The bonelike rigid connective tissue covering the root of a tooth from the cementoenamel junction to the apex and lining the apex of the root canal, also assisting in tooth support by serving as attachment structures for the periodontal ligament. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
The total of dental diagnostic, preventive, and restorative services provided to meet the needs of a patient (from Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982).
Use for articles concerning dental education in general.
Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.
Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.
Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.
The fibrous CONNECTIVE TISSUE surrounding the TOOTH ROOT, separating it from and attaching it to the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS).
The constricted part of the tooth at the junction of the crown and root or roots. It is often referred to as the cementoenamel junction (CEJ), the line at which the cementum covering the root of a tooth and the enamel of the tooth meet. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p530, p433)
Dental care for patients with chronic diseases. These diseases include chronic cardiovascular, endocrinologic, hematologic, immunologic, neoplastic, and renal diseases. The concept does not include dental care for the mentally or physically disabled which is DENTAL CARE FOR DISABLED.
The giving of attention to the special dental needs of children, including the prevention of tooth diseases and instruction in dental hygiene and dental health. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.
Facilities where dental care is provided to patients.
The structures surrounding and supporting the tooth. Periodontium includes the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.
The process whereby calcium salts are deposited in the dental enamel. The process is normal in the development of bones and teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p43)
A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
A highly glycosylated and sulfated phosphoprotein that is found almost exclusively in mineralized connective tissues. It is an extracellular matrix protein that binds to hydroxyapatite through polyglutamic acid sequences and mediates cell attachment through an RGD sequence.
Persons trained in an accredited school or dental college and licensed by the state in which they reside to provide dental prophylaxis under the direction of a licensed dentist.
Resorption in which cementum or dentin is lost from the root of a tooth owing to cementoclastic or osteoclastic activity in conditions such as trauma of occlusion or neoplasms. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a dental school.
Dental care for the emotionally, mentally, or physically disabled patient. It does not include dental care for the chronically ill ( = DENTAL CARE FOR CHRONICALLY ILL).
The tip or terminal end of the root of a tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p62)
The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.
One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.
Abnormal fear or dread of visiting the dentist for preventive care or therapy and unwarranted anxiety over dental procedures.
Insurance providing coverage for dental care.
Personnel whose work is prescribed and supervised by the dentist.
Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.
The study of laws, theories, and hypotheses through a systematic examination of pertinent facts and their interpretation in the field of dentistry. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982, p674)
The giving of attention to the special dental needs of the elderly for proper maintenance or treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.
The curve formed by the row of TEETH in their normal position in the JAW. The inferior dental arch is formed by the mandibular teeth, and the superior dental arch by the maxillary teeth.
The proteins that are part of the dental enamel matrix.
A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.
A means of identifying the age of an animal or human through tooth examination.
The room or rooms in which the dentist and dental staff provide care. Offices include all rooms in the dentist's office suite.
Data collected during dental examination for the purpose of study, diagnosis, or treatment planning.
Personnel who provide dental service to patients in an organized facility, institution or agency.
A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)
The nonexpendable items used by the dentist or dental staff in the performance of professional duties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p106)
Nonspecialized dental practice which is concerned with providing primary and continuing dental care.
An alloy used in restorative dentistry that contains mercury, silver, tin, copper, and possibly zinc.
The process of TOOTH formation. It is divided into several stages including: the dental lamina stage, the bud stage, the cap stage, and the bell stage. Odontogenesis includes the production of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS), dentin (DENTINOGENESIS), and dental cementum (CEMENTOGENESIS).
Individuals who assist the dentist or the dental hygienist.
Educational programs designed to inform dentists of recent advances in their fields.
A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.
Biocompatible materials placed into (endosseous) or onto (subperiosteal) the jawbone to support a crown, bridge, or artificial tooth, or to stabilize a diseased tooth.
Membrane proteins that are involved in the active transport of phosphate.
Radiographic techniques used in dentistry.
Presentation devices used for patient education and technique training in dentistry.
Educational programs for dental graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic dental sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced dental degree.
The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the dentist, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the dentist in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The emergence of a tooth from within its follicle in the ALVEOLAR PROCESS of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE into the ORAL CAVITY. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
Resorption of calcified dental tissue, involving demineralization due to reversal of the cation exchange and lacunar resorption by osteoclasts. There are two types: external (as a result of tooth pathology) and internal (apparently initiated by a peculiar inflammatory hyperplasia of the pulp). (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p676)
Hospital department providing dental care.
The movement of teeth into altered positions in relationship to the basal bone of the ALVEOLAR PROCESS and to adjoining and opposing teeth as a result of loss of approximating or opposing teeth, occlusal interferences, habits, inflammatory and dystrophic disease of the attaching and supporting structures of the teeth. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
Individuals licensed to practice DENTISTRY.
Societies whose membership is limited to dentists.
The field of dentistry involved in procedures for designing and constructing dental appliances. It includes also the application of any technology to the field of dentistry.
An odontogenic fibroma in which cells have developed into cementoblasts and which consists largely of cementum.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to dental or oral health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
A chronic endemic form of hypoplasia of the dental enamel caused by drinking water with a high fluorine content during the time of tooth formation, and characterized by defective calcification that gives a white chalky appearance to the enamel, which gradually undergoes brown discoloration. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)
An operation in which carious material is removed from teeth and biomechanically correct forms are established in the teeth to receive and retain restorations. A constant requirement is provision for prevention of failure of the restoration through recurrence of decay or inadequate resistance to applied stresses. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239-40)
The granting of a license to practice dentistry.
Facilities for the performance of services related to dental treatment but not done directly in the patient's mouth.
Conditions in which a bifurcation or trifurcation of the molar tooth root becomes denuded as a result of periodontal disease. It may be followed by tooth mobility, temperature sensitivity, pain, and alveolar bone resorption.
Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.
Pathological processes involving the PERIODONTIUM including the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.
Various branches of dental practice limited to specialized areas.
Amounts charged to the patient as payer for dental services.
Techniques for enhancing and directing cell growth to repopulate specific parts of the PERIODONTIUM that have been damaged by PERIODONTAL DISEASES; TOOTH DISEASES; or TRAUMA, or to correct TOOTH ABNORMALITIES. Repopulation and repair is achieved by guiding the progenitor cells to reproduce in the desired location by blocking contact with surrounding tissue by use of membranes composed of synthetic or natural material that may include growth inducing factors as well.
The relationship of all the components of the masticatory system in normal function. It has special reference to the position and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth for the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p556, p472)
Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)
Individuals responsible for fabrication of dental appliances.
The organization and operation of the business aspects of a dental practice.
Orthodontic techniques used to correct the malposition of a single tooth.
The mechanical property of material that determines its resistance to force. HARDNESS TESTS measure this property.
Dense fibrous layer formed from mesodermal tissue that surrounds the epithelial enamel organ. The cells eventually migrate to the external surface of the newly formed root dentin and give rise to the cementoblasts that deposit cementum on the developing root, fibroblasts of the developing periodontal ligament, and osteoblasts of the developing alveolar bone.
The teeth of the first dentition, which are shed and replaced by the permanent teeth.
The loss of calcium salts from bones and teeth. Bacteria may be responsible for this occurrence in teeth. Old age may be a factor contributing to calcium loss, as is the presence of diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis.
The profession concerned with the teeth, oral cavity, and associated structures, and the diagnosis and treatment of their diseases including prevention and the restoration of defective and missing tissue.
A suspension of metallic gold particles.
Skills, techniques, standards, and principles used to improve the art and symmetry of the teeth and face to improve the appearance as well as the function of the teeth, mouth, and face. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p108)
A wedge-shaped collar of epithelial cells which form the attachment of the gingiva to the tooth surface at the base of the gingival crevice.
Providing for the full range of dental health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and rehabilitation of patients.
A negatively-charged extracellular matrix protein that plays a role in the regulation of BONE metabolism and a variety of other biological functions. Cell signaling by osteopontin may occur through a cell adhesion sequence that recognizes INTEGRIN ALPHA-V BETA-3.
Education which increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of dental health on a personal or community basis.
The psychological relations between the dentist and patient.
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
A hollow part of the alveolar process of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE where each tooth fits and is attached via the periodontal ligament.
Analytical technique for studying substances present at enzyme concentrations in single cells, in situ, by measuring light absorption. Light from a tungsten strip lamp or xenon arc dispersed by a grating monochromator illuminates the optical system of a microscope. The absorbance of light is measured (in nanometers) by comparing the difference between the image of the sample and a reference image.
X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.
Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.
The formation of dentin. Dentin first appears in the layer between the ameloblasts and odontoblasts and becomes calcified immediately. Formation progresses from the tip of the papilla over its slope to form a calcified cap becoming thicker by the apposition of new layers pulpward. A layer of uncalcified dentin intervenes between the calcified tissue and the odontoblast and its processes. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Efforts to prevent and control the spread of infections within dental health facilities or those involving provision of dental care.
Mesodermal tissue enclosed in the invaginated portion of the epithelial enamel organ and giving rise to the dentin and pulp.
An artificial replacement for one or more natural teeth or part of a tooth, or associated structures, ranging from a portion of a tooth to a complete denture. The dental prosthesis is used for cosmetic or functional reasons, or both. DENTURES and specific types of dentures are also available. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p244 & Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p643)
A major dental enamel-forming protein found in mammals. In humans the protein is encoded by GENES found on both the X CHROMOSOME and the Y CHROMOSOME.
The seepage of fluids, debris, and micro-organisms between the walls of a prepared dental cavity and the restoration.
A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of dental care.
The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.
Hand-held tools or implements especially used by dental professionals for the performance of clinical tasks.
Measurement of tooth characteristics.
Any waste product generated by a dental office, surgery, clinic, or laboratory including amalgams, saliva, and rinse water.
The grafting or inserting of a prosthetic device of alloplastic material into the oral tissue beneath the mucosal or periosteal layer or within the bone. Its purpose is to provide support and retention to a partial or complete denture.
Cylindrical epithelial cells in the innermost layer of the ENAMEL ORGAN. Their functions include contribution to the development of the dentinoenamel junction by the deposition of a layer of the matrix, thus producing the foundation for the prisms (the structural units of the DENTAL ENAMEL), and production of the matrix for the enamel prisms and interprismatic substance. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Economic aspects of the dental profession and dental care.
The degree of approximation or fit of filling material or dental prosthetic to the tooth surface. A close marginal adaptation and seal at the interface is important for successful dental restorations.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
"Decayed, missing and filled teeth," a routinely used statistical concept in dentistry.
A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions for use in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.
The predisposition to tooth decay (DENTAL CARIES).
The application of computer and information sciences to improve dental practice, research, education and management.
The practice of personal hygiene of the mouth. It includes the maintenance of oral cleanliness, tissue tone, and general preservation of oral health.
Removal of dental plaque and dental calculus from the surface of a tooth, from the surface of a tooth apical to the gingival margin accumulated in periodontal pockets, or from the surface coronal to the gingival margin.
The cat family in the order CARNIVORA comprised of muscular, deep-chested terrestrial carnivores with a highly predatory lifestyle.
Microscopy using polarized light in which phenomena due to the preferential orientation of optical properties with respect to the vibration plane of the polarized light are made visible and correlated parameters are made measurable.
That phase of clinical dentistry concerned with the restoration of parts of existing teeth that are defective through disease, trauma, or abnormal development, to the state of normal function, health, and esthetics, including preventive, diagnostic, biological, mechanical, and therapeutic techniques, as well as material and instrument science and application. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 2d ed, p237)
Use for material on dental facilities in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Devices used in the home by persons to maintain dental and periodontal health. The devices include toothbrushes, dental flosses, water irrigators, gingival stimulators, etc.
The branch of dentistry concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance and promotion of oral health.
Photographic techniques used in ORTHODONTICS; DENTAL ESTHETICS; and patient education.
The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.
A phenothiazine that has been used as a hemostatic, a biological stain, and a dye for wool and silk. Tolonium chloride has also been used as a diagnostic aid for oral and gastric neoplasms and in the identification of the parathyroid gland in thyroid surgery.
The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)
A type of porcelain used in dental restorations, either jacket crowns or inlays, artificial teeth, or metal-ceramic crowns. It is essentially a mixture of particles of feldspar and quartz, the feldspar melting first and providing a glass matrix for the quartz. Dental porcelain is produced by mixing ceramic powder (a mixture of quartz, kaolin, pigments, opacifiers, a suitable flux, and other substances) with distilled water. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
A rapid, low-dose, digital imaging system using a small intraoral sensor instead of radiographic film, an intensifying screen, and a charge-coupled device. It presents the possibility of reduced patient exposure and minimal distortion, although resolution and latitude are inferior to standard dental radiography. A receiver is placed in the mouth, routing signals to a computer which images the signals on a screen or in print. It includes digitizing from x-ray film or any other detector. (From MEDLINE abstracts; personal communication from Dr. Charles Berthold, NIDR)
The methyl esters of methacrylic acid that polymerize easily and are used as tissue cements, dental materials, and absorbent for biological substances.
The practice of dentistry concerned with preventive as well as diagnostic and treatment programs in a circumscribed population.

The root surface in human teeth: a microradiographic study. (1/170)

In an attempt to clarify the nature of the human cemento-dentinal junction, ground sections of incompletely formed and fully formed extracted teeth were prepared and their histology compared with their microradiographic appearances. The results showed that incompletely formed teeth possess distinctive surface layers outside the granular layer of Tomes. The evidence indicates that these layers are of dentinal origin; their presence during development supports previous explanations by the author of the hyaline layer of Hopewell-Smith and of so-called intermediate cementum. The results also indicate that the granular layer of Tomes does not represent the outer limit of root dentine. The relationship of these surface layers to the definitive cementum which is present in fully formed teeth was studied in both young and older patients. From the results it was concluded that cementum formation begins in the more apical region of the teeth at a time when root formation is well advanced, and that it spreads towards the crown rather than in the generally accepted reverse direction.  (+info)

Histological and histochemical quantification of root resorption incident to the application of intrusive force to rat molars. (2/170)

This study was conducted to investigate the nature of root resorption resulting from intrusive forces applied to the rat lower molars, by means of histological and histochemical techniques with tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). Thirty-eight 13-week-old Wistar strain male rats were used. Intrusive force was created by a fixed appliance which was adjusted to exert an initial force of 50 g for the duration of 1, 2, and 3 weeks. The degree of root resorption and distribution of TRAP positive cells were evaluated. On the root surface, the TRAP positive scores were low in the apical regions. Significant differences in the scores were found in the inter-radicular region of the roots between the experimental and control groups for the 2- and 3-week groups. More active resorption of bone occurred during the experimental period, as denoted by greater TRAP positive scores on the bone than on the root surface. Root resorption scores in the apical root region were larger in the 2- and 3-week groups than in the 1-week group. Significant differences in the root resorption scores were also found between the 1- and 3-week groups in the inter-radicular region, indicating that intrusive force application of a longer duration may lead to a higher frequency of root resorption. It is shown that, irrespective of the level of TRAP positive cells and root resorption scores, the degree of root resorption activity is higher in the apical root region than in the inter-radicular area. These results indicate that cellular cementum may be resorbed more easily because of its richer organic components and low mineralized structure.  (+info)

Evolution of periodontal regeneration: from the roots' point of view. (3/170)

Tissues lost as a consequence of periodontal diseases, i.e. bone, cementum and a functional periodontal ligament (PDL), can be restored to some degree. Nevertheless, results are often disappointing. There is a need to develop new paradigms for regenerating periodontal tissues that are based on an understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating the development and regeneration of periodontal tissues. As one approach we have developed strategies for maintaining cementoblasts in culture by first determining the gene profile for these cells in situ. Next, cells were immortalized in vitro using SV 40 large T antigen (SV40 Tag) or by using mice containing transgenes enabling cellular immortality in vitro. Cementoblasts in vitro retained expression of genes associated with mineralized tissues, bone sialoprotein and osteocalcin, that were not linked with periodontal fibroblasts either in situ or in vitro. Further, cementoblasts promoted mineralization in vitro as measured by von Kossa and ex vivo using a severely compromised immunodeficient (SCID) mouse model. These cells responded to growth factors by eliciting changes in gene profile and mitogenesis and to osteotropic hormones by evoking changes in gene profile and ability to induce mineral nodule formation in vitro. The ultimate goal of these studies is to provide the knowledge base required for designing improved modalities for use in periodontal regenerative therapies.  (+info)

Growth factors regulate expression of mineral associated genes in cementoblasts. (4/170)

BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the responsiveness of cells within the periodontal region to specific bioactive agents is important for improving regenerative therapies. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of specific growth factors, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) on cementoblasts in vitro and ex vivo. METHODS: Osteocalcin (OC) promoter driven SV40 transgenic mice were used to obtain immortalized cementoblasts. Growth factor effects on DNA synthesis were assayed by [3H]-thymidine incorporation. Northern analysis was used to determine the effects of growth factors on gene expression profile. Effects of growth factors on cementoblast induced biomineralization were determined in vitro (von Kossa stain) and ex vivo (re-implantation of cells in immunodeficient (SCID) mice). RESULTS: All growth factors stimulated DNA synthesis compared to control. Twenty-four hour exposure of cells to PDGF-BB or TGF-beta resulted in a decrease in bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteocalcin (OCN) mRNAs while PDGF-BB also increased osteopontin (OPN) mRNA. Cells exposed to IGF-I for 24 hours exhibited decreased transcripts for OCN and OPN with an upregulation of BSP mRNA noted at 72 hours. In vitro mineralization was inhibited by continuous application of PDGF-BB or TGF-beta, while cells exposed to these factors prior to implantation into SCID mice still promoted biomineralization. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate IGF-I, PDGF-BB, and TGF-beta influence mitogenesis, phenotypic gene expression profile, and biomineralization potential of cementoblasts suggesting that such factors alone or in combination with other agents may provide trigger factors required for regenerating periodontal tissues.  (+info)

Cell-specific patterns of Cbfa1 mRNA and protein expression in postnatal murine dental tissues. (5/170)

Cbfa1 (core binding factor alpha 1) is a transcription factor that is a key determinant of the osteoblastic lineage. Recent data showed that Cbfa1 is also highly expressed in early stages of tooth development and is involved in crown morphogenesis and cytodifferentiation of odontoblasts. Here we report the mRNA expression and protein localization of Cbfa1 in the mouse dentition in (later) stages of crown and root development. In addition to osteoblasts, osteocytes, chondrocytes, odontoblasts, dental follicle cells, cementoblasts and periodontal ligament cells, we report also Cbfa1 expression in dental epithelial cells (secretory and maturation ameloblasts) and several non-mineralizing cell types (hair follicles, ducts of salivary glands, and junctional epithelium of the gingiva).  (+info)

Ultrastructure of cementum and periodontal ligament after continuous intrusion in humans: a transmission electron microscopy study. (6/170)

An ultrastructural study of the cementum and periodontal ligament (PDL) changes after continuous intrusion with two different and controlled forces in humans was carried out. Twelve first upper premolars, at stage 10 of Nolla, orthodontically indicated for extraction from six patients (mean age 15.3) were used. They were divided into three experimental groups, distributed intra-individually as follows: control (not moved), continuously intruded for 4 weeks with 50 or 100 cN force, utilizing a precise biomechanical model with nickel titanium super-elastic wires (NiTi-SE), which were developed and calibrated individually. The teeth were extracted, fixed, decalcified, and conventionally processed for examination in a Jeol 100 CX II transmission electron microscope. Evident signs of degeneration of cell structures, vascular components, and extracellular matrix (EM) of cementum and PDL were observed in all the intruded teeth, with more severe changes towards an apical direction and in proportion to the magnitude of force applied. Resorptive areas and an irregular root surface of the intruded teeth were noticed, according to the same pattern described above. Concomitant, areas of repair were also revealed in the cementum and PDL although the magnitude of forces remained the same throughout the experimental period. Thus, a reduction of continuous force magnitude should be considered to preserve the integrity of tissues.  (+info)

Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) gene delivery for application in periodontal tissue engineering. (7/170)

BACKGROUND: A challenge in the reconstruction of periodontal structures is the targeted delivery of growth-promoting molecules to the tooth root surface. Polypeptide growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) stimulate both cementogenesis and osteogenesis. Recent advances in gene therapy offer the advantage of delivering recombinant proteins to tissues for extended periods of time in vivo. METHODS: Recombinant adenoviral vectors encoding for the PDGF-A gene were constructed to allow delivery of PDGF transgenes to cells. The recombinant adenoviruses were assembled using the viral backbone of Ad2/CMV/EGFP and replacing GFP (reporter gene encoding green fluorescent protein driven by the cytomegalovirus promoter [CMV] within adenovirus type 2) with the PDGF-A gene. Root lining cells (cloned cementoblasts) were transduced with Ad2/PDGF-A and evaluated for gene expression, DNA synthesis, and cell proliferation. PDGF-inducible genes, c-myc and osteopontin, were also evaluated following gene delivery of Ad2/PDGF-A. RESULTS: The results revealed high level transduction of cementoblasts by gene transfer for 7 days as evidenced by flow cytometry and Northern blotting. Cementoblast DNA synthesis and subsequent proliferation were stimulated by Ad2/PDGF-A at levels equal to or greater than continuous rhPDGF-AA application. Strong message for the PDGF-A gene and protein as evidenced by Northern blotting and immunocytochemistry was noted. Furthermore, the potent induction of c-myc and osteopontin mRNA was found after PDGF gene delivery to cementoblasts. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that gene delivery of platelet-derived growth factor stimulates cementoblast activity that is sustained above that of rhPDGF-AA application. The use of gene therapy as a mode of growth factor delivery offers a novel approach to periodontal tissue engineering.  (+info)

The developmental biology of cementum. (8/170)

In conclusion, we have reviewed an extensive literature on early cementogenesis and performed a detailed morphological and molecular analysis to illustrate and verify key issues in the current debate about epithelial and mesenchymal contributions to root cementum. We have demonstrated that prior to cementogenesis, Hertwig's epithelial root sheath disintegrates and dental follicle cells penetrate the epithelial layer to invade the root surface. Our studies confirmed that HERS became disrupted or disintegrated prior to cementum deposition. We visualized how mesenchymal cells from the dental follicle penetrated the HERS bilayer and deposited initial cementum, while immediately adjacent epithelial cells were separated from the root surface by a basal lamina and did not secrete any cementum. Human specimen from the Gottlieb collection indicated that HERS was removed from the root surface prior to cementum deposition. Our in situ hybridization and immolocalization data revealed that both amelogenin mRNAs and enamel proteins were restricted to the crown enamel and were absent from the root surface and from the cervical-most ameloblasts adjacent to the root margin. On Western blots, cementum protein extracts did not cross-react with amelogenin antibodies. Our studies in conjunction with our literature review together confirmed the classical theory of cementum as a dental follicle derived connective tissue that forms subsequent to HERS disintegration.  (+info)

There are three hard tissues that comprise human teeth: enamel, dentin and cementum. The majority of the tooth structure is formed from dentin, and the enamel serves as the superficial layer of the crown while the cementum serves to cover the root. In the mid-1990s, however, it was discovered that a very thin layer of enamel actually exists between the dentin and cementum on the roots of adult human teeth. This led researchers to conclude that enamel matrix proteins (or EMPs) laid down by Hertwigs epithelial root sheath serve as precursors to acellular cementum during its formation, known as cementogenesis.[1] The presence of acellular cementum acts to signal the development of periodontal ligament fibers, followed by new alveolar bone, thus leading to the formation of the tissues of the periodontium.[2]. ...
Aim: Keratin preparations have been shown to have bioactive effects on various cells including osteoblasts and neurons and offer the potential as a biomaterial in tissue regeneration. The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro effect of keratin preparations on the viability and proliferation of cementoblast OCCM-30 and fibroblast L929 cells and on the mineralisation capability of the OCCM-30 cells.. Method: Cementoblast OCCM-30 cells were grown in Dulbeccos modified Eagles medium (DMEM) with 10% Fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 1% antibiotic-antimycotic. The fibroblast L929 cells were grown in minimum essential media (MEM) with 10% FBS and 1% antibiotic-antimycotic. The cells of L929 and OCCM-30 were assessed for viability in growth media supplemented with 10 mg/ml, 1 mg/ml and 0.1 mg/ml of keratin with a LIVE/DEAD assay™ Kit using confocal laser scanning microscope. Cell proliferation was tested with similar keratin concentrations using an alamarBlue® proliferation assay at 0, 24, 48 and ...
BSP is multifunctional, affecting cell attachment and signaling through an RGD integrin-binding region, and acting as a positive regulator for mineral precipitation by nucleating hydroxyapatite crystals. BSP is present in cementum, the hard tissue covering the tooth root that anchors periodontal ligament PDL attachment.. Results collected here suggest that BSP plays a non-redundant role in acellular cementum formation, likely involved in initiating mineralization on the root surface. Through its importance to cementum integrity, BSP is essential for periodontal function. Keywords: bone sialoprotein, cementum, periodontal ligament, bone, alkaline phosphatase, extracellular matrix Introduction Bone sialoprotein BSP, or integrin binding sialoprotein is an extracellular matrix protein in the Small Integrin Binding Ligand N-linked Glycoprotein SIBLING family, associated with mineralized tissues of the skeleton and dentition Ganss et al.. The ability of BSP to act as a positive regulator of ...
Meanwhile, since he was sedated for the ultrasound, the vets took a closer look at Fitz teeth. His gums were receding so much that the roots of two teeth were almost entirely exposed. One had a huge tartar cap on it that was so hard it took a Dremel to drill through it and break it apart. (Weve since heard this abnormal tartar buildup called a cementoblast.) As the vet drilled into the cementoblast, the bit went right through what should have been tooth behind it and into dead bone. The infection in the tooth had moved into the bone and caused some decay. A second infected incisor was also removed, but there was no bone involvement in relation to that one. That left one more incisor with most of the root exposed, but it still seemed to be firmly in place and not infected, so it was left alone for the time being ...
Root cementum represents one of the crucial prerequisites for an intact fixation in the tooths osseous socket, the alveole. Healthy cementum and its self-repair mechanisms are furthermore vital to a sound parodontium and thus for the entire dental health. Central to the thesis at hand was the collection of human cementoblasts from extracted teeth. These had to be cultivated, immortalized and characterized. The ensuing examination covered an analysis of proteins that are presumed typical for cement and bone. Such proteins include collagen type I and III, osteocalcin, osteopontin, bone sialoprotein and osteonectin. Other findings include both transcription factors RUNX2 and SOX9, both of which are not extensively researched in context with cementum yet. This holds true in particular for SOX9. Even though typical for the chondrogenic cell line, this transcription factor and its interrelation with cementum is not covered in relevant literature. In contrast to this, the literary research has ...
There is disclosed a novel device for providing heat to dental and periodontal structures and a novel process for brightening teeth, together with a novel use of old known processes for brightening teeth. The novel device comprises a splint/stint or vacumformed dental tray, containing a heating element to be placed around the tooth or teeth to be brightened. The novel process for brightening/whitening teeth entails using the splint containing the heating element in conjunction with standard tooth whiteners with a brightening agent. The heating element is attached to a power source, preferably mobile and transportable, so that the process may be accelerated by the heating of the brightening agent, in accordance with the Q10 rule.
If youre an adult, your teeth shouldnt wiggle-not even a little bit. If you have a loose tooth, you need to see your dentist as soon as possible to avoid losing it permanently.. Loose teeth usually happen because of one of two kinds of bite-related trauma. One is known as primary occlusal, which usually happens when the periodontal (gum) structures that help secure teeth encounter higher than normal biting forces. This is usually due to a clenching or grinding habit.. The other and more common kind is secondary occlusal: This happens when the periodontal structures and supporting bone are in a weakened state, usually because of gum disease. In this condition, even normal biting forces can cause damage to a tooths gum attachment and result in looseness.. To stop a loose tooth from becoming a lost tooth, well need to take these immediate steps.. Treat any underlying disease. If a gum infection is the culprit, our first priority is to stop it from doing any more damage. The main treatment for ...
The goal of Periodontal therapy is to halt the disease progression and prevent its recurrence, and restore the lost periodontal structure which occured as the result of the disease destruction. The later goal prompts us to evaluate the concept of new attachment or regeneration, and reattachment or repair. Each concepts will lead to different mode of periodontal therapy, and ultimately different result. New attachment is the ideal, desired goal, which each periodontist today are trying to achieve in every possible way. Continue reading →. ...
Neuro-anesthetic contri- bution to the impedance of complications caused nearby perfunctory cerebral retraction: concept of a chemical thought retractorAge-at-death diagnosis and firmness of life-history param- eters past incremental lines in vulnerable dental cementum as an fingering helpDispensation of N2 O alone or adding it to a fentanyl-midazolam anes- thetic ,,05] or a propofol-remifentanil anesthetic did not interchange the BIS in rhyme study ,,06]If epidemiological statistics put up with inferences about clinical data, 2029 3039 4049 5059 Grow older 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Men Women Ubiquity(%) 6069 ,70 REPRESENTATION 5.1 Age-specific ubiquitousness of metabolic syndrome ,a href=,purchase fluoxetine 10mg with visa,/a,. The convert an eye to developing engagement amelioration plans in the direction of each core program involves realization of an corroboration reassessment hardened to notify the phenomenon ...
Title:Role of the Epithelial Cell Rests of Malassez in Periodontal Homeostasis and Regeneration - A Review. VOLUME: 10 ISSUE: 5. Author(s):Zhenhua Yang, Yanjiao Li, Xiaojie Ma, Lin Shen, Zhihe Zhao and Fang Jin. Affiliation:145 West Changle Road, Xian, Shaanxi 710032, PR China;. Keywords:Hertwigs epithelial root sheath, epithelial cell rests Malassez, periodontium development, periodontal regeneration, cementogenesis, stem cells.. Abstract:Predictable and complete periodontal regeneration following periodontitis has been the ultimate goal of periodontal treatment. It has been recognized that Hertwigs epithelial root sheath (HERS) cells play a crucial role in cementogenesis and root formation. As the descendants of HERS and unique odontogenic epithelium in the adult periodontium, epithelial cell rests of Malassez (ERM) have long been considered as quiescent epithelial remnants devoid of structure and function. Here we will present an overview of our present understanding and putative functions ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Retinoic acid is a potential negative regulator for differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells. AU - Shibuya, Natsuko. AU - Nemoto, Eiji. AU - Kanaya, Sousuke. AU - Kunii, Ryotaro. AU - Shimauchi, Hidetoshi. PY - 2005/9/1. Y1 - 2005/9/1. N2 - Retinoic acid (RA) exerts a wide variety of effects on development, cellular differentiation and homeostasis in various tissues. However, little is known about the effects of RA on the differentiation of periodontal ligament cells. In this study, we investigated whether RA can affect the dexamethasone-induced differentiation of periodontal ligament cells. Human periodontal ligament cells were differentiated via culturing in the presence of dexamethasone, ascorbic acid, and β-glycerophosphate for mineralized nodule formation, as characterized by von Kossa staining. Continuous treatment with all-trans-RA inhibited mineralization in a dose-dependent manner, with complete inhibition over 1 μM RA. Other RA analogs, 9-cis-RA and ...
The cells of cementum are the entrapped cementoblasts, the cementocytes. Each cementocyte lies in its lacuna, similar to the pattern noted in bone. These lacunae also have canaliculi or canals. Unlike those in bone, however, these canals in cementum do not contain nerves, nor do they radiate outward. Instead, the canals are oriented toward the periodontal ligament and contain cementocytic processes that exist to diffuse nutrients from the ligament because it is vascularized. After the apposition of cementum in layers, the cementoblasts that do not become entrapped in cementum line up along the cemental surface along the length of the outer covering of the periodontal ligament. These cementoblasts can form subsequent layers of cementum if the tooth is injured. Sharpey fibers are part of the principal collagenous fibers of the periodontal ligament embedded in the cementum and alveolar bone to attach the tooth to the alveolus.[2] ...
The case of an elderly female patient with a long-standing history of generalized hypercementosis is described. A thorough review of the literature indicates that this may be one of the most extensive cases of hypercementosis to be reported. Possible
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Hypercementosis is an abnormal thickening of cemen- tum. It may be diffuse or circumscribed. It may affect all teeth of the dentition, be confined to a single tooth, or even affect only parts of one tooth. In localized hypertrophy a spur or prong like exten- sion of cementum may be formed (Fig. 7.17
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
No. Subjects Hours Week 1- Development of the oral cavity: a- Fertilization. b- Basic germ layer: c- Ectoderm. d- Mesoderm. e- Endoderm. f- Neural crest formation, migration and derivative. g- Brachial arches. 1 1 2- Development of face and oral cavity: a- Development of the facial process. b- Development of the tongue. c- Clinical considerations: d- Facial clefts. e- Development cyst. f- Lingual anomalies. g- Labial anomalies. 2 2 &3 3- Development and growth of the teeth: a- Enamel organ. b- Dental papilla. c- Dental sac. 2 4&5 4- Root formation: a- Hertwigs epithelial root sheath. b- Uni- and multi-rooted tooth. c- Clinical considerations: d- Initiation stages. e- Proliferation. f- Histodifferentiation. g- Morphodifferentiation. h- Apposition. 1 6 5- Enamel: a- Physical and chemical characters. b- Structure elements. 1 7 6- Amelogensis: a- Amelobolast file cycle. b- Formation of the enamel matrix. c- Mineralization of the matrix. 1 8 7- Clinical consideration in enamel. a- Abnormal enamel ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hypercementosis. T2 - A rare finding in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. AU - Shoor, Hitesh. AU - Sujir, Nitha. AU - Mutalik, Sunil. AU - Pai, Keerthilatha M.. PY - 2014/11/26. Y1 - 2014/11/26. N2 - Hypercementosis is excessive deposition of non-neoplastic cementum over normal root cementum, which alters root morphology. This cementum may be either hypocellular or cellular in nature. The aetiopathogenesis of hypercementosis is ambiguous. Although most of the cases are idiopathic, several local and systemic factors are also linked to this condition, such as Pagets disease, acromegaly, vitamin A deficiency, etc. We report two rare cases of hypercementosis associated with systemic lupus erythematosus, not previously described in the literature, and also discuss the possible aetiopathogenesis.. AB - Hypercementosis is excessive deposition of non-neoplastic cementum over normal root cementum, which alters root morphology. This cementum may be either hypocellular or ...
Looking for online definition of periapical cemental dysplasia in the Medical Dictionary? periapical cemental dysplasia explanation free. What is periapical cemental dysplasia? Meaning of periapical cemental dysplasia medical term. What does periapical cemental dysplasia mean?
External apical root resorption is a common phenomenon associated with orthodontic treatment. The factors relevant to root resorption can be divided into biological and mechanical, with some of them associated with an increased risk of root resorption during orthodontic treatment. As far as mechanical factors are concerned, extensive tooth movement, type of movement (eg, root torque and intrusion), and magnitude and duration of orthodontic forces have been highly correlated to root resorption. There is no consensus, nor are there other clinical studies regarding, specific evidence of how jiggling forces can affect the pattern and amount of root resorption. In this study, we investigated how the application of buccopalatal jiggling movement with light and heavy forces affected root surfaces and how the quantitative properties of resorption craters were altered, thus determining whether different buccopalatal jiggling force levels have different adverse effects on root resorption and quantified ...
Looking for online definition of tip of tooth root in the Medical Dictionary? tip of tooth root explanation free. What is tip of tooth root? Meaning of tip of tooth root medical term. What does tip of tooth root mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cyclic stretch force induces periodontal ligament cells to secrete exosomes that suppress IL-1β production through the inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway in macrophages. AU - Wang, Zhuyu. AU - Maruyama, Kentarou. AU - Sakisaka, Yukihiko. AU - Suzuki, Shigeki. AU - Tada, Hiroyuki. AU - Suto, Mizuki. AU - Saito, Masahiro. AU - Yamada, Satoru. AU - Nemoto, Eiji. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - In the oral mechanical environment, periodontal ligament cells (PDL cells) contribute to maintaining periodontal tissue homeostasis. Recent studies showed that exosomes, which are small vesicles secreted by various types of cells, play a pivotal role in cell-to-cell communication in biological processes. We examined the secretion of exosomes from PDL cells stimulated with cyclic stretch and their role in the inflammatory response of macrophages using the human macrophage cell line THP-1 and human primary monocytes/macrophages. We prepared supernatants from human PDL cells (PDL-sup) ...
Background and Objective: Cell adhesion plays important roles in maintaining the structural integrity of connective tissues and sensing changes in the biomechanical environment of cells. The objective of the present investigation was to extend our understanding of the effect of cyclic mechanical strain on the expression of adhesion-related genes by human periodontal ligament cells. Material and Methods: Cultured periodontal ligament cells were subjected to a cyclic in-plane tensile deformation of 12% for 5s (0.2Hz) every 90s for 6-24h in a Flexercell FX-4000 Strain Unit. The following parameters were measured: (i)cell viability by the MTT assay; (ii)caspase-3 and -7 activity; and (iii)the expression of 84 genes encoding adhesion-related molecules using real-time RT-PCR microarrays. Results: Mechanical stress reduced the metabolic activity of deformed cells at 6h, and caspase-3 and -7 activity at 6 and 12h. Seventy-three genes were detected at critical threshold values <35. Fifteen showed a ...
Materials and Methods: Primary HDFCs were cultured. The fifth passaged HDFCs were incubated with IL-1α. Then examined the expression of TNF-α by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The expression of MCP-1 was examined after HDFCs incubatied with TNF-α by ELISA and RT-PCR. Furthermore, the induction of MCP-1 mRNA expression by TNF-α was inhibited by SB203580, SP600125, and PD98059 ...
Detail of the period when the root sheath cells (blue) secrete enamel matrix proteins. Following formation of the protein matrix on the surface of the mineralizing dentin, cementoblasts (Red) start producing cementum (Light blue) which anchors collagen fibers.. The Next Generation. In the mid 1980s, a revolutionary breakthrough in the basic biology of tooth development took place at the Karolinska Institutes department of Oral Pathology in Stockholm. The discovery revealed a native complex of enamel matrix proteins and the key if not crucial , role they play in the development of tooth-supporting tissues. These enamel related proteins mediate the formation of acellular cementum on the root of the developing tooth, providing a foundation for all of the necessary tissues associated with a functional periodontal attachment.. This groundbreaking discovery has fueled the development of a new generation in periodontal therapy, and makes the recreation of lost tooth support an attainable goal in the ...
Definition of fibrous, of periodontal ligament matrix in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is fibrous, of periodontal ligament matrix? Meaning of fibrous, of periodontal ligament matrix as a finance term. What does fibrous, of periodontal ligament matrix mean in finance?
Canine periodontal disease (gum disease) is the most common cause of tooth loss and is a source of chronic bacterial infection, contributing to adverse health conditions including kidney failure and endocarditis. Treatment options are limited and their benefits remain uncertain due to a lack of evidence-based research. The cause of canine periodontal disease is accumulation of plaque under the gum line that leads to inflammation and progressive erosion of normal periodontal structures, including the gums, tooth root and supporting facial bones. The first step in the evolution of gum disease is development of a periodontal �pocket;� a gap between the gum line and tooth margin that traps food and bacteria and promotes continued destruction of these supporting structures. In healthy gums the depth of the periodontal space measures less than 2 millimeters. With periodontal disease this space becomes larger, and consensus opinion is that deep pockets promote rapid progression of gum disease. Detection of
Impacted Tooth: A tooth that is prevented from erupting by a physical barrier, usually other teeth. Impaction may also result from orientation of the tooth in an other than vertical position in the periodontal structures.
Immunohistochemical Localization of Osteopontin - A Comparative Study on Periodontally Healthy and Diseased Tooth Root Surface, Julie Toby Thomas, Toby
The authors report the clinical and histologic data on the healing of a severe periodontal lesion obtained in a one-walled intrabony defect using anorganic bovine bone under a bovine peritoneum-derived collagen membrane. Eight months after surgery, a bone-like tissue replaced the lost tissues. A biopsy of this tissue was carried out. In the part of the specimen closer to the residual bony wall of the original defect, anorganic bone particles (ABP) appeared to be surrounded by a layer of newly formed bone; its osteocyte lacunae were colonized by osteocytes from the host, and actively secreting osteoblasts were observed in many microscopic fields. No resorption phenomena were observed in the ABP. Newly formed cementum with actively secreting cementoblasts was present on the tooth surface, and well-oriented fibers inserting in both newly formed cementum and bone were observed. In an area far from residual bone, all ABP did not appear to be surrounded by newly formed bone. Osteocytic lacunae ...
Straumann® Emdogain® is a unique gel containing enamel matrix derivative. This mixture of natural proteins can induce biological processes that usually take place during the development of the periodontium and may stimulate certain cells involved in the healing process of soft and hard tissues ...
Periodontal regeneration - true regeneration of the attachment apparatus (new cementum, new periodontal ligament, and new alveolar bone) on a previously diseased root surface when used specifically in the LANAP® Protocol. 510(k) ...
Normal Periodontium and its components including gingiva, periodontal ligament, cementum, alveolar bone. Formation, classification and functions of these components.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Metabolism of cadmium by developing rat molars. AU - Johnson, B. E.. AU - Shearer, T. R.. AU - Whanger, P. D.. PY - 1981/1/1. Y1 - 1981/1/1. UR - UR - M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0019523122. VL - 40. SP - No. 3725. JO - Federation Proceedings. JF - Federation Proceedings. SN - 0014-9446. IS - 3 II. ER - ...
Chirurgia orale complessa di estrazione di ottavo incluso, asportazione di cisti odontogena e applicazione di membrane in CGF con successiva gestione della complicanza di frattura mandibolare durante la guarigione ...
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The antimicrobial peptide LL-37 is expressed in periodontal tissue, and variations in LL-37 levels have been associated with periodontal disease. The effects of LL-37 on periodontal ligament cell function have not been described before. Here, we assess anti-inflammatory properties of LL-37 and investigate the effects of LL-37 on cell differentiation, cell proliferation and apoptosis in human periodontal ligament cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Periodontal ligament cells were obtained from teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons. Cytokine (interleukin-6) and chemokine (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) expression was determined by quantitative PCR, cell differentiation by alkaline phosphatase activity, cell proliferation by counting cells in a Bürker chamber, DNA synthesis by incorporation of radiolabeled thymidine and apoptosis by cell morphology and activated caspase 3 quantities. RESULTS: Treatment with 0.1 and 1 μm of LL-37 totally reversed ...
MAPK is a Ser/Thr protein kinase that is widely expressed in various cells. Through a cascade reaction, the MAPK pathway transduces signals to the cell nucleus to regulate transcription, and therefore influences cell proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation (12). In the MAPK family, ERK1/2, p38 and JNK subfamilies have been extensively investigated. ERK1/2 and p38 are involved in osteogenesis-associated gene expression and bone formation in vivo (13,14). However, the full underlying mechanism of ERK1/2 and p38 pathways in osteogenic differentiation remains contradictory. Li et al (14) revealed that when the ERK1/2 and p38 signaling pathways were inhibited in dental follicle cells, osteogenic differentiation in early, middle and advanced stages was promoted. However, Xiao et al (15) reported that inhibition of ERK1/2 resulted in restrained osteoblast activity and bone formation. Therefore, ERK1/2 may exert positive or negative effects on osteogenic differentiation, which may result from ...
Non-contained intrabony defect treated using cerabone®, collprotect® membrane and Straumann® Emdogain® - Dr. T. Schwaar (2 ...
Background. Stem cells have contributed to the development of tissue-engineered-based regenerative periodontal therapies. In order to find the best stem cell sources for such therapies, the biologic properties of stem cells isolated from periodontal ligaments (PDL) of deciduous (DePDLSC) and permanent (PePDLSC) teeth were comparatively evaluated. Methods. PDL stem cells were isolated from six sound fully erupted premolars and six deciduous canines of healthy subjects. In vitro biologic characteristics such as colony formation, viability, stem cell marker identification and osteogenic differentiation (using alkaline phosphatase analysis and Alizarin red staining) were comparatively assessed using one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests using SPSS 13 ...
Paper-I. The question paper will be set by the Concerned Speciality. YEAR: YEAR PART â I Paper I Applied Basic Sciences (Allied Clinical Sciences) 1995-2000: 2001-2007 PART â II Paper I Achetez et téléchargez ebook MDS PERIODONTICS QUESTION PAPERS 1993-2016: RAJIV GHANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES (RGUHS) (English Edition): Boutique Kindle - Dentistry : â ¦ Paper 1 â Three subjects-10X3=30 marks Paper 2 â Three subjects -10X3=30 marks Total Internal assessment-60 marks. Course Duration: Master of Dental Sciences [MDS] is 3 Years. Paper III Endodontics: 2007-2013 Paper IV Recent Advances in Conservative Dentistry: 2007-2013 New / Revised Regulations : For Candidates admitted upto 2003-04 PAPER: SUBJECT. Paper II: Normal Periodontal Structure, Etiology & Pathogenesis of periodontal diseases, epidemiology as related to Periodontics. Paper III: Periodontal diagnosis, therapy & Oral Implantology 12. Then you can start reading Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet, or computer - no ...
Context: Smokers are at a higher risk of contracting periodontitis. This association is established and reported in many studies. Periodontitis is a polymicrobial disease, wherein smoking is an environmental factor which aggravates the damage caused to the tissues. Procalcitonin (ProCT) is a well-known marker for inflammatory and other infectious diseases and has been assessed in this study. It has been observed that the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is exaggerated in smokers. Antioxidants are administered to combat the harmful effects caused by the ROS, and Oxitard™ is a powerful herbal antioxidant that can counteract the action of free radicals. Aims: As smokers are more prone to tissue injury due to excessive release of ROS, this study aimed to understand the benefits of systemic administration of Oxitard after scaling and root planing (SRP) on serum ProCT levels in smokers with chronic periodontitis (CP). Settings and Design: This was a randomized interventional study, wherein ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Radiologic Study of Tooth Root Resorption in a case of Squamous Cell Carcinoma. AU - Konouchi, Hironobu. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. M3 - Article. VL - 40. SP - 129. EP - 137. JO - Dental Radiolosy. JF - Dental Radiolosy. IS - 2. ER - ...
The only treatment for affected teeth at an advanced stage is extraction. Horses can manage quite well without their incisor teeth and should be able to eat a normal diet, including hay and even grazing. There are several ongoing studies looking into the causes and potential treatment options for this syndrome.. Molly Rice, DVM, and Travis Henry, DVM, DAVDC, who are currently studying the disease, say that many horses arent diagnosed until the end stages of the disease process, which is incredibly painful. If horses can be diagnosed and treated at an earlier stage, their quality of life can be improved greatly. In our practice we recommend radiographs of the incisors after the age of 15 to screen for resorptive lesions. This is a quick 10-minute process that can be performed during the horses routine dental examination. Over the past six years, we have treated over 200 cases similar to Peanuts. The extraction process is performed under standing sedation with local nerve blocks. The ...
Principal Investigator:HONDA Masaki, Project Period (FY):2009 - 2011, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B), Section:一般, Research Field:Dental engineering/Regenerative dentistry
Effects of TGF-β1 on the proliferation and differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells and a human periodontal ligament stem/progenitor cell line (2010 ...
A model showing various positions of teeth in the upper and lower jaws. Internal wall is removed to show the incisors, canine premolars, molars in full view to show the tooth roots, spongise, vessels and nerves serving them. Dissectable into 2 parts. Mounted on base. Numbered with English key card ...
Esthetics and Periodontium Online publication: December 24, 2009 Introductory pages (p. 1-5) Contents (p. 6-7) Scientific Editors note (p. 8) Full t...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparative gene-expression analysis of the dental follicle and periodontal ligament in humans. AU - Lee, Hyo Seol. AU - Lee, Jongeun. AU - Kim, Seong Oh. AU - Song, Je Seon. AU - Lee, Jae Ho. AU - Lee, Syng Ill. AU - Jung, Han Sung. AU - Choi, Byung Jai. PY - 2013/12/23. Y1 - 2013/12/23. N2 - The human dental follicle partially differentiates into the periodontal ligament (PDL), but their biological functions are different. The gene-expression profiles of the dental follicle and PDL were compared using the cDNA microarray technique. Microarray analysis identified 490 genes with a twofold or greater difference in expression, 365 and 125 of which were more abundant in the dental follicle and PDL, respectively. The most strongly expressed genes in the dental follicle were those related to bone development and remodeling (EGFL6, MMP8, FRZB, and NELL1), apoptosis and chemotaxis (Nox4, CXCL13, and CCL2), and tooth and embryo development (WNT2, PAX3, FGF7, AMBN, AMTN, and SLC4A4), ...
Define periodontal ligament nerve. periodontal ligament nerve synonyms, periodontal ligament nerve pronunciation, periodontal ligament nerve translation, English dictionary definition of periodontal ligament nerve. n. 1. Any of the cordlike bundles of fibers made up of neurons through which sensory stimuli and motor impulses pass between the brain or other parts of the...
The good news is that cementum can repair itself. Cementoblasts - cells in your tooth root - make cementum continuously throughout your life as the old cementum ages and thins. This way your teeth stay firmly embedded in your jawbone.. Your goal is to support this natural repair process, to neatly close off your exposed dentinal tubules with cementum.. Cementum is about 50% hydroxylapatite. Tooth enamel is 90% hydroxylapatite, and bone is 70%. Hydroxylapatite is a calcium phosphate mineral, also known as the bone mineral.. Acid food and drinks dissolve hydroxylapatite, and hence cementum. Enamel begins to demineralize at a pH of 5.5.. Yet another reason to eat a high-alkaline diet! When raw fooders eat too much acidic citrus, it dissolves their tooth enamel. They get sensitive teeth. Watch those oranges and lemons. Juice them, or rinse your mouth after eating.. The other 50% of cementum (the part that isnt calcified hydroxylapatite) is mainly collagen and protein polysaccharides (compounds of ...
Dental stem cells, especially dental follicle cells (DFCs) as precursor cells for the periodontium have interesting prospects for regenerative dentistry. During periodontitis, butyrate as a bacterial metabolite and inflammatory agent is often found in millimolar concentrations in periodontal pockets. This study evaluates the effects of butyrate on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of DFCs. We assessed cell viability/proliferation (BCA assay) and osteogenic differentiation (ALP activity, alizarin staining and RT PCR) of DFCs in vitro after butyrate supplementation. Butyrate concentrations of 20 mM or higher are toxic for DFCs. At a non-toxic concentration, butyrate promotes the expression of alkaline phosphatase and collagen type-1 but inhibits the formation of calcified nodules and the induction of RUNX2 and osteocalcin under osteogenic differentiation conditions. In conclusion, DFCs are resistant to physiological high concentrations of butyrate. Butyrate facilitates the ...
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The process of TOOTH formation. It is divided into several stages including: the dental lamina stage, the bud stage, the cap stage, and the bell stage. Odontogenesis includes the production of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS), dentin (DENTINOGENESIS), and dental cementum (CEMENTOGENESIS ...
The use of guided tissue regeneration procedures has intensified the need to determine the types and quantity of tissues formed in healing. Regeneration is differentiated from new attachment in one basic, but very important manner: alveolar bone formation with new inserted periodontal fibers in new cementum is a prerequisite for the regeneration of periodontium (4-6). Areas of new cementum deposition without adjacent bone, and vice-versa, and areas of ankylosis, for example, do not satisfy the criteria for regeneration (7). Furthermore, recent advances in the understanding of functions and mechanisms of action of growth factors to regulate the healing process have provided evidence that these proteins may serve as therapeutic agents to enhance the healing of periodontal wounds (8-11). Sigurdsson et al. (12) found a significant enhancement in periodontal regeneration using the rhBMP-2 in dog models. They described limited root resorption and ankylosis generally limited immediately apical to the ...
Objective: To evaluate the kinetics of bone formation of Pool 7 EMD, by concentration, on the amount of marrow formation and study factors relating to angiogenesis associated with EMD-induced bone formation. Methods: Fractionated commercial Emdogain® (EMD) was obtained from Straumann International. 60 CDI 7 day old outbred mice were injected using 50 μl aliquots of 10 µg EMD, 10 µg Pool 7 EMD, 2 µg TGF-β (positive control) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS, negative control) delivered in a calvarial injection model. Injections were done for 5 consecutive days. The animals were sacrificed on days 6, 8, 12, 16 and 21 with 6 animals per factor for each time point and were prepared for histological evaluation. Nikon NIS Elements software was used to analyze vascular growth and new bone formation over the five time intervals at 20x magnification. Immunocytochemistry (IHC) was used to identify the kinetics of osteogenesis by evaluating the osteoblast transcription factor Osterix, and the ...
In the cementum located at the end of the middle third and throughout the apical third the gaps are occupied by cementocytes with numerous interconnecting extensions in the form of a spider web. The cementocytes are also found in large numbers in furcation areas. Their gaps interconnect with the cementocytes, making metabolic exchanges with the odontoblastic extensions of the neighboring dentin (Figs 4, 5 and 6).. In the bone, a network of osteocytes is formed through contact with approximately twenty cells. This interconnecting network exchanges fluids and mediators, keeping the mineralized bone matrix metabolically active and connected to the internal and external bone surfaces. It is likely that this interconnecting network may capture structural deformations by applying compressive forces and bone stretching, which results in cytoskeleton deformation and release of mediators that stimulate adaptive cellular activities on the surfaces of medullary and cortical spaces.. In the cementum, it ...
A tooth root abscess is a severe infection that develops around the root of a tooth usually occurring from a broken or traumatized tooth.
Management of teeth with furcation involvement (FI) is challenging for the clinician. The greater the grade of FI, the more difficult it becomes to treat. Also, the grade of FI affects the prognosis...
Used to sever the periodontal ligament prior to an extraction in order to preserve surrounding bone and tissue.|ul||li|Blade shape is slightly rounded and paper thin to slide easily below the gumline|/li||li|Blades are flexible so there is less chance of
The healing of periodontal tissues is a key step in the patients experience.The different TBR regenerative ranges allow you to adopt the best solution for your convenience as well as the patients comfort.. ...

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