area level.  (+info)

The use of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment need (IOTN) in a school population and referred population. (3/193)

The aim of this study is to assess the need for orthodontic treatment in a Turkish school population and a group of population referred for orthodontic treatment. The study groups were 250 school children, 11-14 years of age, and 250 patients, 11-14 years of age, referred to the department of orthodontics. The Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) was used by two examiner in order to estimate the treatment need. The differences between the IOTN values for the boys and girls were also not statistically significant in both groups. When the dental health component of IOTN is considered, 38.8 per cent of Turkish school population showed great need treatment, 24.0 per cent moderate need treatment and slight or no need was 37.2 per cent. On the other hand, the referred population represented an 83.2 per cent great need treatment, 12.0 per cent moderate need treatment, 4.8 per cent no need treatment according to the DHC. The AC of IOTN in school population resulted in 4.8 per cent great need, 4.8 per cent moderate need, 90.4 per cent no need. These percentage were 36.8 per cent great need, 17.6 per cent moderate need, 45.2 per cent no need in referred population. Grade 8 was 28.8 per cent out of the 36.8 per cent great need percentage in referred population. Therefore, it can be concluded that the ectopic canines were the driving factor for the referred population.  (+info)

Dental attendance in 1998 and implications for the future. (4/193)

The 1998 survey of Adult Dental Health in the UK was carried out under the auspices of the Office of National Statistics together with the Universities of Birmingham, Dundee, Newcastle-upon-Tyne and Wales. A key behavioural indicator in these decennial surveys is whether people say they go to a dentist for a regular dental check-up, an occasional dental check-up or only when they have trouble with their teeth. The proportion of dentate adults in the UK who report attending for regular dental check-ups has risen from 43% in 1978 to 59% in 1998. Older adults (over 55 years old) in 1998 were the most likely to say they attend for regular dental check-ups. Many younger adults (16-24) in 1998 said they went to a dentist less often than 5 years previously, they were also the least likely to say they attend for regular dental check-ups. Dental anxiety remains a problem for many dental patients but another factor of importance to many is their want to be involved in the treatment process and especially to be given an estimate of treatment costs.  (+info)

Dental attitudes and behaviours in 1998 and implications for the future. (5/193)

The 1998 Adult Dental Health Survey included face to face interviews with participants to determine their dental attitudes and behaviours. This article considers reported oral hygiene practices, treatment choices, satisfaction with appearance of teeth, attitudes towards wearing dentures and how these have changed since previous surveys. Although overall there has been a steady improvement in dental health attitudes, adults from disadvantaged households are still lagging behind. This has implications for social equity.  (+info)

Developing an index of restorative dental treatment need. (6/193)

The process undertaken to establish an initial pilot index for restorative dental treatment is described. Following consultation with a wide range of clinicians and others, an outline framework for the index was developed and comprised three main components: 1. Patient identified need for treatment: the data from the patient perceived need questionnaire were inconclusive; 2. Complexity of treatment (assessed by clinicians): this was found to be a practical tool capable of being used by a range of dentists. A booklet has been produced which describes the process of using the scoring system; 3. Priority for treatment (assessed by clinicians): three levels of priority were identified; the highest priority was assigned to patients with inherited or developmental defects that justify complex care (eg clefts of the lip and palate). The initial development of the index has had some success in a difficult area. The treatment complexity component is the most developed and may allow both referrers and commissioners of specialist restorative dentistry to determine appropriate use of skilled clinicians' expertise.  (+info)

Prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in children and adolescents in Bogota, Colombia. An epidemiological study related to different stages of dental development. (7/193)

The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of malocclusion in a population of Bogotanian children and adolescents in terms of different degrees of severity in relation to sex and specific stages of dental development, in order to evaluate the need for orthodontic treatment in this part of Colombia. A sample of 4724 children (5-17 years of age) was randomly selected from a population that attended the Dental Health Service; none had been orthodontically treated. Based on their dental stages the subjects were grouped into deciduous, early mixed, late mixed and permanent dentition. The registrations were performed according to a method by Bjork et al. (1964). The need for orthodontic treatment was evaluated according to an index used by the Swedish National Board of Health. The results showed that 88 per cent of the subjects had some type of anomaly, from mild to severe, half of them recorded as occlusal anomalies, one-third as space discrepancies, and one-fifth as dental anomalies. No clear sex differences were noted, except for maxillary overjet, spacing, tooth size (all more frequent in boys), and crowding (more frequent in girls). Occlusal anomalies and space discrepancies varied in the different dental developmental periods, as did tipped and rotated teeth. Little need for orthodontic treatment was found in 35 per cent and moderate need in 30 per cent. A great need was estimated in 20 per cent, comprising children with prenormal occlusion, maxillary overjet, or overbite (> 6 mm), posterior unilateral crossbite with midline deviation (> 2 mm), severe crowding or spacing, congenitally missing maxillary incisors, impacted maxillary canines or anterior open bite (> 3 mm in the permanent dentition). Urgent need for treatment was estimated to be 3 per cent, comprising subjects with extreme post- and pre-normal occlusion, impacted maxillary incisors or extensive aplasia.  (+info)

Evaluation of dental health in mill workers. Part I. The state of dentition. (8/193)

A study of the oral health of workers in flour mills was carried out. The examined group consisted of 40 males and 8 females, currently employed at flour mills. The results of the research indicate the necessity of intensification of stomatological care among mill workers.  (+info)

Dental health surveys are epidemiological studies that aim to assess the oral health status and related behaviors of a defined population at a particular point in time. These surveys collect data on various aspects of oral health, including the prevalence and severity of dental diseases such as caries (tooth decay), periodontal disease (gum disease), and oral cancer. They also gather information on factors that influence oral health, such as dietary habits, oral hygiene practices, access to dental care, and socioeconomic status.

The data collected in dental health surveys are used to identify trends and patterns in oral health, plan and evaluate public health programs and policies, and allocate resources for oral health promotion and disease prevention. Dental health surveys may be conducted at the local, regional, or national level, and they can target specific populations such as children, adolescents, adults, or older adults.

The methods used in dental health surveys include clinical examinations, interviews, questionnaires, and focus groups. Clinical examinations are conducted by trained dentists or dental hygienists who follow standardized protocols to assess the oral health status of participants. Interviews and questionnaires are used to collect information on demographic characteristics, oral health behaviors, and attitudes towards oral health. Focus groups can provide insights into the perceptions and experiences of participants regarding oral health issues.

Overall, dental health surveys play a critical role in monitoring and improving the oral health of populations and reducing oral health disparities.

Health surveys are research studies that collect data from a sample population to describe the current health status, health behaviors, and healthcare utilization of a particular group or community. These surveys may include questions about various aspects of health such as physical health, mental health, chronic conditions, lifestyle habits, access to healthcare services, and demographic information. The data collected from health surveys can be used to monitor trends in health over time, identify disparities in health outcomes, develop and evaluate public health programs and policies, and inform resource allocation decisions. Examples of national health surveys include the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS).

Dental health services refer to medical care and treatment provided for the teeth and mouth. This can include preventative care, such as dental cleanings and exams, as well as restorative treatments like fillings, crowns, and root canals. Dental health services may also include cosmetic procedures, such as teeth whitening or orthodontic treatment to straighten crooked teeth. In addition to these services, dental health professionals may provide education on oral hygiene and the importance of maintaining good dental health. These services are typically provided by dentists, dental hygienists, and other dental professionals in a variety of settings, including private dental practices, community health clinics, and hospitals.

Dental care refers to the practice of maintaining and improving the oral health of the teeth and gums. It involves regular check-ups, cleanings, and treatments by dental professionals such as dentists, hygienists, and dental assistants. Dental care also includes personal habits and practices, such as brushing and flossing, that help prevent tooth decay and gum disease.

Regular dental care is important for preventing common dental problems like cavities, gingivitis, and periodontal disease. It can also help detect early signs of more serious health issues, such as oral cancer or diabetes, which can have symptoms that appear in the mouth.

Dental care may involve a range of treatments, from routine cleanings and fillings to more complex procedures like root canals, crowns, bridges, and implants. Dental professionals use various tools and techniques to diagnose and treat dental problems, including X-rays, dental impressions, and local anesthesia.

Overall, dental care is a critical component of overall health and wellness, as poor oral health has been linked to a range of systemic health issues, including heart disease, stroke, and respiratory infections.

Health education in the context of dentistry refers to the process of educating and informing individuals, families, and communities about oral health-related topics, including proper oral hygiene practices, the importance of regular dental checkups and cleanings, the risks and consequences of poor oral health, and the relationship between oral health and overall health. The goal of dental health education is to empower individuals to take control of their own oral health and make informed decisions about their dental care. This can be achieved through various methods such as lectures, demonstrations, printed materials, and interactive activities. Dental health education may also cover topics related to nutrition, tobacco and alcohol use, and the prevention and treatment of oral diseases and conditions.

Oral health is the scientific term used to describe the overall health status of the oral and related tissues, including the teeth, gums, palate, tongue, and mucosal lining. It involves the absence of chronic mouth and facial pain, oral and pharyngeal (throat) cancers, oral soft tissue lesions, birth defects such as cleft lip and palate, and other diseases and disorders that affect the oral cavity.

Good oral health also means being free of decay, gum disease, and other oral infections that can damage the teeth, gums, and bones of the mouth. It is essential to maintain good oral hygiene through regular brushing, flossing, and dental check-ups to prevent dental caries (cavities) and periodontal disease (gum disease).

Additionally, oral health is closely linked to overall health and well-being. Poor oral health has been associated with various systemic diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, respiratory infections, and stroke. Therefore, maintaining good oral health can contribute to improved general health and quality of life.

Dental caries, also known as tooth decay or cavities, refers to the damage or breakdown of the hard tissues of the teeth (enamel, dentin, and cementum) due to the activity of acid-producing bacteria. These bacteria ferment sugars from food and drinks, producing acids that dissolve and weaken the tooth structure, leading to cavities.

The process of dental caries development involves several stages:

1. Demineralization: The acidic environment created by bacterial activity causes minerals (calcium and phosphate) to be lost from the tooth surface, making it weaker and more susceptible to decay.
2. Formation of a white spot lesion: As demineralization progresses, a chalky white area appears on the tooth surface, indicating early caries development.
3. Cavity formation: If left untreated, the demineralization process continues, leading to the breakdown and loss of tooth structure, resulting in a cavity or hole in the tooth.
4. Infection and pulp involvement: As the decay progresses deeper into the tooth, it can reach the dental pulp (the soft tissue containing nerves and blood vessels), causing infection, inflammation, and potentially leading to toothache, abscess, or even tooth loss.

Preventing dental caries involves maintaining good oral hygiene, reducing sugar intake, using fluoride toothpaste and mouthwash, and having regular dental check-ups and cleanings. Early detection and treatment of dental caries can help prevent further progression and more severe complications.

Dental care for children, also known as pediatric dentistry, is a branch of dentistry that focuses on the oral health of children from infancy through adolescence. The medical definition of dental care for children includes:

1. Preventive Dentistry: This involves regular dental check-ups, professional cleaning, fluoride treatments, and sealants to prevent tooth decay and other dental diseases. Parents are also educated on proper oral hygiene practices for their children, including brushing, flossing, and dietary habits.
2. Restorative Dentistry: If a child develops cavities or other dental problems, restorative treatments such as fillings, crowns, or pulpotomies (baby root canals) may be necessary to restore the health and function of their teeth.
3. Orthodontic Treatment: Many children require orthodontic treatment to correct misaligned teeth or jaws. Early intervention can help guide proper jaw development and prevent more severe issues from developing later on.
4. Habit Counseling: Dental care for children may also involve habit counseling, such as helping a child stop thumb sucking or pacifier use, which can negatively impact their oral health.
5. Sedation and Anesthesia: For children who are anxious about dental procedures or have special needs, sedation or anesthesia may be used to ensure their comfort and safety during treatment.
6. Emergency Care: Dental care for children also includes emergency care for injuries such as knocked-out teeth, broken teeth, or severe toothaches. Prompt attention is necessary to prevent further damage and alleviate pain.
7. Education and Prevention: Finally, dental care for children involves educating parents and children about the importance of good oral hygiene practices and regular dental check-ups to maintain optimal oral health throughout their lives.

Tooth diseases are conditions that affect the teeth and can cause discomfort, pain, and even loss of teeth if left untreated. These diseases can be caused by various factors such as poor oral hygiene, bacterial infections, trauma, genetics, and certain medical conditions. Some common tooth diseases include:

1. Dental caries (tooth decay): This is a breakdown of the tooth enamel due to the action of acid-producing bacteria that feed on sugars and starches in the mouth. Over time, this can lead to cavities or holes in the teeth.
2. Gingivitis: This is an inflammation of the gums caused by the buildup of plaque and tartar at the gum line. If left untreated, gingivitis can progress to periodontitis, a more serious form of gum disease that can cause tooth loss.
3. Periodontitis: This is a severe infection of the gums and bones that support the teeth. It is caused by the buildup of plaque and tartar, which leads to the destruction of the tissue and bone that hold the teeth in place.
4. Abscess: This is a pocket of pus that forms in the tooth or gum due to a bacterial infection. An abscess can cause pain, swelling, and fever, and may require antibiotics or surgical drainage.
5. Tooth erosion: This is the loss of tooth structure due to acid wear, which can be caused by factors such as diet, stomach acid, and teeth grinding.
6. Hypersensitivity: This is a condition in which the teeth become sensitive to hot, cold, or sweet foods and drinks. It can be caused by factors such as gum recession, tooth decay, and tooth wear.
7. Oral cancer: This is a type of cancer that affects the mouth, lips, tongue, or throat. It can cause symptoms such as sores, lumps, or difficulty swallowing, and may require surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy for treatment.

Oral hygiene is the practice of keeping the mouth and teeth clean to prevent dental issues such as cavities, gum disease, bad breath, and other oral health problems. It involves regular brushing, flossing, and using mouthwash to remove plaque and food particles that can lead to tooth decay and gum disease. Regular dental check-ups and cleanings are also an essential part of maintaining good oral hygiene. Poor oral hygiene can lead to a range of health problems, including heart disease, diabetes, and respiratory infections, so it is important to prioritize oral health as part of overall health and wellbeing.

Health status is a term used to describe the overall condition of an individual's health, including physical, mental, and social well-being. It is often assessed through various measures such as medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and self-reported health assessments. Health status can be used to identify health disparities, track changes in population health over time, and evaluate the effectiveness of healthcare interventions.

"Schools, Dental" is not a recognized medical term or concept. It seems that there might be some confusion in the terminology used. If you are referring to "Dental Schools," they are educational institutions that offer professional training programs in dentistry, leading to a degree in dental surgery (DDS) or dental medicine (DMD).

If you meant something else, please clarify the term or concept, and I would be happy to provide more information.

Dental education refers to the process of teaching, training, and learning in the field of dentistry. It involves a curriculum of academic and clinical instruction that prepares students to become licensed dental professionals, such as dentists, dental hygienists, and dental assistants. Dental education typically takes place in accredited dental schools or programs and includes classroom study, laboratory work, and supervised clinical experience. The goal of dental education is to provide students with the knowledge, skills, and values necessary to deliver high-quality oral health care to patients and promote overall health and wellness.

I'm happy to help! However, I believe there may be a slight misunderstanding in your question. "Students, Dental" is not a medical term or definition. Instead, it likely refers to individuals who are studying to become dental professionals, such as dentists, dental hygienists, or dental assistants.

If you're looking for information about dental education or the field of dentistry, I would be happy to provide some resources or answer any questions you may have!

Dental insurance is a type of health insurance specifically designed to cover the costs associated with dental care. It typically helps pay for preventive, basic, and major restorative procedures, including routine checkups, cleanings, fillings, extractions, root canals, crowns, bridges, and in some cases, orthodontic treatment.

Dental insurance plans often have a network of participating dentists who agree to provide services at pre-negotiated rates, helping to keep costs down for both the insured individual and the insurance company. The plan may cover a certain percentage of the cost of each procedure or have set copayments and deductibles that apply.

Like other forms of insurance, dental insurance plans come with annual maximum coverage limits, which is the most the plan will pay for dental care within a given year. It's essential to understand the terms and conditions of your dental insurance policy to make informed decisions about your oral health care and maximize the benefits available to you.

Preventive dentistry is a branch of dental medicine that focuses on preventing the occurrence or progression of oral diseases and maintaining optimal oral health. It encompasses a set of practices, behaviors, and interventions aimed at preserving the integrity and functionality of teeth and gums through early detection, intervention, and patient education.

The primary goal of preventive dentistry is to minimize the risk of dental caries (tooth decay), periodontal disease (gum disease), oral cancer, and other oral health conditions. This is achieved through a combination of professional dental care, personal oral hygiene habits, and lifestyle modifications.

Professional dental care includes regular dental examinations, cleanings, fluoride treatments, and sealants to protect tooth surfaces from decay. Patient education plays a crucial role in preventive dentistry, as it empowers individuals to take an active part in their oral health by teaching them proper brushing and flossing techniques, nutritional counseling, and the importance of regular dental visits.

Preventive dentistry also emphasizes the significance of risk assessment and early intervention for high-risk populations, such as children, elderly individuals, and those with medical conditions that may impact oral health. By promoting a proactive approach to dental care, preventive dentistry aims to improve overall quality of life, reduce healthcare costs, and enhance patient satisfaction.

Health care surveys are research tools used to systematically collect information from a population or sample regarding their experiences, perceptions, and knowledge of health services, health outcomes, and various other health-related topics. These surveys typically consist of standardized questionnaires that cover specific aspects of healthcare, such as access to care, quality of care, patient satisfaction, health disparities, and healthcare costs. The data gathered from health care surveys are used to inform policy decisions, improve healthcare delivery, identify best practices, allocate resources, and monitor the health status of populations. Health care surveys can be conducted through various modes, including in-person interviews, telephone interviews, mail-in questionnaires, or online platforms.

Dental care for chronically ill refers to the oral health management and treatment provided to individuals who have chronic medical conditions. These patients often require specialized dental care due to their increased risk of developing oral health problems as a result of their underlying medical condition or its treatment. The goal of dental care for the chronically ill is to prevent and manage dental diseases, such as tooth decay and gum disease, in order to maintain overall health and quality of life. This may involve close collaboration between dental professionals, physicians, and other healthcare providers to ensure that the patient's oral health needs are being met in a comprehensive and coordinated manner.

Dental anxiety is a common feeling of fear or apprehension associated with dental appointments, treatments, or procedures. It can range from mild feelings of unease to severe phobias that cause people to avoid dental care altogether. Dental anxiety may stem from various factors such as negative past experiences, fear of pain, needles, or loss of control. In some cases, dental anxiety may lead to physical symptoms like sweating, rapid heartbeat, and difficulty breathing. It is important for individuals with dental anxiety to communicate their feelings with their dentist so that they can receive appropriate care and support.

Dental auxiliaries are healthcare professionals who provide support to dentists in the delivery of oral healthcare services. They work under the supervision of a licensed dentist and perform tasks that require specific technical skills and knowledge. Examples of dental auxiliaries include dental hygienists, dental assistants, and dental lab technicians.

Dental hygienists are responsible for providing preventive dental care to patients, including cleaning teeth, taking x-rays, and educating patients on oral hygiene practices. They may also perform certain clinical procedures under the direct supervision of a dentist.

Dental assistants work closely with dentists during dental procedures, preparing instruments, mixing materials, and providing patient care. They may also perform administrative tasks such as scheduling appointments and managing patient records.

Dental lab technicians create dental restorations such as crowns, bridges, and dentures based on impressions taken by the dentist. They use a variety of materials and techniques to fabricate these devices with precision and accuracy.

It's important to note that the specific roles and responsibilities of dental auxiliaries may vary depending on the jurisdiction and local regulations.

I'm not aware of a medical definition for "DMF Index." The abbreviation "DMF" could potentially stand for many things, as it is used in various contexts across different fields. In the field of dentistry, DMF stands for Decayed, Missing, and Filled teeth/surfaces, which is a method for measuring dental caries or tooth decay. However, there is no standard medical definition for "DMF Index." If you could provide more context or specify the field of study or practice, I would be happy to help further!

A dental clinic is a healthcare facility that is primarily focused on providing oral health services to patients. These services may include preventative care, such as dental cleanings and exams, as well as restorative treatments like fillings, crowns, and bridges. Dental clinics may also offer specialized services, such as orthodontics, periodontics, or endodontics.

In a dental clinic, patients are typically seen by licensed dentists who have completed dental school and received additional training in their chosen area of specialty. Dental hygienists, dental assistants, and other support staff may also work in the clinic to provide care and assistance to patients.

Dental clinics can be found in a variety of settings, including hospitals, community health centers, private practices, and educational institutions. Some dental clinics may specialize in treating certain populations, such as children, elderly individuals, or low-income patients. Others may offer specialized services, such as oral surgery or cosmetic dentistry.

Overall, dental clinics play an important role in promoting oral health and preventing dental diseases and conditions. By providing access to high-quality dental care, dental clinics can help patients maintain healthy teeth and gums, prevent tooth decay and gum disease, and improve their overall quality of life.

The term "dental staff" generally refers to the group of professionals who work together in a dental practice or setting to provide oral health care services to patients. The composition of a dental staff can vary depending on the size and type of the practice, but it typically includes:

1. Dentists: These are medical doctors who specialize in oral health. They diagnose and treat dental diseases, conditions, and disorders, and perform various procedures such as fillings, root canals, extractions, and crowns.
2. Dental Hygienists: These are licensed healthcare professionals who provide preventive dental care services to patients. They clean teeth, remove plaque and tartar, apply fluoride and sealants, take X-rays, and educate patients on proper oral hygiene practices.
3. Dental Assistants: These are trained professionals who assist dentists during procedures and perform various administrative tasks in a dental practice. They prepare patients for treatment, sterilize instruments, take impressions, and schedule appointments.
4. Front Office Staff: These are the receptionists, schedulers, and billing specialists who manage the administrative aspects of a dental practice. They handle patient inquiries, schedule appointments, process insurance claims, and maintain patient records.
5. Other Specialists: Depending on the needs of the practice, other dental professionals such as orthodontists, oral surgeons, endodontists, periodontists, or prosthodontists may also be part of the dental staff. These specialists have advanced training in specific areas of dentistry and provide specialized care to patients.

Overall, a well-functioning dental staff is essential for providing high-quality oral health care services to patients in a safe, efficient, and patient-centered manner.

A dentist is a healthcare professional who specializes in the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases and conditions that affect the oral cavity and maxillofacial region. This includes the teeth, gums, jaw, and related structures. Dentists are trained to provide a wide range of services, including:

1. Routine dental exams and cleanings
2. Fillings, crowns, and other restorative treatments
3. Root canals and extractions
4. Dental implants and dentures
5. Orthodontic treatment (braces, aligners)
6. Treatment of gum disease
7. Oral cancer screenings
8. Cosmetic dental procedures (teeth whitening, veneers)
9. Management of temporomandibular joint disorders (TMJ)
10. Emergency dental care

To become a dentist, one must complete a Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS) or Doctor of Medical Dentistry (DMD) degree from an accredited dental school and pass written and clinical exams to obtain licensure in their state. Many dentists also choose to specialize in a particular area of dentistry, such as orthodontics, oral surgery, or pediatric dentistry, by completing additional training and residency programs.

A dental assistant is a healthcare professional who works under the direction of a dentist and provides patient care, takes and develops x-rays, assists the dentist during procedures, performs infection control procedures, and helps with office management. They may also provide education to patients on oral hygiene and other dental health topics. Dental assistants must be trained and certified in many states and are an important part of the dental care team.

Dental esthetics refers to the branch of dentistry concerned with the aesthetic appearance of teeth and smile. It involves the use of various dental treatments and procedures to improve the color, shape, alignment, and position of teeth, thereby enhancing the overall facial appearance and self-confidence of a person. Some common dental esthetic treatments include tooth whitening, dental veneers, composite bonding, orthodontic treatment (braces), and dental implants. It is important to note that dental esthetics not only focuses on improving the appearance but also maintaining or improving oral health and function.

A dental hygienist is a licensed healthcare professional who works as part of the dental team, providing educational, clinical, and therapeutic services to prevent and control oral diseases. They are trained and authorized to perform various duties such as:

1. Cleaning and polishing teeth (prophylaxis) to remove plaque, calculus, and stains.
2. Applying fluoride and sealants to protect tooth surfaces from decay.
3. Taking dental radiographs (x-rays) to help diagnose dental issues.
4. Providing oral health education, including proper brushing, flossing techniques, and nutrition counseling.
5. Performing screenings for oral cancer and other diseases.
6. Documenting patient care and treatment plans in medical records.
7. Collaborating with dentists to develop individualized treatment plans for patients.
8. Managing infection control protocols and maintaining a safe, clean dental environment.
9. Providing supportive services, such as applying anesthetics or administering nitrous oxide, under the direct supervision of a dentist (depending on state regulations).

Dental hygienists typically work in private dental offices but can also be found in hospitals, clinics, public health settings, educational institutions, and research facilities. They must complete an accredited dental hygiene program and pass written and clinical exams to obtain licensure in their state of practice. Continuing education is required to maintain licensure and stay current with advancements in the field.

Public health is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "the art and science of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts of society." It focuses on improving the health and well-being of entire communities, populations, and societies, rather than individual patients. This is achieved through various strategies, including education, prevention, surveillance of diseases, and promotion of healthy behaviors and environments. Public health also addresses broader determinants of health, such as access to healthcare, housing, food, and income, which have a significant impact on the overall health of populations.

A "Dental Service, Hospital" is a specialized department or unit within a hospital that provides comprehensive dental care services to patients. This type of service is typically equipped with advanced dental technology and staffed by oral health professionals such as dentists, oral surgeons, orthodontists, endodontists, periodontists, and dental hygienists.

The dental services offered in a hospital setting may include preventive care, restorative treatments, oral surgery, prosthodontics (dentures and implants), periodontal therapy, endodontic treatment (root canals), orthodontic treatment, and specialized care for patients with medical conditions that affect their oral health.

Hospital dental services often provide care to patients who require complex or extensive dental treatments, have medical conditions that make it difficult to receive dental care in a traditional dental office setting, or those who are recovering from surgery or other medical procedures. They may also provide emergency dental care for patients with severe dental pain, infection, or trauma.

In summary, a "Dental Service, Hospital" is a specialized unit within a hospital that provides comprehensive dental care services to patients, typically offering advanced technology and staffed by oral health professionals.

The "delivery of health care" refers to the process of providing medical services, treatments, and interventions to individuals in order to maintain, restore, or improve their health. This encompasses a wide range of activities, including:

1. Preventive care: Routine check-ups, screenings, immunizations, and counseling aimed at preventing illnesses or identifying them at an early stage.
2. Diagnostic services: Tests and procedures used to identify and understand medical conditions, such as laboratory tests, imaging studies, and biopsies.
3. Treatment interventions: Medical, surgical, or therapeutic treatments provided to manage acute or chronic health issues, including medications, surgeries, physical therapy, and psychotherapy.
4. Acute care services: Short-term medical interventions focused on addressing immediate health concerns, such as hospitalizations for infections, injuries, or complications from medical conditions.
5. Chronic care management: Long-term care and support provided to individuals with ongoing medical needs, such as those living with chronic diseases like diabetes, heart disease, or cancer.
6. Rehabilitation services: Programs designed to help patients recover from illnesses, injuries, or surgeries, focusing on restoring physical, cognitive, and emotional function.
7. End-of-life care: Palliative and hospice care provided to individuals facing terminal illnesses, with an emphasis on comfort, dignity, and quality of life.
8. Public health initiatives: Population-level interventions aimed at improving community health, such as disease prevention programs, health education campaigns, and environmental modifications.

The delivery of health care involves a complex network of healthcare professionals, institutions, and systems working together to ensure that patients receive the best possible care. This includes primary care physicians, specialists, nurses, allied health professionals, hospitals, clinics, long-term care facilities, and public health organizations. Effective communication, coordination, and collaboration among these stakeholders are essential for high-quality, patient-centered care.

Mouth diseases refer to a variety of conditions that affect the oral cavity, including the lips, gums, teeth, tongue, palate, and lining of the mouth. These diseases can be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or other organisms. They can also result from injuries, chronic illnesses, or genetic factors.

Some common examples of mouth diseases include dental caries (cavities), periodontal disease (gum disease), oral herpes, candidiasis (thrush), lichen planus, and oral cancer. Symptoms may include pain, swelling, redness, bleeding, bad breath, difficulty swallowing or speaking, and changes in the appearance of the mouth or teeth. Treatment depends on the specific diagnosis and may involve medications, dental procedures, or lifestyle changes.

Dental plaque is a biofilm or mass of bacteria that accumulates on the surface of the teeth, restorative materials, and prosthetic devices such as dentures. It is initiated when bacterial colonizers attach to the smooth surfaces of teeth through van der Waals forces and specific molecular adhesion mechanisms.

The microorganisms within the dental plaque produce extracellular polysaccharides that help to stabilize and strengthen the biofilm, making it resistant to removal by simple brushing or rinsing. Over time, if not regularly removed through oral hygiene practices such as brushing and flossing, dental plaque can mineralize and harden into tartar or calculus.

The bacteria in dental plaque can cause tooth decay (dental caries) by metabolizing sugars and producing acid that demineralizes the tooth enamel. Additionally, certain types of bacteria in dental plaque can cause periodontal disease, an inflammation of the gums that can lead to tissue damage and bone loss around the teeth. Regular professional dental cleanings and good oral hygiene practices are essential for preventing the buildup of dental plaque and maintaining good oral health.

An "attitude to health" is a set of beliefs, values, and behaviors that an individual holds regarding their own health and well-being. It encompasses their overall approach to maintaining good health, preventing illness, seeking medical care, and managing any existing health conditions.

A positive attitude to health typically includes:

1. A belief in the importance of self-care and taking responsibility for one's own health.
2. Engaging in regular exercise, eating a balanced diet, getting enough sleep, and avoiding harmful behaviors such as smoking and excessive alcohol consumption.
3. Regular check-ups and screenings to detect potential health issues early on.
4. Seeking medical care when necessary and following recommended treatment plans.
5. A willingness to learn about and implement new healthy habits and lifestyle changes.
6. Developing a strong support network of family, friends, and healthcare professionals.

On the other hand, a negative attitude to health may involve:

1. Neglecting self-care and failing to take responsibility for one's own health.
2. Engaging in unhealthy behaviors such as sedentary lifestyle, poor diet, lack of sleep, smoking, and excessive alcohol consumption.
3. Avoidance of regular check-ups and screenings, leading to delayed detection and treatment of potential health issues.
4. Resistance to seeking medical care or following recommended treatment plans.
5. Closed-mindedness towards new healthy habits and lifestyle changes.
6. Lack of a support network or reluctance to seek help from others.

Overall, an individual's attitude to health can significantly impact their physical and mental well-being, as well as their ability to manage and overcome any health challenges that may arise.

Stomatognathic diseases are a group of disorders that affect the stomatognathic system, which includes the teeth, periodontal tissues, temporomandibular joints, muscles of mastication, and associated structures. These diseases can manifest as various symptoms such as pain, difficulty in chewing or swallowing, limited mouth opening, and abnormal jaw movements.

Some examples of stomatognathic diseases include temporomandibular disorders (TMD), oral mucosal diseases, dental caries, periodontal disease, oral cancer, and sleep-related breathing disorders. The diagnosis and management of these conditions often require a multidisciplinary approach involving dentists, oral surgeons, orthodontists, physicians, and other healthcare professionals.

Health services accessibility refers to the degree to which individuals and populations are able to obtain needed health services in a timely manner. It includes factors such as physical access (e.g., distance, transportation), affordability (e.g., cost of services, insurance coverage), availability (e.g., supply of providers, hours of operation), and acceptability (e.g., cultural competence, language concordance).

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), accessibility is one of the key components of health system performance, along with responsiveness and fair financing. Improving accessibility to health services is essential for achieving universal health coverage and ensuring that everyone has access to quality healthcare without facing financial hardship. Factors that affect health services accessibility can vary widely between and within countries, and addressing these disparities requires a multifaceted approach that includes policy interventions, infrastructure development, and community engagement.

Mental health is a state of well-being in which an individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community. It involves the emotional, psychological, and social aspects of an individual's health. Mental health is not just the absence of mental illness, it also includes positive characteristics such as resilience, happiness, and having a sense of purpose in life.

It is important to note that mental health can change over time, and it is possible for an individual to experience periods of good mental health as well as periods of poor mental health. Factors such as genetics, trauma, stress, and physical illness can all contribute to the development of mental health problems. Additionally, cultural and societal factors, such as discrimination and poverty, can also impact an individual's mental health.

Mental Health professionals like psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers and other mental health counselors use different tools and techniques to evaluate, diagnose and treat mental health conditions. These include therapy or counseling, medication, and self-help strategies.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

"Health Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices" (HKAP) is a term used in public health to refer to the knowledge, beliefs, assumptions, and behaviors that individuals possess or engage in that are related to health. Here's a brief definition of each component:

1. Health Knowledge: Refers to the factual information and understanding that individuals have about various health-related topics, such as anatomy, physiology, disease processes, and healthy behaviors.
2. Attitudes: Represent the positive or negative evaluations, feelings, or dispositions that people hold towards certain health issues, practices, or services. These attitudes can influence their willingness to adopt and maintain healthy behaviors.
3. Practices: Encompass the specific actions or habits that individuals engage in related to their health, such as dietary choices, exercise routines, hygiene practices, and use of healthcare services.

HKAP is a multidimensional concept that helps public health professionals understand and address various factors influencing individual and community health outcomes. By assessing and addressing knowledge gaps, negative attitudes, or unhealthy practices, interventions can be designed to promote positive behavior change and improve overall health status.

Health behavior can be defined as a series of actions and decisions that individuals take to protect, maintain or promote their health and well-being. These behaviors can include activities such as engaging in regular exercise, eating a healthy diet, getting sufficient sleep, practicing safe sex, avoiding tobacco and excessive alcohol consumption, and managing stress.

Health behaviors are influenced by various factors, including knowledge and attitudes towards health, beliefs and values, cultural norms, social support networks, environmental factors, and individual genetic predispositions. Understanding health behaviors is essential for developing effective public health interventions and promoting healthy lifestyles to prevent chronic diseases and improve overall quality of life.

Socioeconomic factors are a range of interconnected conditions and influences that affect the opportunities and resources a person or group has to maintain and improve their health and well-being. These factors include:

1. Economic stability: This includes employment status, job security, income level, and poverty status. Lower income and lack of employment are associated with poorer health outcomes.
2. Education: Higher levels of education are generally associated with better health outcomes. Education can affect a person's ability to access and understand health information, as well as their ability to navigate the healthcare system.
3. Social and community context: This includes factors such as social support networks, discrimination, and community safety. Strong social supports and positive community connections are associated with better health outcomes, while discrimination and lack of safety can negatively impact health.
4. Healthcare access and quality: Access to affordable, high-quality healthcare is an important socioeconomic factor that can significantly impact a person's health. Factors such as insurance status, availability of providers, and cultural competency of healthcare systems can all affect healthcare access and quality.
5. Neighborhood and built environment: The physical conditions in which people live, work, and play can also impact their health. Factors such as housing quality, transportation options, availability of healthy foods, and exposure to environmental hazards can all influence health outcomes.

Socioeconomic factors are often interrelated and can have a cumulative effect on health outcomes. For example, someone who lives in a low-income neighborhood with limited access to healthy foods and safe parks may also face challenges related to employment, education, and healthcare access that further impact their health. Addressing socioeconomic factors is an important part of promoting health equity and reducing health disparities.

Health planning is a systematic process of creating strategies, policies, and goals to improve the health of a population and ensure the provision of adequate and accessible healthcare services. It involves assessing the health needs of the community, establishing priorities, developing interventions, and implementing and evaluating programs to address those needs. The ultimate goal of health planning is to optimize the health status of the population, reduce health disparities, and make efficient use of resources in the healthcare system. This process typically involves collaboration among various stakeholders, including healthcare professionals, policymakers, community members, and advocacy groups.

Fluoridation is the process of adding fluoride to a public water supply to reduce tooth decay. The level of fluoride that is typically added to the water is regulated and maintained at around 0.7-1.2 parts per million (ppm), which has been shown to be effective in reducing dental caries while minimizing the risk of fluorosis, a cosmetic condition caused by excessive fluoride intake during tooth development.

Fluoridation can also refer to the process of applying fluoride to the teeth through other means, such as topical fluoride applications in dental offices or the use of fluoride toothpaste. However, community water fluoridation is the most common and cost-effective method of delivering fluoride to a large population.

The practice of water fluoridation has been endorsed by numerous public health organizations, including the World Health Organization (WHO), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the American Dental Association (ADA). Despite some controversy surrounding the practice, extensive research has consistently shown that community water fluoridation is a safe and effective way to prevent tooth decay and improve oral health.

Dental pulp is the soft tissue located in the center of a tooth, surrounded by the dentin. It contains nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissue, and plays a vital role in the development and health of the tooth. The dental pulp helps to form dentin during tooth development and continues to provide nourishment to the tooth throughout its life. It also serves as a sensory organ, allowing the tooth to detect hot and cold temperatures and transmit pain signals to the brain. Injury or infection of the dental pulp can lead to serious dental problems, such as tooth decay or abscesses, and may require root canal treatment to remove the damaged tissue and save the tooth.

Health policy refers to a set of decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific healthcare goals within a population. It is formulated by governmental and non-governmental organizations with the objective of providing guidance and direction for the management and delivery of healthcare services. Health policies address various aspects of healthcare, including access, financing, quality, and equity. They can be designed to promote health, prevent disease, and provide treatment and rehabilitation services to individuals who are sick or injured. Effective health policies require careful consideration of scientific evidence, ethical principles, and societal values to ensure that they meet the needs of the population while being fiscally responsible.

Health services needs refer to the population's requirement for healthcare services based on their health status, disease prevalence, and clinical guidelines. These needs can be categorized into normative needs (based on expert opinions or clinical guidelines) and expressed needs (based on individuals' perceptions of their own healthcare needs).

On the other hand, health services demand refers to the quantity of healthcare services that consumers are willing and able to pay for, given their preferences, values, and financial resources. Demand is influenced by various factors such as price, income, education level, and cultural beliefs.

It's important to note that while needs represent a population's requirement for healthcare services, demand reflects the actual utilization of these services. Understanding both health services needs and demand is crucial in planning and delivering effective healthcare services that meet the population's requirements while ensuring efficient resource allocation.

The Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) is a clinical tool used in orthodontics to assess and determine the need for orthodontic treatment based on dental health components and aesthetic considerations. It was developed to standardize the process of determining treatment priority and eligibility in various healthcare systems.

The IOTN consists of two parts: the Dental Health Component (DHC) and the Aesthetic Component (AC).

1. Dental Health Component (DHC): This part evaluates malocclusion based on specific dental health criteria, which are further divided into five grades:

Grade 1: Little or no treatment needed. The occlusion is satisfactory with minor discrepancies that do not require active orthodontic treatment.

Grade 2: Treatment might be beneficial. There are definite but slight anomalies that would benefit from orthodontic care, although they may not necessarily require immediate attention.

Grade 3: Treatment is clearly necessary. Moderate anomalies are present, and treatment is required to prevent significant worsening of dental health or aesthetics.

Grade 4: Treatment is needed to avoid severe dental disease. Significant malocclusion is present, which may lead to functional impairment, periodontal issues, or tooth wear if left untreated.

Grade 5: Immediate treatment is required. Severe malocclusions are present that can cause significant functional impairment and/or severe dental health problems if not treated promptly.

2. Aesthetic Component (AC): This part assesses the impact of malocclusion on a patient's appearance and self-perception, using a scale from 1 to 10, with 1 being the most attractive and 10 being the least attractive. The scale is based on the perceptions of laypeople rather than dental professionals.

The IOTN helps healthcare providers prioritize orthodontic treatment for patients who need it most, ensuring that limited resources are allocated fairly and efficiently.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

According to the American Academy of Periodontology, periodontal diseases are chronic inflammatory conditions that affect the tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth. These tissues include the gums, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. The primary cause of periodontal disease is bacterial plaque, a sticky film that constantly forms on our teeth.

There are two major stages of periodontal disease:

1. Gingivitis: This is the milder form of periodontal disease, characterized by inflammation of the gums (gingiva) without loss of attachment to the teeth. The gums may appear red, swollen, and bleed easily during brushing or flossing. At this stage, the damage can be reversed with proper dental care and improved oral hygiene.
2. Periodontitis: If left untreated, gingivitis can progress to periodontitis, a more severe form of periodontal disease. In periodontitis, the inflammation extends beyond the gums and affects the deeper periodontal tissues, leading to loss of bone support around the teeth. Pockets filled with infection-causing bacteria form between the teeth and gums, causing further damage and potential tooth loss if not treated promptly.

Risk factors for developing periodontal disease include poor oral hygiene, smoking or using smokeless tobacco, genetic predisposition, diabetes, hormonal changes (such as pregnancy or menopause), certain medications, and systemic diseases like AIDS or cancer. Regular dental check-ups and good oral hygiene practices are crucial for preventing periodontal disease and maintaining overall oral health.

The Faculty of Dental Surgery (FDS) is a division or department within a medical or dental school that focuses on the study, research, and practice of dental surgery. The faculty may be responsible for providing undergraduate and postgraduate education and training in dental surgery, as well as conducting research in this field.

Dental surgery encompasses various procedures related to the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases and disorders that affect the teeth, gums, and other structures of the mouth and jaw. This may include procedures such as tooth extractions, root canals, dental implants, and oral cancer surgery, among others.

The Faculty of Dental Surgery is typically composed of a group of dental surgeons who are experts in their field and have a commitment to advancing the practice of dental surgery through education, research, and clinical excellence. Members of the faculty may include professors, researchers, clinicians, and other professionals who are involved in the delivery of dental care.

The Oral Hygiene Index (OHI) is a dental measurement used to assess and quantify the cleanliness of a patient's teeth. It was developed by Greene and Vermillion in 1964 as a simple, reproducible method for oral hygiene evaluation. The index takes into account the amount of debris (food particles, plaque) and calculus (tartar) present on the tooth surfaces.

The OHI consists of two components: the Debris Index (DI) and the Calculus Index (CI). Each component is scored separately for six designated teeth (16, 11, 26, 36, 31, and 46) on a scale from 0 to 3. The scores are then summed up and averaged to obtain the final OHI score:

1. Debris Index (DI): Assesses the soft debris or plaque accumulation on the tooth surfaces. The scoring is as follows:
- Score 0: No debris present
- Score 1: Debris found on up to one-third of the tooth surface
- Score 2: Debris found on more than one-third but less than two-thirds of the tooth surface
- Score 3: Debris found on more than two-thirds of the tooth surface

2. Calculus Index (CI): Evaluates the hard calculus or tartar accumulation on the tooth surfaces. The scoring is similar to the DI:
- Score 0: No calculus present
- Score 1: Supragingival calculus found on up to one-third of the tooth surface
- Score 2: Supragingival calculus found on more than one-third but less than two-thirds of the tooth surface, or the presence of individual flecks of subgingival calculus
- Score 3: Supragingival calculus found on more than two-thirds of the tooth surface, or a continuous heavy band of subgingival calculus

The OHI score ranges from 0 to 6, with higher scores indicating poorer oral hygiene. This index is widely used in dental research and clinical settings to evaluate the effectiveness of oral hygiene interventions and to assess overall oral health status.

Health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over their health and its determinants, and to improve their health. It moves beyond a focus on individual behavior change to include social and environmental interventions that can positively influence the health of individuals, communities, and populations. Health promotion involves engaging in a wide range of activities, such as advocacy, policy development, community organization, and education that aim to create supportive environments and personal skills that foster good health. It is based on principles of empowerment, participation, and social justice.

Dental care for disabled refers to the specialized oral health services and treatments provided to individuals with physical, cognitive, or developmental disabilities. This type of dental care aims to prevent and manage dental diseases and conditions that can be more prevalent and challenging to treat in this population due to factors such as limited mobility, difficulty communicating, behavioral challenges, and the need for specialized equipment and techniques. Dental care for disabled may include routine cleanings, fillings, extractions, and other procedures, as well as education and counseling on oral hygiene and dietary habits. It may also involve collaboration with other healthcare providers to manage overall health and well-being.

Comprehensive dental care is a broad term that refers to a dental approach that involves the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of a wide range of oral health issues. It aims to provide patients with complete and optimal oral health care, including:

1. Oral examination and assessment: This includes a thorough examination of the patient's oral cavity, head, and neck to identify any existing dental problems or potential issues that may arise in the future.
2. Preventive care: Comprehensive dental care emphasizes preventive measures such as regular dental cleanings, fluoride treatments, and sealants to help protect against tooth decay and gum disease.
3. Restorative dentistry: If dental problems are identified, comprehensive dental care includes restorative treatments like fillings, crowns, bridges, or implants to restore the function and appearance of damaged teeth.
4. Periodontal (gum) treatment: Comprehensive dental care also addresses periodontal health through deep cleanings, scaling and root planing, and other therapies to manage gum disease.
5. Oral surgery: In some cases, comprehensive dental care may involve oral surgery procedures like tooth extractions or jaw realignment.
6. Endodontic (root canal) treatment: If the pulp of a tooth becomes infected or inflamed, endodontic treatment may be necessary to save the tooth and alleviate pain.
7. Prosthodontics: This includes the replacement of missing teeth with dentures, bridges, or implants.
8. Orthodontic care: Comprehensive dental care can also involve orthodontic treatments like braces or aligners to straighten misaligned teeth and improve bite.
9. Oral cancer screening: Regular oral cancer screenings are an essential part of comprehensive dental care, as early detection significantly increases the chances of successful treatment.
10. Patient education: Comprehensive dental care also focuses on educating patients about proper oral hygiene practices, nutrition, and lifestyle choices that can impact their oral health. This helps empower patients to take an active role in maintaining their oral health between appointments.

In summary, comprehensive dental care is a holistic approach to dental care that aims to provide complete and personalized oral health solutions for each patient, addressing all aspects of their oral health and promoting long-term wellbeing.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

Dental prophylaxis is a dental procedure aimed at the prevention and treatment of dental diseases. It is commonly known as a "teeth cleaning" and is performed by a dentist or dental hygienist. The procedure involves removing plaque, tartar, and stains from the teeth to prevent tooth decay and gum disease. Dental prophylaxis may also include polishing the teeth, applying fluoride, and providing oral hygiene instructions to promote good oral health. It is recommended that individuals receive a dental prophylaxis every six months or as directed by their dentist.

Health care reform refers to the legislative efforts, initiatives, and debates aimed at improving the quality, affordability, and accessibility of health care services. These reforms may include changes to health insurance coverage, delivery systems, payment methods, and healthcare regulations. The goals of health care reform are often to increase the number of people with health insurance, reduce healthcare costs, and improve the overall health outcomes of a population. Examples of notable health care reform measures in the United States include the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and Medicare for All proposals.

Malocclusion is a term used in dentistry and orthodontics to describe a misalignment or misrelation between the upper and lower teeth when they come together, also known as the bite. It is derived from the Latin words "mal" meaning bad or wrong, and "occludere" meaning to close.

There are different types of malocclusions, including:

1. Class I malocclusion: The most common type, where the upper teeth slightly overlap the lower teeth, but the bite is otherwise aligned.
2. Class II malocclusion (overbite): The upper teeth significantly overlap the lower teeth, causing a horizontal or vertical discrepancy between the dental arches.
3. Class III malocclusion (underbite): The lower teeth protrude beyond the upper teeth, resulting in a crossbite or underbite.

Malocclusions can be caused by various factors such as genetics, thumb sucking, tongue thrusting, premature loss of primary or permanent teeth, and jaw injuries or disorders. They may lead to several oral health issues, including tooth decay, gum disease, difficulty chewing or speaking, and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction. Treatment for malocclusions typically involves orthodontic appliances like braces, aligners, or retainers to realign the teeth and correct the bite. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines health as "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." This definition emphasizes that health is more than just the absence of illness, but a positive state of well-being in which an individual is able to realize their own potential, cope with normal stresses of life, work productively, and contribute to their community. It recognizes that physical, mental, and social factors are interconnected and can all impact a person's overall health. This definition also highlights the importance of addressing the social determinants of health, such as poverty, education, housing, and access to healthcare, in order to promote health and prevent disease.

Toothbrushing is the act of cleaning teeth and gums using a toothbrush to remove plaque, food debris, and dental calculus (tartar) from the surfaces of the teeth and gums. It is typically performed using a soft-bristled toothbrush and fluoride toothpaste, with gentle circular or back-and-forth motions along the gumline and on all surfaces of the teeth. Toothbrushing should be done at least twice a day, preferably after every meal and before bedtime, for two minutes each time, to maintain good oral hygiene and prevent dental diseases such as tooth decay and gum disease. It is also recommended to brush the tongue to remove bacteria and freshen breath.

"Edentulous mouth" is a medical term used to describe a condition where an individual has no remaining natural teeth in either their upper or lower jaw, or both. This situation can occur due to various reasons such as tooth decay, gum disease, trauma, or aging. Dentists often recommend dental prosthetics like dentures to restore oral function and aesthetics for individuals with edentulous mouths.

A cariogenic diet is a type of diet that increases the risk of dental caries, also known as tooth decay or cavities. This occurs when the bacteria in the mouth break down sugars and other fermentable carbohydrates in the food we eat to produce acid, which can erode the enamel of the teeth and cause cavities.

Foods and drinks that are high in sugar and sticky or retain in the mouth for a longer time, such as candy, cookies, cakes, dried fruits, sodas, and fruit juices, are considered cariogenic. Frequent consumption of these types of food and drinks can increase the risk of tooth decay.

It is important to maintain a balanced diet that includes plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and dairy products, as well as limiting sugary snacks and beverages, to promote good oral health. Regular dental check-ups and good oral hygiene practices, such as brushing twice a day and flossing daily, can also help prevent tooth decay.

Health services refer to the delivery of healthcare services, including preventive, curative, and rehabilitative services. These services are typically provided by health professionals such as doctors, nurses, and allied health personnel in various settings, including hospitals, clinics, community health centers, and long-term care facilities. Health services may also include public health activities such as health education, surveillance, and health promotion programs aimed at improving the health of populations. The goal of health services is to promote and restore health, prevent disease and injury, and improve the quality of life for individuals and communities.

Dental care for the elderly, also known as geriatric dentistry, refers to the dental care services provided to meet the specific needs and challenges of older adults. As people age, they may experience various oral health issues such as:

* Dry mouth due to medication side effects or medical conditions
* Gum disease and periodontitis
* Tooth loss and decay
* Oral cancer
* Uneven jawbone or ill-fitting dentures

Dental care for the aged may include routine dental exams, cleanings, fillings, extractions, denture fittings, oral surgery, and education on proper oral hygiene. It is important for elderly individuals to maintain good oral health as it can impact their overall health and quality of life. Regular dental check-ups and good oral hygiene practices can help prevent or manage these common oral health problems in the elderly.

A toothache is defined as pain or discomfort in or around a tooth, usually caused by dental cavities, gum disease, tooth fracture, or exposed tooth roots. The pain may be sharp and stabbing, throbbing, or constant and dull. It can also be aggravated by hot, cold, sweet, or sour foods and drinks, or by biting or chewing. Toothaches are serious and should not be ignored as they can be a sign of more significant dental issues that require immediate professional attention from a dentist.

"World Health" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, it is often used in the context of global health, which can be defined as:

"The area of study, research and practice that places a priority on improving health and achieving equity in health for all people worldwide. It emphasizes trans-national health issues, determinants, and solutions; involves many disciplines within and beyond the health sciences and engages stakeholders from across sectors and societies." (World Health Organization)

Therefore, "world health" could refer to the overall health status and health challenges faced by populations around the world. It encompasses a broad range of factors that affect the health of individuals and communities, including social, economic, environmental, and political determinants. The World Health Organization (WHO) plays a key role in monitoring and promoting global health, setting international standards and guidelines, and coordinating responses to global health emergencies.

Dentistry is the branch of medicine that is concerned with the examination, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders, and conditions of the oral cavity (mouth), including the teeth, gums, and other supporting structures. Dentists use a variety of treatments and procedures to help patients maintain good oral health and prevent dental problems from developing or worsening. These may include:

* Routine cleanings and checkups to remove plaque and tartar and detect any potential issues early on
* Fillings, crowns, and other restorative treatments to repair damaged teeth
* Root canal therapy to treat infected or inflamed tooth pulp
* Extractions of severely decayed or impacted teeth
* Dentures, bridges, and implants to replace missing teeth
* Orthodontic treatment to align crooked or misaligned teeth
* Treatment for temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders and other issues affecting the jaw and surrounding muscles

Dental health is an important part of overall health and well-being. Poor oral health has been linked to a variety of systemic conditions, including heart disease, diabetes, and respiratory infections. Regular dental checkups and good oral hygiene practices can help prevent these and other dental problems from developing.

Tooth loss is the condition or process characterized by the disappearance or absence of one or more teeth from their normal position in the dental arch. This can occur due to various reasons such as tooth decay, periodontal disease (gum disease), injury, or aging. The consequences of tooth loss include difficulties in chewing, speaking, and adversely affecting the aesthetics of a person's smile, which may lead to psychological impacts. Additionally, it can cause shifting of adjacent teeth, bone resorption, and changes in the bite, potentially leading to further dental issues if not treated promptly.

Dental research is a scientific discipline that focuses on the study of teeth, oral health, and related diseases. It involves various aspects of dental sciences such as oral biology, microbiology, biochemistry, genetics, epidemiology, biomaterials, and biotechnology. The main aim of dental research is to improve oral health care, develop new diagnostic tools, prevent dental diseases, and create better treatment options for various dental conditions. Dental researchers may study topics such as tooth development, oral cancer, periodontal disease, dental caries (cavities), saliva composition, and the effects of nutrition on oral health. The findings from dental research can help improve dental care practices, inform public health policies, and advance our understanding of overall human health.

Orthodontics is a specialized branch of dentistry that focuses on the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of dental and facial irregularities. The term "corrective" in this context refers to the use of appliances (such as braces, aligners, or other devices) to move teeth into their proper position and correct malocclusion (bad bite). This not only improves the appearance of the teeth but also helps to ensure better function, improved oral health, and overall dental well-being.

The goal of corrective orthodontics is to create a balanced and harmonious relationship between the teeth, jaws, and facial structures. Treatment may be recommended for children, adolescents, or adults and can help address various issues such as crowding, spacing, overbites, underbites, crossbites, open bites, and jaw growth discrepancies. A combination of techniques, including fixed or removable appliances, may be used to achieve the desired outcome. Regular follow-up appointments are necessary throughout treatment to monitor progress and make any necessary adjustments.

Primary health care is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as:

"Essential health care that is based on practical, scientifically sound and socially acceptable methods and technology made universally accessible to individuals and families in the community through their full participation and at a cost that the community and country can afford. It forms an integral part both of the country's health system, of which it is the central function and main focus, and of the overall social and economic development of the community. It is the first level of contact of individuals, the family and community with the national health system bringing health care as close as possible to where people live and work, and constitutes the first element of a continuing health care process."

Primary health care includes a range of services such as preventive care, health promotion, curative care, rehabilitation, and palliative care. It is typically provided by a team of health professionals including doctors, nurses, midwives, pharmacists, and other community health workers. The goal of primary health care is to provide comprehensive, continuous, and coordinated care to individuals and families in a way that is accessible, affordable, and culturally sensitive.

A needs assessment in a medical context is the process of identifying and evaluating the health needs of an individual, population, or community. It is used to determine the resources, services, and interventions required to address specific health issues and improve overall health outcomes. This process often involves collecting and analyzing data on various factors such as demographics, prevalence of diseases, access to healthcare, and social determinants of health. The goal of a needs assessment is to ensure that resources are allocated effectively and efficiently to meet the most pressing health needs and priorities.

The dental arch refers to the curved shape formed by the upper or lower teeth when they come together. The dental arch follows the curve of the jaw and is important for proper bite alignment and overall oral health. The dental arches are typically described as having a U-shaped appearance, with the front teeth forming a narrower section and the back teeth forming a wider section. The shape and size of the dental arch can vary from person to person, and any significant deviations from the typical shape or size may indicate an underlying orthodontic issue that requires treatment.

Quality of health care is a term that refers to the degree to which health services for individuals and populations increase the likelihood of desired health outcomes and are consistent with current professional knowledge. It encompasses various aspects such as:

1. Clinical effectiveness: The use of best available evidence to make decisions about prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and care. This includes considering the benefits and harms of different options and making sure that the most effective interventions are used.
2. Safety: Preventing harm to patients and minimizing risks associated with healthcare. This involves identifying potential hazards, implementing measures to reduce errors, and learning from adverse events to improve systems and processes.
3. Patient-centeredness: Providing care that is respectful of and responsive to individual patient preferences, needs, and values. This includes ensuring that patients are fully informed about their condition and treatment options, involving them in decision-making, and providing emotional support throughout the care process.
4. Timeliness: Ensuring that healthcare services are delivered promptly and efficiently, without unnecessary delays. This includes coordinating care across different providers and settings to ensure continuity and avoid gaps in service.
5. Efficiency: Using resources wisely and avoiding waste, while still providing high-quality care. This involves considering the costs and benefits of different interventions, as well as ensuring that healthcare services are equitably distributed.
6. Equitability: Ensuring that all individuals have access to quality healthcare services, regardless of their socioeconomic status, race, ethnicity, gender, age, or other factors. This includes addressing disparities in health outcomes and promoting fairness and justice in healthcare.

Overall, the quality of health care is a multidimensional concept that requires ongoing evaluation and improvement to ensure that patients receive the best possible care.

Logistic models, specifically logistic regression models, are a type of statistical analysis used in medical and epidemiological research to identify the relationship between the risk of a certain health outcome or disease (dependent variable) and one or more independent variables, such as demographic factors, exposure variables, or other clinical measurements.

In contrast to linear regression models, logistic regression models are used when the dependent variable is binary or dichotomous in nature, meaning it can only take on two values, such as "disease present" or "disease absent." The model uses a logistic function to estimate the probability of the outcome based on the independent variables.

Logistic regression models are useful for identifying risk factors and estimating the strength of associations between exposures and health outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders, and predicting the probability of an outcome given certain values of the independent variables. They can also be used to develop clinical prediction rules or scores that can aid in decision-making and patient care.

Health Insurance is a type of insurance that covers the whole or a part of the risk of a person incurring medical expenses, spreading the risk over a large number of persons. By purchasing health insurance, insured individuals pay a premium to an insurance company, which then pools those funds with other policyholders' premiums to pay for the medical care costs of individuals who become ill or injured. The coverage can include hospitalization, medical procedures, prescription drugs, and preventive care, among other services. The goal of health insurance is to provide financial protection against unexpected medical expenses and to make healthcare services more affordable.

Quality of Life (QOL) is a broad, multidimensional concept that usually includes an individual's physical health, psychological state, level of independence, social relationships, personal beliefs, and their relationship to salient features of their environment. It reflects the impact of disease and treatment on a patient's overall well-being and ability to function in daily life.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines QOL as "an individual's perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns." It is a subjective concept, meaning it can vary greatly from person to person.

In healthcare, QOL is often used as an outcome measure in clinical trials and other research studies to assess the impact of interventions or treatments on overall patient well-being.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "toothpastes" is the plural form of "toothpaste," which is not a medical condition or procedure that requires a definition. However, I can provide you with some information about toothpaste.

Toothpaste is a dental hygiene product used to clean and maintain the health of teeth and gums. It generally contains mild abrasives, flavoring, and fluoride to help remove plaque, prevent tooth decay, and freshen breath. There are various types of toothpastes available on the market, including those formulated for sensitive teeth, whitening, gum health, and tartar control. It is essential to choose a toothpaste that meets your specific dental needs and has the American Dental Association (ADA) Seal of Acceptance, ensuring its safety and effectiveness.

A dental office is a healthcare facility where dental professionals, such as dentists, oral surgeons, and orthodontists, provide various dental treatments and services to patients. These services may include routine check-ups, teeth cleaning, fillings, extractions, root canals, crowns, bridges, implants, and orthodontic treatments like braces.

Dental offices typically have examination rooms equipped with dental chairs, dental instruments, and X-ray machines to diagnose and treat dental issues. They may also have a reception area where patients can schedule appointments, make payments, and complete paperwork.

In addition to clinical services, dental offices may also provide patient education on oral hygiene practices, nutrition, and lifestyle habits that can affect dental health. Some dental offices may specialize in certain areas of dentistry, such as pediatric dentistry or cosmetic dentistry.

Dental records are a collection of detailed documentation related to a patient's dental history and treatment. These records typically include:

1. Patient demographics: This includes the patient's name, date of birth, contact information, and other identifying details.
2. Dental charts: These are graphic representations of the patient's teeth and gums, noting any existing restorations, decay, periodontal disease, or other oral health conditions.
3. Radiographs (x-rays): These images help dentists visualize structures that aren't visible during a clinical examination, such as between teeth, below the gum line, and inside the jaw bones.
4. Treatment plans: This includes proposed dental procedures, their estimated costs, and the rationale behind them.
5. Progress notes: These are ongoing records of each dental appointment, detailing the treatments performed, the patient's response to treatment, and any home care instructions given.
6. Medical history: This includes any systemic health conditions that could impact dental treatment, such as diabetes or heart disease, as well as medications being taken.
7. Consent forms: These are documents signed by the patient (or their legal guardian) giving permission for specific treatments.
8. Communication notes: Any correspondence between dental professionals regarding the patient's care.

Dental records play a crucial role in continuity of care, allowing dentists to track changes in a patient's oral health over time and make informed treatment decisions. They are also important for medicolegal reasons, providing evidence in case of malpractice claims or other disputes.

Patient acceptance of health care refers to the willingness and ability of a patient to follow and engage in a recommended treatment plan or healthcare regimen. This involves understanding the proposed medical interventions, considering their potential benefits and risks, and making an informed decision to proceed with the recommended course of action.

The factors that influence patient acceptance can include:

1. Patient's understanding of their condition and treatment options
2. Trust in their healthcare provider
3. Personal beliefs and values related to health and illness
4. Cultural, linguistic, or socioeconomic barriers
5. Emotional responses to the diagnosis or proposed treatment
6. Practical considerations, such as cost, time commitment, or potential side effects

Healthcare providers play a crucial role in facilitating patient acceptance by clearly communicating information, addressing concerns and questions, and providing support throughout the decision-making process. Encouraging shared decision-making and tailoring care plans to individual patient needs and preferences can also enhance patient acceptance of health care.

"Sex factors" is a term used in medicine and epidemiology to refer to the differences in disease incidence, prevalence, or response to treatment that are observed between males and females. These differences can be attributed to biological differences such as genetics, hormones, and anatomy, as well as social and cultural factors related to gender.

For example, some conditions such as autoimmune diseases, depression, and osteoporosis are more common in women, while others such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are more prevalent in men. Additionally, sex differences have been observed in the effectiveness and side effects of various medications and treatments.

It is important to consider sex factors in medical research and clinical practice to ensure that patients receive appropriate and effective care.

Educational status refers to the level or stage of education that a person has reached. It can be used to describe an individual's educational background, achievements, and qualifications. Educational status can be categorized in various ways, including by level (e.g., elementary school, high school, college, graduate school), years of schooling completed, or type of degree earned (e.g., bachelor's, master's, doctoral).

In medical settings, educational status may be used as a demographic variable to describe the characteristics of a patient population or to identify potential disparities in health outcomes based on education level. Research has shown that higher levels of education are often associated with better health outcomes, including lower rates of chronic diseases and improved mental health. Therefore, understanding a patient's educational status can help healthcare providers tailor their care and education strategies to meet the unique needs and challenges of each individual.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "social class" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is a sociological concept that refers to the grouping of individuals in a society based on their shared economic and social positions. This can include factors such as income, education, occupation, and wealth.

However, social class can have an impact on health outcomes and access to healthcare. For example, people in lower socioeconomic groups are more likely to experience chronic diseases, mental health disorders, and have limited access to quality healthcare services compared to those in higher socioeconomic groups. This relationship is often referred to as the "social determinants of health."

Public Health Dentistry is defined as the science and art of preventing and controlling dental diseases and promoting oral health through organized community efforts. It involves the planning, organization, implementation, and evaluation of services designed to improve the oral health of populations, rather than individuals. This field of dentistry focuses on the importance of addressing social determinants of health, advocating for policies that benefit oral health, and conducting research to inform public health practice and policy. Public Health Dentists work in a variety of settings including public health departments, community health centers, dental schools, and non-profit organizations to promote oral health and reduce oral health disparities.

Health services research (HSR) is a multidisciplinary field of scientific investigation that studies how social factors, financing systems, organizational structures and processes, health technologies, and personal behaviors affect access to healthcare, the quality and cost of care, and ultimately, our health and well-being. The goal of HSR is to inform policy and practice, improve system performance, and enhance the health and well-being of individuals and communities. It involves the use of various research methods, including epidemiology, biostatistics, economics, sociology, management science, political science, and psychology, to answer questions about the healthcare system and how it can be improved.

Examples of HSR topics include:

* Evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different healthcare interventions and technologies
* Studying patient-centered care and patient experiences with the healthcare system
* Examining healthcare workforce issues, such as shortages of primary care providers or the impact of nurse-to-patient ratios on patient outcomes
* Investigating the impact of health insurance design and financing systems on access to care and health disparities
* Analyzing the organization and delivery of healthcare services in different settings, such as hospitals, clinics, and long-term care facilities
* Identifying best practices for improving healthcare quality and safety, reducing medical errors, and eliminating wasteful or unnecessary care.

"General practice dentistry" is a term used to describe the provision of primary dental care to patients of all ages. A general practice dentist provides a wide range of dental services, including preventative care (such as cleanings and fluoride treatments), restorative care (fillings, crowns, bridges), endodontics (root canals), oral surgery (extractions), periodontics (treatment of gum disease), prosthodontics (dentures, implants), and orthodontics (braces). They also diagnose and manage dental diseases and provide advice on oral health. General practice dentists aim to provide comprehensive and continuous care to their patients, coordinating with other dental and medical professionals as needed.

Orthodontics is a specialized branch of dentistry that focuses on the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of dental and facial irregularities. This involves correcting teeth that are improperly positioned, often using braces or other appliances to move them into the correct position over time. The goal of orthodontic treatment is to create a healthy, functional bite and improve the appearance of the teeth and face.

Orthodontists are dental specialists who have completed additional training beyond dental school in order to become experts in this field. They use various techniques and tools, such as X-rays, models of the teeth, and computer imaging, to assess and plan treatment for each individual patient. The type of treatment recommended will depend on the specific needs and goals of the patient.

Orthodontic treatment can be beneficial for people of all ages, although it is most commonly started during childhood or adolescence when the teeth and jaws are still growing and developing. However, more and more adults are also seeking orthodontic treatment to improve their smile and oral health.

Health status disparities refer to differences in the health outcomes that are observed between different populations. These populations can be defined by various sociodemographic factors such as race, ethnicity, sex, gender identity, sexual orientation, age, disability, income, education level, and geographic location. Health status disparities can manifest as differences in rates of illness, disease prevalence or incidence, morbidity, mortality, access to healthcare services, and quality of care received. These disparities are often the result of systemic inequities and social determinants of health that negatively impact certain populations, leading to worse health outcomes compared to other groups. It is important to note that health status disparities are preventable and can be addressed through targeted public health interventions and policies aimed at reducing health inequities.

Dental equipment refers to the various instruments and devices used by dental professionals to perform oral health examinations, diagnose dental conditions, and provide treatment to patients. Here are some examples:

1. Dental chair: A specially designed chair that allows patients to recline while receiving dental care.
2. Examination light: A bright light used to illuminate the oral cavity during examinations and procedures.
3. Dental mirror: A small, angled mirror used to help dentists see hard-to-reach areas of the mouth.
4. Explorer: A sharp instrument used to probe teeth for signs of decay or other dental problems.
5. Dental probe: A blunt instrument used to measure the depth of periodontal pockets and assess gum health.
6. Scaler: A handheld instrument or ultrasonic device used to remove tartar and calculus from teeth.
7. Suction device: A vacuum-like tool that removes saliva, water, and debris from the mouth during procedures.
8. Dental drill: A high-speed instrument used to remove decayed or damaged tooth structure and prepare teeth for fillings, crowns, or other restorations.
9. Rubber dam: A thin sheet of rubber used to isolate individual teeth during procedures, keeping them dry and free from saliva.
10. Dental X-ray machine: A device that uses radiation to capture images of the teeth and surrounding structures, helping dentists diagnose conditions such as decay, infection, and bone loss.
11. Curing light: A special light used to harden dental materials, such as composite fillings and crowns, after they have been placed in the mouth.
12. Air/water syringe: A handheld device that delivers a stream of air and water to clean teeth and rinse away debris during procedures.

Community dentistry, also known as public health dentistry, is a branch of dental science that focuses on the prevention and control of oral diseases and promoting oral health within communities and populations. It involves the application of epidemiological, social, behavioral, and administrative sciences to improve the oral health of populations. The goal of community dentistry is to reduce oral health disparities by providing accessible, affordable, and culturally competent dental care to all members of a community, particularly those who are underserved or vulnerable.

Community dentistry programs may include school-based dental sealant programs, fluoridation initiatives, oral health education campaigns, and policy advocacy efforts to improve access to dental care. Dental public health professionals work in a variety of settings, including public health departments, community health centers, academic institutions, and non-profit organizations. They collaborate with other healthcare providers, policymakers, and community stakeholders to promote oral health and prevent oral diseases.

The Manifest Anxiety Scale (MAS) is a psychological self-reporting measurement tool used to assess the level of anxiety in individuals. It was developed by psychologist Charles D. Spielberger and his colleagues in the 1950s as part of their research on anxiety and stress. The MAS measures the subjective experience of anxiety or feelings of tension, worry, and nervousness that an individual may be experiencing.

The MAS consists of a series of statements or items that describe various symptoms or manifestations of anxiety. Respondents are asked to rate how well each statement describes their own experiences on a scale, typically ranging from "not at all" to "very much." The total score is calculated by summing up the ratings for all the items, with higher scores indicating greater levels of anxiety.

It's important to note that while the MAS can provide useful information about an individual's subjective experience of anxiety, it should not be used as a standalone diagnostic tool. A comprehensive assessment by a qualified mental health professional is necessary for a proper diagnosis and treatment plan.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Topical fluorides are a form of fluoride that are applied directly to the teeth to prevent dental caries (cavities). They are available in various forms such as toothpastes, gels, foams, and varnishes. Topical fluorides work by strengthening the enamel of the teeth, making them more resistant to acid attacks caused by bacteria in the mouth. They can also help to reverse early signs of decay. Regular use of topical fluorides, especially in children during the years of tooth development, can provide significant protection against dental caries.

I apologize, but "Canada" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located in North America, known for its vast wilderness, multicultural cities, and significant natural resources. If you have any questions related to healthcare or medical terms, I would be happy to help answer those!

"Health personnel" is a broad term that refers to individuals who are involved in maintaining, promoting, and restoring the health of populations or individuals. This can include a wide range of professionals such as:

1. Healthcare providers: These are medical doctors, nurses, midwives, dentists, pharmacists, allied health professionals (like physical therapists, occupational therapists, speech therapists, dietitians, etc.), and other healthcare workers who provide direct patient care.

2. Public health professionals: These are individuals who work in public health agencies, non-governmental organizations, or academia to promote health, prevent diseases, and protect populations from health hazards. They include epidemiologists, biostatisticians, health educators, environmental health specialists, and health services researchers.

3. Health managers and administrators: These are professionals who oversee the operations, finances, and strategic planning of healthcare organizations, such as hospitals, clinics, or public health departments. They may include hospital CEOs, medical directors, practice managers, and healthcare consultants.

4. Health support staff: This group includes various personnel who provide essential services to healthcare organizations, such as medical records technicians, billing specialists, receptionists, and maintenance workers.

5. Health researchers and academics: These are professionals involved in conducting research, teaching, and disseminating knowledge related to health sciences, medicine, public health, or healthcare management in universities, research institutions, or think tanks.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines "health worker" as "a person who contributes to the promotion, protection, or improvement of health through prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, palliation, health promotion, and health education." This definition encompasses a wide range of professionals working in various capacities to improve health outcomes.

Cariostatic agents are substances or medications that are used to prevent or inhibit the development and progression of dental caries, also known as tooth decay or cavities. These agents work by reducing the ability of bacteria in the mouth to produce acid, which can erode the enamel and dentin of the teeth and lead to cavities.

There are several types of cariostatic agents that are commonly used in dental care, including:

1. Fluorides: These are the most widely used and well-studied cariostatic agents. They work by promoting the remineralization of tooth enamel and making it more resistant to acid attacks. Fluoride can be found in toothpaste, mouthwashes, gels, varnishes, and fluoridated water supplies.
2. Antimicrobial agents: These substances work by reducing the population of bacteria in the mouth that contribute to tooth decay. Examples include chlorhexidine, triclosan, and xylitol.
3. Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP): This is a complex protein that has been shown to help remineralize tooth enamel and reduce the risk of dental caries. It can be found in some toothpastes and mouthwashes.
4. Silver diamine fluoride: This is a topical fluoride compound that contains silver ions, which have antimicrobial properties. It has been shown to be effective in preventing and arresting dental caries, particularly in high-risk populations such as young children and older adults with dry mouth.

It's important to note that while cariostatic agents can help reduce the risk of tooth decay, they are not a substitute for good oral hygiene practices such as brushing twice a day, flossing daily, and visiting the dentist regularly.

Health education is the process of providing information and strategies to individuals and communities about how to improve their health and prevent disease. It involves teaching and learning activities that aim to empower people to make informed decisions and take responsible actions regarding their health. Health education covers a wide range of topics, including nutrition, physical activity, sexual and reproductive health, mental health, substance abuse prevention, and environmental health. The ultimate goal of health education is to promote healthy behaviors and lifestyles that can lead to improved health outcomes and quality of life.

Dental amalgam is a commonly used dental filling material that consists of a mixture of metals, including silver, tin, copper, and mercury. The mercury binds the other metals together to form a strong, durable, and stable restoration that is resistant to wear and tear. Dental amalgam has been used for over 150 years to fill cavities and repair damaged teeth, and it remains a popular choice among dentists due to its strength, durability, and affordability.

However, there has been some controversy surrounding the use of dental amalgam due to concerns about the potential health effects of mercury exposure. While the majority of scientific evidence suggests that dental amalgam is safe for most people, some individuals may be more sensitive to mercury and may experience adverse reactions. As a result, some dentists may recommend alternative filling materials, such as composite resin or gold, for certain patients.

Overall, dental amalgam is a safe and effective option for filling cavities and restoring damaged teeth, but it is important to discuss any concerns or questions with a qualified dental professional.

Rural health is a branch of healthcare that focuses on the unique health challenges and needs of people living in rural areas. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines rural health as "the state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, in the rural population."

Rural populations often face disparities in healthcare access and quality compared to their urban counterparts. Factors such as geographic isolation, poverty, lack of transportation, and a shortage of healthcare providers can contribute to these disparities. Rural health encompasses a broad range of services, including primary care, prevention, chronic disease management, mental health, oral health, and emergency medical services.

The goal of rural health is to improve the health outcomes of rural populations by addressing these unique challenges and providing high-quality, accessible healthcare services that meet their needs. This may involve innovative approaches such as telemedicine, mobile health clinics, and community-based programs to reach people in remote areas.

The Periodontal Index (PI) is not a current or widely used medical/dental term. However, in the past, it was used to describe a method for assessing and measuring the severity of periodontal disease, also known as gum disease.

Developed by Henry H. Klein and colleagues in 1978, the Periodontal Index was a scoring system that evaluated four parameters: gingival inflammation, gingival bleeding, calculus (tartar) presence, and periodontal pocket depths. The scores for each parameter ranged from 0 to 3, with higher scores indicating worse periodontal health. The overall PI score was the sum of the individual parameter scores, ranging from 0 to 12.

However, due to its limited ability to predict future disease progression and the introduction of more comprehensive assessment methods like the Community Periodontal Index (CPI) and the Basic Periodontal Examination (BPE), the use of the Periodontal Index has become less common in dental practice and research.

The "attitude of health personnel" refers to the overall disposition, behavior, and approach that healthcare professionals exhibit towards their patients or clients. This encompasses various aspects such as:

1. Interpersonal skills: The ability to communicate effectively, listen actively, and build rapport with patients.
2. Professionalism: Adherence to ethical principles, confidentiality, and maintaining a non-judgmental attitude.
3. Compassion and empathy: Showing genuine concern for the patient's well-being and understanding their feelings and experiences.
4. Cultural sensitivity: Respecting and acknowledging the cultural backgrounds, beliefs, and values of patients.
5. Competence: Demonstrating knowledge, skills, and expertise in providing healthcare services.
6. Collaboration: Working together with other healthcare professionals to ensure comprehensive care for the patient.
7. Patient-centeredness: Focusing on the individual needs, preferences, and goals of the patient in the decision-making process.
8. Commitment to continuous learning and improvement: Staying updated with the latest developments in the field and seeking opportunities to enhance one's skills and knowledge.

A positive attitude of health personnel contributes significantly to patient satisfaction, adherence to treatment plans, and overall healthcare outcomes.

Pit and fissure sealants are a preventive dental treatment that involves the application of a thin, plastic coating to the chewing surfaces of teeth, usually the molars and premolars. The goal of this treatment is to protect the pits and fissures, which are the grooves and depressions on the chewing surfaces of teeth, from decay.

The sealant material flows into the pits and fissures, creating a smooth, protective barrier that prevents food and bacteria from becoming trapped in these areas and causing cavities. The procedure is typically quick, painless, and non-invasive, and can be performed during a routine dental checkup. Sealants are most commonly recommended for children and adolescents, but they may also be appropriate for adults who are at high risk of tooth decay.

"Edentulous jaw" is a medical term used to describe a jaw that is missing all of its natural teeth. The term "edentulous" is derived from the Latin word "edentulus," which means "without teeth." This condition can affect either the upper jaw (maxilla) or the lower jaw (mandible), or both, resulting in a significant impact on an individual's ability to eat, speak, and maintain proper facial structure.

Edentulism is often associated with aging, as tooth loss becomes more common in older adults due to factors like gum disease, tooth decay, and injury. However, it can also affect younger individuals who have lost their teeth due to various reasons. Dental professionals typically recommend the use of dentures or dental implants to restore oral function and aesthetics for patients with edentulous jaws.

A rural population refers to people who live in areas that are outside of urban areas, typically defined as having fewer than 2,000 residents and lacking certain infrastructure and services such as running water, sewage systems, and paved roads. Rural populations often have less access to healthcare services, education, and economic opportunities compared to their urban counterparts. This population group can face unique health challenges, including higher rates of poverty, limited access to specialized medical care, and a greater exposure to environmental hazards such as agricultural chemicals and industrial pollutants.

Geriatric dentistry is a specialized branch of dental medicine that focuses on the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of dental diseases in older adults. This field takes into account the unique oral health needs and challenges faced by this population, which can include factors such as:

* Increased risk of tooth decay and gum disease due to dry mouth (xerostomia), a common side effect of many medications taken by older adults
* Difficulty maintaining good oral hygiene due to physical limitations or cognitive impairments
* Greater susceptibility to oral infections and other complications due to weakened immune systems
* Higher rates of tooth loss, which can lead to problems with nutrition, speech, and self-esteem

Geriatric dentists are trained to provide comprehensive dental care to older adults, including routine cleanings and exams, fillings and extractions, dentures and other restorative treatments, and education on oral hygiene and disease prevention. They may also work closely with other healthcare providers to manage the overall health and well-being of their patients.

Continuing dental education (CDE) refers to the ongoing education and training that dentists and other oral health professionals engage in after completing their initial professional degrees. The purpose of CDE is to help these professionals stay current with advances in dental technology, research, and patient care so they can continue to provide the highest quality of care to their patients.

CDE programs may cover a wide range of topics, including new techniques for treating oral diseases, advances in dental materials and equipment, ethical issues in dental practice, and strategies for managing a successful dental practice. These programs may take many forms, such as lectures, workshops, seminars, online courses, or hands-on training sessions.

In most states, dentists are required to complete a certain number of CDE credits each year in order to maintain their licensure. This helps ensure that all dental professionals are up-to-date on the latest research and best practices in their field, which ultimately benefits patients by promoting better oral health outcomes.

Health services for Indigenous people refer to medical and healthcare provision that is specifically designed, delivered, and organized to meet the unique cultural, historical, and social needs of indigenous populations. These services aim to address the health disparities and inequalities that often exist between indigenous and non-indigenous populations. They are typically community-based and involve traditional healing practices, as well as modern medical interventions. Indigenous health services may also incorporate cultural safety training for healthcare providers to ensure respectful and appropriate care.

Occupational health is a branch of medicine that focuses on the physical, mental, and social well-being of workers in all types of jobs. The goal of occupational health is to prevent work-related injuries, illnesses, and disabilities, while also promoting the overall health and safety of employees. This may involve identifying and assessing potential hazards in the workplace, implementing controls to reduce or eliminate those hazards, providing education and training to workers on safe practices, and conducting medical surveillance and screenings to detect early signs of work-related health problems.

Occupational health also involves working closely with employers, employees, and other stakeholders to develop policies and programs that support the health and well-being of workers. This may include promoting healthy lifestyles, providing access to mental health resources, and supporting return-to-work programs for injured or ill workers. Ultimately, the goal of occupational health is to create a safe and healthy work environment that enables employees to perform their jobs effectively and efficiently, while also protecting their long-term health and well-being.

Health expenditures refer to the total amount of money spent on health services, goods, and resources in a given period. This can include expenses for preventive care, medical treatments, medications, long-term care, and administrative costs. Health expenditures can be made by individuals, corporations, insurance companies, or governments, and they can be measured at the national, regional, or household level.

Health expenditures are often used as an indicator of a country's investment in its healthcare system and can reflect the overall health status of a population. High levels of health expenditures may indicate a strong commitment to healthcare, but they can also place a significant burden on individuals, businesses, and governments. Understanding patterns and trends in health expenditures is important for policymakers, healthcare providers, and researchers who are working to improve the efficiency, effectiveness, and accessibility of healthcare services.

Urban health is a branch of public health that focuses on the unique health challenges and disparities faced by urban populations. It encompasses the physical, mental, and social well-being of people living in urban areas, which are characterized by high population density, diverse cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds, and unique environmental exposures.

Urban health addresses a range of issues, including infectious diseases, chronic conditions, injuries, violence, and mental health disorders, as well as the social determinants of health such as housing, education, income, and access to healthcare services. It also considers the impact of urbanization on health, including the effects of pollution, noise, crowding, and lack of green spaces.

The goal of urban health is to promote health equity and improve the overall health outcomes of urban populations by addressing these challenges through evidence-based interventions, policies, and programs that are tailored to the unique needs of urban communities.

Dental anesthesia is a type of local or regional anesthesia that is specifically used in dental procedures to block the transmission of pain impulses from the teeth and surrounding tissues to the brain. The most common types of dental anesthesia include:

1. Local anesthesia: This involves the injection of a local anesthetic drug, such as lidocaine or prilocaine, into the gum tissue near the tooth that is being treated. This numbs the area and prevents the patient from feeling pain during the procedure.
2. Conscious sedation: This is a type of minimal sedation that is used to help patients relax during dental procedures. The patient remains conscious and can communicate with the dentist, but may not remember the details of the procedure. Common methods of conscious sedation include nitrous oxide (laughing gas) or oral sedatives.
3. Deep sedation or general anesthesia: This is rarely used in dental procedures, but may be necessary for patients who are extremely anxious or have special needs. It involves the administration of drugs that cause a state of unconsciousness and prevent the patient from feeling pain during the procedure.

Dental anesthesia is generally safe when administered by a qualified dentist or oral surgeon. However, as with any medical procedure, there are risks involved, including allergic reactions to the anesthetic drugs, nerve damage, and infection. Patients should discuss any concerns they have with their dentist before undergoing dental anesthesia.

A nutrition survey is not a medical term per se, but it is a research method used in the field of nutrition and public health. Here's a definition:

A nutrition survey is a study design that systematically collects and analyzes data on dietary intake, nutritional status, and related factors from a defined population or sample. It aims to describe the nutritional situation, identify nutritional problems, and monitor trends in a population over time. Nutrition surveys can be cross-sectional, longitudinal, or community-based and may involve various data collection methods such as interviews, questionnaires, observations, physical measurements, and biological samples. The results of nutrition surveys are used to inform nutrition policies, programs, and interventions aimed at improving the nutritional status and health outcomes of populations.

Dental implants are artificial tooth roots that are surgically placed into the jawbone to replace missing or extracted teeth. They are typically made of titanium, a biocompatible material that can fuse with the bone over time in a process called osseointegration. Once the implant has integrated with the bone, a dental crown, bridge, or denture can be attached to it to restore function and aesthetics to the mouth.

Dental implants are a popular choice for tooth replacement because they offer several advantages over traditional options like dentures or bridges. They are more stable and comfortable, as they do not rely on adjacent teeth for support and do not slip or move around in the mouth. Additionally, dental implants can help to preserve jawbone density and prevent facial sagging that can occur when teeth are missing.

The process of getting dental implants typically involves several appointments with a dental specialist called a prosthodontist or an oral surgeon. During the first appointment, the implant is placed into the jawbone, and the gum tissue is stitched closed. Over the next few months, the implant will fuse with the bone. Once this process is complete, a second surgery may be necessary to expose the implant and attach an abutment, which connects the implant to the dental restoration. Finally, the crown, bridge, or denture is attached to the implant, providing a natural-looking and functional replacement for the missing tooth.

Women's health is a branch of healthcare that focuses on the unique health needs, conditions, and concerns of women throughout their lifespan. It covers a broad range of topics including menstruation, fertility, pregnancy, menopause, breast health, sexual health, mental health, and chronic diseases that are more common in women such as osteoporosis and autoimmune disorders. Women's health also addresses issues related to gender-based violence, socioeconomic factors, and environmental impacts on women's health. It is aimed at promoting and maintaining the physical, emotional, and reproductive well-being of women, and preventing and treating diseases and conditions that disproportionately affect them.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "India" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country in South Asia, the second-most populous country in the world, known for its rich history, diverse culture, and numerous contributions to various fields including medicine. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to help answer them!

Public Health Administration refers to the leadership, management, and coordination of public health services and initiatives at the local, state, or national level. It involves overseeing and managing the development, implementation, and evaluation of policies, programs, and services aimed at improving the health and well-being of populations. This may include addressing issues such as infectious disease control, chronic disease prevention, environmental health, emergency preparedness and response, and health promotion and education.

Public Health Administration requires a strong understanding of public health principles, leadership and management skills, and the ability to work collaboratively with a variety of stakeholders, including community members, healthcare providers, policymakers, and other organizations. The ultimate goal of Public Health Administration is to ensure that public health resources are used effectively and efficiently to improve the health outcomes of populations and reduce health disparities.

The World Health Organization (WHO) is not a medical condition or term, but rather a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for international public health. Here's a brief description:

The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that acts as the global authority on public health issues. Established in 1948, WHO's primary role is to coordinate and collaborate with its member states to promote health, prevent diseases, and ensure universal access to healthcare services. WHO is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, and has regional offices around the world. It plays a crucial role in setting global health standards, monitoring disease outbreaks, and providing guidance on various public health concerns, including infectious diseases, non-communicable diseases, mental health, environmental health, and maternal, newborn, child, and adolescent health.

Dental radiography is a specific type of imaging that uses radiation to produce detailed images of the teeth, bones, and soft tissues surrounding them. It is a crucial tool in dental diagnostics and treatment planning. There are several types of dental radiographs, including:

1. Intraoral Radiographs: These are taken inside the mouth and provide detailed images of individual teeth or small groups of teeth. They can help detect cavities, assess periodontal health, plan for restorations, and monitor tooth development in children. Common types of intraoral radiographs include bitewing, periapical, and occlusal radiographs.
2. Extraoral Radiographs: These are taken outside the mouth and provide images of larger areas, such as the entire jaw or skull. They can help diagnose issues related to the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), detect impacted teeth, assess bone health, and identify any abnormalities in the facial structure. Common types of extraoral radiographs include panoramic, cephalometric, and sialography radiographs.
3. Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT): This is a specialized type of dental radiography that uses a cone-shaped X-ray beam to create detailed 3D images of the teeth, bones, and soft tissues. It is particularly useful in planning complex treatments such as dental implants, orthodontic treatment, and oral surgery.

Dental radiographs are typically taken using a specialized machine that emits a low dose of radiation. Patients are provided with protective lead aprons to minimize exposure to radiation. The frequency of dental radiographs depends on the patient's individual needs and medical history. Dentists follow strict guidelines to ensure that dental radiography is safe and effective for their patients.

Mental health services refer to the various professional health services designed to treat and support individuals with mental health conditions. These services are typically provided by trained and licensed mental health professionals, such as psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, mental health counselors, and marriage and family therapists. The services may include:

1. Assessment and diagnosis of mental health disorders
2. Psychotherapy or "talk therapy" to help individuals understand and manage their symptoms
3. Medication management for mental health conditions
4. Case management and care coordination to connect individuals with community resources and support
5. Psychoeducation to help individuals and families better understand mental health conditions and how to manage them
6. Crisis intervention and stabilization services
7. Inpatient and residential treatment for severe or chronic mental illness
8. Prevention and early intervention services to identify and address mental health concerns before they become more serious
9. Rehabilitation and recovery services to help individuals with mental illness achieve their full potential and live fulfilling lives in the community.

"Dental, Graduate Education" refers to the post-baccalaureate programs of study and training that lead to an advanced degree in the field of dentistry. These programs are designed to prepare students for specialized dental practice, research, or teaching careers. Examples of graduate dental degrees include:

1. Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS): A professional doctoral degree that qualifies the graduate to practice general dentistry.
2. Doctor of Medical Dentistry (DMD): A professional doctoral degree equivalent to the DDS; awarded by some universities in the United States and several other countries.
3. Master of Science (MS) in Dentistry: An academic master's degree focused on research, teaching, or advanced clinical practice in a specific dental discipline.
4. Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in Dental Sciences: A research-oriented doctoral degree that prepares students for careers in academia, research institutions, or the dental industry.
5. Specialty Training Programs: Postgraduate residency programs that provide advanced training in one of the nine recognized dental specialties, such as orthodontics, oral and maxillofacial surgery, or pediatric dentistry. These programs typically lead to a certificate or a master's degree in the respective specialty area.

Graduate dental education usually involves a combination of classroom instruction, laboratory work, clinical experience, and research. Admission to these programs typically requires a DDS or DMD degree from an accredited dental school and satisfactory scores on the Dental Admission Test (DAT).

Data collection in the medical context refers to the systematic gathering of information relevant to a specific research question or clinical situation. This process involves identifying and recording data elements, such as demographic characteristics, medical history, physical examination findings, laboratory results, and imaging studies, from various sources including patient interviews, medical records, and diagnostic tests. The data collected is used to support clinical decision-making, inform research hypotheses, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. It is essential that data collection is performed in a standardized and unbiased manner to ensure the validity and reliability of the results.

A dental society is a professional organization composed of dentists who have come together to promote and advance the practice of dentistry. These societies can be local, regional, national or international in scope and may include general dentists as well as specialists in various fields of dentistry. The members of dental societies often engage in continuing education, advocacy, research, and community service activities to improve oral health and the delivery of dental care. Additionally, dental societies may establish guidelines for ethical practice and provide resources and support for their members.

A dental restoration, permanent, is a type of dental treatment that involves the use of materials such as gold, silver amalgam, porcelain, or composite resin to repair and restore the function, form, and aesthetics of a damaged or decayed tooth. Unlike temporary restorations, which are meant to be replaced with a permanent solution, permanent restorations are designed to last for many years, if not a lifetime.

Examples of permanent dental restorations include:

1. Dental fillings: These are used to fill cavities caused by tooth decay. The decayed portion of the tooth is removed, and the resulting space is filled with a material such as amalgam, composite resin, or gold.
2. Inlays and onlays: These are similar to dental fillings but are made in a laboratory and then bonded to the tooth. They are used when there is not enough tooth structure left to support a filling.
3. Dental crowns: Also known as caps, these are used to cover and protect a tooth that has been damaged or weakened by decay, injury, or wear. The crown fits over the entire tooth, restoring its shape, size, and strength.
4. Dental bridges: These are used to replace one or more missing teeth. A bridge consists of one or more artificial teeth (pontics) that are held in place by crowns on either side.
5. Dental implants: These are used to replace missing teeth. An implant is a small titanium post that is surgically placed in the jawbone, where it functions as an anchor for a replacement tooth or bridge.

Permanent dental restorations are custom-made for each patient and require careful planning and preparation. They are designed to blend in with the surrounding teeth and provide a natural-looking appearance. With proper care and maintenance, these restorations can last for many years and help preserve the health and function of the teeth and mouth.

Dental ethics refers to the principles and rules that guide the conduct of dental professionals in their interactions with patients, colleagues, and society. These ethical standards are designed to promote trust, respect, and fairness in dental care, and they are often based on fundamental ethical principles such as autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice.

Autonomy refers to the patient's right to make informed decisions about their own health care, free from coercion or manipulation. Dental professionals have an obligation to provide patients with accurate information about their dental conditions and treatment options, so that they can make informed choices about their care.

Beneficence means acting in the best interests of the patient, and doing what is medically necessary and appropriate to promote their health and well-being. Dental professionals have a duty to provide high-quality care that meets accepted standards of practice, and to use evidence-based treatments that are likely to be effective.

Non-maleficence means avoiding harm to the patient. Dental professionals must take reasonable precautions to prevent injuries or complications during treatment, and they should avoid providing unnecessary or harmful treatments.

Justice refers to fairness and equity in the distribution of dental resources and services. Dental professionals have an obligation to provide care that is accessible, affordable, and culturally sensitive, and to advocate for policies and practices that promote health equity and social justice.

Dental ethics also encompasses issues related to patient confidentiality, informed consent, research integrity, professional competence, and boundary violations. Dental professionals are expected to adhere to ethical guidelines established by their professional organizations, such as the American Dental Association (ADA) or the British Dental Association (BDA), and to comply with relevant laws and regulations governing dental practice.

Dental models are replicas of a patient's teeth and surrounding oral structures, used in dental practice and education. They are typically created using plaster or other materials that harden to accurately reproduce the shape and position of each tooth, as well as the contours of the gums and palate. Dental models may be used for a variety of purposes, including treatment planning, creating custom-fitted dental appliances, and teaching dental students about oral anatomy and various dental procedures. They provide a tactile and visual representation that can aid in understanding and communication between dentists, patients, and other dental professionals.

Environmental health is a branch of public health that focuses on the study of how environmental factors, including physical, chemical, and biological factors, impact human health and disease. It involves the assessment, control, and prevention of environmental hazards in order to protect and promote human health and well-being.

Environmental health encompasses a wide range of issues, such as air and water quality, food safety, waste management, housing conditions, occupational health and safety, radiation protection, and climate change. It also involves the promotion of healthy behaviors and the development of policies and regulations to protect public health from environmental hazards.

The goal of environmental health is to create safe and healthy environments that support human health and well-being, prevent disease and injury, and promote sustainable communities. This requires a multidisciplinary approach that involves collaboration between various stakeholders, including policymakers, researchers, healthcare providers, community organizations, and the public.

Community health services refer to a type of healthcare delivery that is organized around the needs of a specific population or community, rather than individual patients. These services are typically focused on preventive care, health promotion, and improving access to care for underserved populations. They can include a wide range of services, such as:

* Primary care, including routine check-ups, immunizations, and screenings
* Dental care
* Mental health and substance abuse treatment
* Public health initiatives, such as disease prevention and health education programs
* Home health care and other supportive services for people with chronic illnesses or disabilities
* Health services for special populations, such as children, the elderly, or those living in rural areas

The goal of community health services is to improve the overall health of a population by addressing the social, economic, and environmental factors that can impact health. This approach recognizes that healthcare is just one factor in determining a person's health outcomes, and that other factors such as housing, education, and income also play important roles. By working to address these underlying determinants of health, community health services aim to improve the health and well-being of entire communities.

Dental technology refers to the application of science and engineering in dentistry to prevent, diagnose, and treat dental diseases and conditions. It involves the use of various equipment, materials, and techniques to improve oral health and enhance the delivery of dental care. Some examples of dental technology include:

1. Digital radiography: This technology uses digital sensors instead of traditional X-ray films to produce images of the teeth and supporting structures. It provides higher quality images, reduces radiation exposure, and allows for easier storage and sharing of images.
2. CAD/CAM dentistry: Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology is used to design and fabricate dental restorations such as crowns, bridges, and veneers in a single appointment. This technology allows for more precise and efficient production of dental restorations.
3. Dental implants: These are artificial tooth roots that are placed into the jawbone to replace missing teeth. They provide a stable foundation for dental restorations such as crowns, bridges, and dentures.
4. Intraoral cameras: These are small cameras that can be inserted into the mouth to capture detailed images of the teeth and gums. These images can be used for diagnosis, treatment planning, and patient education.
5. Laser dentistry: Dental lasers are used to perform a variety of procedures such as cavity preparation, gum contouring, and tooth whitening. They provide more precise and less invasive treatments compared to traditional dental tools.
6. 3D printing: This technology is used to create dental models, surgical guides, and custom-made dental restorations. It allows for more accurate and efficient production of dental products.

Overall, dental technology plays a crucial role in modern dentistry by improving the accuracy, efficiency, and quality of dental care.

National health programs are systematic, large-scale initiatives that are put in place by national governments to address specific health issues or improve the overall health of a population. These programs often involve coordinated efforts across various sectors, including healthcare, education, and social services. They may aim to increase access to care, improve the quality of care, prevent the spread of diseases, promote healthy behaviors, or reduce health disparities. Examples of national health programs include immunization campaigns, tobacco control initiatives, and efforts to address chronic diseases such as diabetes or heart disease. These programs are typically developed based on scientific research, evidence-based practices, and public health data, and they may be funded through a variety of sources, including government budgets, grants, and private donations.

The dental plaque index (DPI) is a clinical measurement used in dentistry to assess the amount of dental plaque accumulation on a person's teeth. It was first introduced by Silness and Löe in 1964 as a method to standardize the assessment of oral hygiene and the effectiveness of oral hygiene interventions.

The DPI is based on a visual examination of the amount of plaque present on four surfaces of the teeth, including the buccal (cheek-facing) and lingual (tongue-facing) surfaces of both upper and lower first molars and upper and lower incisors. The examiner assigns a score from 0 to 3 for each surface, with higher scores indicating greater plaque accumulation:

* Score 0: No plaque detected, even after probing the area with a dental explorer.
* Score 1: Plaque detected by visual examination and/or probing but is not visible when the area is gently dried with air.
* Score 2: Moderate accumulation of soft deposits that are visible upon visual examination before air drying, but which can be removed by scraping with a dental explorer.
* Score 3: Abundant soft matter, visible upon visual examination before air drying and not easily removable with a dental explorer.

The DPI is calculated as the average score of all surfaces examined, providing an overall measure of plaque accumulation in the mouth. It can be used to monitor changes in oral hygiene over time or to evaluate the effectiveness of different oral hygiene interventions. However, it should be noted that the DPI has limitations and may not accurately reflect the presence of bacterial biofilms or the risk of dental caries and gum disease.

Dental fluorosis is a developmental disturbance of dental enamel caused by excessive exposure to fluoride during tooth development. It is characterized by hypomineralization of the enamel, resulting in various appearances ranging from barely noticeable white spots to brown staining and pitting of the teeth. The severity depends on the amount, duration, and timing of fluoride intake, as well as individual susceptibility. Mild dental fluorosis is typically asymptomatic but can affect the appearance of teeth, while severe cases may cause tooth sensitivity and increased susceptibility to tooth decay.

Dental laboratories are specialized facilities where dental technicians create and manufacture various dental restorations and appliances based on the specific measurements, models, and instructions provided by dentists. These custom-made dental products are designed to restore or replace damaged, missing, or decayed teeth, improve oral function, and enhance the overall appearance of a patient's smile.

Some common dental restorations and appliances produced in dental laboratories include:

1. Dental crowns: Artificial caps that cover and protect damaged or weakened teeth, often made from ceramics, porcelain, metal alloys, or a combination of materials.
2. Dental bridges: Fixed or removable appliances used to replace one or more missing teeth by connecting artificial teeth (pontics) to adjacent natural teeth or dental implants.
3. Dentures: Removable prosthetic devices that replace all or most of the upper and/or lower teeth, providing improved chewing function, speech clarity, and aesthetics.
4. Orthodontic appliances: Devices used to correct malocclusions (improper bites) and misaligned teeth, such as traditional braces, clear aligners, palatal expanders, and retainers.
5. Custom dental implant components: Specialized parts designed for specific implant systems, which are used in conjunction with dental implants to replace missing teeth permanently.
6. Night guards and occlusal splints: Protective devices worn during sleep to prevent or manage bruxism (teeth grinding) and temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD).
7. Anti-snoring devices: Mandibular advancement devices that help reduce snoring by holding the lower jaw in a slightly forward position, preventing airway obstruction during sleep.
8. Dental whitening trays: Custom-fitted trays used to hold bleaching gel against tooth surfaces for professional teeth whitening treatments.
9. Specialty restorations: Including aesthetic veneers, inlays, onlays, and other customized dental solutions designed to meet specific patient needs.

Dental laboratories may be standalone facilities or part of a larger dental practice. They are typically staffed by skilled technicians who specialize in various aspects of dental technology, such as ceramics, orthodontics, implantology, and prosthodontics. Collaboration between dentists, dental specialists, and laboratory technicians ensures the highest quality results for patients undergoing restorative or cosmetic dental treatments.

Dental licensure is the process by which a state or jurisdiction grants a dental professional the authority to practice dentistry within its borders. In order to obtain a dental license, individuals must meet certain education, examination, and other requirements established by the licensing body. These requirements typically include graduation from an accredited dental school, passing written and clinical examinations, and completion of continuing education courses.

The purpose of dental licensure is to protect the public by ensuring that dental professionals have the necessary knowledge, skills, and abilities to provide safe and effective dental care. Licensing boards are responsible for enforcing standards of practice and disciplining dentists who engage in unprofessional or unethical conduct.

It's important to note that dental licensure requirements may vary from state to state, so it's essential for dental professionals to familiarize themselves with the specific requirements of the state(s) in which they intend to practice.

Health care rationing refers to the deliberate limitation or restriction of medical services, treatments, or resources provided to patients based on specific criteria or guidelines. These limitations can be influenced by various factors such as cost-effectiveness, scarcity of resources, evidence-based medicine, and clinical appropriateness. The primary goal of health care rationing is to ensure fair distribution and allocation of finite medical resources among a population while maximizing overall health benefits and minimizing harm.

Rationing can occur at different levels within the healthcare system, including individual patient care decisions, insurance coverage policies, and governmental resource allocation. Examples of rationing include prioritizing certain treatments based on their proven effectiveness, restricting access to high-cost procedures with limited clinical benefits, or setting age limits for specific interventions.

It is important to note that health care rationing remains a controversial topic due to ethical concerns about potential disparities in care and the balance between individual patient needs and societal resource constraints.

Health Priorities are key areas of focus in healthcare that receive the greatest attention, resources, and efforts due to their significant impact on overall population health. These priorities are typically determined by evaluating various health issues and factors such as prevalence, severity, mortality rates, and social determinants of health. By addressing health priorities, healthcare systems and public health organizations aim to improve community health, reduce health disparities, and enhance the quality of life for individuals. Examples of health priorities may include chronic diseases (such as diabetes or heart disease), mental health, infectious diseases, maternal and child health, injury prevention, and health promotion through healthy lifestyles.

Child health services refer to a range of medical and supportive services designed to promote the physical, mental, and social well-being of children from birth up to adolescence. These services aim to prevent or identify health problems early, provide treatment and management for existing conditions, and support healthy growth and development.

Examples of child health services include:

1. Well-child visits: Regular checkups with a pediatrician or other healthcare provider to monitor growth, development, and overall health.
2. Immunizations: Vaccinations to protect against infectious diseases such as measles, mumps, rubella, polio, and hepatitis B.
3. Screening tests: Blood tests, hearing and vision screenings, and other diagnostic tests to identify potential health issues early.
4. Developmental assessments: Evaluations of a child's cognitive, emotional, social, and physical development to ensure they are meeting age-appropriate milestones.
5. Dental care: Preventive dental services such as cleanings, fluoride treatments, and sealants, as well as restorative care for cavities or other dental problems.
6. Mental health services: Counseling, therapy, and medication management for children experiencing emotional or behavioral challenges.
7. Nutrition counseling: Education and support to help families make healthy food choices and promote good nutrition.
8. Chronic disease management: Coordinated care for children with ongoing medical conditions such as asthma, diabetes, or cerebral palsy.
9. Injury prevention: Programs that teach parents and children about safety measures to reduce the risk of accidents and injuries.
10. Public health initiatives: Community-based programs that promote healthy lifestyles, provide access to healthcare services, and address social determinants of health such as poverty, housing, and education.

Dental specialties are recognized areas of expertise in dental practice that require additional training and education beyond the general dentist degree. The American Dental Association (ADA) recognizes nine dental specialties:

1. Dental Public Health: This specialty focuses on preventing oral diseases and promoting oral health through population-level interventions, research, and policy development.
2. Endodontics: Endodontists are experts in diagnosing and treating tooth pain and performing root canal treatments to save infected or damaged teeth.
3. Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: This specialty involves the diagnosis and management of diseases that affect the oral cavity, jaws, and face, using clinical, radiographic, and microscopic examination techniques.
4. Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology: Oral and maxillofacial radiologists use advanced imaging technologies to diagnose and manage conditions affecting the head and neck region.
5. Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery: Oral surgeons perform surgical procedures on the face, jaws, and mouth, including tooth extractions, jaw alignment surgeries, and cancer treatments.
6. Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics: Orthodontists specialize in diagnosing and treating dental and facial irregularities, using appliances such as braces and aligners to straighten teeth and correct bite problems.
7. Pediatric Dentistry: Pediatric dentists are trained to care for the oral health needs of children, including those with special health care needs.
8. Periodontics: Periodontists diagnose and treat gum diseases, place dental implants, and perform surgical procedures to regenerate lost tissue and bone support around teeth.
9. Prosthodontics: Prosthodontists are experts in replacing missing teeth and restoring damaged or worn-out teeth using crowns, bridges, dentures, and implant-supported restorations.

Dental fees refer to the charges that dentists or dental professionals bill for their services, procedures, or treatments. These fees can vary based on several factors such as:

1. Location: Dental fees may differ depending on the region or country where the dental practice is located due to differences in cost of living and local market conditions.
2. Type of procedure: The complexity and duration of a dental treatment will impact the fee charged for that service. For example, a simple teeth cleaning will have a lower fee compared to more complex procedures like root canals or dental implants.
3. Dental professional's expertise and experience: Highly skilled and experienced dentists may charge higher fees due to their superior level of knowledge and proficiency in performing various dental treatments.
4. Type of dental practice: Fees for dental services at a private practice may differ from those charged by a community health center or non-profit organization.
5. Dental insurance coverage: The amount of coverage provided by a patient's dental insurance plan can also affect the final out-of-pocket cost for dental care, which in turn influences the fees that dentists charge.

Dental fee schedules are typically established by individual dental practices based on these factors and may be periodically updated to reflect changes in costs or market conditions. Patients should consult their dental providers to understand the specific fees associated with any recommended treatments or procedures.

Dental materials are substances that are used in restorative dentistry, prosthodontics, endodontics, orthodontics, and preventive dentistry to restore or replace missing tooth structure, improve the function and esthetics of teeth, and protect the oral tissues from decay and disease. These materials can be classified into various categories based on their physical and chemical properties, including metals, ceramics, polymers, composites, cements, and alloys.

Some examples of dental materials include:

1. Amalgam: a metal alloy used for dental fillings that contains silver, tin, copper, and mercury. It is strong, durable, and resistant to wear but has been controversial due to concerns about the toxicity of mercury.
2. Composite: a tooth-colored restorative material made of a mixture of glass or ceramic particles and a bonding agent. It is used for fillings, veneers, and other esthetic dental treatments.
3. Glass ionomer cement: a type of cement used for dental restorations that releases fluoride ions and helps prevent tooth decay. It is often used for fillings in children's teeth or as a base under crowns and bridges.
4. Porcelain: a ceramic material used for dental crowns, veneers, and other esthetic restorations. It is strong, durable, and resistant to staining but can be brittle and prone to fracture.
5. Gold alloy: a metal alloy used for dental restorations that contains gold, copper, and other metals. It is highly biocompatible, corrosion-resistant, and malleable but can be expensive and less esthetic than other materials.
6. Acrylic resin: a type of polymer used for dental appliances such as dentures, night guards, and orthodontic retainers. It is lightweight, flexible, and easy to modify but can be less durable than other materials.

The choice of dental material depends on various factors, including the location and extent of the restoration, the patient's oral health status, their esthetic preferences, and their budget. Dental professionals must consider these factors carefully when selecting the appropriate dental material for each individual case.

Public health practice is a multidisciplinary approach that aims to prevent disease, promote health, and protect communities from harmful environmental and social conditions through evidence-based strategies, programs, policies, and interventions. It involves the application of epidemiological, biostatistical, social, environmental, and behavioral sciences to improve the health of populations, reduce health disparities, and ensure equity in health outcomes. Public health practice includes a wide range of activities such as disease surveillance, outbreak investigation, health promotion, community engagement, program planning and evaluation, policy analysis and development, and research translation. It is a collaborative and systems-based approach that involves partnerships with various stakeholders, including communities, healthcare providers, policymakers, and other organizations to achieve population-level health goals.

The term "Integrated Delivery of Healthcare" refers to a coordinated and seamless approach to providing healthcare services, where different providers and specialists work together to provide comprehensive care for patients. This model aims to improve patient outcomes by ensuring that all aspects of a person's health are addressed in a holistic and coordinated manner.

Integrated delivery of healthcare may involve various components such as:

1. Primary Care: A primary care provider serves as the first point of contact for patients and coordinates their care with other specialists and providers.
2. Specialty Care: Specialists provide care for specific medical conditions or diseases, working closely with primary care providers to ensure coordinated care.
3. Mental Health Services: Mental health providers work alongside medical professionals to address the mental and emotional needs of patients, recognizing that mental health is an essential component of overall health.
4. Preventive Care: Preventive services such as screenings, vaccinations, and health education are provided to help prevent illnesses and promote overall health and well-being.
5. Chronic Disease Management: Providers work together to manage chronic diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer, using evidence-based practices and coordinated care plans.
6. Health Information Technology: Electronic health records (EHRs) and other health information technologies are used to facilitate communication and coordination among providers, ensuring that all members of the care team have access to up-to-date patient information.
7. Patient Engagement: Patients are actively engaged in their care, with education and support provided to help them make informed decisions about their health and treatment options.

The goal of integrated delivery of healthcare is to provide high-quality, cost-effective care that meets the unique needs of each patient, while also improving overall population health.

Fluorides are ionic compounds that contain the fluoride anion (F-). In the context of dental and public health, fluorides are commonly used in preventive measures to help reduce tooth decay. They can be found in various forms such as sodium fluoride, stannous fluoride, and calcium fluoride. When these compounds come into contact with saliva, they release fluoride ions that can be absorbed by tooth enamel. This process helps to strengthen the enamel and make it more resistant to acid attacks caused by bacteria in the mouth, which can lead to dental caries or cavities. Fluorides can be topically applied through products like toothpaste, mouth rinses, and fluoride varnishes, or systemically ingested through fluoridated water, salt, or supplements.

Health facilities, also known as healthcare facilities, are organizations that provide health services, treatments, and care to individuals in need of medical attention. These facilities can include various types of establishments such as hospitals, clinics, doctor's offices, dental practices, long-term care facilities, rehabilitation centers, and diagnostic imaging centers.

Health facilities are designed to offer a range of services that promote health, prevent illness, diagnose and treat medical conditions, and provide ongoing care for patients with chronic illnesses or disabilities. They may also offer educational programs and resources to help individuals maintain their health and well-being.

The specific services offered by health facilities can vary widely depending on the type and size of the facility, as well as its location and target population. However, all health facilities are required to meet certain standards for safety, quality, and patient care in order to ensure that patients receive the best possible treatment and outcomes.

Practice management in dentistry refers to the administration and operation of a dental practice. It involves various aspects such as:

1. Business Operations: This includes financial management, billing and coding, human resources, and office management.

2. Patient Care: This includes scheduling appointments, managing patient records, treatment planning, and ensuring quality care.

3. Marketing and Promotion: This includes advertising the practice, attracting new patients, and maintaining relationships with existing ones.

4. Compliance: This includes adhering to laws and regulations related to dental practices, such as HIPAA for patient privacy and OSHA for workplace safety.

5. Continuous Improvement: This involves regularly assessing the practice's performance, implementing changes to improve efficiency and effectiveness, and keeping up-to-date with advancements in dentistry and healthcare management.

The goal of dental practice management is to ensure the smooth running of the practice, provide high-quality patient care, and maintain a successful and profitable business.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Rural health services refer to the healthcare delivery systems and facilities that are located in rural areas and are designed to meet the unique health needs of rural populations. These services can include hospitals, clinics, community health centers, mental health centers, and home health agencies, as well as various programs and initiatives aimed at improving access to care, addressing health disparities, and promoting health and wellness in rural communities.

Rural health services are often characterized by longer travel distances to healthcare facilities, a greater reliance on primary care and preventive services, and a higher prevalence of certain health conditions such as chronic diseases, injuries, and mental health disorders. As a result, rural health services must be tailored to address these challenges and provide high-quality, affordable, and accessible care to rural residents.

In many countries, rural health services are supported by government policies and programs aimed at improving healthcare infrastructure, workforce development, and telehealth technologies in rural areas. These efforts are critical for ensuring that all individuals, regardless of where they live, have access to the healthcare services they need to maintain their health and well-being.

A dental technician is a healthcare professional who designs, fabricates, and repairs custom-made dental devices, such as dentures, crowns, bridges, orthodontic appliances, and implant restorations. They work closely with dentists and other oral health professionals to meet the individual needs of each patient. Dental technicians typically have an associate's degree or certificate in dental technology and may be certified by a professional organization. Their work requires a strong understanding of dental materials, fabrication techniques, and the latest advances in dental technology.

The Health Care Sector is a segment of the economy that includes companies and organizations that provide goods and services to treat patients with medical conditions, as well as those that work to maintain people's health through preventative care and health education. This sector includes hospitals, clinics, physician practices, dental practices, pharmacies, home health care agencies, nursing homes, laboratories, and medical device manufacturers, among others.

The Health Care Sector is often broken down into several subsectors, including:

1. Providers of healthcare services, such as hospitals, clinics, and physician practices.
2. Payers of healthcare costs, such as insurance companies and government agencies like Medicare and Medicaid.
3. Manufacturers of healthcare products, such as medical devices, pharmaceuticals, and biotechnology products.
4. Distributors of healthcare products, such as wholesalers and pharmacy benefit managers.
5. Providers of healthcare information technology, such as electronic health record systems and telemedicine platforms.

The Health Care Sector is a significant contributor to the economy in many countries, providing employment opportunities and contributing to economic growth. However, it also faces significant challenges, including rising costs, an aging population, and increasing demands for access to high-quality care.

Population surveillance in a public health and medical context refers to the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of health-related data for a defined population over time. It aims to monitor the health status, identify emerging health threats or trends, and evaluate the impact of interventions within that population. This information is used to inform public health policy, prioritize healthcare resources, and guide disease prevention and control efforts. Population surveillance can involve various data sources, such as vital records, disease registries, surveys, and electronic health records.

Health literacy is the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions. It encompasses a wide range of skills including reading, writing, numeracy, listening, speaking, and critical thinking abilities, as well as the ability to apply these skills to everyday health situations.

Health literacy is not just about an individual's ability to read and understand health information, but also about how healthcare systems communicate and provide information to patients. It involves the interaction between patients and healthcare providers, as well as the complexity of health systems and services.

Limited health literacy can have a significant impact on a person's health outcomes, including increased rates of hospitalization, poorer disease management, and higher healthcare costs. Therefore, improving health literacy is an important public health goal that can help reduce health disparities and improve overall population health.

Smoking is not a medical condition, but it's a significant health risk behavior. Here is the definition from a public health perspective:

Smoking is the act of inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning tobacco that is commonly consumed through cigarettes, pipes, and cigars. The smoke contains over 7,000 chemicals, including nicotine, tar, carbon monoxide, and numerous toxic and carcinogenic substances. These toxins contribute to a wide range of diseases and health conditions, such as lung cancer, heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and various other cancers, as well as adverse reproductive outcomes and negative impacts on the developing fetus during pregnancy. Smoking is highly addictive due to the nicotine content, which makes quitting smoking a significant challenge for many individuals.

Demography is the statistical study of populations, particularly in terms of size, distribution, and characteristics such as age, race, gender, and occupation. In medical contexts, demography is often used to analyze health-related data and trends within specific populations. This can include studying the prevalence of certain diseases or conditions, identifying disparities in healthcare access and outcomes, and evaluating the effectiveness of public health interventions. Demographic data can also be used to inform policy decisions and allocate resources to address population health needs.

I'm happy to help, but I need to clarify that "residence characteristics" is not a commonly used medical term. It is more related to the field of public health or epidemiology. However, if you are asking for the characteristics of a residence that could be relevant to medical or health research, they might include:

1. Housing type (single-family home, apartment, mobile home, etc.)
2. Age and condition of the housing unit
3. Presence of environmental hazards (lead paint, asbestos, radon, etc.)
4. Quality of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems
5. Access to clean water and sanitation facilities
6. Safety features (smoke detectors, carbon monoxide detectors, etc.)
7. Presence of pests (rodents, cockroaches, bed bugs, etc.)
8. Neighborhood characteristics (crime rates, access to healthy food options, walkability, etc.)

These factors can all have an impact on the health outcomes of individuals and communities, and are often studied in public health research.

Maternal health services refer to the preventative, diagnostic, and treatment-based healthcare services provided during pregnancy, childbirth, and postnatal period. These services aim to ensure the best possible health outcomes for mothers throughout their reproductive years, including family planning, preconception care, antenatal care, delivery, postpartum care, and management of chronic conditions or complications that may arise during pregnancy and childbirth.

The World Health Organization (WHO) outlines several critical components of maternal health services:

1. Antenatal care: Regular check-ups to monitor the mother's and fetus's health, identify potential risks, provide essential interventions, and offer counseling on nutrition, breastfeeding, and birth preparedness.
2. Delivery care: Skilled attendance during childbirth, including normal vaginal delivery and assisted deliveries (forceps or vacuum extraction), and access to emergency obstetric care for complications such as hemorrhage, eclampsia, obstructed labor, and sepsis.
3. Postnatal care: Continuum of care for mothers and newborns during the first six weeks after childbirth, focusing on recovery, early detection and management of complications, immunization, family planning, and psychosocial support.
4. Family planning: Access to modern contraceptive methods, counseling on fertility awareness, and safe abortion services where legal, to enable women to plan their pregnancies and space their children according to their reproductive intentions.
5. Management of chronic conditions: Comprehensive care for pregnant women with pre-existing or pregnancy-induced medical conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, and mental health disorders.
6. Preconception care: Identification and management of risk factors before conception to optimize maternal and fetal health outcomes.
7. Prevention and management of gender-based violence: Screening, counseling, and referral services for women experiencing intimate partner violence or sexual violence during pregnancy and childbirth.
8. Health promotion and education: Community-based interventions to raise awareness about the importance of maternal health, promote positive health behaviors, and reduce barriers to accessing healthcare services.

Maternal health services should be accessible, affordable, acceptable, and equitable for all women, regardless of their age, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, or geographical location. Adequate investment in maternal health infrastructure, human resources, and service delivery models is essential to achieve universal health coverage and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 2030.

The dental sac, also known as the dental follicle, is a soft tissue structure that surrounds the developing tooth crown during odontogenesis, which is the process of tooth development. It is derived from the ectoderm and mesenchyme of the embryonic oral cavity. The dental sac gives rise to several important structures associated with the tooth, including the periodontal ligament, cementum, and the alveolar bone that surrounds and supports the tooth in the jaw.

The dental sac plays a critical role in tooth development by regulating the mineralization of the tooth crown and providing a protective environment for the developing tooth. It also contains cells called odontoblasts, which are responsible for producing dentin, one of the hard tissues that make up the tooth. Abnormalities in the development or growth of the dental sac can lead to various dental anomalies, such as impacted teeth, dilacerated roots, and other developmental disorders.

The Chi-square distribution is a continuous probability distribution that is often used in statistical hypothesis testing. It is the distribution of a sum of squares of k independent standard normal random variables. The resulting quantity follows a chi-square distribution with k degrees of freedom, denoted as χ²(k).

The probability density function (pdf) of the Chi-square distribution with k degrees of freedom is given by:

f(x; k) = (1/ (2^(k/2) * Γ(k/2))) \* x^((k/2)-1) \* e^(-x/2), for x > 0 and 0, otherwise.

Where Γ(k/2) is the gamma function evaluated at k/2. The mean and variance of a Chi-square distribution with k degrees of freedom are k and 2k, respectively.

The Chi-square distribution has various applications in statistical inference, including testing goodness-of-fit, homogeneity of variances, and independence in contingency tables.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "poverty" is not a medical condition or term. It is a social condition defined by the World Bank as "pronounced deprivation in well-being," and measured through indicators such as income, consumption, and access to basic services. Poverty can have significant impacts on health outcomes and healthcare access, but it is not considered a medical diagnosis. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to try my best to help answer them!

I apologize for any confusion, but "Alaska" is not a medical term or concept. It is a geographical location, being the largest state in the United States, located in the northernmost and westernmost portion of the country. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Urban Population" is not a medical term. It is a demographic term used to describe the portion of a country's population that lives in areas classified as urban. The United Nations defines an urban area as a city, town, or other agglomeration with a population of 20,000 or more. However, the specific definition can vary by country and organization.

In contrast, medical terms typically refer to conditions, diseases, symptoms, treatments, or healthcare-related concepts. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to help if I can!

A mental disorder is a syndrome characterized by clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior. It's associated with distress and/or impaired functioning in social, occupational, or other important areas of life, often leading to a decrease in quality of life. These disorders are typically persistent and can be severe and disabling. They may be related to factors such as genetics, early childhood experiences, or trauma. Examples include depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and personality disorders. It's important to note that a diagnosis should be made by a qualified mental health professional.

Health status indicators are measures used to assess and monitor the health and well-being of a population. They provide information about various aspects of health, such as mortality rates, morbidity rates, prevalence of chronic diseases, lifestyle factors, environmental exposures, and access to healthcare services. These indicators can be used to identify trends and disparities in health outcomes, inform policy decisions, allocate resources, and evaluate the effectiveness of public health interventions. Examples of health status indicators include life expectancy, infant mortality rate, prevalence of diabetes, smoking rates, and access to primary care.

"Family characteristics" is a broad term that can refer to various attributes, dynamics, and structures of a family unit. These characteristics can include:

1. Family structure: This refers to the composition of the family, such as whether it is a nuclear family (two parents and their children), single-parent family, extended family, blended family, or same-sex parent family.
2. Family roles: The responsibilities and expectations assigned to each family member, such as caregiver, provider, or decision-maker.
3. Communication patterns: How family members communicate with one another, including frequency, tone, and level of openness.
4. Problem-solving styles: How the family approaches and resolves conflicts and challenges.
5. Cultural and religious practices: The values, traditions, and beliefs that shape the family's identity and worldview.
6. Family functioning: The overall health and effectiveness of the family system, including its ability to adapt to change and support individual members' needs.
7. Attachment styles: The quality and nature of the emotional bonds between family members, which can impact attachment security and relationships throughout life.
8. Parenting style: The approach that parents take in raising their children, such as authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, or uninvolved.
9. Family history: Past experiences and events that have shaped the family's development and dynamics.
10. Genetic factors: Inherited traits and predispositions that can influence family members' health, behavior, and personality.

Understanding family characteristics is essential in fields such as medicine, psychology, social work, and counseling, as these factors can significantly impact individual and family well-being.

Community health planning is a systematic and continuous process that involves assessing the health needs and resources of a defined population, setting priorities for health improvement, and developing and implementing action plans to achieve those priorities. It is a collaborative effort between various stakeholders, including community members, healthcare providers, public health professionals, and other relevant organizations. The goal of community health planning is to improve the overall health and well-being of the community by addressing the social, environmental, and economic factors that impact health. This process typically involves the following steps:

1. Needs assessment: Identifying the health needs and priorities of the community through data collection and analysis, including demographic information, health status indicators, and healthcare utilization patterns.
2. Resource assessment: Identifying the available resources in the community, such as healthcare facilities, public health programs, and community-based organizations that can be leveraged to address the identified needs.
3. Priority setting: Determining the most pressing health issues that need to be addressed based on the needs and resource assessments. This involves engaging stakeholders in a participatory process to identify shared priorities.
4. Plan development: Developing an action plan that outlines specific strategies, activities, and timelines for addressing the identified priorities. The plan should also include indicators for measuring progress and evaluating outcomes.
5. Implementation: Putting the action plan into practice by engaging community members, healthcare providers, and other stakeholders in implementing the strategies and activities outlined in the plan.
6. Evaluation: Monitoring and evaluating the progress of the action plan to ensure that it is achieving the desired outcomes and making adjustments as needed.

Community health planning is an essential component of public health practice because it helps to ensure that resources are allocated effectively, priorities are aligned with community needs, and interventions are tailored to the unique characteristics of the population being served.

I'm happy to help, but it seems there might be some confusion in your question. "Interviews" is a broad topic that isn't typically a medical term or subject. However, interviews can certainly be a part of medical settings and procedures, such as job interviews for healthcare positions, patient interviews during medical consultations, or research interviews in clinical studies.

In the context of medical education, an interview might refer to the process by which medical schools evaluate applicants for admission, known as the medical school interview. This is a critical component of the application process and typically involves one-on-one conversations between the applicant and an admissions committee member or a series of multiple mini-interviews (MMIs) with various evaluators.

If you could provide more context or clarify what you mean by "Interviews as Topic" in a medical setting, I'd be happy to help further!

Dentist-patient relations refer to the professional relationship between a licensed dentist and their patient. This relationship is based on trust, communication, and ethical obligations. The dentist is responsible for providing competent and appropriate dental care while considering the patient's needs, preferences, and values. The patient, on the other hand, should be honest with their dentist regarding their medical history, oral health habits, and any concerns they may have. Effective dentist-patient relations are crucial in ensuring positive dental experiences, treatment compliance, and overall satisfaction with dental care.

Longitudinal studies are a type of research design where data is collected from the same subjects repeatedly over a period of time, often years or even decades. These studies are used to establish patterns of changes and events over time, and can help researchers identify causal relationships between variables. They are particularly useful in fields such as epidemiology, psychology, and sociology, where the focus is on understanding developmental trends and the long-term effects of various factors on health and behavior.

In medical research, longitudinal studies can be used to track the progression of diseases over time, identify risk factors for certain conditions, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. For example, a longitudinal study might follow a group of individuals over several decades to assess their exposure to certain environmental factors and their subsequent development of chronic diseases such as cancer or heart disease. By comparing data collected at multiple time points, researchers can identify trends and correlations that may not be apparent in shorter-term studies.

Longitudinal studies have several advantages over other research designs, including their ability to establish temporal relationships between variables, track changes over time, and reduce the impact of confounding factors. However, they also have some limitations, such as the potential for attrition (loss of participants over time), which can introduce bias and affect the validity of the results. Additionally, longitudinal studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, requiring significant resources and a long-term commitment from both researchers and study participants.

A chronic disease is a long-term medical condition that often progresses slowly over a period of years and requires ongoing management and care. These diseases are typically not fully curable, but symptoms can be managed to improve quality of life. Common chronic diseases include heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). They are often associated with advanced age, although they can also affect children and younger adults. Chronic diseases can have significant impacts on individuals' physical, emotional, and social well-being, as well as on healthcare systems and society at large.

I am not a medical doctor, but I can provide you with some information on this topic. Self-concept is more commonly discussed in psychology than in medicine, but it still has relevance to understanding individual experiences and behaviors in health and illness.

Self-concept refers to an individual's perception, beliefs, and attitudes about themselves, encompassing various dimensions such as:

1. Physical self (how one perceives their physical appearance, abilities, and health)
2. Social self (how one perceives their relationships with others, social roles, and status)
3. Psychological or personal self (how one perceives their personality traits, values, and beliefs)

Self-concept can influence how people view their own health, cope with illness, and engage in health behaviors. For example, a positive self-concept may contribute to better adherence to treatment plans and healthier lifestyle choices, while negative self-concepts might lead to poorer health outcomes due to decreased motivation or self-efficacy.

Understanding an individual's self-concept can help healthcare professionals tailor their communication style, recommendations, and interventions to better meet the patient's needs and preferences.

"Sex distribution" is a term used to describe the number of males and females in a study population or sample. It can be presented as a simple count, a percentage, or a ratio. This information is often used in research to identify any differences in health outcomes, disease prevalence, or response to treatment between males and females. Additionally, understanding sex distribution can help researchers ensure that their studies are representative of the general population and can inform the design of future studies.

"Age distribution" is a term used to describe the number of individuals within a population or sample that fall into different age categories. It is often presented in the form of a graph, table, or chart, and can provide important information about the demographic structure of a population.

The age distribution of a population can be influenced by a variety of factors, including birth rates, mortality rates, migration patterns, and aging. Public health officials and researchers use age distribution data to inform policies and programs related to healthcare, social services, and other areas that affect the well-being of populations.

For example, an age distribution graph might show a larger number of individuals in the younger age categories, indicating a population with a high birth rate. Alternatively, it might show a larger number of individuals in the older age categories, indicating a population with a high life expectancy or an aging population. Understanding the age distribution of a population can help policymakers plan for future needs and allocate resources more effectively.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Great Britain" is not a medical concept or condition. It is a geographical and political term referring to the largest island in the British Isles, on which the majority of England, Scotland, and Wales are located. It's also used to refer to the political union of these three countries, which is called the United Kingdom. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

Quality Assurance in the context of healthcare refers to a systematic approach and set of activities designed to ensure that health care services and products consistently meet predetermined standards of quality and safety. It includes all the policies, procedures, and processes that are put in place to monitor, assess, and improve the quality of healthcare delivery.

The goal of quality assurance is to minimize variability in clinical practice, reduce medical errors, and ensure that patients receive evidence-based care that is safe, effective, timely, patient-centered, and equitable. Quality assurance activities may include:

1. Establishing standards of care based on best practices and clinical guidelines.
2. Developing and implementing policies and procedures to ensure compliance with these standards.
3. Providing education and training to healthcare professionals to improve their knowledge and skills.
4. Conducting audits, reviews, and evaluations of healthcare services and processes to identify areas for improvement.
5. Implementing corrective actions to address identified issues and prevent their recurrence.
6. Monitoring and measuring outcomes to evaluate the effectiveness of quality improvement initiatives.

Quality assurance is an ongoing process that requires continuous evaluation and improvement to ensure that healthcare delivery remains safe, effective, and patient-centered.

Preventive health services refer to measures taken to prevent diseases or injuries rather than curing them or treating their symptoms. These services include screenings, vaccinations, and counseling aimed at preventing or identifying illnesses in their earliest stages. Examples of preventive health services include:

1. Screenings for various types of cancer (e.g., breast, cervical, colorectal)
2. Vaccinations against infectious diseases (e.g., influenza, pneumococcal pneumonia, human papillomavirus)
3. Counseling on lifestyle modifications to reduce the risk of chronic diseases (e.g., smoking cessation, diet and exercise counseling, alcohol misuse screening and intervention)
4. Screenings for cardiovascular disease risk factors (e.g., cholesterol levels, blood pressure, body mass index)
5. Screenings for mental health conditions (e.g., depression)
6. Preventive medications (e.g., aspirin for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in certain individuals)

Preventive health services are an essential component of overall healthcare and play a critical role in improving health outcomes, reducing healthcare costs, and enhancing quality of life.

"Health manpower" is a term that refers to the number and type of healthcare professionals (such as doctors, nurses, allied health professionals, and support staff) who are available to provide healthcare services in a particular area or system. It's an important consideration in healthcare planning and policy, as the availability and distribution of health manpower can have a significant impact on access to care, quality of care, and health outcomes.

Therefore, medical definition of 'Health Manpower' could be: "The composition and distribution of healthcare professionals who are available to deliver healthcare services, including their skills, training, and experience. Health manpower is an essential component of healthcare systems and is influenced by factors such as population needs, workforce supply, and government policies."

Regional health planning is a process that involves the systematic assessment, analysis, and prioritization of healthcare needs for a defined geographic population in a specific region. It aims to develop and implement strategies, programs, and services to address those needs in a coordinated and efficient manner. This collaborative approach often involves various stakeholders, such as healthcare providers, public health officials, community leaders, and advocates, working together to improve the overall health and well-being of the population in that region.

The medical definition of 'Regional Health Planning' can be outlined as follows:

1. Systematic assessment: A comprehensive evaluation of the healthcare needs, resources, and infrastructure within a specific region, taking into account demographic, epidemiological, and socioeconomic factors that influence health outcomes.
2. Analysis: The examination of data and information gathered during the assessment to identify gaps, priorities, and opportunities for improvement in healthcare services and delivery.
3. Prioritization: The process of ranking healthcare needs and issues based on their urgency, impact, and feasibility of intervention, to ensure that resources are allocated effectively and efficiently.
4. Strategy development: The creation of evidence-based, data-driven plans and interventions aimed at addressing the prioritized health needs and improving the overall health of the regional population.
5. Collaboration: The active engagement and partnership of various stakeholders, including healthcare providers, public health officials, community leaders, and advocates, in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of regional health initiatives.
6. Coordination: The alignment and integration of healthcare services, programs, and policies across different levels and sectors to ensure seamless care and avoid duplication of efforts.
7. Continuous improvement: The ongoing monitoring and evaluation of regional health programs and interventions to assess their effectiveness, make adjustments as needed, and incorporate new evidence and best practices into future planning efforts.

African Americans are defined as individuals who have ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa. This term is often used to describe people living in the United States who have total or partial descent from enslaved African peoples. The term does not refer to a single ethnicity but is a broad term that includes various ethnic groups with diverse cultures, languages, and traditions. It's important to note that some individuals may prefer to identify as Black or of African descent rather than African American, depending on their personal identity and background.

I believe there may be a misunderstanding in your question. "Mothers" is a term that refers to individuals who have given birth to and raised children. It is not a medical term with a specific definition. If you are referring to a different word or term, please clarify so I can provide a more accurate response.

Reproductive health, as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), is "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being in all matters relating to the reproductive system and its functions and processes. It implies that people are able to have a satisfying and safe sex life, the capability to reproduce, and the freedom to decide if, when, and how often to do so. It also includes their right to access information and services that enable them to do this."

This definition emphasizes not only the biological aspects of reproduction but also the social and personal dimensions of sexuality and reproductive health. It recognizes that individuals have the right to make informed choices about their reproductive lives, and it highlights the importance of access to information and services in realizing these rights.

A tooth is a hard, calcified structure found in the jaws (upper and lower) of many vertebrates and used for biting and chewing food. In humans, a typical tooth has a crown, one or more roots, and three layers: the enamel (the outermost layer, hardest substance in the body), the dentin (the layer beneath the enamel), and the pulp (the innermost layer, containing nerves and blood vessels). Teeth are essential for proper nutrition, speech, and aesthetics. There are different types of teeth, including incisors, canines, premolars, and molars, each designed for specific functions in the mouth.

A dental prosthesis is a device that replaces one or more missing teeth or parts of teeth to correct deficiencies in chewing ability, speech, and aesthetics. It can be removable or fixed (permanent) and can be made from various materials such as acrylic resin, porcelain, metal alloys, or a combination of these. Examples of dental prostheses include dentures, bridges, crowns, and implants.

"Employment" is a term that is commonly used in the context of social sciences and law rather than medicine. It generally refers to the state or condition of being employed, which means an individual is engaged in a job or occupation, providing services to an employer in exchange for compensation, such as wages or salary. Employment may involve various types of work arrangements, including full-time, part-time, temporary, contract, or freelance positions.

In the context of medicine and public health, employment is often discussed in relation to its impact on health outcomes, healthcare access, and socioeconomic status. For instance, research has shown that unemployment or underemployment can negatively affect mental and physical health, while stable employment can contribute to better health outcomes and overall well-being. Additionally, employment may influence an individual's ability to afford healthcare, medications, and other essential needs, which can impact their health status.

In summary, the medical definition of 'employment' pertains to the state or condition of being engaged in a job or occupation, providing services to an employer for compensation. Employment has significant implications for health outcomes, healthcare access, and socioeconomic status.

Community Health Centers (CHCs) are primary care facilities that provide comprehensive and culturally competent health services to medically underserved communities, regardless of their ability to pay. CHCs are funded through various sources, including the federal government's Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA). They aim to reduce health disparities and improve health outcomes for vulnerable populations by providing access to high-quality preventive and primary care services.

CHCs offer a range of services, such as medical, dental, and behavioral health care, as well as enabling services like case management, transportation, and language interpretation. They operate on a sliding fee scale basis, ensuring that patients pay based on their income and ability to pay. CHCs also engage in community outreach and education to promote health awareness and prevention.

'Infection Control, Dental' refers to the practices and procedures implemented in dental settings to prevent the transmission of infectious agents from person to person, or from contaminated instruments, equipment, or environmental surfaces to patients or dental personnel. It includes a range of measures such as hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment (e.g., gloves, masks, eyewear), sterilization and disinfection of instruments and equipment, safe injection practices, and environmental cleaning and disinfection. The goal of infection control in dentistry is to eliminate or minimize the risk of infectious diseases, such as HIV, hepatitis B and C, and tuberculosis, among others, being transmitted in dental settings.

A "self-report" in a medical context refers to the information or data provided by an individual about their own symptoms, experiences, behaviors, or health status. This can be collected through various methods such as questionnaires, surveys, interviews, or diaries. Self-reports are commonly used in research and clinical settings to assess various aspects of health, including physical and mental health symptoms, quality of life, treatment adherence, and substance use.

While self-reports can be a valuable source of information, they may also be subject to biases such as recall bias, social desirability bias, or response distortion. Therefore, it is important to consider the potential limitations and validity of self-reported data in interpreting the results. In some cases, self-reports may be supplemented with other sources of information, such as medical records, physiological measures, or observer ratings.

Program Evaluation is a systematic and objective assessment of a healthcare program's design, implementation, and outcomes. It is a medical term used to describe the process of determining the relevance, effectiveness, and efficiency of a program in achieving its goals and objectives. Program evaluation involves collecting and analyzing data related to various aspects of the program, such as its reach, impact, cost-effectiveness, and quality. The results of program evaluation can be used to improve the design and implementation of existing programs or to inform the development of new ones. It is a critical tool for ensuring that healthcare programs are meeting the needs of their intended audiences and delivering high-quality care in an efficient and effective manner.

Health resources refer to the personnel, facilities, equipment, and supplies that are used in the delivery of healthcare services. This includes:

1. Human resources: Healthcare professionals such as doctors, nurses, pharmacists, and allied health professionals.

2. Physical resources: Hospitals, clinics, laboratories, and other healthcare facilities.

3. Technological resources: Medical equipment and technology used for diagnosis and treatment, such as MRI machines, CT scanners, and electronic health records.

4. Financial resources: Funding for healthcare services, including public and private insurance, government funding, and out-of-pocket payments.

5. Informational resources: Research findings, evidence-based practices, and health education materials that inform healthcare decision-making.

The adequate availability, distribution, and utilization of these health resources are crucial for ensuring access to quality healthcare services and improving population health outcomes.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

The odds ratio (OR) is a statistical measure used in epidemiology and research to estimate the association between an exposure and an outcome. It represents the odds that an event will occur in one group versus the odds that it will occur in another group, assuming that all other factors are held constant.

In medical research, the odds ratio is often used to quantify the strength of the relationship between a risk factor (exposure) and a disease outcome. An OR of 1 indicates no association between the exposure and the outcome, while an OR greater than 1 suggests that there is a positive association between the two. Conversely, an OR less than 1 implies a negative association.

It's important to note that the odds ratio is not the same as the relative risk (RR), which compares the incidence rates of an outcome in two groups. While the OR can approximate the RR when the outcome is rare, they are not interchangeable and can lead to different conclusions about the association between an exposure and an outcome.

Healthcare disparities refer to differences in the quality, accessibility, and outcomes of healthcare that are systematically related to social or economic disadvantage. These disparities may exist between different racial, ethnic, socioeconomic, gender, sexual orientation, geographic, or disability status groups. They can result from a complex interplay of factors including provider bias, patient-provider communication, health system policies, and structural racism, among others. Healthcare disparities often lead to worse health outcomes and reduced quality of life for disadvantaged populations.

Regression analysis is a statistical technique used in medicine, as well as in other fields, to examine the relationship between one or more independent variables (predictors) and a dependent variable (outcome). It allows for the estimation of the average change in the outcome variable associated with a one-unit change in an independent variable, while controlling for the effects of other independent variables. This technique is often used to identify risk factors for diseases or to evaluate the effectiveness of medical interventions. In medical research, regression analysis can be used to adjust for potential confounding variables and to quantify the relationship between exposures and health outcomes. It can also be used in predictive modeling to estimate the probability of a particular outcome based on multiple predictors.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

An ethnic group is a category of people who identify with each other based on shared ancestry, language, culture, history, and/or physical characteristics. The concept of an ethnic group is often used in the social sciences to describe a population that shares a common identity and a sense of belonging to a larger community.

Ethnic groups can be distinguished from racial groups, which are categories of people who are defined by their physical characteristics, such as skin color, hair texture, and facial features. While race is a social construct based on physical differences, ethnicity is a cultural construct based on shared traditions, beliefs, and practices.

It's important to note that the concept of ethnic groups can be complex and fluid, as individuals may identify with multiple ethnic groups or switch their identification over time. Additionally, the boundaries between different ethnic groups can be blurred and contested, and the ways in which people define and categorize themselves and others can vary across cultures and historical periods.

The dental papilla is a type of tissue found in the developing tooth within the jawbone. It is composed of cells that will eventually differentiate into odontoblasts, which are the cells responsible for producing dentin, one of the main hard tissues that make up the tooth. The dental papilla is located in the center of the tooth germ and is surrounded by the dental follicle, another type of tissue that helps to form the tooth. As the tooth develops, the dental papilla becomes smaller and eventually forms the pulp chamber, which contains the blood vessels, nerves, and connective tissue that support and nourish the tooth.

I apologize, but "Brazil" is not a medical term or condition. It is the largest country in both South America and Latin America by land area and population. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, please provide more information and I will do my best to help.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "England" is not a medical term or concept. It is one of the four constituent countries that make up the United Kingdom, along with Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. England is located in the southern part of Great Britain, which is the largest island of the British Isles.

If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nunavut" is not a medical term. It is a territory located in northern Canada, making up a significant portion of the country's land area. The Inuit people, who have inhabited the region for thousands of years, have a strong cultural presence there. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

The term "European Continental Ancestry Group" is a medical/ethnic classification that refers to individuals who trace their genetic ancestry to the continent of Europe. This group includes people from various ethnic backgrounds and nationalities, such as Northern, Southern, Eastern, and Western European descent. It is often used in research and medical settings for population studies or to identify genetic patterns and predispositions to certain diseases that may be more common in specific ancestral groups. However, it's important to note that this classification can oversimplify the complex genetic diversity within and between populations, and should be used with caution.

A dental audit is a systematic review and evaluation of the dental records, procedures, and care provided by a dentist or dental practice. The purpose of a dental audit is to assess the quality of care, identify any areas for improvement, and ensure that appropriate policies and procedures are being followed. This can include reviews of patient records, treatment plans, billing practices, and adherence to infection control guidelines.

The results of a dental audit may be used to improve the quality of care provided to patients, reduce the risk of errors or complications, and ensure compliance with regulatory requirements. Dental audits may be conducted internally by dental practices themselves, or externally by dental organizations, insurance companies, or government agencies.

Dental waste refers to the byproducts and discarded materials generated from dental treatments and procedures. This can include:

1. Amalgam waste: This consists of a mixture of metals, including mercury, used to fill dental cavities.
2. Sharps waste: Includes needles, scalpel blades, and other sharp instruments used in dental procedures.
3. Infectious waste: Materials that have been contaminated with blood or other bodily fluids during dental treatments, such as gloves, gauze, and used dental bibs.
4. Pharmaceutical waste: Unused or expired medications, including analgesics, antibiotics, and anesthetics.
5. Chemical waste: Includes fixer and developer solutions used in developing X-rays, as well as disinfectants and other chemicals used in dental practices.
6. Radioactive waste: Dental X-ray film packets and lead foil from X-ray processing.

Proper management and disposal of dental waste is essential to protect public health and the environment. Regulations governing dental waste disposal vary by location, so it's important for dental practices to be aware of and comply with local requirements.

Dental implantation is a surgical procedure in which a titanium post or frame is inserted into the jawbone beneath the gum line to replace the root of a missing tooth. Once the implant has integrated with the bone, a replacement tooth (crown) is attached to the top of the implant, providing a stable and durable restoration that looks, feels, and functions like a natural tooth. Dental implants can also be used to support dental bridges or dentures, providing added stability and comfort for patients who are missing multiple teeth.

Dental instruments are specialized tools that dentists, dental hygienists, and other oral healthcare professionals use to examine, clean, and treat teeth and gums. These instruments come in various shapes and sizes, and each one is designed for a specific purpose. Here are some common dental instruments and their functions:

1. Mouth mirror: A small, handheld mirror used to help the dentist see hard-to-reach areas of the mouth and reflect light onto the teeth and gums.
2. Explorer: A sharp, hooked instrument used to probe teeth and detect cavities, tartar, or other dental problems.
3. Sickle scaler: A curved, sharp-edged instrument used to remove calculus (tartar) from the tooth surface.
4. Periodontal probe: A blunt, calibrated instrument used to measure the depth of periodontal pockets and assess gum health.
5. Dental syringe: A device used to inject local anesthesia into the gums before dental procedures.
6. High-speed handpiece: Also known as a dental drill, it is used to remove decay, shape teeth, or prepare them for fillings and other restorations.
7. Low-speed handpiece: A slower, quieter drill used for various procedures, such as placing crowns or veneers.
8. Suction tip: A thin tube that removes saliva, water, and debris from the mouth during dental procedures.
9. Cotton rolls: Small squares of cotton used to isolate teeth, absorb fluids, and protect soft tissues during dental treatments.
10. Dental forceps: Specialized pliers used to remove teeth or hold them in place while restorations are being placed.
11. Elevators: Curved, wedge-shaped instruments used to loosen or lift teeth out of their sockets.
12. Rubber dam: A thin sheet of rubber or latex that isolates a specific tooth or area during dental treatment, keeping it dry and free from saliva and debris.

These are just a few examples of the many dental instruments used in modern dentistry. Each one plays an essential role in maintaining oral health and providing effective dental care.

Multivariate analysis is a statistical method used to examine the relationship between multiple independent variables and a dependent variable. It allows for the simultaneous examination of the effects of two or more independent variables on an outcome, while controlling for the effects of other variables in the model. This technique can be used to identify patterns, associations, and interactions among multiple variables, and is commonly used in medical research to understand complex health outcomes and disease processes. Examples of multivariate analysis methods include multiple regression, factor analysis, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis.

Psychometrics is a branch of psychology that deals with the theory and technique of psychological measurement, such as the development and standardization of tests used to measure intelligence, aptitude, personality, attitudes, and other mental abilities or traits. It involves the construction and validation of measurement instruments, including the determination of their reliability and validity, and the application of statistical methods to analyze test data and interpret results. The ultimate goal of psychometrics is to provide accurate, objective, and meaningful measurements that can be used to understand individual differences and make informed decisions in educational, clinical, and organizational settings.

Dental economics is a branch of economics that focuses on the financial aspects of oral health and dental care. It involves the study of various economic factors that influence the provision, accessibility, affordability, and utilization of dental services. This includes analyzing the costs of dental treatments, pricing strategies, financing options, and insurance policies related to dental care. Additionally, dental economics also examines the impact of government policies, regulations, and market dynamics on dental care delivery and oral health outcomes. The ultimate goal of dental economics is to improve the efficiency, effectiveness, and equity of dental care systems, ultimately leading to better oral health for individuals and populations.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "pamphlets" is not a medical term. It refers to a small paper booklet or leaflet that can be used to provide information on various topics, including non-medical subjects. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I'd be happy to help with those!

"Health occupations" is a broad term that refers to careers or professions involved in the delivery, management, and improvement of health services. These occupations encompass a wide range of roles, including but not limited to:

1. Healthcare providers: This group includes medical doctors (MDs), doctors of osteopathic medicine (DOs), nurses, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, dentists, dental hygienists, optometrists, pharmacists, and other professionals who provide direct patient care.
2. Allied health professionals: These are healthcare workers who provide diagnostic, technical, therapeutic, and support services. Examples include respiratory therapists, radiologic technologists, dietitians, occupational therapists, physical therapists, speech-language pathologists, and medical laboratory scientists.
3. Public health professionals: This group focuses on preventing diseases and promoting community health. They work in various settings, such as government agencies, non-profit organizations, and academic institutions, addressing public health issues like infectious disease control, environmental health, health education, and policy development.
4. Health administrators and managers: These professionals oversee the operations of healthcare facilities, including hospitals, clinics, nursing homes, and managed care organizations. They ensure that resources are used efficiently, that services meet quality standards, and that regulatory requirements are met.
5. Health educators: These individuals work in various settings to promote health awareness and teach individuals and communities about healthy behaviors and practices.
6. Health information specialists: Professionals in this field manage and analyze health data, maintain medical records, and ensure the security and privacy of patient information.

Overall, health occupations play a crucial role in maintaining, promoting, and restoring the health and well-being of individuals and communities.

A Health Benefit Plan for Employees refers to a type of insurance policy that an employer provides to their employees as part of their benefits package. These plans are designed to help cover the costs of medical care and services for the employees and sometimes also for their dependents. The specific coverage and details of the plan can vary depending on the terms of the policy, but they typically include a range of benefits such as doctor visits, hospital stays, prescription medications, and preventative care. Employers may pay all or part of the premiums for these plans, and employees may also have the option to contribute to the cost of coverage. The goal of health benefit plans for employees is to help protect the financial well-being of workers by helping them manage the costs of medical care.

"Health services for the aged" is a broad term that refers to medical and healthcare services specifically designed to meet the unique needs of elderly individuals. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), health services for the aged should be "age-friendly" and "person-centered," meaning they should take into account the physical, mental, and social changes that occur as people age, as well as their individual preferences and values.

These services can include a range of medical and healthcare interventions, such as:

* Preventive care, including vaccinations, cancer screenings, and other routine check-ups
* Chronic disease management, such as treatment for conditions like diabetes, heart disease, or arthritis
* Rehabilitation services, such as physical therapy or occupational therapy, to help elderly individuals maintain their mobility and independence
* Palliative care and end-of-life planning, to ensure that elderly individuals receive compassionate and supportive care in their final days
* Mental health services, including counseling and therapy for conditions like depression or anxiety
* Social services, such as transportation assistance, meal delivery, or home care, to help elderly individuals maintain their quality of life and independence.

Overall, the goal of health services for the aged is to promote healthy aging, prevent disease and disability, and provide high-quality, compassionate care to elderly individuals, in order to improve their overall health and well-being.

Public Health Informatics (PHI) is the systematic application of information and computer science and technology to public health practice, research, and learning. It involves the development and implementation of information systems to support public health functions including surveillance, prevention, preparedness, and response. PHI also includes the analysis of public health data to improve decision-making, as well as the training and education of public health professionals in the use of these technologies. The ultimate goal of PHI is to enhance the efficiency, effectiveness, and overall quality of public health services.

Dental caries susceptibility refers to the likelihood or predisposition of an individual to develop dental caries, also known as tooth decay or cavities. It is influenced by various factors such as oral hygiene practices, dietary habits, saliva composition, and the presence of certain bacteria in the mouth, particularly mutans streptococci and lactobacilli.

People with a higher dental caries susceptibility may have thinner or softer enamel, reduced saliva flow, or a greater concentration of cavity-causing bacteria in their mouths. Regular dental check-ups and good oral hygiene practices, such as brushing twice a day, flossing daily, and using fluoride toothpaste, can help reduce the risk of developing dental caries. Additionally, a balanced diet that limits sugary and starchy foods and beverages can also help lower the likelihood of tooth decay.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

An Electronic Health Record (EHR) is a digital version of a patient's medical history that is stored and maintained electronically rather than on paper. It contains comprehensive information about a patient's health status, including their medical history, medications, allergies, test results, immunization records, and other relevant health information. EHRs can be shared among authorized healthcare providers, which enables better coordination of care, improved patient safety, and more efficient delivery of healthcare services.

EHRs are designed to provide real-time, patient-centered records that make it easier for healthcare providers to access up-to-date and accurate information about their patients. They can also help reduce errors, prevent duplicative tests and procedures, and improve communication among healthcare providers. EHRs may include features such as clinical decision support tools, which can alert healthcare providers to potential drug interactions or other health risks based on a patient's medical history.

EHRs are subject to various regulations and standards to ensure the privacy and security of patients' health information. In the United States, for example, EHRs must comply with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Privacy Rule, which sets national standards for the protection of personal health information.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Women's health services refer to medical services that are specifically designed, focused on, or tailored to the unique physiological and psychological needs of women, throughout various stages of their lives. These services encompass a wide range of healthcare areas including:

1. Gynecology and obstetrics - covering routine preventive care, family planning, prenatal and postnatal care, as well as management of gynecological conditions like menstrual disorders, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and reproductive system cancers (e.g., cervical, ovarian, and endometrial cancer).
2. Breast health - including breast cancer screening, diagnostics, treatment, and survivorship care, as well as education on breast self-examination and risk reduction strategies.
3. Mental health - addressing women's mental health concerns such as depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), eating disorders, and perinatal mood disorders, while also considering the impact of hormonal changes, life events, and societal expectations on emotional wellbeing.
4. Sexual health - providing care for sexual concerns, dysfunctions, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), as well as offering education on safe sexual practices and promoting healthy relationships.
5. Cardiovascular health - addressing women's specific cardiovascular risks, such as pregnancy-related complications, and managing conditions like hypertension and high cholesterol to prevent heart disease, the leading cause of death for women in many countries.
6. Bone health - focusing on prevention, diagnosis, and management of osteoporosis and other bone diseases that disproportionately affect women, particularly after menopause.
7. Menopause care - providing support and treatment for symptoms related to menopause, such as hot flashes, sleep disturbances, and mood changes, while also addressing long-term health concerns like bone density loss and heart disease risk.
8. Preventive care - offering routine screenings and vaccinations specific to women's health needs, including cervical cancer screening (Pap test), breast cancer screening (mammography), human papillomavirus (HPV) testing, and osteoporosis screening.
9. Education and counseling - empowering women with knowledge about their bodies, sexual and reproductive health, and overall wellbeing through evidence-based resources and support.
10. Integrative care - addressing the whole person, including mental, emotional, and spiritual wellbeing, by incorporating complementary therapies like acupuncture, mindfulness, and yoga into treatment plans as appropriate.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Australia" is not a medical term or concept. It is the world's largest island and smallest continent, located in the Southern Hemisphere, surrounded by the Pacific and Indian Oceans. It is composed of many diverse ecosystems, including deserts, rainforests, and coastal areas, and is home to a wide variety of unique plant and animal species.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer them for you!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Ontario" is not a medical term. It is the name of a province in Canada, similar to how "California" is the name of a state in the United States. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health conditions, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

In the context of medical education, a curriculum refers to the planned and organized sequence of experiences and learning opportunities designed to achieve specific educational goals and objectives. It outlines the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that medical students or trainees are expected to acquire during their training program. The curriculum may include various components such as lectures, small group discussions, clinical rotations, simulations, and other experiential learning activities. It is typically developed and implemented by medical education experts and faculty members in consultation with stakeholders, including learners, practitioners, and patients.

Dental Informatics is a branch of health informatics that deals with the application of information technology and computer systems to improve dental care delivery, oral health education, research, and management. It involves the development, implementation, and evaluation of information systems that support dental practice, including electronic health records (EHRs), imaging systems, decision support tools, and data analytics. The goal of dental informatics is to enhance patient care, improve clinical outcomes, increase efficiency, and reduce costs in dental care. It also includes the study of the structure, processing, and dissemination of biomedical and health data, information, and knowledge as it relates to dentistry.

Activities of Daily Living (ADL) are routine self-care activities that individuals usually do every day without assistance. These activities are widely used as a measure to determine the functional status and independence of a person, particularly in the elderly or those with disabilities or chronic illnesses. The basic ADLs include:

1. Personal hygiene: Bathing, washing hands and face, brushing teeth, grooming, and using the toilet.
2. Dressing: Selecting appropriate clothes and dressing oneself.
3. Eating: Preparing and consuming food, either independently or with assistive devices.
4. Mobility: Moving in and out of bed, chairs, or wheelchairs, walking independently or using mobility aids.
5. Transferring: Moving from one place to another, such as getting in and out of a car, bath, or bed.

There are also more complex Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs) that assess an individual's ability to manage their own life and live independently. These include managing finances, shopping for groceries, using the telephone, taking medications as prescribed, preparing meals, and housekeeping tasks.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Europe" is a geographical and political designation, rather than a medical one. It refers to the continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Europe is made up of approximately 50 countries, depending on how one defines a "country."

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I'd be happy to help answer them!

Psychological stress is the response of an individual's mind and body to challenging or demanding situations. It can be defined as a state of emotional and physical tension resulting from adversity, demand, or change. This response can involve a variety of symptoms, including emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and physiological components.

Emotional responses may include feelings of anxiety, fear, anger, sadness, or frustration. Cognitive responses might involve difficulty concentrating, racing thoughts, or negative thinking patterns. Behaviorally, psychological stress can lead to changes in appetite, sleep patterns, social interactions, and substance use. Physiologically, the body's "fight-or-flight" response is activated, leading to increased heart rate, blood pressure, muscle tension, and other symptoms.

Psychological stress can be caused by a wide range of factors, including work or school demands, financial problems, relationship issues, traumatic events, chronic illness, and major life changes. It's important to note that what causes stress in one person may not cause stress in another, as individual perceptions and coping mechanisms play a significant role.

Chronic psychological stress can have negative effects on both mental and physical health, increasing the risk of conditions such as anxiety disorders, depression, heart disease, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, it's essential to identify sources of stress and develop effective coping strategies to manage and reduce its impact.

Public health nursing is a specialty practice area of nursing that focuses on the prevention and management of health issues in communities and populations. It involves the assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation of interventions aimed at promoting health, preventing disease, and addressing environmental factors that impact the health of populations. Public health nurses often work in community-based settings such as public health departments, schools, and non-profit organizations to provide care and education to individuals and families, promote health equity, and advocate for policies that improve the overall health of communities.

Dental alloys are materials made by combining two or more metals to be used in dental restorations, such as crowns, bridges, fillings, and orthodontic appliances. These alloys can be classified into three main categories based on their composition:

1. Precious Alloys: Predominantly composed of precious metals like gold, platinum, palladium, and silver. They are highly corrosion-resistant, biocompatible, and durable, making them suitable for long-term use in dental restorations. Common examples include high noble (gold) alloys and noble alloys.
2. Base Metal Alloys: Contain primarily non-precious metals like nickel, chromium, cobalt, and beryllium. They are more affordable than precious alloys but may cause allergic reactions or sensitivities in some patients. Common examples include nickel-chromium alloys and cobalt-chromium alloys.
3. Castable Glass Ionomer Alloys: A combination of glass ionomer cement (GIC) powder and metal liquid, which can be cast into various dental restorations. They have the advantage of being both strong and adhesive to tooth structure but may not be as durable as other alloy types.

Each type of dental alloy has its unique properties and applications, depending on the specific clinical situation and patient needs. Dental professionals consider factors like cost, biocompatibility, mechanical properties, and esthetics when selecting an appropriate alloy for a dental restoration.

Patient satisfaction is a concept in healthcare quality measurement that reflects the patient's perspective and evaluates their experience with the healthcare services they have received. It is a multidimensional construct that includes various aspects such as interpersonal mannerisms of healthcare providers, technical competence, accessibility, timeliness, comfort, and communication.

Patient satisfaction is typically measured through standardized surveys or questionnaires that ask patients to rate their experiences on various aspects of care. The results are often used to assess the quality of care provided by healthcare organizations, identify areas for improvement, and inform policy decisions. However, it's important to note that patient satisfaction is just one aspect of healthcare quality and should be considered alongside other measures such as clinical outcomes and patient safety.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "income" is not a medical term. Income is an economic term that refers to the inflow of monetary resources or earnings that an individual or household receives from various sources, such as employment, investments, or government benefits. It is typically used in financial and economic contexts rather than medical ones. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "life style" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It generally refers to the way an individual or group lives, including their habits, behaviors, and preferences in areas such as diet, exercise, recreation, and stress management. Some lifestyle factors can have a significant impact on health outcomes and risk for certain diseases. However, it is not a medical term with a specific clinical meaning.

Dental devices for home care are products designed for use by individuals or their caregivers in a home setting to maintain oral hygiene, manage dental health issues, and promote overall oral health. These devices can include:

1. Toothbrushes: Manual, electric, or battery-operated toothbrushes used to clean teeth and remove plaque and food debris.
2. Dental floss: A thin string used to remove food particles and plaque from between the teeth and under the gum line.
3. Interdental brushes: Small brushes designed to clean between the teeth and around dental appliances, such as braces or implants.
4. Water flossers/oral irrigators: Devices that use a stream of water to remove food particles and plaque from between the teeth and under the gum line.
5. Tongue scrapers: Tools used to clean the tongue's surface, removing bacteria and reducing bad breath.
6. Rubber tips/gum stimulators: Devices used to massage and stimulate the gums, promoting blood circulation and helping to maintain gum health.
7. Dental picks/sticks: Pointed tools used to remove food particles and plaque from between the teeth and under the gum line.
8. Mouthguards: Protective devices worn over the teeth to prevent damage from grinding, clenching, or sports-related injuries.
9. Night guards: Similar to mouthguards, these are designed to protect the teeth from damage caused by nighttime teeth grinding (bruxism).
10. Dental retainers: Devices used to maintain the alignment of teeth after orthodontic treatment.
11. Whitening trays and strips: At-home products used to whiten teeth by applying a bleaching agent to the tooth surface.
12. Fluoride mouth rinses: Anticavity rinses containing fluoride, which help strengthen tooth enamel and prevent decay.
13. Oral pain relievers: Topical gels or creams used to alleviate oral pain, such as canker sores or denture irritation.

Proper use of these dental devices, along with regular dental check-ups and professional cleanings, can help maintain good oral health and prevent dental issues.

Child mortality refers to the death of children under a specific age, typically under 5 years old. It is usually expressed as the number of deaths per 1,000 live births in a given population during a specified period. High child mortality rates are often indicative of underlying issues related to health care access, nutrition, sanitation, and socioeconomic factors. The United Nations Millennium Development Goals set a target to reduce under-five child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, and this goal has been continued in the Sustainable Development Goals with a new target of ending preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age by 2030.

Dental facilities refer to establishments that provide dental care and treatment. These facilities can include private dental practices, community health centers, hospital dental departments, and specialized dental clinics. They are equipped with the necessary dental equipment and staffed by dental professionals such as dentists, dental hygienists, and dental assistants. Dental facilities offer a range of services including routine check-ups, cleanings, fillings, extractions, root canals, orthodontic treatment, and oral surgery. Some dental facilities may also offer specialized services such as periodontics, prosthodontics, and endodontics.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Private Sector" is not a medical definition. It is an economic and sociopolitical term that refers to businesses and organizations which are not owned or controlled by the government. They can be privately owned and operated for profit, such as corporations, partnerships, and sole proprietorships, or they can be non-profit organizations, such as charities and advocacy groups. The private sector is distinct from the "Public Sector," which includes entities that are owned and controlled by the government, like public schools, hospitals, and other services provided by the state.

Consumer participation in the context of healthcare refers to the active involvement and engagement of patients, families, caregivers, and communities in their own healthcare decision-making processes and in the development, implementation, and evaluation of health policies, programs, and services. It emphasizes the importance of patient-centered care, where the unique needs, preferences, values, and experiences of individuals are respected and integrated into their healthcare.

Consumer participation can take many forms, including:

1. Patient-provider communication: Consumers engage in open and honest communication with their healthcare providers to make informed decisions about their health.
2. Shared decision-making: Consumers work together with their healthcare providers to weigh the benefits and risks of different treatment options and make evidence-based decisions that align with their values, preferences, and goals.
3. Patient education: Consumers receive accurate, timely, and understandable information about their health conditions, treatments, and self-management strategies.
4. Patient advocacy: Consumers advocate for their own health needs and rights, as well as those of other patients and communities.
5. Community engagement: Consumers participate in the development, implementation, and evaluation of health policies, programs, and services that affect their communities.
6. Research partnerships: Consumers collaborate with researchers to design, conduct, and disseminate research that is relevant and meaningful to their lives.

Consumer participation aims to improve healthcare quality, safety, and outcomes by empowering individuals to take an active role in their own health and well-being, and by ensuring that healthcare systems are responsive to the needs and preferences of diverse populations.

Dental Survey. Vol. 35. Dental Survey Publications. 1959. "In Remembrance," Global Health Nexus, NYU College of Dentistry, ... Bukantz operated a dental practice in Manhattan, New York, for about 40 years. He provided free dental care to members of the ... He attended City College of New York ('38). Bukantz then earned a D.D.S. dental degree in 1943 from the New York University ... Bukantz was a captain in the Army Dental Corps during World War II. He served in the 87th Infantry Division during the Battle ...
Murray JJ (Nov 2011). "Adult dental health surveys: 40 years on". Br Dent J. 211 (9): 407-8. doi:10.1038/sj.bdj.2011.903. PMID ... In Britain, sequential Adult Dental Health Surveys revealed that in 1968 79% of those aged 65-74 had no natural teeth; by 1998 ... Robot-assisted dental surgery, including for dental implants, has also been developed in the 2000s. As early as the 7th century ... "Dental art: A French dentist showing his artificial teeth". British Dental Association. 30 June 2010. Archived from the ...
Perez R, Berkowitz R, McIlveen L, Forrester D (October 1991). "Dental trauma in children: a survey". Endodontics & Dental ... Young EJ, Macias CR, Stephens L (May 2015). "Common Dental Injury Management in Athletes". Sports Health. 7 (3): 250-5. doi: ... The study of dental trauma is called dental traumatology. Dental injuries include: Enamel infraction Enamel fracture Enamel- ... "Dental trauma in children and young adults visiting a University Dental Clinic". Dental Traumatology. 25 (1): 84-7. doi:10.1111 ...
... an income tax surcharge to pay for universal health insurance; free dental care for students; and renovation of ageing urban ... Surveys showed that even Liberal voters approved of the Labor slogan. Whitlam pledged an end to conscription and the release of ... The New South Wales premier, Tom Lewis felt that this convention applied only to vacancies caused by deaths or ill-health, and ... This session, authorised by the new governor-general, John Kerr, passed bills providing for universal health insurance (known ...
She graduated with a Master of Public Health degree in dept. health policy and administration with a focus on dental hygiene ... H. (2010). Prevalence of dental erosion in children: a national survey. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 38(6): 521- 526. ... degree from the Royal Dental College in Aarhus, Denmark in 1981. She completed a thesis at the Nordic School of Public Health ... Inga's research spans a broad field within dental health and related lifestyle factors in children and teenagers. She has been ...
... dental, vision, medigap, and prescription drugs. This file contains health insurance-specific information, such as an edited ... Children's Health, Chronic Conditions, Health Insurance, Health Disparities, Women's Health, Prescription Drugs, Individuals ... The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey is commonly the subject of analysis in articles on health policy and health services in ... "MEPS HC-110B: 2007 Dental Visits". Meps.ahrq.gov. Retrieved 2017-07-07. "Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Public Use File ...
... "menace to health" (she meant dental health) of "the persistent, and, among poorer classes, the universal sucking of a rubber ... "Dental care for mother and baby". Retrieved 21 March 2023. Passman, R. H.; Halonen, J. S. (1979). "A developmental survey of ... The British Oral Health Foundation recommends: "If you can, avoid using a dummy, soother or pacifier and discourage thumb ... Although it is commonly believed that using a pacifier will lead to dental problems, it does not appear to lead to long-term ...
Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 2212. ISBN 978-0-323-18586-8. "The Dental Trauma Guide". dentaltraumaguide.org. Copenhagen ... A survey". Journal of the Indian Dental Association. 4 (12). Heymann HO; Swift Jr. EJ; Ritter AV (12 March 2014). Sturdevant's ... Ibsen OAC; Phelan JA (14 April 2014). Oral Pathology for the Dental Hygienist. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 173. ISBN 978-0-323 ... At the core of the tooth is soft connective tissue termed the dental pulp. The pulp is pink/red due to its vascularity, but is ...
Child and teenager oral health and dental visiting: Results from the National Dental Telephone Interview Survey 2010. Dental ... The Australian Institute of Health and Welfare conducts periodical surveys of the dental health of Australian children and ... NSW Department of Health Centre for Oral Health Strategy. (2014). Early Childhood Oral Health Guidelines for Child Health ... The Institute's 2010 survey found that the majority of Australian children had good dental health, with 70% of children making ...
Murray, J. J. (November 2011). "Adult dental health surveys: 40 years on". British Dental Journal. 211 (9): 407-8. doi:10.1038/ ... In Britain, sequential Adult Dental Health Surveys revealed that in 1968 79% of those aged 65-74 had no natural teeth; by 1998 ... "Denture Care" Canadian Dental Association http://www.cda-adc.ca/en/oral_health/cfyt/dental_care_seniors/dental_care.asp> "Ask ... "What is included in each NHS dental band charge? - Health questions - NHS Choices". www.nhs.uk. Retrieved 2018-03-13. " ...
They participate in a day of interviews, physical tests, dental examinations, blood tests, computer questionnaires, and surveys ... Cardiovascular health and risk factors Respiratory health Oral health Sexual and reproductive health Mental health Psychosocial ... The Dunedin Study has also suggested a that poor mental health can cause poor physical health, and increased rates of ageing. ... "Dunedin Study data provides evidence that youth mental health issues impact adult physical health". New Zealand Doctor. 5 ...
Violet Rudder, Health Visitor, East African Institute for Medical Research, East Africa High Commission. Thomas Emanuel Ryan, ... Edgie Lapira, FDS, RCS, Emeritus Professor of Dental Surgery, Malta Central Hospital. Alan Charles Ledger. For public services ... Robert Reid Galloway, Senior Survey Clerk, West of Scotland District, Ministry of Transport and Civil Aviation. David Gardner, ... Bockari Mongbama Gbolie, Health Superintendent, Kono District, Sierra Leone. Eusope bin Ahmad, Tug Serang Grade I, Wharf ...
"Child Dental Health Survey 2013, England, Wales and Northern Ireland". digital.nhs.uk. Retrieved 2018-03-08. Atsawasuwan P, ... Dhaka Dental College in Bangladesh is one of the many schools recognized by the Bangladesh Medical and Dental Council (BM&DC) ... In Canada, obtaining a dental degree, such as a Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS) or Doctor of Medical Dentistry (DMD), would be ... "Dhaka Dental College". Dhaka Dental College. Archived from the original on October 28, 2017. Retrieved October 28, 2017. "List ...
An oral health therapist is trained as both a dental therapist and a dental hygienist with a focus on health promotion and ... findings of a national survey. British Dental Journal, 189(88), 435-438. "Standards for Dental Therapy Education Programs in ... Dental therapists generally work for a local District Health Board (DHB), but some work in private practice. Dental therapists ... The dental therapists role in the dental team can include the provisions of oral health assessment, treatment planning, ...
The examination component consists of medical, dental, and physiological measurements, as well as laboratory tests administered ... The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a survey research program conducted by the National Center for ... "About the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey". CDC/National Center for Health Statistics. U.S. Department of ... "National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)". faqs.org. Advameg, Inc. Retrieved 17 March 2010. [1] DSDR page for ...
Warren Sarrell, conducted a health assessment survey in Calhoun County, Alabama. The results of this survey showed an ... Sarrell Dental and Eye Centers, based in Anniston, Alabama, was the largest dental provider in the state of Alabama. Sarrell ... "Sarrell Dental wins 2011 WebAward for Sarrell Dental Center". www.webaward.org. Parker, Jeffrey A., Thompson, John A. ", KDA ... "Grand Opening of Dental Center Sept. 7" The Cleburne News. September 1, 2005. "Children's Dental Clinic Opens". The News ...
Harris, James E.; Ponitz, Paul V.; Ingalls, Brian K. (1998). "Dental health in ancient Egypt". In Cockburn, Aidan; Cockburn, ... "Nubia, Survey & Excavations". University of California Santa Barbara. Retrieved 21 October 2012. (CS1 errors: missing ... Greene, David Lee (1982). "Discrete dental variations and biological distances of nubian populations". American Journal of ... George Armelegos (Massachusetts University) analysed dental and skeletal pathology from the Colorado expeditions. "The 1905- ...
Sir Stephen Weir Civil division Archibald Hugh Bogle - a member of the Survey Board for many years. Gerald William Lane - of ... John Cairney MD FRACS - Director-General of Health and Inspector-General of Hospitals. Henry John Wardell - chairman of the New ... Civil division Professor John Patrick Walsh MB BS - dean of the University of Otago Dental School. Military division Major- ... For services to the community, especially in connection with the South Canterbury Children's Health Camp organisations. John ...
Tiromwe F, Ekoku Y, Manji F, Baelum V, Fejerskov O: Oral Health in Uganda: a national survey. Kampala: Ministry of Health ... He obtained MSc in Dental Public Health from the London Hospital Medical College, University of London; and a PhD from the ... Fejerskov, Manji F, Baelum V, Moller IJ (1988): Dental Fluorosis: A Handbook for Health Workers. Copenhagen Munksgaard. ... and lecturer in the Faculty of Medicine in Dental Public Health, University of Nairobi. He was managing director of TWIN / TWIN ...
In 2010 the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston released a Health of Houston Survey. Based on the survey ... Half of the Houston area residents did not have dental insurance. The area's percentage of individuals who reported having ... Houston.org Health of Houston Survey 2010 - University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston City of Houston page on ... "Survey finds Houstonian health worse than national average." Houston Chronicle. Monday November 7, 2011. Retrieved on November ...
National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Dental Health; Guttorm Toverud (1952). A survey of the literature of dental ... Part 2, A. Diet and dental disease. B. Diet and dental structure in mammals other than the dog, London: H.M.S.O., 1930. Medical ... Dental Record, Vol. 11 (1920). 'The relation of caries to the structure of the teeth', British Dental Journal, Vol. 44 (1923), ... Part 1, Dental structure in dogs, London: H.M.S.O., 1929. Medical Research Council, Special Reports Series, 140. Diet and the ...
A comparison of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2001-2002 and 2011-2012". Journal of Dental Hygiene ... Fluoridation Facts (PDF). American Dental Association. 2005. p. 29. "Table 23, Surveillance for Dental Caries, Dental Sealants ... Dental Enamel Defects and Celiac Disease Archived March 5, 2016, at the Wayback Machine National Institute of Health (NIH) ... As of 2005[update] surveys conducted by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research in the USA between 1986 and ...
Kanatas AN, Rogers SN, Martin MV (February 2002). "A survey of antibiotic prescribing by maxillofacial consultants for dental ... Katsura K, Sasai K, Sato K, Saito M, Hoshina H, Hayashi T (June 2008). "Relationship between oral health status and development ... Dental disease and extractions; patients with poor oral hygiene and dental disease prior to radiation, including edentulous ... Beacher NG, Sweeney MP (November 2018). "The dental management of a mouth cancer patient". British Dental Journal. 225 (9): 855 ...
... with a focus on education and health; the Association had a medical and dental clinic and sponsored folk dances, fund-raisers ... This ultimately resulted in a complete housing survey of the area and significant improvements in housing in the neighborhood, ... p. 42; New York Department of Health. Weekly Bulletin of the Department of Health of the City of New York. Vol. VI, No. 20. 19 ... New York City Board of Health. Annual Report of the Board of Health. New York: Martin B. Brown Company, 1897. p. 16. New York ...
In a 1976 survey, 75% of the Indians in Western Oregon reported needing dental care and 30% were in need of eyeglasses. In ... The Indian Health Service provided health care for many Indian tribes, but once a tribe was terminated all tribe members lost ... ISBN 978-1-57416-076-5. History of Urban Indian Health Programs, U.S. Dept of Health and Human Services. Retrieved on 2009-05- ... In 1955, the Indian Health Service was transferred from the administration of the BIA to the Public Health Service, which ...
... results from the North South Survey of Children's Height, Weight and Body Mass Index, 2002". BMC Public Health. 7 (1): 187. doi ... Multiple oral health care professionals including dentists, dental therapists, dental hygienists, oral health therapists and ... the American Dental Association, the Australian Dental Association, the British Dental Association, and the Canadian Dental ... A study surveying fissure sealants and dental caries in primary school girls in Saudi Arabia in 2017 found that only 1.3% of ...
This research provided insights into dietary habits, oral health, and land tenure matters. The analysis of dental data was ... They spent five days on the island, performing a very thorough survey of its coast, and named it Isla de San Carlos, taking ... In 1985, Douglas W. Owsley and Ann-Marie Miles conducted a study on dental caries in the permanent teeth of prehistoric Easter ... In 1889, W. J. Thomson carried out an archaeological survey of the island's remains. During 1914-1915, Mrs. Katherine Routledge ...
It also actively considers alternative dental treatment provision systems with the objective of promoting oral health in the UK ... Benefits include contracts and the industry-standard Private Fees and Wages Guide which is compiled from a survey of private ... The Dental Professionals Association, previously known as the Dental Practitioners Association and the General Dental ... British Dental Association to lobby aggressively on behalf of general dental practitioners who had joined the National Health ...
Companies portal Medicine portal List of toothpaste brands Index of oral health and dental articles "Company Profile for ... The investigation showed that the study had telephone surveyed dentists to list the toothpaste they recommended, and their ... mouthwashes and dental floss. Manufactured by Colgate-Palmolive, Colgate's oral hygiene products were first sold by the company ... it maintained the highest growth rate of all brands in the survey, with 40 million new households purchasing Colgate-branded ...
"U.S. Public Health Service Recommendation for Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water for the Prevention of Dental Caries". ... In 1998, 70% of people polled in a survey conducted by the American Dental Association (ADA) believed community water should be ... "Experimental dental caries IV. Fluorine and its relation to dental caries". Journal of Dental Research. 18: 481-490. doi: ... H. Trendley Dean, a dental officer of the U.S. Public Health Service. In 1936 and 1937, Dr. Dean and other dentists compared ...
Create your own online survey now with SurveyMonkeys expert certified FREE templates. ... 5. How often do you get dental appointment? Yearly Every 6 months ... Check SCREEN READER MODE to make this survey compatible with screen readers. ...
Dental visits. *Insurance, including single service plans. *Patient satisfaction. *Physical activities. Questions about the ... Results from the Joint/Canada/United States Survey of Health. PDF Versionpdf icon (43 KB). 2004 Fact Sheet ... Survey Reports and Data Linked to NHISplus icon*Summary Health Statistics ... Joint Canada/United States Survey of Health Dataset. *Errata. PDF Versionpdf icon (28 KB) ...
1975). Dental health of Louisiana residents based on the ten-state nutrition survey.. 90(2). Morgan, P M et al. "Dental health ... Dental Health Surveys DMF Index Female Humans Income Male Middle Aged Nutrition Surveys Oral Hygiene Index Periodontal Index ... The dental health status of 4,006 residents of Louisiana was analyzed, based on data in the 1968-70 Ten-State Nutrition Survey ... Title : Dental health of Louisiana residents based on the ten-state nutrition survey. Personal Author(s) : Morgan, P M;Murphy, ...
National oral health survey : South Africa 1998/89, a report of the first national oral health survey of South Africa / ... by WHO Expert Committee on Dental Health , World Health Organization.. Series: World Health Organization technical report ... Oral health surveys : basic methods. by World Health Organization.. Edition: 4th ed.Material type: Text; Format: print ... National health survey of Pakistan : health profile of the people of Pakistan / Pakistan Medical Research Council. by Pakistan ...
National Health Interview Survey, 2012 - Featured Topics from the National Center for Health Statistics ... A Blog of the National Center for Health Statistics - Reasons for Emergency Room Use Among U.S. Children: ... National Health Care Surveys (3) *Deaths (200) *Dental Care (11) *dental caries (5) ... Reasons for Emergency Room Use Among U.S. Children: National Health Interview Survey, 2012. Posted on July 29, 2014. by NCHS ...
CDC WONDER is a system for disseminating Public Health data and information ... FQ2104 283 284 2 EMOTIONAL OR MENTAL HEALTH COUNSELING 01 = RESPONSE CHECKED 02 = RESPONSE NOT CHECKED FQ2105 285 286 2 DENTAL ... HISTORY The 1995 NNHS, a segment of the Long-Term Care Component of the National Health Care Survey (1), is the fourth survey ... Toward a National Health Care Survey, A Data System for the 21st Century. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 1992. 2. ...
Access to dental care for children with special health care needs: a cross-sectional community survey within Jeddah, Saudi ... The aim of this study was to investigate the level of dental care access among children with special health care needs (CSHCN) ... Data of this cross-sectional study were obtained from self-administered surveys distributed through seven CSHCN centers. ... Half of CSHCN caregivers found difficulties obtaining dental treatment. This trend was significantly greater in 12-18 years old ...
QuickStats: Time Since Last Dental Visit* by Children Aged 2-17 Years, by Age Group - National Health Interview Survey,† United ... Source: Bloom B, Jones LI, Freeman G. Summary health statistics for U.S. children: National Health Interview Survey, 2012. ... civilian population and are derived from the National Health Interview Survey sample child component. ... Vital Health Stat 2013;10(258). Reported by: Lindsey Jones, MPH, [email protected], 301-458-4548; Barbara Bloom, MPA; Gulnur Freeman ...
Health-care-facilities; Health-surveys; Author Keywords: Offices of Dentists; nitrous oxide; dental operatories; waste ... Terms: dental or dentist* OR dental or dentist* 122 - 122 of 149 Bibliographic entries ... Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National ... The author concludes that a health hazard from nitrous-oxide does exist at this office, and recommends the installation of a ...
Dental Survey. Vol. 35. Dental Survey Publications. 1959. "In Remembrance," Global Health Nexus, NYU College of Dentistry, ... Bukantz operated a dental practice in Manhattan, New York, for about 40 years. He provided free dental care to members of the ... He attended City College of New York (38). Bukantz then earned a D.D.S. dental degree in 1943 from the New York University ... Bukantz was a captain in the Army Dental Corps during World War II. He served in the 87th Infantry Division during the Battle ...
Oral-systemic Health. 7 essential oral-systemic assessments for your dental patients ... Survey shows agreement in the profession for dental assisting advancement. Meg Kaiser ... Today there are roughly 230 dental 3D printers manufactured by more than 75 companies worldwide.1 The global dental 3D printing ... You may also be interested in … Pros and cons of dental 3D printing, from a dental tech ...
Categories: Dental Health Surveys Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Oral health surveys. Basic methods, 4th edition. Geneva. World Health Organization, 1997. ... Now in their fifth year, we assessed the effect of dental studies on students oral health practices and dental health. Of the ... In general, at the end of their course, the dental students had achieved a better dental health status, particularly in the ... Effect of 5 years of dental studies on the oral health of Tunisian dental students ...
A collection of resources on health system performance in Virginia. ... Children with a medical and dental preventive care visit in the past year National Survey of Childrens Health (NSCH) ... Children with a medical and dental preventive care visit in the past year National Survey of Childrens Health (NSCH) ... Children with a medical and dental preventive care visit in the past year National Survey of Childrens Health (NSCH) ...
To get important information about rule making or other related dental laboratories-related topics, please select the green ... a new dental laboratories registration was created. Were in the early stages of setting up the new registration and have ... Take the Washington Health Workforce Survey.. *See current rules in progress on our rules webpage. ... During the 2019 legislative session, a new dental laboratories registration was created. Were in the early stages of setting ...
... the dental benefits industry again must determine how to succeed in this evolving environment. ... Navigate todays most pressing health industry challenges with a leading global expert by your side. ... Milliman Compensation Salary & Benefits Survey * Benefit plan evaluation. Milliman Online Total Rewards ... would affect dental benefits and discusses considerations for dental insurers to turn changes into opportunity. ...
The British Dental Health Foundation at www.dentalhealth.org.uk is the United Kingdoms latest oral health charity. ... The survey indicated a disturbing trend of people making little effort to maintain the health of their teeth. Proper oral ... The British Dental Health Foundation at www.dentalhealth.org.uk is the United Kingdoms largest oral health charity. The ... The British Dental Health Foundation at www.dentalhealth.org.uk is the United Kingdoms latest oral health charity. ...
... of dentists say they have experienced a mental health issue, including burnout, mood disorders, or serious thoughts of suicide ... We sat down with Ben Nemtin, one of the co-founders of The Buried Life, to discuss mental health and how dental professionals ... To get a better picture of the healthcare profession and mental health, an online survey was sent to dentists, nurses, doctors ... mental health experiences in other health fields to learn how work context affects these experiences, the authors wrote. ...
Objective: The third nationwide survey of oral health in China revealed a poor oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) in ... Dental anxiety (DA) has been associated with poor oral health. The aim of this study was to analyze the influencing factors of ... The elderly population in Hangzhou communities has a relatively high level of dental anxiety associated with age, monthly ... Read more about Factors that Influence Dental Anxiety among the Elders in Communities of Hangzhou City, China ...
Diet can affect oral health via numerous mechanisms. Dietary deficiencies are known to cause several diseases that manifest as ... Sugar intake and dental decay: results from a national survey of children in Scotland. Br J Nutr. 2010 Nov. 104(10):1555-64. [ ... Sugar intake and dental decay: results from a national survey of children in Scotland. Br J Nutr. 2010 Nov. 104(10):1555-64. [ ... Not Enough Evidence for Primary Care to Routinely Conduct Dental Screenings * Genetic Diagnosis Tied to Less Mental Health Care ...
For more information about the Delta Dental-sponsored survey and oral health tips for infants to pre-teen, visit the Original ... Introducing PDS Health: The Evolution of Pacific Dental Services Into Comprehensive Health Care. PDS HealthApril 23, 2024 ... LIBERTY Dental Plan Invests in Community Oral Health Through TeamSmile NFL Program. LIBERTY Dental PlanApril 23, 2024 ... Todays Dental News Tooth Fairy Giving Drops for First Time in 5 Years, According to Delta Dental Poll Delta Dental Plans ...
Read full-text medical journal articles from Medscapes Dental and Oral Health News. ... Why Poor Conduct by Doctors Can Hurt Business In this brief survey, Medscape would like to hear your thoughts about how a ... Do Docs Have a Right to Work From Home Due to Health Issues? A radiologist with a health condition sued his hospital to be able ... Canadian Guideline Urges Preventive Care for Health Equity To reduce disparities in health outcomes, a panel of primary care ...
... the National Board of Health and Welfare (Socialstyrelsen) and the National Quality Registries (Nationella Kvalitetsregister). ... The parties agree on parameters to follow up, survey questions, identify data sources and division of responsibilities. ... of a new pharmaceutical that will be covered by national joint introduction is often done in collaboration with the Dental and ...
The GPSC surveyed its constituents student health care plans and found they are "moderately satisfied" with the current ... the survey showed there is a lack of a dental plan, Hancock said. He added that the councils goals for the next few years ...
Data were collected by the Multicenter Health Survey of São Paulo. The Unified Health System (SUS) was widely used by the ... The aim of this study was to analyze the reasons for missed appointments in dental Family Health Units (FHU) and implement ... Strategies for tackling absenteeism in dental appointments in the Family Health Units of a large municipality: action research ... Health education or a shared therapeutic project? Health care goes beyond the pedagogical dimension Temas Livres. Slomp Junior ...
  • The questionnaire contained 38 questions on hygienic and dietary habits, dental visits and caries prophylaxis. (czytelniamedyczna.pl)
  • Dental knowledge among parents of 3-year-old children on early childhood caries seems insufficient. (czytelniamedyczna.pl)
  • The study conducted in 2015 as a part of a project known as Monitoring of Oral Health Status in 3-old children in the Mazovia Province showed caries incidence of 51.8% and mean DMFT of 2.45 ± 3.68 (1). (czytelniamedyczna.pl)
  • Quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF™) is a new method for oral health assessment, providing additional visual information about caries and bacterial activity. (dentistryiq.com)
  • A recent National Institutes of Health and National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIH) report has noted that flipping a coin may provide as much sensitivity and specificity as current methods for diagnosing caries. (dentistryiq.com)
  • Many years of research have established that dietary factors are directly related to dental caries and erosion. (medscape.com)
  • [ 10 ] Evidence also shows that sport drinks may be increasing the incidence of dental erosion, which can precede caries in both child and adult athletes. (medscape.com)
  • Health-Related Quality caries and other oral diseases. (who.int)
  • INTRODUCTION focus on diseases only (such as caries, periodontitis, Oral health is important to the quality of life of al gingivitis et cetera. (who.int)
  • Dental caries, plaque, gingivitis, fluorosis and malocclusion were recorded using standard methods and indices. (who.int)
  • 2 ). Studies from Saudi Arabia have re- addition, this was the first study to cal- with a round-ended probe was used ported a high prevalence of dental caries culate the SiC index in 12-year-old male according to the WHO criteria ( 10 ). (who.int)
  • Al-Malik and Re- This was a cross-sectional study con- anyone had primary teeth present, these hbini showed high levels of dental caries ducted on 12-year-old male school- were not recorded as they were usually and recommended the introduction of children. (who.int)
  • Between 2019 and 2020, the percentage of adults who had a dental visit in the past 12 months decreased in all race and Hispanic-origin groups. (cdc.gov)
  • For each family income level, the percentage of adults who had a dental visit in the past 12 months was lower in 2020 than in 2019. (cdc.gov)
  • Among adults in large central, large fringe, and medium and small metropolitan areas, dental visits in the past 12 months declined between 2019 and 2020. (cdc.gov)
  • In 2020, many dental practices limited their hours and services in response to the COVID-19 pandemic ( 6 , 7 ). (cdc.gov)
  • This report uses data from the 2019 and 2020 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to describe recent changes in the prevalence of dental visits among adults aged 18-64. (cdc.gov)
  • The percentage of adults who had a dental visit in the past 12 months decreased from 65.5% in 2019 to 62.7% in 2020 ( Figure 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In both 2019 and 2020, women were more likely than men to have had a dental visit. (cdc.gov)
  • SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey, 2019 and 2020. (cdc.gov)
  • From 2019 to 2020, the percentage of adults who had a dental visit in the past 12 months declined among Hispanic (from 58.6% to 55.3%), non-Hispanic White (68.3% to 66.6%), non-Hispanic Black (61.1% to 56.8%), non-Hispanic Asian (70.1% to 64.3%), and non-Hispanic other and multiple race (60.1% to 52.8%) adults ( Figure 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In 2019 and 2020, non-Hispanic White and non-Hispanic Asian adults were more likely to have had a dental visit than Hispanic, non-Hispanic Black, and non-Hispanic adults of other and multiple races. (cdc.gov)
  • Between 2019 and 2020, the percentage of adults who had a dental visit in the past 12 months decreased in all family income levels. (cdc.gov)
  • Bukantz then earned a D.D.S. dental degree in 1943 from the New York University College of Dentistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Health education, especially in paediatric dentistry, is a very important element on which most preventive programs are based. (czytelniamedyczna.pl)
  • examination was performed within the school premises by a ** Department of Preventive Dentistry, Faculty of Dental single trained investigator. (who.int)
  • However, about 35% of adults aged 18 and over did not have a dental visit in 2019 ( 4 ), and predictors such as age, race, sex, and socioeconomic status were associated with delayed dental care among adults in the United States ( 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • During the 2019 legislative session, a new dental laboratories registration was created. (wa.gov)
  • Data of this cross-sectional study were obtained from self -administered surveys distributed through seven CSHCN centers. (bvsalud.org)
  • Compared with the previous study, students had achieved a better dental health status - tooth brushing rate was much higher, prevalence of dental decay and periodontal pockets had decreased, and DMF index had improved. (who.int)
  • Prevalence of Oral Mucosal Lesions and Oral Health Related Quality of Life among Adolescents in a Rural Nigerian Population. (who.int)
  • Barriers to the utilization of preventive care may be addressed by informing migrant communities about preventive health care services at an early stage after immigration using migrant-sensitive information strategies. (springer.com)
  • You pay a low annual membership fee and then simply show your membership card to any participating dentist to receive savings on virtually any dental procedure, from preventive to restorative care - including treatments that dental insurance doesn't typically cover such as dental implants, teeth whitening and overlays. (dentalplans.com)
  • Dental savings plans are a great choice for people who currently need - or may someday need - more than just routine preventive dental care. (dentalplans.com)
  • Dental insurance is often a good choice for people with excellent oral health, as it focuses on making preventive dental care affordable. (dentalplans.com)
  • Canadian Guideline Urges Preventive Care for Health Equity To reduce disparities in health outcomes, a panel of primary care providers and patients calls for preventive care measures to be prioritized for people experiencing disadvantages. (medscape.com)
  • Boguszewska-Gutenbaum H, Turska-Szybka A, Remiszewski A. Dental Fluorosis - a Case Report. (aaem.pl)
  • People in dry zone areas face serious health problems such as the ugly staining known as dental fluorosis. (fluoridealert.org)
  • No children presented with dental fluorosis and 82.5% had a class I jaw relationship. (who.int)
  • This is great news as we work to address social determinants of health (SDoH), improve health outcomes, and reduce health disparities. (theforceforhealth.com)
  • PCOH recently completed the "2022 PA Dental Assistant Survey" and created a resource to share the results. (theforceforhealth.com)
  • In 2022, PCOH sought to understand the state of dental assistants in Pennsylvania through disseminating a survey to dental assistants across the commonwealth. (theforceforhealth.com)
  • The 2022 Scorecard on State Health System Performance identifies a range of health care system deficiencies, and how they have been exacerbated by the pandemic. (commonwealthfund.org)
  • About 75% of children's most recent visits to an ER in the past 12 months took place at night or on a weekend, regardless of health insurance coverage status. (cdc.gov)
  • Response of "within the past year (anytime less than 12 months ago)" was considered as having had a dental visit in the past 12 months. (cdc.gov)
  • National oral health survey : South Africa 1998/89, a report of the first national oral health survey of South Africa / compiled by P. J. van Wyk. (who.int)
  • ABSTRACT This study is a follow-up of one made in 1998-99 on first-year dental students in Monastir. (who.int)
  • RÉSUMÉ La présente étude est un suivi de celle qui a été réalisée en 1998-1999 chez les étudiants de première année de médecine dentaire à Monastir. (who.int)
  • Among them, a retrospective survey was performed with 155 first-year dental students in 1998 (90 girls and 65 boys) from 18 to 22 years [6]. (who.int)
  • Of the 155 Tunisian dental students registered in the first year for the academic year 1998-1999, 140 went through to the final year in 2003. (who.int)
  • Profiles of national research institutes and programs on aging : an analysis by the National Institute on Aging on behalf of the World Health Organization. (who.int)
  • by World Health Organization. (who.int)
  • IQuery includes health indicators such as demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, maternal and child health, chronic disease, and injury control. (countyhealthrankings.org)
  • HIV/AIDS, maternal and child health, school health as well as in the education and training programmes of oral health professionals. (who.int)
  • Semaglutide Cuts Cardiovascular Events in Landmark Trial Top-line results show semaglutide for weight loss (Wegovy) cut cardiovascular events in the 17,000-person SELECT CV outcomes trial, which should reframe the health benefit of this weight loss drug. (medscape.com)
  • The outcomes of the meeting re-emphasized that the promotion of oral health and prevention of oral diseases must be provided through primary health care and that integrated approaches are the most cost-effective and realistic ways of reducing the gap between the poor and the rich. (who.int)
  • Americans' oral and systemic health. (nadp.org)
  • [ 7 ] As e-cigarettes are relatively new on the market, there is currently no long-term evidence related to oral and systemic health effects. (medscape.com)
  • Is any particular aspect of perceived quality associated with patients tending to promote a dental practice to their friends and colleagues? (nih.gov)
  • The probability of patients recommending a dental practice seems to rise in direct proportion to favourable perceptions of quality. (nih.gov)
  • Bukantz operated a dental practice in Manhattan, New York, for about 40 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • The last section discusses future applications and uses of QLF™ in dental practice, and summarizes research supporting its use for nonsurgical interventions. (dentistryiq.com)
  • Addressing tobacco control in dental practice: a survey of dentists' knowledge, attitudes and behaviours in India. (amrita.edu)
  • About 40% of those aged 2-4 years and 5% of those aged 5-17 years had not had a dental visit in >2 years or had never seen a dentist. (cdc.gov)
  • And if you need to get to the dentist even sooner to deal with a dental emergency, we can help you find a plan that offers immediate activation. (dentalplans.com)
  • RPS-1, the first of these surveys, collected data on nursing homes, chronic disease and geriatric hospitals, and nursing home units and chronic disease wards of general and mental hospitals. (cdc.gov)
  • The resolution further emphasized the need to build capacity in oral health systems at primary health care level as a means of prevention and control of oral diseases. (who.int)
  • The first wave of the 'German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults' (DEGS1) is a comprehensive data collection facilitating the description of the utilization of general health checks, dental check-ups, skin cancer screening, and cervical cancer screening among people aged 18-79 years with and without migration background. (springer.com)
  • Emergency room visits, doctor visits, childbirth, surgery and dental care were the leading reasons for health care debts. (wkbw.com)
  • The study aimed to assess the changes in oral health indicators and analyse the effect of dental studies on the students' oral hygiene practices. (who.int)
  • The survey was shared with dental assistants who had passed the Dental Assisting National Board (DANB) between 1982-2021. (theforceforhealth.com)
  • Interventions to improve child health cut across different technical areas. (who.int)
  • For this reason, child health interventions may be delivered through different programmes, many of which already have existing policy documents. (who.int)
  • Carr AB, Ebbert J. Interventions for tobacco cessation in the dental setting. (who.int)
  • Likewise, other types of insurance like dental, vision, life, and disability insurance are not considered health insurance coverage. (socialexplorer.com)
  • The Behavioral Risk Factor Survey is an annual survey of Illinois' adult population regarding behaviors which affect risk of disease and disability. (countyhealthrankings.org)
  • Executive VP and COO Sean Sutton chose United HealthCare for his 45-member staff, not just for the basics, but also for dental, vision, disability, life, and health. (musicalamerica.com)
  • National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). (cdc.gov)
  • Having you as strict requirements to protect your confidentiality as part of our survey will help make our information guaranteed by NCHS. (cdc.gov)
  • Prior to the creation of this continuing data collection system, NCHS conducted a series of three ad hoc sample surveys of nursing and personal care homes called the Resident Places Surveys (RPS 1, 2, 3). (cdc.gov)
  • The survey used the same questionnaire and methodology in both countries. (cdc.gov)
  • This child health policy provides a framework for planning and implementing programmes. (who.int)
  • Policies are also presented for cross-cutting areas that are important for delivering effective programmes, namely health communication, health systems, human resource, monitoring, evaluation and research. (who.int)
  • 82,5 % présentaient une malocclusion de classe I. Des programmes de sensibilisation à l'hygiène bucco-dentaire dans les établissements scolaires, associés à des programmes de brossage des dents et d'utilisation de fil dentaire sont recommandés afin de préserver mais aussi d'améliorer la santé bucco-dentaire des jeunes enfants en Arabie saoudite. (who.int)
  • bances and eating and growth disorders of future oral health programmes. (who.int)
  • Three out of four dentists who completed the survey said they would like to leave the scheme within five years. (irishtimes.com)
  • A survey published on Tuesday said the overwhelming majority of dentists have no confidence in the scheme and are dissatisfied with the level of care they are allowed to provide under it. (irishtimes.com)
  • According to the survey, 90 per cent of dentists are dissatisfied with the level of care they can provide under the scheme while an even higher number - 96 per cent - say the scheme prevents them from providing the same standard of care as private patients. (irishtimes.com)
  • The survey also finds 97 per cent of dentists lack confidence in the Dental Treatment Services Scheme (DTSS), the scheme under which medical card holders receive treatment free of charge. (irishtimes.com)
  • We are calling on the Minister for Health to resume contract talks as a matter of urgency and to extend to dentists the same terms and conditions which have been offered to public servants and other health professionals who have seen FEMPI (Financial Emergency Measures in the Public Interest) pay cuts reversed in full. (irishtimes.com)
  • CSHCN lack sufficient dental care for a variety of reasons, primarily fear of dentists , child uncooperativeness, and treatment costs . (bvsalud.org)
  • Dentists require more training and education to facilitate better access to dental care for CSHCN. (bvsalud.org)
  • Include all types of dentists, such as orthodontists, oral surgeons, and all other dental specialists, as well as dental hygienists. (cdc.gov)
  • Plan members report that they save an average of 50%* on their dental care, from a nationwide network of more than 140,000 dentists and specialists who have agreed to offer reduced rates to plan members. (dentalplans.com)
  • This analysis is based on Joint Canada/United States Survey of Heath public use microdata file, sponsored by Statistics Canada and the National Center for Health Statistics, which contains anonymized data. (cdc.gov)
  • As a result, only the first seven types of health coverage are included in the microdata file. (socialexplorer.com)
  • Periodontal troubles, malocclusion and dental decay affected 84.3%, 80.0% and 43.0% of the students respectively. (who.int)
  • The author concludes that a health hazard from nitrous-oxide does exist at this office, and recommends the installation of a nitrous-oxide scavenging system, worker education, ventilation improvements, and routine maintenance of all anesthetic and suction equipment. (cdc.gov)
  • NHANES data will describe the health the country with a highly trained medical team. (cdc.gov)
  • How would you describe your health in general? (folkhalsomyndigheten.se)
  • Given the serious consequences of diabetes, and the presence of high levels of PCBs, the Most adults (79%) that participated in the residents of Anniston should take advantage survey have been told by a doctor that they of all methods to reduce their risk of diabetes have multiple health problems. (cdc.gov)
  • In Germany, different health checks for adults are offered for primary and secondary prevention. (springer.com)
  • It builds on the previous document developed in 1999 and complements the Health Sector Programme of Work 2007-2011. (who.int)
  • The findings of this survey outline next steps for recruitment and retention of Pennsylvania dental assistants. (theforceforhealth.com)
  • Dental, Medical and Veterinary Residency Programs offered in teaching hospitals and similar locations that may lead to advanced professional certification are excluded . (gc.ca)
  • These include general health checks (GHCs), cancer screening examinations, and dental check-ups (DCUs). (springer.com)
  • Please note that the survey is targeting institutions that have degree granting status for the school year 2013-2014. (gc.ca)
  • Antonenko et al evaluated the association between oral health and calcium and vitamin D nutritional status. (medscape.com)
  • The authors suggest that an adequate nutritional status of calcium and vitamin D could be an additional factor that may help preserve a good oral health. (medscape.com)
  • In spite of these, the lack of synergy in coordinating activities is clearly one of the major constraints to adequately addressing child health challenges and indeed meeting the MDG's and other national goals. (who.int)
  • Due to unequal distribution of oral health professionals and lack of appropriate facilities, most of the oral diseases remain untreated in the Region. (who.int)
  • [ 5 ] In addition, unlike cigarettes, the majority of smokeless tobacco products are sold without a health warning, and lack of awareness of its negative impact on health increases its consumption. (medscape.com)
  • There has been a stark rise in the number of tooth extractions over the past decade due to the structure of the medical card scheme, the Irish Dental Association has warned. (irishtimes.com)
  • Human health effects: Fluoride in drinking water WHO drinking-water quality series. (aaem.pl)
  • The institute's early surveys have revealed that a majority of wells in the dry zone have a high fluoride content. (fluoridealert.org)
  • They use the most up-to-date expand our knowledge about the health of people methods and equipment for medical and dental in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • Our medical and effort team will collect health data by examining you, doing lab testing, and asking questions about your health. (cdc.gov)
  • The medical card scheme continues to place a limit on fillings while allowing an unlimited number of extractions," said Irish Dental Association chief executive Fintan Hourihan. (irishtimes.com)
  • Medical, nursing and dental school students. (directmail.com)
  • Health care directories, telephone surveys, medical surveys. (directmail.com)
  • The vast majority of Americans who applied to have medical debts forgiven or reduced were granted relief, according to a survey from LendingTree released Thursday. (wkbw.com)
  • The survey found that 60% have had medical debts, with the majority of debts ranging from $5,000 to $9,999. (wkbw.com)
  • The survey found that three-fourths of those who have had medical debts asked for relief. (wkbw.com)
  • Planning the follow-up of a new pharmaceutical that will be covered by national joint introduction is often done in collaboration with the Dental and Medical Benefits Agency (TLV), the National Board of Health and Welfare (Socialstyrelsen) and the National Quality Registries (Nationella Kvalitetsregister). (janusinfo.se)
  • This material provides documentation for users of the Micro-Data Tape of the 1995 National Nursing Home Survey (NNHS) conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics. (cdc.gov)
  • I. DESCRIPTION OF NNHS INTRODUCTION The micro-data tape comprises data collected in the 1995 National Nursing Home Survey (NNHS). (cdc.gov)
  • This nationwide sample survey of nursing homes and their current residents was conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics from July through December 1995. (cdc.gov)
  • Responses are for 8,056 current residents from the 1,409 nursing homes that participated in the survey. (cdc.gov)
  • HISTORY The 1995 NNHS, a segment of the Long-Term Care Component of the National Health Care Survey (1), is the fourth survey of nursing home facilities and their current residents. (cdc.gov)
  • RPS-3, the last ad hoc survey, sampled nursing and personal care homes in the conterminous United States. (cdc.gov)
  • SAMPLING FRAME AND SIZE OF SAMPLE The sample for the 1995 NNHS was taken from a frame that consisted of all nursing home facilities identified in the 1991 National Health Provider Inventory (NHPI) (2) and updated list. (cdc.gov)
  • Of these facilities, 44 refused to participate and 47 were out-of-scope for one or more of the following reasons: the nursing home had gone out of business, it failed to meet the definition of a nursing home as used in this survey, or it did not maintain separate financial records. (cdc.gov)
  • A total of 1,409 nursing homes participated in the survey. (cdc.gov)
  • Click here to find out more about Bupa family health insurance. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • These health checks are available free of charge to women and men at certain ages through the statutory health insurance system. (springer.com)
  • In 2013, data on health insurance coverage were derived from answers to Question 16 in the American Community Survey, which was asked of all respondents. (socialexplorer.com)
  • Health insurance coverage in the ACS and other Census Bureau surveys define coverage to include plans and programs that provide comprehensive health coverage. (socialexplorer.com)
  • For reporting purposes, the Census Bureau broadly classifies health insurance coverage as private health insurance or public coverage. (socialexplorer.com)
  • Private health insurance is a plan provided through an employer or union, a plan purchased by an individual from a private company, or TRICARE or other military health care. (socialexplorer.com)
  • Respondents reporting a "yes" to the types listed in parts a, b, or e were considered to have private health insurance. (socialexplorer.com)
  • The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, as well as other federal agencies, use data on health insurance coverage to more accurately distribute resources and better understand state and local health insurance needs. (socialexplorer.com)
  • You can purchase traditional dental insurance at DentalPlans.com, too. (dentalplans.com)
  • With the proviso that laws and providers vary from one part of the country to another, and that some of our colleagues were more forthcoming than others, the following is a brief guide for small to mid-size businesses seeking group health insurance. (musicalamerica.com)
  • Health Insurance Co. (musicalamerica.com)
  • The Schubert Club, the Twin Cities' venerable recital and chamber music presenter, had been getting its health insurance as part of a consortium of small arts organizations in the region. (musicalamerica.com)
  • Like all union orchestras, Pacific Symphony's musicians are covered by the American Federation of Musicians' insurance plan [see Group Health Insurance Plans for Performing Artists ]. (musicalamerica.com)
  • According to a recent article on MedSave.com , health insurance companies are increasingly unwilling to pay independent benefits brokers a commission for signing up small-business customers. (musicalamerica.com)
  • The document contains a set of priority actions that include enhancing advocacy, leadership and multisectoral action, reducing common risk factors, strengthening health systems, improving integrated oral health surveillance and measurement of progress, as well as conducting research related to oral diseases. (who.int)
  • The Joint Canada/United States Survey of Health (JCUSH) was a research study conducted jointly by the National Center for Health Statistics and Statistics Canada. (cdc.gov)
  • Results of search for 'su:{Dental health surveys. (who.int)
  • Estimates were based on household interviews of a sample of the noninstitutionalized U.S. civilian population and are derived from the National Health Interview Survey sample child component. (cdc.gov)
  • Strict procedures are used to prevent disclosure of confidential data in survey operations and data dissemination. (cdc.gov)
  • We have designed the study to learn about the We will use the data gathered in this survey to health and diet of people in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • We will keep all survey data safe and secure. (cdc.gov)
  • We will add the data from your interview tors and researchers to use survey data, we protect your and exam to that from all others who join in this study. (cdc.gov)
  • Data from 64 practices using the Denplan Excel Patient Survey (DEPS) were analysed. (nih.gov)
  • IQuery is a web-based data query system for collecting and publishing public health data. (countyhealthrankings.org)
  • The parties agree on parameters to follow up, survey questions, identify data sources and division of responsibilities. (janusinfo.se)
  • no names were recorded toring of dental services and dental car- on the data capture sheets. (who.int)
  • Use of trade names and commercial sources is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (cdc.gov)
  • References to non-CDC sites on the Internet are provided as a service to MMWR readers and do not constitute or imply endorsement of these organizations or their programs by CDC or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (cdc.gov)
  • Institutions without any grants from the Education department (and those who receive Grants from the Health department only) are not included. (gc.ca)
  • 1 UNRWA Annual Report of the Department of Health 2008, in press. (who.int)
  • 4 UNRWA Annual Report of the Department of Health 2008, op.cit. (who.int)
  • Free clinic, but patients need some proof of income health quality as very good or excellent. (cdc.gov)
  • Bill C-51 significantly intrudes on civil, property and health areas of exclusive Provincial jurisdiction and serves no evidence-based public good. (positivehealth.com)
  • A place where science, technology, and research merge to embrace good health across a 130-acre sprawling health city campus. (amrita.edu)
  • Along with good oral hygiene, an important factor of oral health is regular dental care ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The 2015 Designers' Salary Survey offers good news and troubling news. (pcdandf.com)
  • The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) set out a holistic agenda to guide global development until 2030, with Goal 3 focusing on good health and well-being. (who.int)
  • Good oral health is essential for the ies within communities ( 7 ). (who.int)
  • The Impact of scientific advances on future health : report of a WHO-CIOMS colloquium, Charlottesville, Virginia, 20-24 June 1994. (who.int)
  • A collection of resources on health system performance in Virginia. (commonwealthfund.org)
  • Section 308(d) of that law (42 USC 242m) and the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 USC 552A) prohibit us from The survey exam does not replace regular giving out information that identifies you or your health care. (cdc.gov)
  • More specifically, the purpose of the GHC is to identify and assess health risks and to detect major diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and kidney disease at an early stage, as well as to provide prevention-oriented counselling [ 1 ]. (springer.com)
  • Based on the results of the latest PCD&F designers' salary survey, the time to prepare is at hand. (pcdandf.com)
  • Survey results are intended to paint a picture of the state of the industry rather than provide a thorough scientific study. (pcdandf.com)
  • Access to dental care for children with special health care needs: a cross-sectional community survey within Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. (bvsalud.org)

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