A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions for use in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.
Alloys that contain a high percentage of gold. They are used in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.
Specific alloys not less than 85% chromium and nickel or cobalt, with traces of either nickel or cobalt, molybdenum, and other substances. They are used in partial dentures, orthopedic implants, etc.
A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions.
The gradual destruction of a metal or alloy due to oxidation or action of a chemical agent. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A solution used for irrigating the mouth in xerostomia and as a substitute for saliva.
Inorganic compounds that contain carbon as an integral part of the molecule but are not derived from hydrocarbons.
Creation of a smooth and glossy surface finish on a denture or amalgam.
A technique of measuring the dielectric properties of materials, which vary over a range of frequencies depending on the physical properties of the material. The technique involves measuring, over a range of frequencies, ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE and phase shift of an electric field as it passes through the material.
Inorganic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.
An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.
A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The total of dental diagnostic, preventive, and restorative services provided to meet the needs of a patient (from Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982).
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.
Solution titration in which the end point is read from the electrode-potential variations with the concentrations of potential determining ions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.
Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.
A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.
The fusion of ceramics (porcelain) to an alloy of two or more metals for use in restorative and prosthodontic dentistry. Examples of metal alloys employed include cobalt-chromium, gold-palladium, gold-platinum-palladium, and nickel-based alloys.
Use for articles concerning dental education in general.
Platinum. A heavy, soft, whitish metal, resembling tin, atomic number 78, atomic weight 195.09, symbol Pt. (From Dorland, 28th ed) It is used in manufacturing equipment for laboratory and industrial use. It occurs as a black powder (platinum black) and as a spongy substance (spongy platinum) and may have been known in Pliny's time as "alutiae".
Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.
Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.
The process of producing a form or impression made of metal or plaster using a mold.
Dental care for patients with chronic diseases. These diseases include chronic cardiovascular, endocrinologic, hematologic, immunologic, neoplastic, and renal diseases. The concept does not include dental care for the mentally or physically disabled which is DENTAL CARE FOR DISABLED.
The giving of attention to the special dental needs of children, including the prevention of tooth diseases and instruction in dental hygiene and dental health. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.
Facilities where dental care is provided to patients.
A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Persons trained in an accredited school or dental college and licensed by the state in which they reside to provide dental prophylaxis under the direction of a licensed dentist.
The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a dental school.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
Dental care for the emotionally, mentally, or physically disabled patient. It does not include dental care for the chronically ill ( = DENTAL CARE FOR CHRONICALLY ILL).
Material from which the casting mold is made in the fabrication of gold or cobalt-chromium castings. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p168)
Abnormal fear or dread of visiting the dentist for preventive care or therapy and unwarranted anxiety over dental procedures.
Insurance providing coverage for dental care.
An alloy used in restorative dentistry that contains mercury, silver, tin, copper, and possibly zinc.
Personnel whose work is prescribed and supervised by the dentist.
Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.
The study of laws, theories, and hypotheses through a systematic examination of pertinent facts and their interpretation in the field of dentistry. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982, p674)
The giving of attention to the special dental needs of the elderly for proper maintenance or treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.
The curve formed by the row of TEETH in their normal position in the JAW. The inferior dental arch is formed by the mandibular teeth, and the superior dental arch by the maxillary teeth.
A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.
The room or rooms in which the dentist and dental staff provide care. Offices include all rooms in the dentist's office suite.
Biocompatible materials placed into (endosseous) or onto (subperiosteal) the jawbone to support a crown, bridge, or artificial tooth, or to stabilize a diseased tooth.
Data collected during dental examination for the purpose of study, diagnosis, or treatment planning.
Personnel who provide dental service to patients in an organized facility, institution or agency.
A trace element that is required in bone formation. It has the atomic symbol Sn, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 118.71.
The nonexpendable items used by the dentist or dental staff in the performance of professional duties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p106)
Nonspecialized dental practice which is concerned with providing primary and continuing dental care.
An adhesion procedure for orthodontic attachments, such as plastic DENTAL CROWNS. This process usually includes the application of an adhesive material (DENTAL CEMENTS) and letting it harden in-place by light or chemical curing.
Individuals who assist the dentist or the dental hygienist.
Radiographic techniques used in dentistry.
Educational programs designed to inform dentists of recent advances in their fields.
A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.
The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.
Technique by which phase transitions of chemical reactions can be followed by observation of the heat absorbed or liberated.
Presentation devices used for patient education and technique training in dentistry.
The field of dentistry involved in procedures for designing and constructing dental appliances. It includes also the application of any technology to the field of dentistry.
Educational programs for dental graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic dental sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced dental degree.
The mechanical property of material that determines its resistance to force. HARDNESS TESTS measure this property.
The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the dentist, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the dentist in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A type of porcelain used in dental restorations, either jacket crowns or inlays, artificial teeth, or metal-ceramic crowns. It is essentially a mixture of particles of feldspar and quartz, the feldspar melting first and providing a glass matrix for the quartz. Dental porcelain is produced by mixing ceramic powder (a mixture of quartz, kaolin, pigments, opacifiers, a suitable flux, and other substances) with distilled water. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Hospital department providing dental care.
Individuals licensed to practice DENTISTRY.
Societies whose membership is limited to dentists.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to dental or oral health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
A chronic endemic form of hypoplasia of the dental enamel caused by drinking water with a high fluorine content during the time of tooth formation, and characterized by defective calcification that gives a white chalky appearance to the enamel, which gradually undergoes brown discoloration. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)
The granting of a license to practice dentistry.
Facilities for the performance of services related to dental treatment but not done directly in the patient's mouth.
Various branches of dental practice limited to specialized areas.
The methyl esters of methacrylic acid that polymerize easily and are used as tissue cements, dental materials, and absorbent for biological substances.
Amounts charged to the patient as payer for dental services.
Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.
Individuals responsible for fabrication of dental appliances.
A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.
The organization and operation of the business aspects of a dental practice.
Dense fibrous layer formed from mesodermal tissue that surrounds the epithelial enamel organ. The cells eventually migrate to the external surface of the newly formed root dentin and give rise to the cementoblasts that deposit cementum on the developing root, fibroblasts of the developing periodontal ligament, and osteoblasts of the developing alveolar bone.
A rare, metallic element designated by the symbol, Ga, atomic number 31, and atomic weight 69.72.
The plan and delineation of dental prostheses in general or a specific dental prosthesis. It does not include DENTURE DESIGN. The framework usually consists of metal.
Preparation of TOOTH surfaces, and of materials bonded to teeth or DENTAL IMPLANTS, with agents and methods which roughen the surface to facilitate adhesion. Agents include phosphoric or other acids (ACID ETCHING, DENTAL) and methods include LASERS.
Niobium. A metal element atomic number 41, atomic weight 92.906, symbol Nb. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.
An artificial replacement for one or more natural teeth or part of a tooth, or associated structures, ranging from a portion of a tooth to a complete denture. The dental prosthesis is used for cosmetic or functional reasons, or both. DENTURES and specific types of dentures are also available. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p244 & Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p643)
Stainless steel. A steel containing Ni, Cr, or both. It does not tarnish on exposure and is used in corrosive environments. (Grant & Hack's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The profession concerned with the teeth, oral cavity, and associated structures, and the diagnosis and treatment of their diseases including prevention and the restoration of defective and missing tissue.
Hand-held tools or implements especially used by dental professionals for the performance of clinical tasks.
The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)
A prosthetic restoration that reproduces the entire surface anatomy of the visible natural crown of a tooth. It may be partial (covering three or more surfaces of a tooth) or complete (covering all surfaces). It is made of gold or other metal, porcelain, or resin.
Skills, techniques, standards, and principles used to improve the art and symmetry of the teeth and face to improve the appearance as well as the function of the teeth, mouth, and face. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p108)
Providing for the full range of dental health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and rehabilitation of patients.
Coating with a metal or alloy by electrolysis.
Education which increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of dental health on a personal or community basis.
Occurs in seeds of Brassica and Crucifera species. Thiouracil has been used as antithyroid, coronary vasodilator, and in congestive heart failure although its use has been largely supplanted by other drugs. It is known to cause blood dyscrasias and suspected of terato- and carcinogenesis.
The psychological relations between the dentist and patient.
Holding a DENTAL PROSTHESIS in place by its design, or by the use of additional devices or adhesives.
One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.
Efforts to prevent and control the spread of infections within dental health facilities or those involving provision of dental care.
Natural teeth or teeth roots used as anchorage for a fixed or removable denture or other prosthesis (such as an implant) serving the same purpose.
Mesodermal tissue enclosed in the invaginated portion of the epithelial enamel organ and giving rise to the dentin and pulp.
The internal resistance of a material to moving some parts of it parallel to a fixed plane, in contrast to stretching (TENSILE STRENGTH) or compression (COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH). Ionic crystals are brittle because, when subjected to shear, ions of the same charge are brought next to each other, which causes repulsion.
A metallic element, atomic number 49, atomic weight 114.82, symbol In. It is named from its blue line in the spectrum. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Dental cements composed either of polymethyl methacrylate or dimethacrylate, produced by mixing an acrylic monomer liquid with acrylic polymers and mineral fillers. The cement is insoluble in water and is thus resistant to fluids in the mouth, but is also irritating to the dental pulp. It is used chiefly as a luting agent for fabricated and temporary restorations. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p159)
The use of a layer of tooth-colored material, usually porcelain or acrylic resin, applied to the surface of natural teeth, crowns, or pontics by fusion, cementation, or mechanical retention.
'Tooth diseases' is a broad term referring to various conditions affecting the teeth, including dental caries (cavities), periodontal disease (gum disease), tooth wear, tooth sensitivity, oral cancer, and developmental anomalies, which can result in pain, discomfort, or loss of teeth if left untreated.
A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of dental care.
The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.
Any waste product generated by a dental office, surgery, clinic, or laboratory including amalgams, saliva, and rinse water.
The grafting or inserting of a prosthetic device of alloplastic material into the oral tissue beneath the mucosal or periosteal layer or within the bone. Its purpose is to provide support and retention to a partial or complete denture.
Economic aspects of the dental profession and dental care.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
"Decayed, missing and filled teeth," a routinely used statistical concept in dentistry.
Chemicals especially for use on instruments to destroy pathogenic organisms. (Boucher, Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
The predisposition to tooth decay (DENTAL CARIES).
The application of computer and information sciences to improve dental practice, research, education and management.
Wires of various dimensions and grades made of stainless steel or precious metal. They are used in orthodontic treatment.
The study of the energy of electrons ejected from matter by the photoelectric effect, i.e., as a direct result of absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation. As the energies of the electrons are characteristic of a specific element, the measurement of the energy of these electrons is a technique used to determine the chemical composition of surfaces.
Laws and regulations pertaining to the field of dentistry, proposed for enactment or recently enacted by a legislative body.
A partial denture designed and constructed to be removed readily from the mouth.
The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)
Substances that inhibit or arrest DENTAL CARIES formation. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
The practice of personal hygiene of the mouth. It includes the maintenance of oral cleanliness, tissue tone, and general preservation of oral health.
The relationship of all the components of the masticatory system in normal function. It has special reference to the position and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth for the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p556, p472)
Removal of dental plaque and dental calculus from the surface of a tooth, from the surface of a tooth apical to the gingival margin accumulated in periodontal pockets, or from the surface coronal to the gingival margin.
Metal devices for fastening together two or more parts of dental prostheses for stabilizing or retaining them by attachment to abutment teeth. For a precision attachment for a partial denture DENTURE PRECISION ATTACHMENT is available.
That phase of clinical dentistry concerned with the restoration of parts of existing teeth that are defective through disease, trauma, or abnormal development, to the state of normal function, health, and esthetics, including preventive, diagnostic, biological, mechanical, and therapeutic techniques, as well as material and instrument science and application. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 2d ed, p237)
Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.
Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.
Use for material on dental facilities in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Devices used in the home by persons to maintain dental and periodontal health. The devices include toothbrushes, dental flosses, water irrigators, gingival stimulators, etc.
The branch of dentistry concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance and promotion of oral health.
Acrylic resins, also known as polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), are a type of synthetic resin formed from polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers, used in various medical applications such as dental restorations, orthopedic implants, and ophthalmic lenses due to their biocompatibility, durability, and transparency.
Photographic techniques used in ORTHODONTICS; DENTAL ESTHETICS; and patient education.
The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Zirconium. A rather rare metallic element, atomic number 40, atomic weight 91.22, symbol Zr. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Thiones are organic compounds containing a sulfur atom bonded to two carbon atoms, often found in certain drugs and naturally occurring substances, which possess various pharmacological activities.
The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)
A rapid, low-dose, digital imaging system using a small intraoral sensor instead of radiographic film, an intensifying screen, and a charge-coupled device. It presents the possibility of reduced patient exposure and minimal distortion, although resolution and latitude are inferior to standard dental radiography. A receiver is placed in the mouth, routing signals to a computer which images the signals on a screen or in print. It includes digitizing from x-ray film or any other detector. (From MEDLINE abstracts; personal communication from Dr. Charles Berthold, NIDR)
A prosthesis that gains its support, stability, and retention from a substructure that is implanted under the soft tissues of the basal seat of the device and is in contact with bone. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
The practice of dentistry concerned with preventive as well as diagnostic and treatment programs in a circumscribed population.
Inability or inadequacy of a dental restoration or prosthesis to perform as expected.
General or unspecified diseases of the stomatognathic system, comprising the mouth, teeth, jaws, and pharynx.
The practice of dentistry concerned with the dental problems of children, proper maintenance, and treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.
Professional society representing the field of dentistry.
Patterns of practice in dentistry related to diagnosis and treatment.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain boron as an integral part of the molecule.
A test to determine the relative hardness of a metal, mineral, or other material according to one of several scales, such as Brinell, Mohs, Rockwell, Vickers, or Shore. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A trace element that plays a role in glucose metabolism. It has the atomic symbol Cr, atomic number 24, and atomic weight 52. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP85-002,1985), chromium and some of its compounds have been listed as known carcinogens.
Insertion of an implant into the bone of the mandible or maxilla. The implant has an exposed head which protrudes through the mucosa and is a prosthodontic abutment.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Pain in the adjacent areas of the teeth.
The quality or state of being able to be bent or creased repeatedly. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the teeth.
Procedure of producing an imprint or negative likeness of the teeth and/or edentulous areas. Impressions are made in plastic material which becomes hardened or set while in contact with the tissue. They are later filled with plaster of Paris or artificial stone to produce a facsimile of the oral structures present. Impressions may be made of a full complement of teeth, of areas where some teeth have been removed, or in a mouth from which all teeth have been extracted. (Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)
Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)
The spectrometric analysis of fluorescent X-RAYS, i.e. X-rays emitted after bombarding matter with high energy particles such as PROTONS; ELECTRONS; or higher energy X-rays. Identification of ELEMENTS by this technique is based on the specific type of X-rays that are emitted which are characteristic of the specific elements in the material being analyzed. The characteristic X-rays are distinguished and/or quantified by either wavelength dispersive or energy dispersive methods.
The methyl ester of methacrylic acid. It polymerizes easily to form POLYMETHYL METHACRYLATE. It is used as a bone cement.
A technique using a pneumatic, high-pressure stream of aluminum oxide to remove DENTAL ENAMEL; DENTIN; and restorative materials from teeth. In contrast to using DENTAL HIGH-SPEED EQUIPMENT, this method usually requires no dental anesthesia (ANESTHESIA, DENTAL) and reduces risks of tooth chipping and microfracturing. It is used primarily for routine DENTAL CAVITY PREPARATION.
A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.
An acquired or hereditary condition due to deficiency in the formation of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS). It is usually characterized by defective, thin, or malformed DENTAL ENAMEL. Risk factors for enamel hypoplasia include gene mutations, nutritional deficiencies, diseases, and environmental factors.
Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
'Dental libraries' are collections of resources, including books, journals, databases, and multimedia materials, that provide information and knowledge to support dental education, research, and practice.
The third tooth to the left and to the right of the midline of either jaw, situated between the second INCISOR and the premolar teeth (BICUSPID). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p817)
Examination of the mouth and teeth toward the identification and diagnosis of intraoral disease or manifestation of non-oral conditions.
An approach or process of practicing oral health care that requires the judicious integration of systematic assessments of clinical relevant scientific evidence, relating to the patient's oral and medical condition and history, with the dentist's clinical expertise and the patient's treatment needs and preferences. (from J Am Dent Assoc 134: 689, 2003)
Any group of three or more full-time dentists, organized in a legally recognized entity for the provision of dental care, sharing space, equipment, personnel and records for both patient care and business management, and who have a predetermined arrangement for the distribution of income.
Endodontic diseases of the DENTAL PULP inside the tooth, which is distinguished from PERIAPICAL DISEASES of the tissue surrounding the root.
Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
Traumatic or other damage to teeth including fractures (TOOTH FRACTURES) or displacements (TOOTH LUXATION).
Abnormal concretion or calcified deposit that forms around the teeth or dental prostheses.
The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).
'Dental pulp calcification' is a pathological condition characterized by the deposition of hard tissue within the pulp chamber and root canal(s), which can result in the obliteration of pulpal space, potentially leading to various clinical symptoms such as pain or dental sensitivity.
The teeth of the first dentition, which are shed and replaced by the permanent teeth.
One of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that form the upper jaw. A maxillary bone provides tooth sockets for the superior teeth, forms part of the ORBIT, and contains the MAXILLARY SINUS.
Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.
A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.
The teeth collectively in the dental arch. Dentition ordinarily refers to the natural teeth in position in their alveoli. Dentition referring to the deciduous teeth is DENTITION, PRIMARY; to the permanent teeth, DENTITION, PERMANENT. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
The plan, delineation, and location of actual structural elements of dentures. The design can relate to retainers, stress-breakers, occlusal rests, flanges, framework, lingual or palatal bars, reciprocal arms, etc.
An operation in which carious material is removed from teeth and biomechanically correct forms are established in the teeth to receive and retain restorations. A constant requirement is provision for prevention of failure of the restoration through recurrence of decay or inadequate resistance to applied stresses. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239-40)
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.
An index which scores the degree of dental plaque accumulation.
Magnesium oxide (MgO). An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral periclase. In aqueous media combines quickly with water to form magnesium hydroxide. It is used as an antacid and mild laxative and has many nonmedicinal uses.
Any change in the hue, color, or translucency of a tooth due to any cause. Restorative filling materials, drugs (both topical and systemic), pulpal necrosis, or hemorrhage may be responsible. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p253)
The act of cleaning teeth with a brush to remove plaque and prevent tooth decay. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Substances used to create an impression, or negative reproduction, of the teeth and dental arches. These materials include dental plasters and cements, metallic oxide pastes, silicone base materials, or elastomeric materials.
The hardening or polymerization of bonding agents (DENTAL CEMENTS) via exposure to light.
A dental specialty concerned with the maintenance of the dental pulp in a state of health and the treatment of the pulp cavity (pulp chamber and pulp canal).
A dental specialty concerned with the restoration and maintenance of oral function by the replacement of missing TEETH and related structures by artificial devices or DENTAL PROSTHESES.
A calcium salt that is used for a variety of purposes including: building materials, as a desiccant, in dentistry as an impression material, cast, or die, and in medicine for immobilizing casts and as a tablet excipient. It exists in various forms and states of hydration. Plaster of Paris is a mixture of powdered and heat-treated gypsum.
The process of TOOTH formation. It is divided into several stages including: the dental lamina stage, the bud stage, the cap stage, and the bell stage. Odontogenesis includes the production of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS), dentin (DENTINOGENESIS), and dental cementum (CEMENTOGENESIS).
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
Pathological processes involving the PERIODONTIUM including the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.
The properties and processes of materials that affect their behavior under force.
The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.
'Mouth diseases' is a broad term referring to various conditions that cause inflammation, infection, or structural changes in any part of the mouth, including the lips, gums, tongue, palate, cheeks, and teeth, which can lead to symptoms such as pain, discomfort, difficulty in chewing or speaking, and altered aesthetics.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.
Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.

Fatigue and tensile strength of dental gallium alloys after artificial saliva immersion. (1/435)

Fatigue strength using the stair-case method and tensile strength of dental gallium alloys after artificial saliva immersion were measured for evaluating the effects of corrosive environment storage on the mechanical properties of the gallium alloys. The fatigue and the tensile strengths of both gallium alloys stored in artificial saliva were significantly decreased after 12-month storage, while those stored in air increased with storage period. The fracture surfaces of the specimens in artificial saliva showed not only metallic luster but also dark areas. In the dark area, the matrix might have dissolved during immersion. These results suggested that the concern over corrosion resistance of gallium alloys still remained.  (+info)

Adhesion of adhesive resin to dental precious metal alloys. Part I. New precious metal alloys with base metals for resin bonding. (2/435)

New dental precious metal alloys for resin bonding without alloy surface modification were developed by adding base metals (In, Zn, or Sn). Before this, binary alloys of Au, Ag, Cu, or Pd containing In, Zn, or Sn were studied for water durability and bonding strength with 4-META resin. The adhesion ability of the binary alloys was improved by adding In equivalent to 15% of Au content, Zn equivalent to 20% of Ag content, and In, Zn, or Sn equivalent to 5% of Cu content. There was no addition effect of the base metals on Pd, however 15% of In addition improved adhesion with Pd-based alloys containing equi-atomic % of Cu and Pd. The alloy surfaces were analyzed by XPS and showed that oxides such as In2O3, ZnO, or SnO play an important role in improving the adhesive ability of the alloys.  (+info)

Intra-oral temperature variation over 24 hours. (3/435)

This study aimed to investigate temperature variation at archwire sites adjacent to the maxillary right central incisor and first premolar, its correlation with ambient temperature, and the influence of inter-racial variation. Twenty young adult male subjects were randomly selected (13 Asian, seven Caucasian). Thermocouples were attached to the labial archwire component of custom-made orthodontic retainers at the two intra-oral sites. A third thermocouple measured ambient temperature. A data-logger recorded temperatures at 5-second intervals over a 24-hour period. Temperatures ranged from 5.6 to 58.5 degrees C at the incisor and from 7.9 to 54 degrees C at the premolar, with medians of 34.9 degrees C and 35.6 degrees C, respectively. Ambient temperature correlated poorly with the intra-oral temperatures. The Asian and Caucasian groups had significantly different temperature distributions. On average during the 24-hour period, temperatures at the incisor site were in the range of 33-37 degrees C for 79 per cent of the time, below it for 20 per cent, and above it for only 1 per cent of the time. Corresponding figures for the premolar site were 92, 6, and 2 per cent. At both archwire sites the most frequent temperatures were in the range of 35-36 degrees C. The data presented demonstrate that the temperature at sites on an archwire in situ varies considerably over a 24-hour period and that racial differences may exist. This information should be considered during the manufacture and use of temperature-sensitive orthodontic materials, in particular nickel-titanium archwires and springs.  (+info)

Distortion of metallic orthodontic brackets after clinical use and debond by two methods. (4/435)

The objective of this paper was to compare distortion of the tie wings and bases of metallic orthodontic brackets following clinical use and after debond by either of two methods, and took the form of a prospective random control trial. Five-hundred-and-seven brackets were debonded using either bracket removing pliers or a lift off debonding instrument (LODI). By a system of random allocation contralateral opposing quadrants were debonded with a 0.019 x 0.025-inch archwire either in place or removed. After debond brackets were tested for slot closure by the fit of rectangular test wires from 0.016 x 0.022 to 0.021 x 0.025 inch in size. The LODI produced few slot closures sufficient to affect the fit of all but the largest test wire. Bracket removing pliers used after removal of the archwire produced significantly greater numbers of distorted brackets in response to testing with all but the largest wire. With the 0.021 x 0.025 inch wire in place the presence or absence of the archwire at the time of debond made no difference to the number of slot closures. Ten per cent of the brackets debonded using bracket removing pliers had distorted bases, no base damage was produced by the LODI. The use of bracket removing pliers at debond caused significantly more slot closures than use of the LODI. When bracket removing pliers are used the archwire should be left in place at the time of debond since this reduces the number of distortions.  (+info)

A laboratory investigation to compare enamel preparation by sandblasting or acid etching prior to bracket bonding. (5/435)

A laboratory investigation to compare the mean shear debonding force and mode of bond failure of metallic brackets bonded to sandblasted and acid-etched enamel is described. The buccal surfaces of 30 extracted human premolars were sandblasted for 5 seconds with 50 mu alumina and the buccal surfaces of a further 30 human premolars were etched with 37 per cent phosphoric acid for 15 seconds. Following storage for 24 hours at 37 degrees C in distilled water, shear debonding force was measured using an Instron Universal Testing Machine with a cross-head speed of 10 mm/minute. Mean shear debonding force was significantly lower for brackets bonded to sandblasted enamel compared to acid etched enamel (P < 0.001). Weibull analysis showed that at a given stress the probability of failure was significantly greater for brackets bonded to sandblasted enamel. Brackets bonded to etched enamel showed a mixed mode of bond failure whereas following sandblasting, failure was adhesive at the enamel/composite interface (P < 0.01).  (+info)

Rapid palatal expansion in treatment of Class II malocclusions. (6/435)

A technique which combines the use of rapid maxillary expansion and fixed appliance in growing patients, is presented. The treatment in three patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion and different skeletal patterns is described, and relative advantages highlighted.  (+info)

An ex-vivo investigation into the effect of bracket displacement on the resistance to sliding. (7/435)

This ex-vivo study investigated the effect that repeated bracket displacement has on sliding friction and the magnitude of bracket displacement, and hence tooth movement, required to release bracket/archwire binding. The design consisted of an ex-vivo laboratory study. A jig was designed that allowed repeated displacement of a bracket to occur, while the resistance to sliding (friction) was measured using an Instron universal testing machine. One type of stainless steel bracket was used in conjunction with four archwire types (0.016-inch stainless steel, 0.019 x 0.025-inch stainless steel, 0.021 x 0.025-inch stainless steel, 0.019 x 0.025-inch beta-titanium) and four magnitudes of displacement. Repeated bracket displacement has a significant effect on the sliding resistance at the bracket/archwire interface (P < 0.001). The reduction in sliding resistance noted with displacement depended on the archwire. Over the range of displacements tested, there was an 85 and 80 per cent reduction associated with 0.021 x 0.025-inch and 0.019 x 0.025-inch stainless steel, respectively. For 0.019 x 0.025-inch beta-titanium and 0.016-inch stainless steel, these reductions were 27 and 19 per cent, respectively. The importance of true friction, given the likelihood of bracket and/or archwire displacements in vivo, may be lessened.  (+info)

Effects on tooth movement of force delivery from nickel-titanium archwires. (8/435)

The aim of this project was to determine the in vivo effects of tooth movement with nickel-titanium archwires on the periodontium during the early stages of orthodontic treatment. The extent of tooth movement, severity of gingival inflammation, pocket probing depth, gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) flow, and the amount of the chondroitin sulphate (CS) glycosaminoglycan (GAG) component of the GCF of one maxillary canine in each of 33 patients treated with a pre-adjusted appliance were measured before and at four stages during the first 22 weeks of treatment. The methods involved the use of a reflex metrograph to determine the type of tooth movement and electrophoresis to quantitate the CS in the GCF. It was found that GCF flow increased after 4 weeks of tooth movement whereas the increase in the amount of CS in the GCF, which is taken to be indicative of periodontal tissue turnover, occurred at the later stage of 10 weeks. Teeth which showed the greatest amount of tooth movement continued to express large amounts of CS in large volumes of GCF until 22 weeks, whilst the CS levels in those teeth moving to a smaller extent declined. These data suggest that nickel-titanium archwires may produce a super-elastic plateau effect in vivo on canine teeth, which are initially displaced from the arch such that large amounts of tooth movement occur in the first 22 weeks of treatment.  (+info)

Dental alloys are materials made by combining two or more metals to be used in dental restorations, such as crowns, bridges, fillings, and orthodontic appliances. These alloys can be classified into three main categories based on their composition:

1. Precious Alloys: Predominantly composed of precious metals like gold, platinum, palladium, and silver. They are highly corrosion-resistant, biocompatible, and durable, making them suitable for long-term use in dental restorations. Common examples include high noble (gold) alloys and noble alloys.
2. Base Metal Alloys: Contain primarily non-precious metals like nickel, chromium, cobalt, and beryllium. They are more affordable than precious alloys but may cause allergic reactions or sensitivities in some patients. Common examples include nickel-chromium alloys and cobalt-chromium alloys.
3. Castable Glass Ionomer Alloys: A combination of glass ionomer cement (GIC) powder and metal liquid, which can be cast into various dental restorations. They have the advantage of being both strong and adhesive to tooth structure but may not be as durable as other alloy types.

Each type of dental alloy has its unique properties and applications, depending on the specific clinical situation and patient needs. Dental professionals consider factors like cost, biocompatibility, mechanical properties, and esthetics when selecting an appropriate alloy for a dental restoration.

Gold alloys are not strictly a medical term, but they are often used in medical applications, particularly in the field of dentistry. Therefore, I will provide both a general definition and a dental-specific definition for clarity.

A gold alloy is a mixture of different metals, where gold is the primary component. The other metals are added to modify the properties of gold, such as its hardness, melting point, or color. These alloys can contain varying amounts of gold, ranging from 30% to 75%, depending on their intended use.

In dentistry, gold alloys refer to a specific type of alloy used for dental restorations like crowns, inlays, and onlays. These alloys typically contain between 60% and 90% gold, along with other metals such as silver, copper, and sometimes palladium or zinc. The high gold content ensures excellent biocompatibility, corrosion resistance, and durability, making these alloys a popular choice for dental applications. Additionally, their malleability allows for precise shaping and adjustment during the fabrication process.

Chromium alloys are materials made by combining chromium with other metals, such as nickel, cobalt, or iron. The addition of chromium to these alloys enhances their properties, making them resistant to corrosion and high temperatures. These alloys have a wide range of applications in various industries, including automotive, aerospace, and medical devices.

Chromium alloys can be classified into two main categories: stainless steels and superalloys. Stainless steels are alloys that contain at least 10.5% chromium by weight, which forms a passive oxide layer on the surface of the material, protecting it from corrosion. Superalloys, on the other hand, are high-performance alloys designed to operate in extreme environments, such as jet engines and gas turbines. They contain significant amounts of chromium, along with other elements like nickel, cobalt, and molybdenum.

Chromium alloys have several medical applications due to their excellent properties. For instance, they are used in surgical instruments, dental implants, and orthopedic devices because of their resistance to corrosion and biocompatibility. Additionally, some chromium alloys exhibit superelasticity, a property that allows them to return to their original shape after being deformed, making them suitable for use in stents and other medical devices that require flexibility and durability.

'Alloys' is not a medical term. It is a term used in materials science and engineering to describe a mixture or solid solution composed of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal. The components are typically present in significant amounts (>1% by weight). The properties of alloys, such as their strength, durability, and corrosion resistance, often differ from those of the constituent elements.

While not directly related to medicine, some alloys do have medical applications. For example, certain alloys are used in orthopedic implants, dental restorations, and other medical devices due to their desirable properties such as biocompatibility, strength, and resistance to corrosion.

Corrosion is a process of deterioration or damage to a material, usually a metal, caused by chemical reactions with its environment. In the medical context, corrosion may refer to the breakdown and destruction of living tissue due to exposure to harsh substances or environmental conditions. This can occur in various parts of the body, such as the skin, mouth, or gastrointestinal tract, and can be caused by factors like acid reflux, infection, or exposure to chemicals.

In the case of medical devices made of metal, corrosion can also refer to the degradation of the device due to chemical reactions with bodily fluids or tissues. This can compromise the function and safety of the device, potentially leading to complications or failure. Therefore, understanding and preventing corrosion is an important consideration in the design and use of medical devices made of metal.

Artificial saliva is a synthetic solution that mimics the chemical composition and properties of natural saliva. It is often used for patients with dry mouth (xerostomia) caused by conditions such as Sjögren's syndrome, radiation therapy, or certain medications that reduce saliva production. Artificial saliva may contain ingredients like carboxymethylcellulose, mucin, and electrolytes to provide lubrication, moisture, and pH buffering capacity similar to natural saliva. It can help alleviate symptoms associated with dry mouth, such as difficulty speaking, swallowing, and chewing, as well as protect oral tissues from irritation and infection.

Carbon inorganic compounds are chemical substances that contain carbon combined with one or more elements other than hydrogen. These compounds include oxides of carbon such as carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2), metal carbides like calcium carbide (CaC2) and silicon carbide (SiC), and carbonates like calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3).

Unlike organic compounds, which are based on carbon-hydrogen bonds, inorganic carbon compounds do not contain hydrocarbon structures. Instead, they feature carbon bonded to elements such as nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, or halogens. Inorganic carbon compounds have diverse physical and chemical properties and play important roles in various industrial applications, as well as in biological systems.

Dental polishing is a procedure in dentistry that is performed to smooth and clean the surfaces of teeth after professional dental cleaning (prophylaxis), restoration, or other dental treatments. It is usually done using a slow-speed handpiece with a soft, rubber cup attached to it, which holds a polishing paste or a slurry of pumice and water. The polishing paste may contain an abrasive agent, fluoride, or a flavoring agent. The dental professional moves the handpiece in a circular motion over the tooth surface to remove stains, plaque, and minor surface roughness, leaving the teeth smooth and shiny. Dental polishing helps to prevent the buildup of plaque and tartar, reduce the risk of decay and gum disease, and improve the overall oral hygiene and aesthetics of the teeth.

Dielectric spectroscopy is a type of material characterization technique that measures the dielectric properties of a material as a function of frequency. The dielectric property of a material refers to its ability to store electrical energy in the form of polarization when an external electric field is applied. In dielectric spectroscopy, the material's response to an alternating electric field is measured, and the resulting complex permittivity (which includes both real and imaginary components) is used to characterize the material's dielectric behavior.

The technique involves applying a small amplitude AC voltage to the material while measuring the current flow through it. The frequency of the applied voltage can be varied over a wide range, typically from millihertz to gigahertz. By analyzing the phase shift and amplitude of the resulting current, the complex permittivity of the material can be determined as a function of frequency.

Dielectric spectroscopy is widely used in materials science, physics, chemistry, and biology to study the structure, dynamics, and composition of various materials, including polymers, ceramics, glasses, colloids, and biological tissues. The technique can provide valuable information about the material's molecular mobility, relaxation processes, conductivity, and other dielectric properties, which can be used for quality control, process monitoring, and fundamental research.

Silicon compounds refer to chemical substances that contain the element silicon (Si) combined with other elements. Silicon is a Group 14 semimetal in the periodic table, and it often forms compounds through covalent bonding. The most common silicon compound is silicon dioxide (SiO2), also known as silica, which is found in nature as quartz, sand, and other minerals.

Silicon can form compounds with many other elements, including hydrogen, oxygen, halogens, sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon. For example:

* Silanes (SiHn) are a series of silicon-hydrogen compounds where n ranges from 1 to 6.
* Silicones are synthetic polymers made up of alternating silicon and oxygen atoms with organic groups attached to the silicon atoms.
* Silicates are a class of minerals that contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metal cations. They have a wide range of structures and uses, including as building materials, ceramics, and glass.
* Siloxanes are a group of compounds containing alternating silicon-oxygen bonds with organic groups attached to the silicon atoms.

Silicon compounds have various applications in industry, medicine, and daily life. For instance, silicones are used in medical devices such as breast implants, contact lenses, and catheters due to their biocompatibility and flexibility. Silicates are found in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and food additives. Silicon-based materials are also used in dental restorations, bone cement, and drug delivery systems.

Aluminum oxide is a chemical compound with the formula Al2O3. It is also known as alumina and it is a white solid that is widely used in various industries due to its unique properties. Aluminum oxide is highly resistant to corrosion, has a high melting point, and is an electrical insulator.

In the medical field, aluminum oxide is used in a variety of applications such as:

1. Dental crowns and implants: Aluminum oxide is used in the production of dental crowns and implants due to its strength and durability.
2. Orthopedic implants: Aluminum oxide is used in some types of orthopedic implants, such as knee and hip replacements, because of its biocompatibility and resistance to wear.
3. Medical ceramics: Aluminum oxide is used in the production of medical ceramics, which are used in various medical devices such as pacemakers and hearing aids.
4. Pharmaceuticals: Aluminum oxide is used as an excipient in some pharmaceutical products, such as tablets and capsules, to improve their stability and shelf life.
5. Medical research: Aluminum oxide is used in medical research, for example, as a substrate material for growing cells or as a coating material for medical devices.

It's important to note that while aluminum oxide has many useful applications in the medical field, exposure to high levels of aluminum can be harmful to human health. Therefore, it is important to use aluminum oxide and other aluminum-containing materials safely and according to established guidelines.

Titanium is not a medical term, but rather a chemical element (symbol Ti, atomic number 22) that is widely used in the medical field due to its unique properties. Medically, it is often referred to as a biocompatible material used in various medical applications such as:

1. Orthopedic implants: Titanium and its alloys are used for making joint replacements (hips, knees, shoulders), bone plates, screws, and rods due to their high strength-to-weight ratio, excellent corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility.
2. Dental implants: Titanium is also commonly used in dental applications like implants, crowns, and bridges because of its ability to osseointegrate, or fuse directly with bone tissue, providing a stable foundation for replacement teeth.
3. Cardiovascular devices: Titanium alloys are used in the construction of heart valves, pacemakers, and other cardiovascular implants due to their non-magnetic properties, which prevent interference with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans.
4. Medical instruments: Due to its resistance to corrosion and high strength, titanium is used in the manufacturing of various medical instruments such as surgical tools, needles, and catheters.

In summary, Titanium is a chemical element with unique properties that make it an ideal material for various medical applications, including orthopedic and dental implants, cardiovascular devices, and medical instruments.

Dental care refers to the practice of maintaining and improving the oral health of the teeth and gums. It involves regular check-ups, cleanings, and treatments by dental professionals such as dentists, hygienists, and dental assistants. Dental care also includes personal habits and practices, such as brushing and flossing, that help prevent tooth decay and gum disease.

Regular dental care is important for preventing common dental problems like cavities, gingivitis, and periodontal disease. It can also help detect early signs of more serious health issues, such as oral cancer or diabetes, which can have symptoms that appear in the mouth.

Dental care may involve a range of treatments, from routine cleanings and fillings to more complex procedures like root canals, crowns, bridges, and implants. Dental professionals use various tools and techniques to diagnose and treat dental problems, including X-rays, dental impressions, and local anesthesia.

Overall, dental care is a critical component of overall health and wellness, as poor oral health has been linked to a range of systemic health issues, including heart disease, stroke, and respiratory infections.

I'm happy to help! However, I must clarify that "materials testing" is not a medical term per se. It is a term used in various fields, including engineering and materials science, to describe the process of subjecting materials to different tests to evaluate their properties and performance under various conditions.

In the context of medical devices or implants, materials testing may refer to the evaluation of the physical and mechanical properties of materials used in their construction. These tests can include assessments of strength, durability, biocompatibility, and other factors that are critical to ensuring the safety and efficacy of medical devices.

Medical device manufacturers must comply with regulatory standards for materials testing to ensure that their products meet specific requirements for performance, safety, and quality. These standards may vary depending on the type of device, its intended use, and the country or region in which it will be marketed and sold.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Silver" is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with the symbol Ag and atomic number 47. Silver is a soft, white, lustrous transition metal that occurs in its pure, free form (native silver) as an alloy with gold and other metals, and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite.

In the medical field, silver compounds have been used for their antimicrobial properties. For example, silver sulfadiazine is a common topical cream used to prevent or treat wound infections. Colloidal silver, a suspension of silver particles in a liquid, has also been promoted as a dietary supplement and alternative treatment for various conditions, but its effectiveness and safety are not well-established.

Potentiometry is a method used in analytical chemistry to measure the potential (or voltage) difference between two electrodes, which reflects the concentration of an ion or a particular molecule in a solution. It involves setting up an electrochemical cell with two electrodes: a working electrode and a reference electrode. The working electrode is immersed in the test solution and its potential is measured against the stable potential of the reference electrode.

The Nernst equation can be used to relate the potential difference to the concentration of the analyte, allowing for quantitative analysis. Potentiometry is often used to measure the activity or concentration of ions such as H+, Na+, K+, and Cl-, as well as other redox-active species.

In medical testing, potentiometry can be used to measure the concentration of certain ions in biological fluids such as blood, urine, or sweat. For example, it can be used to measure the pH of a solution (the concentration of H+ ions) or the concentration of glucose in blood using a glucometer.

Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA) is a technique used in materials science and geology to analyze the chemical composition of materials at very small scales, typically on the order of microns or less. In this technique, a focused beam of electrons is directed at a sample, causing the emission of X-rays that are characteristic of the elements present in the sample. By analyzing the energy and intensity of these X-rays, researchers can determine the concentration of different elements in the sample with high precision and accuracy.

EPMA is typically performed using a specialized instrument called an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA), which consists of an electron column for generating and focusing the electron beam, an X-ray spectrometer for analyzing the emitted X-rays, and a stage for positioning and manipulating the sample. The technique is widely used in fields such as mineralogy, geochemistry, metallurgy, and materials science to study the composition and structure of minerals, alloys, semiconductors, and other materials.

One of the key advantages of EPMA is its ability to analyze the chemical composition of small regions within a sample, even in cases where there are spatial variations in composition or where the sample is heterogeneous. This makes it an ideal technique for studying the distribution and behavior of trace elements in minerals, the microstructure of alloys and other materials, and the composition of individual grains or phases within a polyphase material. Additionally, EPMA can be used to analyze both conductive and non-conductive samples, making it a versatile tool for a wide range of applications.

Dental materials are substances that are used in restorative dentistry, prosthodontics, endodontics, orthodontics, and preventive dentistry to restore or replace missing tooth structure, improve the function and esthetics of teeth, and protect the oral tissues from decay and disease. These materials can be classified into various categories based on their physical and chemical properties, including metals, ceramics, polymers, composites, cements, and alloys.

Some examples of dental materials include:

1. Amalgam: a metal alloy used for dental fillings that contains silver, tin, copper, and mercury. It is strong, durable, and resistant to wear but has been controversial due to concerns about the toxicity of mercury.
2. Composite: a tooth-colored restorative material made of a mixture of glass or ceramic particles and a bonding agent. It is used for fillings, veneers, and other esthetic dental treatments.
3. Glass ionomer cement: a type of cement used for dental restorations that releases fluoride ions and helps prevent tooth decay. It is often used for fillings in children's teeth or as a base under crowns and bridges.
4. Porcelain: a ceramic material used for dental crowns, veneers, and other esthetic restorations. It is strong, durable, and resistant to staining but can be brittle and prone to fracture.
5. Gold alloy: a metal alloy used for dental restorations that contains gold, copper, and other metals. It is highly biocompatible, corrosion-resistant, and malleable but can be expensive and less esthetic than other materials.
6. Acrylic resin: a type of polymer used for dental appliances such as dentures, night guards, and orthodontic retainers. It is lightweight, flexible, and easy to modify but can be less durable than other materials.

The choice of dental material depends on various factors, including the location and extent of the restoration, the patient's oral health status, their esthetic preferences, and their budget. Dental professionals must consider these factors carefully when selecting the appropriate dental material for each individual case.

I'm sorry for the confusion, but "Palladium" is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with symbol Pd and atomic number 46. It is a rare and lustrous silvery-white metal discovered in 1803 by William Hyde Wollaston. It's used in various applications, including jewelry, dental work, electronics, and chemical reactions. If you have any medical terms you would like me to define, please let me know!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Metal Ceramic Alloys" is not a recognized medical term. It is, however, a term used in the field of materials science and engineering. Metal ceramic alloys, also known as cermets, are materials that combine properties of both metals and ceramics. They are typically composed of a metal or alloy matrix with embedded ceramic particles.

In the context of medical devices or dental restorations, the term you might be looking for is "porcelain-fused-to-metal" (PFM). PFM restorations are a type of dental crown or bridge that combines a metal substructure with a ceramic outer layer. The metal provides strength and durability, while the ceramic layer mimics the appearance of natural teeth.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or definitions, please don't hesitate to ask!

Dental education refers to the process of teaching, training, and learning in the field of dentistry. It involves a curriculum of academic and clinical instruction that prepares students to become licensed dental professionals, such as dentists, dental hygienists, and dental assistants. Dental education typically takes place in accredited dental schools or programs and includes classroom study, laboratory work, and supervised clinical experience. The goal of dental education is to provide students with the knowledge, skills, and values necessary to deliver high-quality oral health care to patients and promote overall health and wellness.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Platinum" is not a medical term. Platinum is a chemical element with the symbol Pt and atomic number 78. It is a dense, malleable, ductile, highly unreactive, precious, silverish-white transition metal.

However, in the field of oncology, platinum-based compounds are used as chemotherapeutic drugs. These include:

1. Cisplatin: This is a platinum-containing drug that is used to treat various types of cancers such as testicular cancer, ovarian cancer, bladder cancer, and others. It works by forming crosslinks with the DNA of cancer cells, which disrupts their function and leads to cell death.

2. Carboplatin: This is another platinum-based chemotherapy drug that is used to treat various types of cancers such as ovarian cancer, lung cancer, and others. It is less toxic than cisplatin but has similar mechanisms of action.

3. Oxaliplatin: This is a third platinum-based chemotherapy drug that is used to treat colon cancer and rectal cancer. Like the other two drugs, it forms crosslinks with DNA and disrupts cell function leading to cell death.

These drugs are not made of pure platinum but contain platinum compounds that have been synthesized for medical use.

"Schools, Dental" is not a recognized medical term or concept. It seems that there might be some confusion in the terminology used. If you are referring to "Dental Schools," they are educational institutions that offer professional training programs in dentistry, leading to a degree in dental surgery (DDS) or dental medicine (DMD).

If you meant something else, please clarify the term or concept, and I would be happy to provide more information.

I'm happy to help! However, I believe there may be a slight misunderstanding in your question. "Students, Dental" is not a medical term or definition. Instead, it likely refers to individuals who are studying to become dental professionals, such as dentists, dental hygienists, or dental assistants.

If you're looking for information about dental education or the field of dentistry, I would be happy to provide some resources or answer any questions you may have!

Surface properties in the context of medical science refer to the characteristics and features of the outermost layer or surface of a biological material or structure, such as cells, tissues, organs, or medical devices. These properties can include physical attributes like roughness, smoothness, hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity, and electrical conductivity, as well as chemical properties like charge, reactivity, and composition.

In the field of biomaterials science, understanding surface properties is crucial for designing medical implants, devices, and drug delivery systems that can interact safely and effectively with biological tissues and fluids. Surface modifications, such as coatings or chemical treatments, can be used to alter surface properties and enhance biocompatibility, improve lubricity, reduce fouling, or promote specific cellular responses like adhesion, proliferation, or differentiation.

Similarly, in the field of cell biology, understanding surface properties is essential for studying cell-cell interactions, cell signaling, and cell behavior. Cells can sense and respond to changes in their environment, including variations in surface properties, which can influence cell shape, motility, and function. Therefore, characterizing and manipulating surface properties can provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of cellular processes and offer new strategies for developing therapies and treatments for various diseases.

Dental caries, also known as tooth decay or cavities, refers to the damage or breakdown of the hard tissues of the teeth (enamel, dentin, and cementum) due to the activity of acid-producing bacteria. These bacteria ferment sugars from food and drinks, producing acids that dissolve and weaken the tooth structure, leading to cavities.

The process of dental caries development involves several stages:

1. Demineralization: The acidic environment created by bacterial activity causes minerals (calcium and phosphate) to be lost from the tooth surface, making it weaker and more susceptible to decay.
2. Formation of a white spot lesion: As demineralization progresses, a chalky white area appears on the tooth surface, indicating early caries development.
3. Cavity formation: If left untreated, the demineralization process continues, leading to the breakdown and loss of tooth structure, resulting in a cavity or hole in the tooth.
4. Infection and pulp involvement: As the decay progresses deeper into the tooth, it can reach the dental pulp (the soft tissue containing nerves and blood vessels), causing infection, inflammation, and potentially leading to toothache, abscess, or even tooth loss.

Preventing dental caries involves maintaining good oral hygiene, reducing sugar intake, using fluoride toothpaste and mouthwash, and having regular dental check-ups and cleanings. Early detection and treatment of dental caries can help prevent further progression and more severe complications.

The dental casting technique is a method used in dentistry to create accurate replicas or reproductions of teeth and oral structures. This process typically involves the following steps:

1. Making an impression: A dental professional takes an impression of the patient's teeth and oral structures using a special material, such as alginate or polyvinyl siloxane. The impression material captures the precise shape and contours of the teeth and surrounding tissues.
2. Pouring the cast: The impression is then filled with a casting material, such as gypsum-based stone, which hardens to form a positive model or replica of the teeth and oral structures. This model is called a dental cast or die.
3. Examining and modifying the cast: The dental cast can be used for various purposes, such as analyzing the patient's bite, planning treatment, fabricating dental appliances, or creating study models for teaching or research purposes. Dental professionals may also modify the cast to simulate various conditions or treatments.
4. Replicating the process: In some cases, multiple casts may be made from a single impression, allowing dental professionals to create identical replicas of the patient's teeth and oral structures. This can be useful for comparing changes over time, creating duplicate appliances, or sharing information with other dental professionals involved in the patient's care.

The dental casting technique is an essential part of many dental procedures, as it enables dentists to accurately assess, plan, and implement treatments based on the unique characteristics of each patient's oral structures.

Dental care for chronically ill refers to the oral health management and treatment provided to individuals who have chronic medical conditions. These patients often require specialized dental care due to their increased risk of developing oral health problems as a result of their underlying medical condition or its treatment. The goal of dental care for the chronically ill is to prevent and manage dental diseases, such as tooth decay and gum disease, in order to maintain overall health and quality of life. This may involve close collaboration between dental professionals, physicians, and other healthcare providers to ensure that the patient's oral health needs are being met in a comprehensive and coordinated manner.

Dental care for children, also known as pediatric dentistry, is a branch of dentistry that focuses on the oral health of children from infancy through adolescence. The medical definition of dental care for children includes:

1. Preventive Dentistry: This involves regular dental check-ups, professional cleaning, fluoride treatments, and sealants to prevent tooth decay and other dental diseases. Parents are also educated on proper oral hygiene practices for their children, including brushing, flossing, and dietary habits.
2. Restorative Dentistry: If a child develops cavities or other dental problems, restorative treatments such as fillings, crowns, or pulpotomies (baby root canals) may be necessary to restore the health and function of their teeth.
3. Orthodontic Treatment: Many children require orthodontic treatment to correct misaligned teeth or jaws. Early intervention can help guide proper jaw development and prevent more severe issues from developing later on.
4. Habit Counseling: Dental care for children may also involve habit counseling, such as helping a child stop thumb sucking or pacifier use, which can negatively impact their oral health.
5. Sedation and Anesthesia: For children who are anxious about dental procedures or have special needs, sedation or anesthesia may be used to ensure their comfort and safety during treatment.
6. Emergency Care: Dental care for children also includes emergency care for injuries such as knocked-out teeth, broken teeth, or severe toothaches. Prompt attention is necessary to prevent further damage and alleviate pain.
7. Education and Prevention: Finally, dental care for children involves educating parents and children about the importance of good oral hygiene practices and regular dental check-ups to maintain optimal oral health throughout their lives.

A dental clinic is a healthcare facility that is primarily focused on providing oral health services to patients. These services may include preventative care, such as dental cleanings and exams, as well as restorative treatments like fillings, crowns, and bridges. Dental clinics may also offer specialized services, such as orthodontics, periodontics, or endodontics.

In a dental clinic, patients are typically seen by licensed dentists who have completed dental school and received additional training in their chosen area of specialty. Dental hygienists, dental assistants, and other support staff may also work in the clinic to provide care and assistance to patients.

Dental clinics can be found in a variety of settings, including hospitals, community health centers, private practices, and educational institutions. Some dental clinics may specialize in treating certain populations, such as children, elderly individuals, or low-income patients. Others may offer specialized services, such as oral surgery or cosmetic dentistry.

Overall, dental clinics play an important role in promoting oral health and preventing dental diseases and conditions. By providing access to high-quality dental care, dental clinics can help patients maintain healthy teeth and gums, prevent tooth decay and gum disease, and improve their overall quality of life.

Dental pulp is the soft tissue located in the center of a tooth, surrounded by the dentin. It contains nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissue, and plays a vital role in the development and health of the tooth. The dental pulp helps to form dentin during tooth development and continues to provide nourishment to the tooth throughout its life. It also serves as a sensory organ, allowing the tooth to detect hot and cold temperatures and transmit pain signals to the brain. Injury or infection of the dental pulp can lead to serious dental problems, such as tooth decay or abscesses, and may require root canal treatment to remove the damaged tissue and save the tooth.

A dental hygienist is a licensed healthcare professional who works as part of the dental team, providing educational, clinical, and therapeutic services to prevent and control oral diseases. They are trained and authorized to perform various duties such as:

1. Cleaning and polishing teeth (prophylaxis) to remove plaque, calculus, and stains.
2. Applying fluoride and sealants to protect tooth surfaces from decay.
3. Taking dental radiographs (x-rays) to help diagnose dental issues.
4. Providing oral health education, including proper brushing, flossing techniques, and nutrition counseling.
5. Performing screenings for oral cancer and other diseases.
6. Documenting patient care and treatment plans in medical records.
7. Collaborating with dentists to develop individualized treatment plans for patients.
8. Managing infection control protocols and maintaining a safe, clean dental environment.
9. Providing supportive services, such as applying anesthetics or administering nitrous oxide, under the direct supervision of a dentist (depending on state regulations).

Dental hygienists typically work in private dental offices but can also be found in hospitals, clinics, public health settings, educational institutions, and research facilities. They must complete an accredited dental hygiene program and pass written and clinical exams to obtain licensure in their state of practice. Continuing education is required to maintain licensure and stay current with advancements in the field.

The Faculty of Dental Surgery (FDS) is a division or department within a medical or dental school that focuses on the study, research, and practice of dental surgery. The faculty may be responsible for providing undergraduate and postgraduate education and training in dental surgery, as well as conducting research in this field.

Dental surgery encompasses various procedures related to the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases and disorders that affect the teeth, gums, and other structures of the mouth and jaw. This may include procedures such as tooth extractions, root canals, dental implants, and oral cancer surgery, among others.

The Faculty of Dental Surgery is typically composed of a group of dental surgeons who are experts in their field and have a commitment to advancing the practice of dental surgery through education, research, and clinical excellence. Members of the faculty may include professors, researchers, clinicians, and other professionals who are involved in the delivery of dental care.

Electrochemistry is a branch of chemistry that deals with the interconversion of electrical energy and chemical energy. It involves the study of chemical processes that cause electrons to move, resulting in the transfer of electrical charge, and the reverse processes by which electrical energy can be used to drive chemical reactions. This field encompasses various phenomena such as the generation of electricity from chemical sources (as in batteries), the electrolysis of substances, and corrosion. Electrochemical reactions are fundamental to many technologies, including energy storage and conversion, environmental protection, and medical diagnostics.

Dental care for disabled refers to the specialized oral health services and treatments provided to individuals with physical, cognitive, or developmental disabilities. This type of dental care aims to prevent and manage dental diseases and conditions that can be more prevalent and challenging to treat in this population due to factors such as limited mobility, difficulty communicating, behavioral challenges, and the need for specialized equipment and techniques. Dental care for disabled may include routine cleanings, fillings, extractions, and other procedures, as well as education and counseling on oral hygiene and dietary habits. It may also involve collaboration with other healthcare providers to manage overall health and well-being.

Dental casting investment is a material used in the production of dental restorations, such as crowns and bridges, through the process of lost-wax casting. It is typically made of a gypsum-based substance that is poured into a mold containing a wax pattern of the desired restoration. Once the investment hardens, the mold is heated in a furnace to melt out the wax, leaving behind a cavity in the shape of the restoration. The molten metal alloy is then introduced into this cavity, and after it cools and solidifies, the investment is removed, revealing the finished restoration.

Dental anxiety is a common feeling of fear or apprehension associated with dental appointments, treatments, or procedures. It can range from mild feelings of unease to severe phobias that cause people to avoid dental care altogether. Dental anxiety may stem from various factors such as negative past experiences, fear of pain, needles, or loss of control. In some cases, dental anxiety may lead to physical symptoms like sweating, rapid heartbeat, and difficulty breathing. It is important for individuals with dental anxiety to communicate their feelings with their dentist so that they can receive appropriate care and support.

Dental insurance is a type of health insurance specifically designed to cover the costs associated with dental care. It typically helps pay for preventive, basic, and major restorative procedures, including routine checkups, cleanings, fillings, extractions, root canals, crowns, bridges, and in some cases, orthodontic treatment.

Dental insurance plans often have a network of participating dentists who agree to provide services at pre-negotiated rates, helping to keep costs down for both the insured individual and the insurance company. The plan may cover a certain percentage of the cost of each procedure or have set copayments and deductibles that apply.

Like other forms of insurance, dental insurance plans come with annual maximum coverage limits, which is the most the plan will pay for dental care within a given year. It's essential to understand the terms and conditions of your dental insurance policy to make informed decisions about your oral health care and maximize the benefits available to you.

Dental amalgam is a commonly used dental filling material that consists of a mixture of metals, including silver, tin, copper, and mercury. The mercury binds the other metals together to form a strong, durable, and stable restoration that is resistant to wear and tear. Dental amalgam has been used for over 150 years to fill cavities and repair damaged teeth, and it remains a popular choice among dentists due to its strength, durability, and affordability.

However, there has been some controversy surrounding the use of dental amalgam due to concerns about the potential health effects of mercury exposure. While the majority of scientific evidence suggests that dental amalgam is safe for most people, some individuals may be more sensitive to mercury and may experience adverse reactions. As a result, some dentists may recommend alternative filling materials, such as composite resin or gold, for certain patients.

Overall, dental amalgam is a safe and effective option for filling cavities and restoring damaged teeth, but it is important to discuss any concerns or questions with a qualified dental professional.

Dental auxiliaries are healthcare professionals who provide support to dentists in the delivery of oral healthcare services. They work under the supervision of a licensed dentist and perform tasks that require specific technical skills and knowledge. Examples of dental auxiliaries include dental hygienists, dental assistants, and dental lab technicians.

Dental hygienists are responsible for providing preventive dental care to patients, including cleaning teeth, taking x-rays, and educating patients on oral hygiene practices. They may also perform certain clinical procedures under the direct supervision of a dentist.

Dental assistants work closely with dentists during dental procedures, preparing instruments, mixing materials, and providing patient care. They may also perform administrative tasks such as scheduling appointments and managing patient records.

Dental lab technicians create dental restorations such as crowns, bridges, and dentures based on impressions taken by the dentist. They use a variety of materials and techniques to fabricate these devices with precision and accuracy.

It's important to note that the specific roles and responsibilities of dental auxiliaries may vary depending on the jurisdiction and local regulations.

Dental health services refer to medical care and treatment provided for the teeth and mouth. This can include preventative care, such as dental cleanings and exams, as well as restorative treatments like fillings, crowns, and root canals. Dental health services may also include cosmetic procedures, such as teeth whitening or orthodontic treatment to straighten crooked teeth. In addition to these services, dental health professionals may provide education on oral hygiene and the importance of maintaining good dental health. These services are typically provided by dentists, dental hygienists, and other dental professionals in a variety of settings, including private dental practices, community health clinics, and hospitals.

Dental research is a scientific discipline that focuses on the study of teeth, oral health, and related diseases. It involves various aspects of dental sciences such as oral biology, microbiology, biochemistry, genetics, epidemiology, biomaterials, and biotechnology. The main aim of dental research is to improve oral health care, develop new diagnostic tools, prevent dental diseases, and create better treatment options for various dental conditions. Dental researchers may study topics such as tooth development, oral cancer, periodontal disease, dental caries (cavities), saliva composition, and the effects of nutrition on oral health. The findings from dental research can help improve dental care practices, inform public health policies, and advance our understanding of overall human health.

Dental care for the elderly, also known as geriatric dentistry, refers to the dental care services provided to meet the specific needs and challenges of older adults. As people age, they may experience various oral health issues such as:

* Dry mouth due to medication side effects or medical conditions
* Gum disease and periodontitis
* Tooth loss and decay
* Oral cancer
* Uneven jawbone or ill-fitting dentures

Dental care for the aged may include routine dental exams, cleanings, fillings, extractions, denture fittings, oral surgery, and education on proper oral hygiene. It is important for elderly individuals to maintain good oral health as it can impact their overall health and quality of life. Regular dental check-ups and good oral hygiene practices can help prevent or manage these common oral health problems in the elderly.

The dental arch refers to the curved shape formed by the upper or lower teeth when they come together. The dental arch follows the curve of the jaw and is important for proper bite alignment and overall oral health. The dental arches are typically described as having a U-shaped appearance, with the front teeth forming a narrower section and the back teeth forming a wider section. The shape and size of the dental arch can vary from person to person, and any significant deviations from the typical shape or size may indicate an underlying orthodontic issue that requires treatment.

Dental plaque is a biofilm or mass of bacteria that accumulates on the surface of the teeth, restorative materials, and prosthetic devices such as dentures. It is initiated when bacterial colonizers attach to the smooth surfaces of teeth through van der Waals forces and specific molecular adhesion mechanisms.

The microorganisms within the dental plaque produce extracellular polysaccharides that help to stabilize and strengthen the biofilm, making it resistant to removal by simple brushing or rinsing. Over time, if not regularly removed through oral hygiene practices such as brushing and flossing, dental plaque can mineralize and harden into tartar or calculus.

The bacteria in dental plaque can cause tooth decay (dental caries) by metabolizing sugars and producing acid that demineralizes the tooth enamel. Additionally, certain types of bacteria in dental plaque can cause periodontal disease, an inflammation of the gums that can lead to tissue damage and bone loss around the teeth. Regular professional dental cleanings and good oral hygiene practices are essential for preventing the buildup of dental plaque and maintaining good oral health.

A dental office is a healthcare facility where dental professionals, such as dentists, oral surgeons, and orthodontists, provide various dental treatments and services to patients. These services may include routine check-ups, teeth cleaning, fillings, extractions, root canals, crowns, bridges, implants, and orthodontic treatments like braces.

Dental offices typically have examination rooms equipped with dental chairs, dental instruments, and X-ray machines to diagnose and treat dental issues. They may also have a reception area where patients can schedule appointments, make payments, and complete paperwork.

In addition to clinical services, dental offices may also provide patient education on oral hygiene practices, nutrition, and lifestyle habits that can affect dental health. Some dental offices may specialize in certain areas of dentistry, such as pediatric dentistry or cosmetic dentistry.

Dental implants are artificial tooth roots that are surgically placed into the jawbone to replace missing or extracted teeth. They are typically made of titanium, a biocompatible material that can fuse with the bone over time in a process called osseointegration. Once the implant has integrated with the bone, a dental crown, bridge, or denture can be attached to it to restore function and aesthetics to the mouth.

Dental implants are a popular choice for tooth replacement because they offer several advantages over traditional options like dentures or bridges. They are more stable and comfortable, as they do not rely on adjacent teeth for support and do not slip or move around in the mouth. Additionally, dental implants can help to preserve jawbone density and prevent facial sagging that can occur when teeth are missing.

The process of getting dental implants typically involves several appointments with a dental specialist called a prosthodontist or an oral surgeon. During the first appointment, the implant is placed into the jawbone, and the gum tissue is stitched closed. Over the next few months, the implant will fuse with the bone. Once this process is complete, a second surgery may be necessary to expose the implant and attach an abutment, which connects the implant to the dental restoration. Finally, the crown, bridge, or denture is attached to the implant, providing a natural-looking and functional replacement for the missing tooth.

Dental records are a collection of detailed documentation related to a patient's dental history and treatment. These records typically include:

1. Patient demographics: This includes the patient's name, date of birth, contact information, and other identifying details.
2. Dental charts: These are graphic representations of the patient's teeth and gums, noting any existing restorations, decay, periodontal disease, or other oral health conditions.
3. Radiographs (x-rays): These images help dentists visualize structures that aren't visible during a clinical examination, such as between teeth, below the gum line, and inside the jaw bones.
4. Treatment plans: This includes proposed dental procedures, their estimated costs, and the rationale behind them.
5. Progress notes: These are ongoing records of each dental appointment, detailing the treatments performed, the patient's response to treatment, and any home care instructions given.
6. Medical history: This includes any systemic health conditions that could impact dental treatment, such as diabetes or heart disease, as well as medications being taken.
7. Consent forms: These are documents signed by the patient (or their legal guardian) giving permission for specific treatments.
8. Communication notes: Any correspondence between dental professionals regarding the patient's care.

Dental records play a crucial role in continuity of care, allowing dentists to track changes in a patient's oral health over time and make informed treatment decisions. They are also important for medicolegal reasons, providing evidence in case of malpractice claims or other disputes.

The term "dental staff" generally refers to the group of professionals who work together in a dental practice or setting to provide oral health care services to patients. The composition of a dental staff can vary depending on the size and type of the practice, but it typically includes:

1. Dentists: These are medical doctors who specialize in oral health. They diagnose and treat dental diseases, conditions, and disorders, and perform various procedures such as fillings, root canals, extractions, and crowns.
2. Dental Hygienists: These are licensed healthcare professionals who provide preventive dental care services to patients. They clean teeth, remove plaque and tartar, apply fluoride and sealants, take X-rays, and educate patients on proper oral hygiene practices.
3. Dental Assistants: These are trained professionals who assist dentists during procedures and perform various administrative tasks in a dental practice. They prepare patients for treatment, sterilize instruments, take impressions, and schedule appointments.
4. Front Office Staff: These are the receptionists, schedulers, and billing specialists who manage the administrative aspects of a dental practice. They handle patient inquiries, schedule appointments, process insurance claims, and maintain patient records.
5. Other Specialists: Depending on the needs of the practice, other dental professionals such as orthodontists, oral surgeons, endodontists, periodontists, or prosthodontists may also be part of the dental staff. These specialists have advanced training in specific areas of dentistry and provide specialized care to patients.

Overall, a well-functioning dental staff is essential for providing high-quality oral health care services to patients in a safe, efficient, and patient-centered manner.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Tin" does not have a medical definition. Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn and atomic number 50. It is a malleable, ductile, silvery-white post-transition metal. It is found in nature mainly as tin oxides and is obtained from the mineral cassiterite through mining and processing.

Tin has no known biological role in humans, animals, or plants, and it is not considered an essential nutrient. Small amounts of tin can be found in some foods and drinking water, but these levels are generally low and not considered harmful. High levels of tin can be toxic to the human body, causing symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.

If you have any questions about a medical condition or treatment, I would recommend consulting with a healthcare professional for accurate information and guidance.

Dental equipment refers to the various instruments and devices used by dental professionals to perform oral health examinations, diagnose dental conditions, and provide treatment to patients. Here are some examples:

1. Dental chair: A specially designed chair that allows patients to recline while receiving dental care.
2. Examination light: A bright light used to illuminate the oral cavity during examinations and procedures.
3. Dental mirror: A small, angled mirror used to help dentists see hard-to-reach areas of the mouth.
4. Explorer: A sharp instrument used to probe teeth for signs of decay or other dental problems.
5. Dental probe: A blunt instrument used to measure the depth of periodontal pockets and assess gum health.
6. Scaler: A handheld instrument or ultrasonic device used to remove tartar and calculus from teeth.
7. Suction device: A vacuum-like tool that removes saliva, water, and debris from the mouth during procedures.
8. Dental drill: A high-speed instrument used to remove decayed or damaged tooth structure and prepare teeth for fillings, crowns, or other restorations.
9. Rubber dam: A thin sheet of rubber used to isolate individual teeth during procedures, keeping them dry and free from saliva.
10. Dental X-ray machine: A device that uses radiation to capture images of the teeth and surrounding structures, helping dentists diagnose conditions such as decay, infection, and bone loss.
11. Curing light: A special light used to harden dental materials, such as composite fillings and crowns, after they have been placed in the mouth.
12. Air/water syringe: A handheld device that delivers a stream of air and water to clean teeth and rinse away debris during procedures.

"General practice dentistry" is a term used to describe the provision of primary dental care to patients of all ages. A general practice dentist provides a wide range of dental services, including preventative care (such as cleanings and fluoride treatments), restorative care (fillings, crowns, bridges), endodontics (root canals), oral surgery (extractions), periodontics (treatment of gum disease), prosthodontics (dentures, implants), and orthodontics (braces). They also diagnose and manage dental diseases and provide advice on oral health. General practice dentists aim to provide comprehensive and continuous care to their patients, coordinating with other dental and medical professionals as needed.

Dental bonding is a cosmetic dental procedure in which a tooth-colored resin material (a type of plastic) is applied and hardened with a special light, which ultimately "bonds" the material to the tooth to improve its appearance. According to the American Dental Association (ADA), dental bonding can be used for various purposes, including:

1. Repairing chipped or cracked teeth
2. Improving the appearance of discolored teeth
3. Closing spaces between teeth
4. Protecting a portion of the tooth's root that has been exposed due to gum recession
5. Changing the shape and size of teeth

Dental bonding is generally a quick and painless procedure, often requiring little to no anesthesia. The surface of the tooth is roughened and conditioned to help the resin adhere properly. Then, the resin material is applied, molded, and smoothed to the desired shape. A special light is used to harden the material, which typically takes only a few minutes. Finally, the bonded material is trimmed, shaped, and polished to match the surrounding teeth.

While dental bonding can be an effective solution for minor cosmetic concerns, it may not be as durable or long-lasting as other dental restoration options like veneers or crowns. The lifespan of a dental bonding procedure typically ranges from 3 to 10 years, depending on factors such as oral habits, location of the bonded tooth, and proper care. Regular dental checkups and good oral hygiene practices can help extend the life of dental bonding.

A dental assistant is a healthcare professional who works under the direction of a dentist and provides patient care, takes and develops x-rays, assists the dentist during procedures, performs infection control procedures, and helps with office management. They may also provide education to patients on oral hygiene and other dental health topics. Dental assistants must be trained and certified in many states and are an important part of the dental care team.

Dental radiography is a specific type of imaging that uses radiation to produce detailed images of the teeth, bones, and soft tissues surrounding them. It is a crucial tool in dental diagnostics and treatment planning. There are several types of dental radiographs, including:

1. Intraoral Radiographs: These are taken inside the mouth and provide detailed images of individual teeth or small groups of teeth. They can help detect cavities, assess periodontal health, plan for restorations, and monitor tooth development in children. Common types of intraoral radiographs include bitewing, periapical, and occlusal radiographs.
2. Extraoral Radiographs: These are taken outside the mouth and provide images of larger areas, such as the entire jaw or skull. They can help diagnose issues related to the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), detect impacted teeth, assess bone health, and identify any abnormalities in the facial structure. Common types of extraoral radiographs include panoramic, cephalometric, and sialography radiographs.
3. Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT): This is a specialized type of dental radiography that uses a cone-shaped X-ray beam to create detailed 3D images of the teeth, bones, and soft tissues. It is particularly useful in planning complex treatments such as dental implants, orthodontic treatment, and oral surgery.

Dental radiographs are typically taken using a specialized machine that emits a low dose of radiation. Patients are provided with protective lead aprons to minimize exposure to radiation. The frequency of dental radiographs depends on the patient's individual needs and medical history. Dentists follow strict guidelines to ensure that dental radiography is safe and effective for their patients.

Continuing dental education (CDE) refers to the ongoing education and training that dentists and other oral health professionals engage in after completing their initial professional degrees. The purpose of CDE is to help these professionals stay current with advances in dental technology, research, and patient care so they can continue to provide the highest quality of care to their patients.

CDE programs may cover a wide range of topics, including new techniques for treating oral diseases, advances in dental materials and equipment, ethical issues in dental practice, and strategies for managing a successful dental practice. These programs may take many forms, such as lectures, workshops, seminars, online courses, or hands-on training sessions.

In most states, dentists are required to complete a certain number of CDE credits each year in order to maintain their licensure. This helps ensure that all dental professionals are up-to-date on the latest research and best practices in their field, which ultimately benefits patients by promoting better oral health outcomes.

Dental anesthesia is a type of local or regional anesthesia that is specifically used in dental procedures to block the transmission of pain impulses from the teeth and surrounding tissues to the brain. The most common types of dental anesthesia include:

1. Local anesthesia: This involves the injection of a local anesthetic drug, such as lidocaine or prilocaine, into the gum tissue near the tooth that is being treated. This numbs the area and prevents the patient from feeling pain during the procedure.
2. Conscious sedation: This is a type of minimal sedation that is used to help patients relax during dental procedures. The patient remains conscious and can communicate with the dentist, but may not remember the details of the procedure. Common methods of conscious sedation include nitrous oxide (laughing gas) or oral sedatives.
3. Deep sedation or general anesthesia: This is rarely used in dental procedures, but may be necessary for patients who are extremely anxious or have special needs. It involves the administration of drugs that cause a state of unconsciousness and prevent the patient from feeling pain during the procedure.

Dental anesthesia is generally safe when administered by a qualified dentist or oral surgeon. However, as with any medical procedure, there are risks involved, including allergic reactions to the anesthetic drugs, nerve damage, and infection. Patients should discuss any concerns they have with their dentist before undergoing dental anesthesia.

Dental stress analysis is a method used in dentistry to evaluate the amount and distribution of forces that act upon teeth and surrounding structures during biting, chewing, or other functional movements. This analysis helps dental professionals identify areas of excessive stress or strain that may lead to dental problems such as tooth fracture, mobility, or periodontal (gum) disease. By identifying these areas, dentists can develop treatment plans to reduce the risk of dental issues and improve overall oral health.

Dental stress analysis typically involves the use of specialized equipment, such as strain gauges, T-scan occlusal analysis systems, or finite element analysis software, to measure and analyze the forces that act upon teeth during various functional movements. The results of the analysis can help dentists determine the best course of treatment, which may include adjusting the bite, restoring damaged teeth with crowns or fillings, or fabricating custom-made oral appliances to redistribute the forces evenly across the dental arch.

Overall, dental stress analysis is an important tool in modern dentistry that helps dental professionals diagnose and treat dental problems related to occlusal (bite) forces, ensuring optimal oral health and function for their patients.

Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) is a technique used in thermoanalysis to study the physical and chemical changes that occur in a material as it is heated or cooled. It measures the difference in temperature between a sample and a reference material, both of which are subjected to the same temperature program.

In DTA, the sample and reference material are placed in separate but identical holders, and the temperature of the reference material is kept constant while the temperature of the sample is increased or decreased at a controlled rate. As the sample undergoes physical or chemical changes, such as phase transitions or chemical reactions, it absorbs or releases heat, causing its temperature to change relative to the reference material.

The DTA curve plots the temperature difference between the sample and the reference material against time or temperature. The resulting curve provides information about the thermal behavior of the sample, including any endothermic or exothermic reactions that occur as it is heated or cooled. Endothermic reactions, which require heat input, are indicated by a negative deflection in the DTA curve, while exothermic reactions, which release heat, are indicated by a positive deflection.

DTA is widely used in materials science, chemistry, and physics to study the thermal properties of materials, including their phase transitions, melting points, crystallization behavior, and chemical stability. It can also be used to identify unknown materials or to characterize the purity of a sample.

Dental models are replicas of a patient's teeth and surrounding oral structures, used in dental practice and education. They are typically created using plaster or other materials that harden to accurately reproduce the shape and position of each tooth, as well as the contours of the gums and palate. Dental models may be used for a variety of purposes, including treatment planning, creating custom-fitted dental appliances, and teaching dental students about oral anatomy and various dental procedures. They provide a tactile and visual representation that can aid in understanding and communication between dentists, patients, and other dental professionals.

Dental technology refers to the application of science and engineering in dentistry to prevent, diagnose, and treat dental diseases and conditions. It involves the use of various equipment, materials, and techniques to improve oral health and enhance the delivery of dental care. Some examples of dental technology include:

1. Digital radiography: This technology uses digital sensors instead of traditional X-ray films to produce images of the teeth and supporting structures. It provides higher quality images, reduces radiation exposure, and allows for easier storage and sharing of images.
2. CAD/CAM dentistry: Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology is used to design and fabricate dental restorations such as crowns, bridges, and veneers in a single appointment. This technology allows for more precise and efficient production of dental restorations.
3. Dental implants: These are artificial tooth roots that are placed into the jawbone to replace missing teeth. They provide a stable foundation for dental restorations such as crowns, bridges, and dentures.
4. Intraoral cameras: These are small cameras that can be inserted into the mouth to capture detailed images of the teeth and gums. These images can be used for diagnosis, treatment planning, and patient education.
5. Laser dentistry: Dental lasers are used to perform a variety of procedures such as cavity preparation, gum contouring, and tooth whitening. They provide more precise and less invasive treatments compared to traditional dental tools.
6. 3D printing: This technology is used to create dental models, surgical guides, and custom-made dental restorations. It allows for more accurate and efficient production of dental products.

Overall, dental technology plays a crucial role in modern dentistry by improving the accuracy, efficiency, and quality of dental care.

"Dental, Graduate Education" refers to the post-baccalaureate programs of study and training that lead to an advanced degree in the field of dentistry. These programs are designed to prepare students for specialized dental practice, research, or teaching careers. Examples of graduate dental degrees include:

1. Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS): A professional doctoral degree that qualifies the graduate to practice general dentistry.
2. Doctor of Medical Dentistry (DMD): A professional doctoral degree equivalent to the DDS; awarded by some universities in the United States and several other countries.
3. Master of Science (MS) in Dentistry: An academic master's degree focused on research, teaching, or advanced clinical practice in a specific dental discipline.
4. Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in Dental Sciences: A research-oriented doctoral degree that prepares students for careers in academia, research institutions, or the dental industry.
5. Specialty Training Programs: Postgraduate residency programs that provide advanced training in one of the nine recognized dental specialties, such as orthodontics, oral and maxillofacial surgery, or pediatric dentistry. These programs typically lead to a certificate or a master's degree in the respective specialty area.

Graduate dental education usually involves a combination of classroom instruction, laboratory work, clinical experience, and research. Admission to these programs typically requires a DDS or DMD degree from an accredited dental school and satisfactory scores on the Dental Admission Test (DAT).

In the context of medical terminology, "hardness" is not a term that has a specific or standardized definition. It may be used in various ways to describe the firmness or consistency of a tissue, such as the hardness of an artery or tumor, but it does not have a single authoritative medical definition.

In some cases, healthcare professionals may use subjective terms like "hard," "firm," or "soft" to describe their tactile perception during a physical examination. For example, they might describe the hardness of an enlarged liver or spleen by comparing it to the feel of their knuckles when gently pressed against the abdomen.

However, in other contexts, healthcare professionals may use more objective measures of tissue stiffness or elasticity, such as palpation durometry or shear wave elastography, which provide quantitative assessments of tissue hardness. These techniques can be useful for diagnosing and monitoring conditions that affect the mechanical properties of tissues, such as liver fibrosis or cancer.

Therefore, while "hardness" may be a term used in medical contexts to describe certain physical characteristics of tissues, it does not have a single, universally accepted definition.

Dental ethics refers to the principles and rules that guide the conduct of dental professionals in their interactions with patients, colleagues, and society. These ethical standards are designed to promote trust, respect, and fairness in dental care, and they are often based on fundamental ethical principles such as autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice.

Autonomy refers to the patient's right to make informed decisions about their own health care, free from coercion or manipulation. Dental professionals have an obligation to provide patients with accurate information about their dental conditions and treatment options, so that they can make informed choices about their care.

Beneficence means acting in the best interests of the patient, and doing what is medically necessary and appropriate to promote their health and well-being. Dental professionals have a duty to provide high-quality care that meets accepted standards of practice, and to use evidence-based treatments that are likely to be effective.

Non-maleficence means avoiding harm to the patient. Dental professionals must take reasonable precautions to prevent injuries or complications during treatment, and they should avoid providing unnecessary or harmful treatments.

Justice refers to fairness and equity in the distribution of dental resources and services. Dental professionals have an obligation to provide care that is accessible, affordable, and culturally sensitive, and to advocate for policies and practices that promote health equity and social justice.

Dental ethics also encompasses issues related to patient confidentiality, informed consent, research integrity, professional competence, and boundary violations. Dental professionals are expected to adhere to ethical guidelines established by their professional organizations, such as the American Dental Association (ADA) or the British Dental Association (BDA), and to comply with relevant laws and regulations governing dental practice.

Dental porcelain is a type of biocompatible ceramic material that is commonly used in restorative and cosmetic dentistry to create tooth-colored restorations such as crowns, veneers, inlays, onlays, and bridges. It is made from a mixture of powdered porcelain and water, which is heated to high temperatures to form a hard, glass-like substance. Dental porcelain has several desirable properties for dental restorations, including:

1. High strength and durability: Dental porcelain is strong enough to withstand the forces of biting and chewing, making it suitable for use in load-bearing restorations such as crowns and bridges.
2. Natural appearance: Dental porcelain can be matched closely to the color, translucency, and texture of natural teeth, allowing for highly aesthetic restorations that blend seamlessly with the surrounding dentition.
3. Biocompatibility: Dental porcelain is biologically inert and does not cause adverse reactions or toxicity in the body, making it a safe choice for dental restorations.
4. Chemical resistance: Dental porcelain is resistant to staining and chemical attack from substances such as coffee, tea, red wine, and acidic foods and drinks.
5. Low thermal conductivity: Dental porcelain has low thermal conductivity, which means it does not transmit heat or cold readily, reducing the risk of temperature sensitivity in dental restorations.

Overall, dental porcelain is a versatile and reliable material for creating high-quality, natural-looking, and durable dental restorations.

A "Dental Service, Hospital" is a specialized department or unit within a hospital that provides comprehensive dental care services to patients. This type of service is typically equipped with advanced dental technology and staffed by oral health professionals such as dentists, oral surgeons, orthodontists, endodontists, periodontists, and dental hygienists.

The dental services offered in a hospital setting may include preventive care, restorative treatments, oral surgery, prosthodontics (dentures and implants), periodontal therapy, endodontic treatment (root canals), orthodontic treatment, and specialized care for patients with medical conditions that affect their oral health.

Hospital dental services often provide care to patients who require complex or extensive dental treatments, have medical conditions that make it difficult to receive dental care in a traditional dental office setting, or those who are recovering from surgery or other medical procedures. They may also provide emergency dental care for patients with severe dental pain, infection, or trauma.

In summary, a "Dental Service, Hospital" is a specialized unit within a hospital that provides comprehensive dental care services to patients, typically offering advanced technology and staffed by oral health professionals.

A dentist is a healthcare professional who specializes in the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases and conditions that affect the oral cavity and maxillofacial region. This includes the teeth, gums, jaw, and related structures. Dentists are trained to provide a wide range of services, including:

1. Routine dental exams and cleanings
2. Fillings, crowns, and other restorative treatments
3. Root canals and extractions
4. Dental implants and dentures
5. Orthodontic treatment (braces, aligners)
6. Treatment of gum disease
7. Oral cancer screenings
8. Cosmetic dental procedures (teeth whitening, veneers)
9. Management of temporomandibular joint disorders (TMJ)
10. Emergency dental care

To become a dentist, one must complete a Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS) or Doctor of Medical Dentistry (DMD) degree from an accredited dental school and pass written and clinical exams to obtain licensure in their state. Many dentists also choose to specialize in a particular area of dentistry, such as orthodontics, oral surgery, or pediatric dentistry, by completing additional training and residency programs.

A dental society is a professional organization composed of dentists who have come together to promote and advance the practice of dentistry. These societies can be local, regional, national or international in scope and may include general dentists as well as specialists in various fields of dentistry. The members of dental societies often engage in continuing education, advocacy, research, and community service activities to improve oral health and the delivery of dental care. Additionally, dental societies may establish guidelines for ethical practice and provide resources and support for their members.

Dental health surveys are epidemiological studies that aim to assess the oral health status and related behaviors of a defined population at a particular point in time. These surveys collect data on various aspects of oral health, including the prevalence and severity of dental diseases such as caries (tooth decay), periodontal disease (gum disease), and oral cancer. They also gather information on factors that influence oral health, such as dietary habits, oral hygiene practices, access to dental care, and socioeconomic status.

The data collected in dental health surveys are used to identify trends and patterns in oral health, plan and evaluate public health programs and policies, and allocate resources for oral health promotion and disease prevention. Dental health surveys may be conducted at the local, regional, or national level, and they can target specific populations such as children, adolescents, adults, or older adults.

The methods used in dental health surveys include clinical examinations, interviews, questionnaires, and focus groups. Clinical examinations are conducted by trained dentists or dental hygienists who follow standardized protocols to assess the oral health status of participants. Interviews and questionnaires are used to collect information on demographic characteristics, oral health behaviors, and attitudes towards oral health. Focus groups can provide insights into the perceptions and experiences of participants regarding oral health issues.

Overall, dental health surveys play a critical role in monitoring and improving the oral health of populations and reducing oral health disparities.

Dental fluorosis is a developmental disturbance of dental enamel caused by excessive exposure to fluoride during tooth development. It is characterized by hypomineralization of the enamel, resulting in various appearances ranging from barely noticeable white spots to brown staining and pitting of the teeth. The severity depends on the amount, duration, and timing of fluoride intake, as well as individual susceptibility. Mild dental fluorosis is typically asymptomatic but can affect the appearance of teeth, while severe cases may cause tooth sensitivity and increased susceptibility to tooth decay.

Dental licensure is the process by which a state or jurisdiction grants a dental professional the authority to practice dentistry within its borders. In order to obtain a dental license, individuals must meet certain education, examination, and other requirements established by the licensing body. These requirements typically include graduation from an accredited dental school, passing written and clinical examinations, and completion of continuing education courses.

The purpose of dental licensure is to protect the public by ensuring that dental professionals have the necessary knowledge, skills, and abilities to provide safe and effective dental care. Licensing boards are responsible for enforcing standards of practice and disciplining dentists who engage in unprofessional or unethical conduct.

It's important to note that dental licensure requirements may vary from state to state, so it's essential for dental professionals to familiarize themselves with the specific requirements of the state(s) in which they intend to practice.

Dental laboratories are specialized facilities where dental technicians create and manufacture various dental restorations and appliances based on the specific measurements, models, and instructions provided by dentists. These custom-made dental products are designed to restore or replace damaged, missing, or decayed teeth, improve oral function, and enhance the overall appearance of a patient's smile.

Some common dental restorations and appliances produced in dental laboratories include:

1. Dental crowns: Artificial caps that cover and protect damaged or weakened teeth, often made from ceramics, porcelain, metal alloys, or a combination of materials.
2. Dental bridges: Fixed or removable appliances used to replace one or more missing teeth by connecting artificial teeth (pontics) to adjacent natural teeth or dental implants.
3. Dentures: Removable prosthetic devices that replace all or most of the upper and/or lower teeth, providing improved chewing function, speech clarity, and aesthetics.
4. Orthodontic appliances: Devices used to correct malocclusions (improper bites) and misaligned teeth, such as traditional braces, clear aligners, palatal expanders, and retainers.
5. Custom dental implant components: Specialized parts designed for specific implant systems, which are used in conjunction with dental implants to replace missing teeth permanently.
6. Night guards and occlusal splints: Protective devices worn during sleep to prevent or manage bruxism (teeth grinding) and temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD).
7. Anti-snoring devices: Mandibular advancement devices that help reduce snoring by holding the lower jaw in a slightly forward position, preventing airway obstruction during sleep.
8. Dental whitening trays: Custom-fitted trays used to hold bleaching gel against tooth surfaces for professional teeth whitening treatments.
9. Specialty restorations: Including aesthetic veneers, inlays, onlays, and other customized dental solutions designed to meet specific patient needs.

Dental laboratories may be standalone facilities or part of a larger dental practice. They are typically staffed by skilled technicians who specialize in various aspects of dental technology, such as ceramics, orthodontics, implantology, and prosthodontics. Collaboration between dentists, dental specialists, and laboratory technicians ensures the highest quality results for patients undergoing restorative or cosmetic dental treatments.

Dental specialties are recognized areas of expertise in dental practice that require additional training and education beyond the general dentist degree. The American Dental Association (ADA) recognizes nine dental specialties:

1. Dental Public Health: This specialty focuses on preventing oral diseases and promoting oral health through population-level interventions, research, and policy development.
2. Endodontics: Endodontists are experts in diagnosing and treating tooth pain and performing root canal treatments to save infected or damaged teeth.
3. Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: This specialty involves the diagnosis and management of diseases that affect the oral cavity, jaws, and face, using clinical, radiographic, and microscopic examination techniques.
4. Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology: Oral and maxillofacial radiologists use advanced imaging technologies to diagnose and manage conditions affecting the head and neck region.
5. Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery: Oral surgeons perform surgical procedures on the face, jaws, and mouth, including tooth extractions, jaw alignment surgeries, and cancer treatments.
6. Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics: Orthodontists specialize in diagnosing and treating dental and facial irregularities, using appliances such as braces and aligners to straighten teeth and correct bite problems.
7. Pediatric Dentistry: Pediatric dentists are trained to care for the oral health needs of children, including those with special health care needs.
8. Periodontics: Periodontists diagnose and treat gum diseases, place dental implants, and perform surgical procedures to regenerate lost tissue and bone support around teeth.
9. Prosthodontics: Prosthodontists are experts in replacing missing teeth and restoring damaged or worn-out teeth using crowns, bridges, dentures, and implant-supported restorations.

Methyl Methacrylates (MMA) are a family of synthetic materials that are commonly used in the medical field, particularly in orthopedic and dental applications. Medically, MMA is often used as a bone cement to fix prosthetic implants, such as artificial hips or knees, into place during surgeries.

Methyl methacrylates consist of a type of acrylic resin that hardens when mixed with a liquid catalyst. This property allows it to be easily molded and shaped before it sets, making it ideal for use in surgical procedures where precise positioning is required. Once hardened, MMA forms a strong, stable bond with the bone, helping to secure the implant in place.

It's important to note that while MMA is widely used in medical applications, there have been concerns about its safety in certain situations. For example, some studies have suggested that high levels of methyl methacrylate fumes released during the setting process may be harmful to both patients and surgical staff. Therefore, appropriate precautions should be taken when using MMA-based products in medical settings.

Dental fees refer to the charges that dentists or dental professionals bill for their services, procedures, or treatments. These fees can vary based on several factors such as:

1. Location: Dental fees may differ depending on the region or country where the dental practice is located due to differences in cost of living and local market conditions.
2. Type of procedure: The complexity and duration of a dental treatment will impact the fee charged for that service. For example, a simple teeth cleaning will have a lower fee compared to more complex procedures like root canals or dental implants.
3. Dental professional's expertise and experience: Highly skilled and experienced dentists may charge higher fees due to their superior level of knowledge and proficiency in performing various dental treatments.
4. Type of dental practice: Fees for dental services at a private practice may differ from those charged by a community health center or non-profit organization.
5. Dental insurance coverage: The amount of coverage provided by a patient's dental insurance plan can also affect the final out-of-pocket cost for dental care, which in turn influences the fees that dentists charge.

Dental fee schedules are typically established by individual dental practices based on these factors and may be periodically updated to reflect changes in costs or market conditions. Patients should consult their dental providers to understand the specific fees associated with any recommended treatments or procedures.

Methacrylates are a group of chemical compounds that contain the methacrylate functional group, which is a vinyl group (CH2=CH-) with a carbonyl group (C=O) at the β-position. This structure gives them unique chemical and physical properties, such as low viscosity, high reactivity, and resistance to heat and chemicals.

In medical terms, methacrylates are used in various biomedical applications, such as dental restorative materials, bone cements, and drug delivery systems. For example, methacrylate-based resins are commonly used in dentistry for fillings, crowns, and bridges due to their excellent mechanical properties and adhesion to tooth structures.

However, there have been concerns about the potential toxicity of methacrylates, particularly their ability to release monomers that can cause allergic reactions, irritation, or even mutagenic effects in some individuals. Therefore, it is essential to use these materials with caution and follow proper handling and safety protocols.

A dental technician is a healthcare professional who designs, fabricates, and repairs custom-made dental devices, such as dentures, crowns, bridges, orthodontic appliances, and implant restorations. They work closely with dentists and other oral health professionals to meet the individual needs of each patient. Dental technicians typically have an associate's degree or certificate in dental technology and may be certified by a professional organization. Their work requires a strong understanding of dental materials, fabrication techniques, and the latest advances in dental technology.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nickel" is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with the symbol Ni and atomic number 28. Nickel is a hard, silvery-white lustrous metal with a slight golden tinge. It is one of four elements that are ferromagnetic and is used as a common component in various alloys due to its properties such as resistance to corrosion and heat.

However, in a medical context, nickel may refer to:

* Nickel allergy: A type of allergic contact dermatitis caused by an immune system response to the presence of nickel in jewelry, clothing fasteners, or other items that come into contact with the skin. Symptoms can include redness, itching, and rash at the site of exposure.
* Nickel carbonyl: A highly toxic chemical compound (Ni(CO)4) that can cause respiratory and neurological problems if inhaled. It is produced during some industrial processes involving nickel and carbon monoxide and poses a health risk to workers if proper safety measures are not taken.

If you have any concerns about exposure to nickel or symptoms related to nickel allergy, it's best to consult with a healthcare professional for further evaluation and treatment.

Practice management in dentistry refers to the administration and operation of a dental practice. It involves various aspects such as:

1. Business Operations: This includes financial management, billing and coding, human resources, and office management.

2. Patient Care: This includes scheduling appointments, managing patient records, treatment planning, and ensuring quality care.

3. Marketing and Promotion: This includes advertising the practice, attracting new patients, and maintaining relationships with existing ones.

4. Compliance: This includes adhering to laws and regulations related to dental practices, such as HIPAA for patient privacy and OSHA for workplace safety.

5. Continuous Improvement: This involves regularly assessing the practice's performance, implementing changes to improve efficiency and effectiveness, and keeping up-to-date with advancements in dentistry and healthcare management.

The goal of dental practice management is to ensure the smooth running of the practice, provide high-quality patient care, and maintain a successful and profitable business.

The dental sac, also known as the dental follicle, is a soft tissue structure that surrounds the developing tooth crown during odontogenesis, which is the process of tooth development. It is derived from the ectoderm and mesenchyme of the embryonic oral cavity. The dental sac gives rise to several important structures associated with the tooth, including the periodontal ligament, cementum, and the alveolar bone that surrounds and supports the tooth in the jaw.

The dental sac plays a critical role in tooth development by regulating the mineralization of the tooth crown and providing a protective environment for the developing tooth. It also contains cells called odontoblasts, which are responsible for producing dentin, one of the hard tissues that make up the tooth. Abnormalities in the development or growth of the dental sac can lead to various dental anomalies, such as impacted teeth, dilacerated roots, and other developmental disorders.

Gallium is not a medical term, but it's a chemical element with the symbol Ga and atomic number 31. It is a soft, silvery-blue metal that melts at a temperature just above room temperature. In medicine, gallium compounds such as gallium nitrate and gallium citrate are used as radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic purposes in nuclear medicine imaging studies, particularly in the detection of inflammation, infection, and some types of cancer.

For example, Gallium-67 is a radioactive isotope that can be injected into the body to produce images of various diseases such as abscesses, osteomyelitis (bone infection), and tumors using a gamma camera. The way gallium distributes in the body can provide valuable information about the presence and extent of disease.

Therefore, while gallium is not a medical term itself, it has important medical applications as a diagnostic tool in nuclear medicine.

A dental prosthesis is a device that replaces missing teeth or parts of teeth and restores their function and appearance. The design of a dental prosthesis refers to the plan and specifications used to create it, including the materials, shape, size, and arrangement of the artificial teeth and any supporting structures.

The design of a dental prosthesis is typically based on a variety of factors, including:

* The number and location of missing teeth
* The condition of the remaining teeth and gums
* The patient's bite and jaw alignment
* The patient's aesthetic preferences
* The patient's ability to chew and speak properly

There are several types of dental prostheses, including:

* Dentures: A removable appliance that replaces all or most of the upper or lower teeth.
* Fixed partial denture (FPD): Also known as a bridge, this is a fixed (non-removable) appliance that replaces one or more missing teeth by attaching artificial teeth to the remaining natural teeth on either side of the gap.
* Removable partial denture (RPD): A removable appliance that replaces some but not all of the upper or lower teeth.
* Implant-supported prosthesis: An artificial tooth or set of teeth that is supported by dental implants, which are surgically placed in the jawbone.

The design of a dental prosthesis must be carefully planned and executed to ensure a good fit, proper function, and natural appearance. It may involve several appointments with a dentist or dental specialist, such as a prosthodontist, to take impressions, make measurements, and try in the finished prosthesis.

Dental etching is a dental procedure that involves the use of a chemical agent, such as phosphoric or maleic acid, to create microscopic roughness on the surface of teeth. This process is typically used to prepare the tooth enamel for the application of bonding agents, such as dental adhesives and composite resins, which are used in various restorative and cosmetic dental procedures, such as fillings, veneers, and crowns.

During dental etching, the chemical agent is applied to the tooth surface for a specific amount of time, usually between 15-60 seconds, depending on the strength of the acid and the desired level of etching. The acid dissolves the minerals in the enamel, creating small pores or irregularities that increase the surface area and improve the bonding of the restorative material to the tooth. After etching, the tooth is rinsed with water and dried, and the bonding agent is applied and cured to create a strong and durable bond between the restoration and the tooth.

Dental etching is a safe and effective procedure when performed by a trained dental professional. However, over-etching or improper use of the acid can weaken the tooth structure and lead to sensitivity or other complications. Therefore, it is important to follow proper techniques and guidelines for dental etching to ensure optimal outcomes and patient satisfaction.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Niobium" is not a medical term. Niobium is a chemical element with the symbol Nb and atomic number 41. It is a soft, grey, crystalline metal that is naturally found in minerals such as columbite and pyrochlore.

Niobium has some applications in the medical field, particularly in the production of implants and medical devices. For instance, niobium alloys are used in orthopedic implants due to their excellent corrosion resistance and biocompatibility properties. However, niobium itself is not a medical term or concept.

Dental cements are materials used in dentistry to bond or seal restorative dental materials, such as crowns, fillings, and orthodontic appliances, to natural tooth structures. They can be made from various materials including glass ionomers, resin-modified glass ionomers, zinc oxide eugenol, polycarboxylate, and composite resins. The choice of cement depends on the specific clinical situation and the properties required, such as strength, durability, biocompatibility, and esthetics.

A dental prosthesis is a device that replaces one or more missing teeth or parts of teeth to correct deficiencies in chewing ability, speech, and aesthetics. It can be removable or fixed (permanent) and can be made from various materials such as acrylic resin, porcelain, metal alloys, or a combination of these. Examples of dental prostheses include dentures, bridges, crowns, and implants.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Stainless Steel" is not a medical term. It is a type of steel that contains at least 10.5% chromium content by mass, and usually contains nickel as well. The chromium forms a passive film that protects the metal from corrosion and staining. Stainless steel is widely used in various industries including medicine, for example, in medical equipment and surgical instruments due to its resistance to rust and corrosion.

Dentistry is the branch of medicine that is concerned with the examination, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders, and conditions of the oral cavity (mouth), including the teeth, gums, and other supporting structures. Dentists use a variety of treatments and procedures to help patients maintain good oral health and prevent dental problems from developing or worsening. These may include:

* Routine cleanings and checkups to remove plaque and tartar and detect any potential issues early on
* Fillings, crowns, and other restorative treatments to repair damaged teeth
* Root canal therapy to treat infected or inflamed tooth pulp
* Extractions of severely decayed or impacted teeth
* Dentures, bridges, and implants to replace missing teeth
* Orthodontic treatment to align crooked or misaligned teeth
* Treatment for temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders and other issues affecting the jaw and surrounding muscles

Dental health is an important part of overall health and well-being. Poor oral health has been linked to a variety of systemic conditions, including heart disease, diabetes, and respiratory infections. Regular dental checkups and good oral hygiene practices can help prevent these and other dental problems from developing.

Dental instruments are specialized tools that dentists, dental hygienists, and other oral healthcare professionals use to examine, clean, and treat teeth and gums. These instruments come in various shapes and sizes, and each one is designed for a specific purpose. Here are some common dental instruments and their functions:

1. Mouth mirror: A small, handheld mirror used to help the dentist see hard-to-reach areas of the mouth and reflect light onto the teeth and gums.
2. Explorer: A sharp, hooked instrument used to probe teeth and detect cavities, tartar, or other dental problems.
3. Sickle scaler: A curved, sharp-edged instrument used to remove calculus (tartar) from the tooth surface.
4. Periodontal probe: A blunt, calibrated instrument used to measure the depth of periodontal pockets and assess gum health.
5. Dental syringe: A device used to inject local anesthesia into the gums before dental procedures.
6. High-speed handpiece: Also known as a dental drill, it is used to remove decay, shape teeth, or prepare them for fillings and other restorations.
7. Low-speed handpiece: A slower, quieter drill used for various procedures, such as placing crowns or veneers.
8. Suction tip: A thin tube that removes saliva, water, and debris from the mouth during dental procedures.
9. Cotton rolls: Small squares of cotton used to isolate teeth, absorb fluids, and protect soft tissues during dental treatments.
10. Dental forceps: Specialized pliers used to remove teeth or hold them in place while restorations are being placed.
11. Elevators: Curved, wedge-shaped instruments used to loosen or lift teeth out of their sockets.
12. Rubber dam: A thin sheet of rubber or latex that isolates a specific tooth or area during dental treatment, keeping it dry and free from saliva and debris.

These are just a few examples of the many dental instruments used in modern dentistry. Each one plays an essential role in maintaining oral health and providing effective dental care.

Tensile strength is a material property that measures the maximum amount of tensile (pulling) stress that a material can withstand before failure, such as breaking or fracturing. It is usually measured in units of force per unit area, such as pounds per square inch (psi) or pascals (Pa). In the context of medical devices or biomaterials, tensile strength may be used to describe the mechanical properties of materials used in implants, surgical tools, or other medical equipment. High tensile strength is often desirable in these applications to ensure that the material can withstand the stresses and forces it will encounter during use.

A dental crown is a type of dental restoration that completely caps or encircles a tooth or dental implant. Crowns are used to restore the strength, functionality, and appearance of teeth that have been damaged or weakened due to various reasons such as decay, fracture, or large fillings. They can be made from various materials including porcelain, ceramic, metal, or a combination of these. The crown is custom-made to fit over the prepared tooth and is cemented into place, becoming a permanent part of the tooth. Crowns are also used for cosmetic purposes to improve the appearance of discolored or misshapen teeth.

Dental esthetics refers to the branch of dentistry concerned with the aesthetic appearance of teeth and smile. It involves the use of various dental treatments and procedures to improve the color, shape, alignment, and position of teeth, thereby enhancing the overall facial appearance and self-confidence of a person. Some common dental esthetic treatments include tooth whitening, dental veneers, composite bonding, orthodontic treatment (braces), and dental implants. It is important to note that dental esthetics not only focuses on improving the appearance but also maintaining or improving oral health and function.

Comprehensive dental care is a broad term that refers to a dental approach that involves the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of a wide range of oral health issues. It aims to provide patients with complete and optimal oral health care, including:

1. Oral examination and assessment: This includes a thorough examination of the patient's oral cavity, head, and neck to identify any existing dental problems or potential issues that may arise in the future.
2. Preventive care: Comprehensive dental care emphasizes preventive measures such as regular dental cleanings, fluoride treatments, and sealants to help protect against tooth decay and gum disease.
3. Restorative dentistry: If dental problems are identified, comprehensive dental care includes restorative treatments like fillings, crowns, bridges, or implants to restore the function and appearance of damaged teeth.
4. Periodontal (gum) treatment: Comprehensive dental care also addresses periodontal health through deep cleanings, scaling and root planing, and other therapies to manage gum disease.
5. Oral surgery: In some cases, comprehensive dental care may involve oral surgery procedures like tooth extractions or jaw realignment.
6. Endodontic (root canal) treatment: If the pulp of a tooth becomes infected or inflamed, endodontic treatment may be necessary to save the tooth and alleviate pain.
7. Prosthodontics: This includes the replacement of missing teeth with dentures, bridges, or implants.
8. Orthodontic care: Comprehensive dental care can also involve orthodontic treatments like braces or aligners to straighten misaligned teeth and improve bite.
9. Oral cancer screening: Regular oral cancer screenings are an essential part of comprehensive dental care, as early detection significantly increases the chances of successful treatment.
10. Patient education: Comprehensive dental care also focuses on educating patients about proper oral hygiene practices, nutrition, and lifestyle choices that can impact their oral health. This helps empower patients to take an active role in maintaining their oral health between appointments.

In summary, comprehensive dental care is a holistic approach to dental care that aims to provide complete and personalized oral health solutions for each patient, addressing all aspects of their oral health and promoting long-term wellbeing.

Electroplating is not a medical term, but rather a process used in the industrial field. It refers to the process of coating an electrically conductive object with a thin layer of metal through the use of an electrical current. This process involves immersing the object in a solution containing dissolved ions of the metal to be deposited, and then passing an electric current through the solution. The object serves as the cathode, and the metal ions are reduced at its surface, forming a thin layer of pure metal.

While electroplating is not directly related to medicine, it does have some medical applications. For example, medical devices such as pacemakers or implantable defibrillators may be coated with gold or other metals through electroplating to improve their biocompatibility and reduce the risk of corrosion or rejection by the body. Similarly, dental restorations may be electroplated with precious metals to enhance their strength and durability.

Health education in the context of dentistry refers to the process of educating and informing individuals, families, and communities about oral health-related topics, including proper oral hygiene practices, the importance of regular dental checkups and cleanings, the risks and consequences of poor oral health, and the relationship between oral health and overall health. The goal of dental health education is to empower individuals to take control of their own oral health and make informed decisions about their dental care. This can be achieved through various methods such as lectures, demonstrations, printed materials, and interactive activities. Dental health education may also cover topics related to nutrition, tobacco and alcohol use, and the prevention and treatment of oral diseases and conditions.

Thiouracil is not typically used as a medical treatment in current clinical practice. It is an anti-thyroid medication that was historically used to manage hyperthyroidism, particularly in cases of Graves' disease. However, due to its adverse effect profile and the availability of safer and more effective treatment options, thiouracil has largely been replaced by other medications such as methimazole and propylthiouracil.

Thiouracil works by inhibiting the enzyme thyroperoxidase, which is necessary for the production of thyroid hormones in the body. By blocking this enzyme, thiouracil reduces the amount of thyroid hormones produced and can help to control symptoms of hyperthyroidism such as rapid heart rate, tremors, and weight loss.

While thiouracil is still available for use in some cases, its use is generally reserved for patients who cannot tolerate or have failed other treatments. The medication can cause serious side effects, including liver damage, bone marrow suppression, and allergic reactions, and requires careful monitoring during treatment.

Dentist-patient relations refer to the professional relationship between a licensed dentist and their patient. This relationship is based on trust, communication, and ethical obligations. The dentist is responsible for providing competent and appropriate dental care while considering the patient's needs, preferences, and values. The patient, on the other hand, should be honest with their dentist regarding their medical history, oral health habits, and any concerns they may have. Effective dentist-patient relations are crucial in ensuring positive dental experiences, treatment compliance, and overall satisfaction with dental care.

Dental prosthesis retention refers to the means by which a dental prosthesis, such as a denture, is held in place in the mouth. The retention can be achieved through several methods, including:

1. Suction: This is the most common method of retention for lower dentures, where the shape and fit of the denture base create suction against the gums to hold it in place.
2. Mechanical retention: This involves the use of mechanical components such as clasps or attachments that hook onto remaining natural teeth or dental implants to hold the prosthesis in place.
3. Adhesive retention: Dental adhesives can be used to help secure the denture to the gums, providing additional retention and stability.
4. Implant retention: Dental implants can be used to provide a more secure and stable retention of the dental prosthesis. The implant is surgically placed in the jawbone and acts as an anchor for the prosthesis.

Proper retention of a dental prosthesis is essential for optimal function, comfort, and speech. A well-retained prosthesis can help prevent sore spots, improve chewing efficiency, and enhance overall quality of life.

A tooth is a hard, calcified structure found in the jaws (upper and lower) of many vertebrates and used for biting and chewing food. In humans, a typical tooth has a crown, one or more roots, and three layers: the enamel (the outermost layer, hardest substance in the body), the dentin (the layer beneath the enamel), and the pulp (the innermost layer, containing nerves and blood vessels). Teeth are essential for proper nutrition, speech, and aesthetics. There are different types of teeth, including incisors, canines, premolars, and molars, each designed for specific functions in the mouth.

'Infection Control, Dental' refers to the practices and procedures implemented in dental settings to prevent the transmission of infectious agents from person to person, or from contaminated instruments, equipment, or environmental surfaces to patients or dental personnel. It includes a range of measures such as hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment (e.g., gloves, masks, eyewear), sterilization and disinfection of instruments and equipment, safe injection practices, and environmental cleaning and disinfection. The goal of infection control in dentistry is to eliminate or minimize the risk of infectious diseases, such as HIV, hepatitis B and C, and tuberculosis, among others, being transmitted in dental settings.

A dental abutment is a component of a dental implant restoration that connects the implant to the replacement tooth or teeth. It serves as a support structure and is attached to the implant, which is surgically placed in the jawbone. The abutment provides a stable foundation for the placement of a crown, bridge, or denture, depending on the patient's individual needs.

Dental abutments can be made from various materials such as titanium, zirconia, or other biocompatible materials. They come in different shapes and sizes to accommodate the specific requirements of each implant case. The selection of an appropriate dental abutment is crucial for ensuring a successful and long-lasting dental implant restoration.

The dental papilla is a type of tissue found in the developing tooth within the jawbone. It is composed of cells that will eventually differentiate into odontoblasts, which are the cells responsible for producing dentin, one of the main hard tissues that make up the tooth. The dental papilla is located in the center of the tooth germ and is surrounded by the dental follicle, another type of tissue that helps to form the tooth. As the tooth develops, the dental papilla becomes smaller and eventually forms the pulp chamber, which contains the blood vessels, nerves, and connective tissue that support and nourish the tooth.

Shear strength is a property of a material that describes its ability to withstand forces that cause internal friction and sliding of one portion of the material relative to another. In the context of human tissues, shear strength is an important factor in understanding how tissues respond to various stresses and strains, such as those experienced during physical activities or injuries.

For example, in the case of bones, shear strength is a critical factor in determining their ability to resist fractures under different types of loading conditions. Similarly, in soft tissues like ligaments and tendons, shear strength plays a crucial role in maintaining the integrity of these structures during movement and preventing excessive deformation or injury.

It's worth noting that measuring the shear strength of human tissues can be challenging due to their complex structure and anisotropic properties. As such, researchers often use specialized techniques and equipment to quantify these properties under controlled conditions in the lab.

Indium is not a medical term, but it is a chemical element with the symbol In and atomic number 49. It is a soft, silvery-white, post-transition metal that is rarely found in its pure form in nature. It is primarily used in the production of electronics, such as flat panel displays, and in nuclear medicine as a radiation source for medical imaging.

In nuclear medicine, indium-111 is used in the labeling of white blood cells to diagnose and locate abscesses, inflammation, and infection. The indium-111 labeled white blood cells are injected into the patient's body, and then a gamma camera is used to track their movement and identify areas of infection or inflammation.

Therefore, while indium itself is not a medical term, it does have important medical applications in diagnostic imaging.

Resin cements are dental materials used to bond or cement restorations, such as crowns, bridges, and orthodontic appliances, to natural teeth or implants. They are called "resin" cements because they are made of a type of synthetic resin material that can be cured or hardened through the use of a chemical reaction or exposure to light.

Resin cements typically consist of three components: a base, a catalyst, and a filler. The base and catalyst are mixed together to create a putty-like consistency, which is then applied to the restoration or tooth surface. Once the cement is in place, it is exposed to light or allowed to chemically cure, which causes it to harden and form a strong bond between the restoration and the tooth.

Resin cements are known for their excellent adhesive properties, as well as their ability to withstand the forces of biting and chewing. They can also be color-matched to natural teeth, making them an aesthetically pleasing option for dental restorations. However, they may not be suitable for all patients or situations, and it is important for dental professionals to carefully consider the specific needs and conditions of each patient when choosing a cement material.

Dental veneers, also known as dental porcelain laminates or just veneers, are thin custom-made shells of tooth-colored materials designed to cover the front surface of teeth to improve their appearance. These shells are bonded to the front of the teeth, changing their color, shape, size, or length.

Dental veneers can be made from porcelain or resin composite materials. Porcelain veneers are more stain-resistant and generally last longer than resin veneers. They also better mimic the light-reflecting properties of natural teeth. Resin veneers, on the other hand, are thinner and require less removal of the tooth's surface before placement.

Dental veneers are often used to treat dental conditions like discolored teeth, worn down teeth, chipped or broken teeth, misaligned teeth, irregularly shaped teeth, or gaps between teeth. The procedure usually requires three visits to the dentist: one for consultation and treatment planning, another to prepare the tooth and take an impression for the veneer, and a final visit to bond the veneer to the tooth.

It is important to note that while dental veneers can greatly improve the appearance of your teeth, they are not suitable for everyone. Your dentist will evaluate your oral health and discuss whether dental veneers are the right option for you.

Tooth diseases are conditions that affect the teeth and can cause discomfort, pain, and even loss of teeth if left untreated. These diseases can be caused by various factors such as poor oral hygiene, bacterial infections, trauma, genetics, and certain medical conditions. Some common tooth diseases include:

1. Dental caries (tooth decay): This is a breakdown of the tooth enamel due to the action of acid-producing bacteria that feed on sugars and starches in the mouth. Over time, this can lead to cavities or holes in the teeth.
2. Gingivitis: This is an inflammation of the gums caused by the buildup of plaque and tartar at the gum line. If left untreated, gingivitis can progress to periodontitis, a more serious form of gum disease that can cause tooth loss.
3. Periodontitis: This is a severe infection of the gums and bones that support the teeth. It is caused by the buildup of plaque and tartar, which leads to the destruction of the tissue and bone that hold the teeth in place.
4. Abscess: This is a pocket of pus that forms in the tooth or gum due to a bacterial infection. An abscess can cause pain, swelling, and fever, and may require antibiotics or surgical drainage.
5. Tooth erosion: This is the loss of tooth structure due to acid wear, which can be caused by factors such as diet, stomach acid, and teeth grinding.
6. Hypersensitivity: This is a condition in which the teeth become sensitive to hot, cold, or sweet foods and drinks. It can be caused by factors such as gum recession, tooth decay, and tooth wear.
7. Oral cancer: This is a type of cancer that affects the mouth, lips, tongue, or throat. It can cause symptoms such as sores, lumps, or difficulty swallowing, and may require surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy for treatment.

A dental audit is a systematic review and evaluation of the dental records, procedures, and care provided by a dentist or dental practice. The purpose of a dental audit is to assess the quality of care, identify any areas for improvement, and ensure that appropriate policies and procedures are being followed. This can include reviews of patient records, treatment plans, billing practices, and adherence to infection control guidelines.

The results of a dental audit may be used to improve the quality of care provided to patients, reduce the risk of errors or complications, and ensure compliance with regulatory requirements. Dental audits may be conducted internally by dental practices themselves, or externally by dental organizations, insurance companies, or government agencies.

Oral health is the scientific term used to describe the overall health status of the oral and related tissues, including the teeth, gums, palate, tongue, and mucosal lining. It involves the absence of chronic mouth and facial pain, oral and pharyngeal (throat) cancers, oral soft tissue lesions, birth defects such as cleft lip and palate, and other diseases and disorders that affect the oral cavity.

Good oral health also means being free of decay, gum disease, and other oral infections that can damage the teeth, gums, and bones of the mouth. It is essential to maintain good oral hygiene through regular brushing, flossing, and dental check-ups to prevent dental caries (cavities) and periodontal disease (gum disease).

Additionally, oral health is closely linked to overall health and well-being. Poor oral health has been associated with various systemic diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, respiratory infections, and stroke. Therefore, maintaining good oral health can contribute to improved general health and quality of life.

Dental waste refers to the byproducts and discarded materials generated from dental treatments and procedures. This can include:

1. Amalgam waste: This consists of a mixture of metals, including mercury, used to fill dental cavities.
2. Sharps waste: Includes needles, scalpel blades, and other sharp instruments used in dental procedures.
3. Infectious waste: Materials that have been contaminated with blood or other bodily fluids during dental treatments, such as gloves, gauze, and used dental bibs.
4. Pharmaceutical waste: Unused or expired medications, including analgesics, antibiotics, and anesthetics.
5. Chemical waste: Includes fixer and developer solutions used in developing X-rays, as well as disinfectants and other chemicals used in dental practices.
6. Radioactive waste: Dental X-ray film packets and lead foil from X-ray processing.

Proper management and disposal of dental waste is essential to protect public health and the environment. Regulations governing dental waste disposal vary by location, so it's important for dental practices to be aware of and comply with local requirements.

Dental implantation is a surgical procedure in which a titanium post or frame is inserted into the jawbone beneath the gum line to replace the root of a missing tooth. Once the implant has integrated with the bone, a replacement tooth (crown) is attached to the top of the implant, providing a stable and durable restoration that looks, feels, and functions like a natural tooth. Dental implants can also be used to support dental bridges or dentures, providing added stability and comfort for patients who are missing multiple teeth.

Dental economics is a branch of economics that focuses on the financial aspects of oral health and dental care. It involves the study of various economic factors that influence the provision, accessibility, affordability, and utilization of dental services. This includes analyzing the costs of dental treatments, pricing strategies, financing options, and insurance policies related to dental care. Additionally, dental economics also examines the impact of government policies, regulations, and market dynamics on dental care delivery and oral health outcomes. The ultimate goal of dental economics is to improve the efficiency, effectiveness, and equity of dental care systems, ultimately leading to better oral health for individuals and populations.

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a type of electron microscopy that uses a focused beam of electrons to scan the surface of a sample and produce a high-resolution image. In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of a specimen, and secondary electrons are emitted from the sample due to interactions between the electrons and the atoms in the sample. These secondary electrons are then detected by a detector and used to create an image of the sample's surface topography. SEM can provide detailed images of the surface of a wide range of materials, including metals, polymers, ceramics, and biological samples. It is commonly used in materials science, biology, and electronics for the examination and analysis of surfaces at the micro- and nanoscale.

I'm not aware of a medical definition for "DMF Index." The abbreviation "DMF" could potentially stand for many things, as it is used in various contexts across different fields. In the field of dentistry, DMF stands for Decayed, Missing, and Filled teeth/surfaces, which is a method for measuring dental caries or tooth decay. However, there is no standard medical definition for "DMF Index." If you could provide more context or specify the field of study or practice, I would be happy to help further!

Dental disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are used to inactivate or destroy microorganisms present on dental instruments, equipment, and surfaces in order to prevent the transmission of infectious diseases. These disinfectants are intended to reduce the number of pathogens to a level that is considered safe and poses minimal risk of infection.

Dental disinfectants can be classified based on their spectrum of activity, which ranges from low-level disinfectants that are effective against vegetative bacteria, fungi, and viruses, to high-level disinfectants that also inactivate bacterial spores. The choice of a particular dental disinfectant depends on the intended use, the level of contamination, and the type of microorganisms present.

It is important to follow the manufacturer's instructions for use, including the recommended contact time, concentration, and method of application, to ensure the effectiveness of dental disinfectants. Additionally, proper handling, storage, and disposal of these agents are essential to prevent harm to patients, staff, and the environment.

Dental caries susceptibility refers to the likelihood or predisposition of an individual to develop dental caries, also known as tooth decay or cavities. It is influenced by various factors such as oral hygiene practices, dietary habits, saliva composition, and the presence of certain bacteria in the mouth, particularly mutans streptococci and lactobacilli.

People with a higher dental caries susceptibility may have thinner or softer enamel, reduced saliva flow, or a greater concentration of cavity-causing bacteria in their mouths. Regular dental check-ups and good oral hygiene practices, such as brushing twice a day, flossing daily, and using fluoride toothpaste, can help reduce the risk of developing dental caries. Additionally, a balanced diet that limits sugary and starchy foods and beverages can also help lower the likelihood of tooth decay.

Dental Informatics is a branch of health informatics that deals with the application of information technology and computer systems to improve dental care delivery, oral health education, research, and management. It involves the development, implementation, and evaluation of information systems that support dental practice, including electronic health records (EHRs), imaging systems, decision support tools, and data analytics. The goal of dental informatics is to enhance patient care, improve clinical outcomes, increase efficiency, and reduce costs in dental care. It also includes the study of the structure, processing, and dissemination of biomedical and health data, information, and knowledge as it relates to dentistry.

Orthodontic wires are typically made of stainless steel, nickel-titanium alloy, or other shape memory alloys, and are used in orthodontics to move teeth into the desired position. They are attached to brackets bonded to the teeth and exert a continuous force to align the teeth and correct malocclusions (bites that do not fit together correctly). The wires come in various sizes, shapes, and materials, each with specific properties that make them suitable for different stages of treatment. Some wires are flexible and used during the initial alignment phase, while others are more rigid and used during the finishing phase to achieve precise tooth movements.

Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) is not typically considered a medical definition, but it is a term used in physical and analytical chemistry. However, I can provide a definition for you:

Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) is a technique used to study the electronic structure of atoms, molecules, and solids by irradiating them with photons (usually from a laser or a synchrotron light source) and measuring the kinetic energy of the ejected electrons. The technique provides information about the energy levels of the electrons in the sample, which can be used to determine its chemical composition, bonding, and electronic structure. PES is a valuable tool in surface science, materials research, and environmental analysis.

Dental legislation refers to laws, regulations, and policies that govern the practice of dentistry and oral health care. These laws are designed to protect the public's health and safety by establishing standards for dental education, licensure, and practice. They may also address issues related to dental insurance, Medicaid reimbursement, and access to oral health care for underserved populations. Dental legislation can be enacted at the federal, state, or local level, and it is typically overseen by a regulatory agency or board of dentistry. Examples of dental legislation include laws that require dentists to complete continuing education courses to maintain their licenses, regulations that establish infection control standards in dental offices, and policies that provide funding for dental clinics in underserved communities.

A partial denture, removable is a type of dental prosthesis used when one or more natural teeth remain in the upper or lower jaw. It is designed to replace the missing teeth and rest on the remaining teeth and gums for support. This type of denture can be removed by the patient for cleaning and while sleeping. It is typically made of acrylic resin, metal, or a combination of both, and is custom-fabricated to fit the individual's mouth for comfort and functionality.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "metallurgy" is not a term that has a medical definition. Metallurgy is a branch of materials science that deals with the properties, physical and chemical behavior, and production of metals. It involves studying the techniques and processes used to isolate, alloy, and fabricate various types of metal products. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I'd be happy to try to help answer those for you!

Cariostatic agents are substances or medications that are used to prevent or inhibit the development and progression of dental caries, also known as tooth decay or cavities. These agents work by reducing the ability of bacteria in the mouth to produce acid, which can erode the enamel and dentin of the teeth and lead to cavities.

There are several types of cariostatic agents that are commonly used in dental care, including:

1. Fluorides: These are the most widely used and well-studied cariostatic agents. They work by promoting the remineralization of tooth enamel and making it more resistant to acid attacks. Fluoride can be found in toothpaste, mouthwashes, gels, varnishes, and fluoridated water supplies.
2. Antimicrobial agents: These substances work by reducing the population of bacteria in the mouth that contribute to tooth decay. Examples include chlorhexidine, triclosan, and xylitol.
3. Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP): This is a complex protein that has been shown to help remineralize tooth enamel and reduce the risk of dental caries. It can be found in some toothpastes and mouthwashes.
4. Silver diamine fluoride: This is a topical fluoride compound that contains silver ions, which have antimicrobial properties. It has been shown to be effective in preventing and arresting dental caries, particularly in high-risk populations such as young children and older adults with dry mouth.

It's important to note that while cariostatic agents can help reduce the risk of tooth decay, they are not a substitute for good oral hygiene practices such as brushing twice a day, flossing daily, and visiting the dentist regularly.

Oral hygiene is the practice of keeping the mouth and teeth clean to prevent dental issues such as cavities, gum disease, bad breath, and other oral health problems. It involves regular brushing, flossing, and using mouthwash to remove plaque and food particles that can lead to tooth decay and gum disease. Regular dental check-ups and cleanings are also an essential part of maintaining good oral hygiene. Poor oral hygiene can lead to a range of health problems, including heart disease, diabetes, and respiratory infections, so it is important to prioritize oral health as part of overall health and wellbeing.

Dental occlusion refers to the alignment and contact between the upper and lower teeth when the jaws are closed. It is the relationship between the maxillary (upper) and mandibular (lower) teeth when they approach each other, as occurs during chewing or biting.

A proper dental occlusion, also known as a balanced occlusion, ensures that the teeth and jaw joints function harmoniously, reducing the risk of tooth wear, damage, and temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Malocclusion, on the other hand, refers to improper alignment or contact between the upper and lower teeth, which may require orthodontic treatment or dental restorations to correct.

Dental scaling is a professional dental cleaning procedure that involves the removal of plaque, tartar (calculus), and stains from the tooth surfaces. This is typically performed by a dentist or dental hygienist using specialized instruments called scalers and curettes. The procedure helps to prevent gum disease and tooth decay by removing bacterial deposits that can cause inflammation and infection of the gums. Dental scaling may be recommended as part of a routine dental check-up or if there are signs of periodontal disease, such as red, swollen, or bleeding gums. In some cases, local anesthesia may be used to numb the area and make the procedure more comfortable for the patient.

Dental clasps are a component of dental restorations, such as removable partial dentures (RPDs), that help to retain and stabilize the appliance in the mouth. They are typically made of metal wires or plastic materials and are designed to fit around specific teeth to hold the denture securely in place.

There are several types of dental clasps, including:

1. Adams clasp: A wire clasp that wraps around a tooth and has a circular loop that fits over the crown of the tooth.
2. Akers clasp: A wire clasp that hooks around the back of a molar tooth and has a flexible arm that extends forward to engage with another tooth.
3. C-clasp: A wire clasp that forms a "C" shape and wraps around the side of a tooth, with the open end facing away from the RPD.
4. I-bar clasp: A plastic or metal clasp that is shaped like an "I" and fits over the front of a tooth, with the two ends extending backward to engage with other teeth.
5. Ring clasp: A wire clasp that forms a complete circle around a tooth and has a small gap where it can be hooked onto the RPD.

Dental clasps are designed to be strong enough to hold the RPD in place, but flexible enough to allow for easy removal when necessary. They should fit comfortably and securely without causing damage to the teeth or gums. Regular dental check-ups and adjustments can help ensure that dental clasps continue to function properly over time.

Operative dentistry is a branch of dental medicine that involves the diagnosis, treatment, and management of teeth with structural or functional damage due to decay, trauma, or other causes. It primarily focuses on restoring the function, form, and health of damaged teeth through various operative procedures such as fillings, crowns, inlays, onlays, and root canal treatments. The goal is to preserve natural tooth structure, alleviate pain, prevent further decay or damage, and restore the patient's oral health and aesthetics.

Here are some of the key aspects and procedures involved in operative dentistry:

1. Diagnosis: Operative dentists use various diagnostic tools and techniques to identify and assess tooth damage, including visual examination, dental X-rays, and special tests like pulp vitality testing. This helps them determine the most appropriate treatment approach for each case.
2. Preparation: Before performing any operative procedure, the dentist must prepare the tooth by removing decayed or damaged tissue, as well as any existing restorations that may be compromised or failing. This process is called tooth preparation and involves using specialized dental instruments like burs and excavators to shape the tooth and create a stable foundation for the new restoration.
3. Restoration: Operative dentistry encompasses various techniques and materials used to restore damaged teeth, including:
a. Fillings: Direct fillings are placed directly into the prepared cavity using materials like amalgam (silver), composite resin (tooth-colored), glass ionomer, or gold foil. The choice of filling material depends on factors such as the location and extent of the damage, patient's preferences, and cost considerations.
b. Indirect restorations: These are fabricated outside the mouth, usually in a dental laboratory, and then cemented or bonded to the prepared tooth. Examples include inlays, onlays, and crowns, which can be made from materials like gold, porcelain, ceramic, or resin composites.
c. Endodontic treatments: Operative dentistry also includes root canal therapy, which involves removing infected or inflamed pulp tissue from within the tooth's root canals, cleaning and shaping the canals, and then filling and sealing them to prevent reinfection.
d. Veneers: These are thin layers of porcelain or composite resin that are bonded to the front surfaces of teeth to improve their appearance, shape, or alignment.
4. Follow-up care: After placing a restoration, patients should maintain good oral hygiene practices and have regular dental checkups to ensure the long-term success of the treatment. In some cases, additional adjustments or repairs may be necessary over time due to wear, fracture, or secondary decay.

Silanes are a group of chemical compounds that contain silicon and hydrogen. The general formula for silanes is Si_xH_(2x+2), where x is a positive integer. Silanes are named after their parent compound, silane (SiH4), which contains one silicon atom and four hydrogen atoms.

Silanes are colorless and highly flammable gases at room temperature. They are typically prepared by the reaction of metal silicides with acids or by the reduction of halogenated silanes. Silanes have a variety of industrial applications, including as intermediates in the production of silicon-based materials such as semiconductors and polymers.

In medical contexts, silanes are not typically used directly. However, some silane-containing compounds have been investigated for their potential therapeutic uses. For example, some organosilanes have been shown to have antimicrobial properties and may be useful as disinfectants or in the development of medical devices. Other silane-containing materials have been studied for their potential use in drug delivery systems or as imaging agents in diagnostic procedures.

It is important to note that some silanes can be hazardous if not handled properly, and they should only be used by trained professionals in a controlled environment. Exposure to silanes can cause irritation to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract, and prolonged exposure can lead to more serious health effects.

Composite resins, also known as dental composites or filling materials, are a type of restorative material used in dentistry to restore the function, integrity, and morphology of missing tooth structure. They are called composite resins because they are composed of a combination of materials, including a resin matrix (usually made of bisphenol A-glycidyl methacrylate or urethane dimethacrylate) and filler particles (commonly made of silica, quartz, or glass).

The composite resins are widely used in modern dentistry due to their excellent esthetic properties, ease of handling, and ability to bond directly to tooth structure. They can be used for a variety of restorative procedures, including direct and indirect fillings, veneers, inlays, onlays, and crowns.

Composite resins are available in various shades and opacities, allowing dentists to match the color and translucency of natural teeth closely. They also have good wear resistance, strength, and durability, making them a popular choice for both anterior and posterior restorations. However, composite resins may be prone to staining over time and may require more frequent replacement compared to other types of restorative materials.

Dental facilities refer to establishments that provide dental care and treatment. These facilities can include private dental practices, community health centers, hospital dental departments, and specialized dental clinics. They are equipped with the necessary dental equipment and staffed by dental professionals such as dentists, dental hygienists, and dental assistants. Dental facilities offer a range of services including routine check-ups, cleanings, fillings, extractions, root canals, orthodontic treatment, and oral surgery. Some dental facilities may also offer specialized services such as periodontics, prosthodontics, and endodontics.

Dental devices for home care are products designed for use by individuals or their caregivers in a home setting to maintain oral hygiene, manage dental health issues, and promote overall oral health. These devices can include:

1. Toothbrushes: Manual, electric, or battery-operated toothbrushes used to clean teeth and remove plaque and food debris.
2. Dental floss: A thin string used to remove food particles and plaque from between the teeth and under the gum line.
3. Interdental brushes: Small brushes designed to clean between the teeth and around dental appliances, such as braces or implants.
4. Water flossers/oral irrigators: Devices that use a stream of water to remove food particles and plaque from between the teeth and under the gum line.
5. Tongue scrapers: Tools used to clean the tongue's surface, removing bacteria and reducing bad breath.
6. Rubber tips/gum stimulators: Devices used to massage and stimulate the gums, promoting blood circulation and helping to maintain gum health.
7. Dental picks/sticks: Pointed tools used to remove food particles and plaque from between the teeth and under the gum line.
8. Mouthguards: Protective devices worn over the teeth to prevent damage from grinding, clenching, or sports-related injuries.
9. Night guards: Similar to mouthguards, these are designed to protect the teeth from damage caused by nighttime teeth grinding (bruxism).
10. Dental retainers: Devices used to maintain the alignment of teeth after orthodontic treatment.
11. Whitening trays and strips: At-home products used to whiten teeth by applying a bleaching agent to the tooth surface.
12. Fluoride mouth rinses: Anticavity rinses containing fluoride, which help strengthen tooth enamel and prevent decay.
13. Oral pain relievers: Topical gels or creams used to alleviate oral pain, such as canker sores or denture irritation.

Proper use of these dental devices, along with regular dental check-ups and professional cleanings, can help maintain good oral health and prevent dental issues.

Preventive dentistry is a branch of dental medicine that focuses on preventing the occurrence or progression of oral diseases and maintaining optimal oral health. It encompasses a set of practices, behaviors, and interventions aimed at preserving the integrity and functionality of teeth and gums through early detection, intervention, and patient education.

The primary goal of preventive dentistry is to minimize the risk of dental caries (tooth decay), periodontal disease (gum disease), oral cancer, and other oral health conditions. This is achieved through a combination of professional dental care, personal oral hygiene habits, and lifestyle modifications.

Professional dental care includes regular dental examinations, cleanings, fluoride treatments, and sealants to protect tooth surfaces from decay. Patient education plays a crucial role in preventive dentistry, as it empowers individuals to take an active part in their oral health by teaching them proper brushing and flossing techniques, nutritional counseling, and the importance of regular dental visits.

Preventive dentistry also emphasizes the significance of risk assessment and early intervention for high-risk populations, such as children, elderly individuals, and those with medical conditions that may impact oral health. By promoting a proactive approach to dental care, preventive dentistry aims to improve overall quality of life, reduce healthcare costs, and enhance patient satisfaction.

Acrylic resins are a type of synthetic polymer made from methacrylate monomers. They are widely used in various industrial, commercial, and medical applications due to their unique properties such as transparency, durability, resistance to breakage, and ease of coloring or molding. In the medical field, acrylic resins are often used to make dental restorations like false teeth and fillings, medical devices like intraocular lenses, and surgical instruments. They can also be found in orthopedic implants, bone cement, and other medical-grade plastics. Acrylic resins are biocompatible, meaning they do not typically cause adverse reactions when in contact with living tissue. However, they may release small amounts of potentially toxic chemicals over time, so their long-term safety in certain applications is still a subject of ongoing research.

Dental photography is a type of clinical photography that focuses on documenting the condition and treatment of teeth and oral structures. It involves using specialized cameras, lenses, and lighting to capture high-quality images of the mouth and related areas. These images can be used for diagnostic purposes, patient education, treatment planning, communication with other dental professionals, and monitoring progress over time. Dental photography may include various types of shots, such as extraoral (outside the mouth) and intraoral (inside the mouth) views, close-ups of individual teeth or restorations, and full-face portraits. It requires a strong understanding of dental anatomy, lighting techniques, and image composition to produce accurate and informative images.

Tooth extraction is a dental procedure in which a tooth that is damaged or poses a threat to oral health is removed from its socket in the jawbone. This may be necessary due to various reasons such as severe tooth decay, gum disease, fractured teeth, crowded teeth, or for orthodontic treatment purposes. The procedure is performed by a dentist or an oral surgeon, under local anesthesia to numb the area around the tooth, ensuring minimal discomfort during the extraction process.

Zirconium is not a medical term, but it is a chemical element with the symbol Zr and atomic number 40. It is a gray-white, strong, corrosion-resistant transition metal that is used primarily in nuclear reactors, as an opacifier in glazes for ceramic cookware, and in surgical implants such as artificial joints due to its biocompatibility.

In the context of medical devices or implants, zirconium alloys may be used for their mechanical properties and resistance to corrosion. For example, zirconia (a form of zirconium dioxide) is a popular material for dental crowns and implants due to its durability, strength, and natural appearance.

However, it's important to note that while zirconium itself is not considered a medical term, there are various medical applications and devices that utilize zirconium-based materials.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Thiones" is not a recognized medical term or abbreviation in physiology, pharmacology, or clinical medicine. It seems there might be a misunderstanding or a typo in your question. If you meant "thiols," I can provide a definition for that. Thiols are organic compounds containing a sulfhydryl group (-SH), which is a functional group consisting of a sulfur atom bonded to a hydrogen atom. Thiols are important in biological systems and can be found in some proteins and enzymes, where they play a crucial role in their structure and function. If you meant something else, please clarify so I can provide the most accurate information.

In the context of dentistry, a molar is a type of tooth found in the back of the mouth. They are larger and wider than other types of teeth, such as incisors or canines, and have a flat biting surface with multiple cusps. Molars are primarily used for grinding and chewing food into smaller pieces that are easier to swallow. Humans typically have twelve molars in total, including the four wisdom teeth.

In medical terminology outside of dentistry, "molar" can also refer to a unit of mass in the apothecaries' system of measurement, which is equivalent to 4.08 grams. However, this usage is less common and not related to dental or medical anatomy.

Dental digital radiography is a type of medical imaging that uses digital sensors instead of traditional X-ray film to produce highly detailed images of the teeth, gums, and surrounding structures. This technology offers several advantages over conventional dental radiography, including:

1. Lower radiation exposure: Digital sensors require less radiation to produce an image compared to traditional film, making it a safer option for patients.
2. Instant results: The images captured by digital sensors are immediately displayed on a computer screen, allowing dentists to quickly assess the patient's oral health and discuss any findings with them during the appointment.
3. Improved image quality: Digital radiography produces clearer and more precise images compared to traditional film, enabling dentists to better detect issues such as cavities, fractures, or tumors.
4. Enhanced communication: The ability to easily manipulate and enhance digital images allows for better communication between dental professionals and improved patient education.
5. Environmentally friendly: Digital radiography eliminates the need for chemical processing and disposal of used film, making it a more environmentally conscious choice.
6. Easy storage and retrieval: Digital images can be stored electronically and accessed easily for future reference or consultation with other dental professionals.
7. Remote consultations: Digital images can be shared remotely with specialists or insurance companies, facilitating faster diagnoses and treatment planning.

A dental prosthesis that is supported by dental implants is an artificial replacement for one or more missing teeth. It is a type of dental restoration that is anchored to the jawbone using one or more titanium implant posts, which are surgically placed into the bone. The prosthesis is then attached to the implants, providing a stable and secure fit that closely mimics the function and appearance of natural teeth.

There are several types of implant-supported dental prostheses, including crowns, bridges, and dentures. A single crown may be used to replace a single missing tooth, while a bridge or denture can be used to replace multiple missing teeth. The specific type of prosthesis used will depend on the number and location of the missing teeth, as well as the patient's individual needs and preferences.

Implant-supported dental prostheses offer several advantages over traditional removable dentures, including improved stability, comfort, and functionality. They also help to preserve jawbone density and prevent facial sagging that can occur when teeth are missing. However, they do require a surgical procedure to place the implants, and may not be suitable for all patients due to factors such as bone density or overall health status.

Community dentistry, also known as public health dentistry, is a branch of dental science that focuses on the prevention and control of oral diseases and promoting oral health within communities and populations. It involves the application of epidemiological, social, behavioral, and administrative sciences to improve the oral health of populations. The goal of community dentistry is to reduce oral health disparities by providing accessible, affordable, and culturally competent dental care to all members of a community, particularly those who are underserved or vulnerable.

Community dentistry programs may include school-based dental sealant programs, fluoridation initiatives, oral health education campaigns, and policy advocacy efforts to improve access to dental care. Dental public health professionals work in a variety of settings, including public health departments, community health centers, academic institutions, and non-profit organizations. They collaborate with other healthcare providers, policymakers, and community stakeholders to promote oral health and prevent oral diseases.

Dental restoration failure refers to the breakdown or loss of functionality of a dental restoration, which is a procedure performed to restore the function, integrity, and morphology of a tooth that has been damaged due to decay, trauma, or wear. The restoration can include fillings, crowns, veneers, bridges, and implants. Failure of dental restorations can occur due to various reasons such as recurrent decay, fracture, poor fit, or material failure, leading to further damage or loss of the tooth.

Stomatognathic diseases are a group of disorders that affect the stomatognathic system, which includes the teeth, periodontal tissues, temporomandibular joints, muscles of mastication, and associated structures. These diseases can manifest as various symptoms such as pain, difficulty in chewing or swallowing, limited mouth opening, and abnormal jaw movements.

Some examples of stomatognathic diseases include temporomandibular disorders (TMD), oral mucosal diseases, dental caries, periodontal disease, oral cancer, and sleep-related breathing disorders. The diagnosis and management of these conditions often require a multidisciplinary approach involving dentists, oral surgeons, orthodontists, physicians, and other healthcare professionals.

Pediatric Dentistry is a specialty of dentistry that focuses on the oral health of children from infancy through adolescence. It involves comprehensive dental care that includes prevention, early detection and treatment of dental diseases, and counseling to promote healthy oral habits and behaviors. Pediatric dentists are trained to understand and meet the unique needs of children, including those with special healthcare needs. They provide services such as routine check-ups, cleanings, fluoride treatments, sealants, fillings, crowns, extractions, and interceptive orthodontics. The goal of pediatric dentistry is to ensure that children maintain good oral health throughout their lives.

The American Dental Association (ADA) is not a medical condition or diagnosis. It is the largest professional organization of dentists in the United States, with the mission to serve and advance the dental profession, promote oral health, and protect the public. The ADA develops and publishes guidelines and standards for the practice of dentistry, provides continuing education opportunities for dentists, advocates for oral health legislation and policies, and engages in scientific research and evidence-based dentistry.

Dentist's practice patterns refer to the typical habits, behaviors, and procedures followed by dental professionals when providing oral health care to patients. These patterns can encompass a wide range of factors, including:

1. Clinical Procedures: The types of dental treatments and services that a dentist routinely performs, such as fillings, crowns, root canals, extractions, cleanings, or orthodontic care.
2. Diagnostic Approaches: The methods used by the dentist to identify oral health issues, such as visual examinations, X-rays, or diagnostic tests.
3. Treatment Planning: How a dentist develops and communicates treatment plans to patients, including discussing various treatment options, potential risks and benefits, and costs.
4. Preventive Care: The emphasis placed on preventive dental care, such as regular cleanings, fluoride treatments, and patient education about oral hygiene practices.
5. Use of Technology: The adoption and integration of new technologies in dental practice, such as digital radiography, CAD/CAM systems for restorations, or 3D printing.
6. Referral Patterns: How often a dentist refers patients to specialists for more complex treatments, and which specialists they typically refer to.
7. Patient Communication: The manner in which a dentist communicates with patients, including explaining procedures, discussing treatment plans, and addressing concerns or questions.
8. Record Keeping: The systems used by the dentist to maintain patient records, including electronic health records (EHRs), treatment notes, and communication with other healthcare providers.
9. Infection Control: The practices and protocols in place to prevent the spread of infectious diseases within the dental practice.
10. Practice Management: The business aspects of running a dental practice, such as scheduling, billing, insurance management, and staffing.

Understanding dentist's practice patterns can provide valuable insights into the quality and consistency of dental care provided by different practitioners, as well as help identify areas for improvement in dental education, policy, and research.

Boron compounds refer to chemical substances that contain the element boron (symbol: B) combined with one or more other elements. Boron is a naturally occurring, non-metallic element found in various minerals and ores. It is relatively rare, making up only about 0.001% of the Earth's crust by weight.

Boron compounds can take many forms, including salts, acids, and complex molecules. Some common boron compounds include:

* Boric acid (H3BO3) - a weak acid used as an antiseptic, preservative, and insecticide
* Sodium borate (Na2B4O7·10H2O) - also known as borax, a mineral used in detergents, cosmetics, and enamel glazes
* Boron carbide (B4C) - an extremely hard material used in abrasives, ceramics, and nuclear reactors
* Boron nitride (BN) - a compound with properties similar to graphite, used as a lubricant and heat shield

Boron compounds have a variety of uses in medicine, including as antiseptics, anti-inflammatory agents, and drugs for the treatment of cancer. For example, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an experimental form of radiation therapy that uses boron-containing compounds to selectively target and destroy cancer cells.

It's important to note that some boron compounds can be toxic or harmful if ingested, inhaled, or otherwise exposed to the body in large quantities. Therefore, they should be handled with care and used only under the guidance of a trained medical professional.

A hardness test is a quantitative measure of a material's resistance to deformation, typically defined as the penetration of an indenter with a specific shape and load into the surface of the material being tested. There are several types of hardness tests, including Rockwell, Vickers, Brinell, and Knoop, each with their own specific methods and applications. The resulting hardness value is used to evaluate the material's properties, such as wear resistance, durability, and suitability for various industrial or manufacturing processes. Hardness tests are widely used in materials science, engineering, and quality control to ensure the consistency and reliability of materials and components.

Chromium is an essential trace element that is necessary for human health. It is a key component of the glucose tolerance factor, which helps to enhance the function of insulin in regulating blood sugar levels. Chromium can be found in various foods such as meat, fish, whole grains, and some fruits and vegetables. However, it is also available in dietary supplements for those who may not get adequate amounts through their diet.

The recommended daily intake of chromium varies depending on age and gender. For adults, the adequate intake (AI) is 20-35 micrograms per day for women and 35-50 micrograms per day for men. Chromium deficiency is rare but can lead to impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, and increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

It's important to note that while chromium supplements are marketed as a way to improve insulin sensitivity and blood sugar control, there is limited evidence to support these claims. Moreover, excessive intake of chromium can have adverse effects on health, including liver and kidney damage, stomach irritation, and hypoglycemia. Therefore, it's recommended to consult with a healthcare provider before taking any dietary supplements containing chromium.

Endosseous dental implantation is a medical procedure that involves the placement of an artificial tooth root (dental implant) directly into the jawbone. The term "endosseous" refers to the surgical placement of the implant within the bone (endo- meaning "within" and -osseous meaning "bony"). This type of dental implant is the most common and widely used method for replacing missing teeth.

During the procedure, a small incision is made in the gum tissue to expose the jawbone, and a hole is drilled into the bone to receive the implant. The implant is then carefully positioned and secured within the bone. Once the implant has integrated with the bone (a process that can take several months), a dental crown or bridge is attached to the implant to restore function and aesthetics to the mouth.

Endosseous dental implantation is a safe and effective procedure that has a high success rate, making it an excellent option for patients who are missing one or more teeth due to injury, decay, or other causes.

Mechanical stress, in the context of physiology and medicine, refers to any type of force that is applied to body tissues or organs, which can cause deformation or displacement of those structures. Mechanical stress can be either external, such as forces exerted on the body during physical activity or trauma, or internal, such as the pressure changes that occur within blood vessels or other hollow organs.

Mechanical stress can have a variety of effects on the body, depending on the type, duration, and magnitude of the force applied. For example, prolonged exposure to mechanical stress can lead to tissue damage, inflammation, and chronic pain. Additionally, abnormal or excessive mechanical stress can contribute to the development of various musculoskeletal disorders, such as tendinitis, osteoarthritis, and herniated discs.

In order to mitigate the negative effects of mechanical stress, the body has a number of adaptive responses that help to distribute forces more evenly across tissues and maintain structural integrity. These responses include changes in muscle tone, joint positioning, and connective tissue stiffness, as well as the remodeling of bone and other tissues over time. However, when these adaptive mechanisms are overwhelmed or impaired, mechanical stress can become a significant factor in the development of various pathological conditions.

A toothache is defined as pain or discomfort in or around a tooth, usually caused by dental cavities, gum disease, tooth fracture, or exposed tooth roots. The pain may be sharp and stabbing, throbbing, or constant and dull. It can also be aggravated by hot, cold, sweet, or sour foods and drinks, or by biting or chewing. Toothaches are serious and should not be ignored as they can be a sign of more significant dental issues that require immediate professional attention from a dentist.

In the context of medicine, particularly in physical therapy and rehabilitation, "pliability" refers to the quality or state of being flexible or supple. It describes the ability of tissues, such as muscles or fascia (connective tissue), to stretch, deform, and adapt to forces applied upon them without resistance or injury. Improving pliability can help enhance range of motion, reduce muscle stiffness, promote circulation, and alleviate pain. Techniques like soft tissue mobilization, myofascial release, and stretching are often used to increase pliability in clinical settings.

Tooth abnormalities refer to any variations or irregularities in the size, shape, number, structure, or development of teeth that deviate from the typical or normal anatomy. These abnormalities can occur in primary (deciduous) or permanent teeth and can be caused by genetic factors, environmental influences, systemic diseases, or localized dental conditions during tooth formation.

Some examples of tooth abnormalities include:

1. Microdontia - teeth that are smaller than normal in size.
2. Macrodontia - teeth that are larger than normal in size.
3. Peg-shaped teeth - teeth with a narrow, conical shape.
4. Talon cusps - additional cusps or points on the biting surface of a tooth.
5. Dens invaginatus - an abnormal development where the tooth crown has an extra fold or pouch that can trap bacteria and cause dental problems.
6. Taurodontism - teeth with large pulp chambers and short roots.
7. Supernumerary teeth - having more teeth than the typical number (20 primary and 32 permanent teeth).
8. Hypodontia - missing one or more teeth due to a failure of development.
9. Germination - two adjacent teeth fused together, usually occurring in the front teeth.
10. Fusion - two separate teeth that have grown together during development.

Tooth abnormalities may not always require treatment unless they cause functional, aesthetic, or dental health issues. A dentist can diagnose and manage tooth abnormalities through various treatments, such as fillings, extractions, orthodontic care, or restorative procedures.

A dental impression technique is a method used in dentistry to create a detailed and accurate replica of a patient's teeth and oral structures. This is typically accomplished by using an impression material, which is inserted into a tray and then placed in the patient's mouth. The material sets or hardens, capturing every detail of the teeth, gums, and other oral tissues.

There are several types of dental impression techniques, including:

1. Irreversible Hydrocolloid Impression Material: This is a common type of impression material that is made of alginate powder mixed with water. It is poured into a tray and inserted into the patient's mouth. Once set, it is removed and used to create a cast or model of the teeth.

2. Reversible Hydrocolloid Impression Material: This type of impression material is similar to irreversible hydrocolloid, but it can be reused. It is made of agar and water and is poured into a tray and inserted into the patient's mouth. Once set, it is removed and reheated to be used again.

3. Polyvinyl Siloxane (PVS) Impression Material: This is a two-part impression material that is made of a base and a catalyst. It is poured into a tray and inserted into the patient's mouth. Once set, it is removed and used to create a cast or model of the teeth. PVS is known for its high accuracy and detail.

4. Addition Silicone Impression Material: This is another two-part impression material that is made of a base and a catalyst. It is similar to PVS, but it has a longer working time and sets slower. It is often used for full-arch impressions or when there is a need for a very detailed impression.

5. Elastomeric Impression Material: This is a type of impression material that is made of a rubber-like substance. It is poured into a tray and inserted into the patient's mouth. Once set, it is removed and used to create a cast or model of the teeth. Elastomeric impression materials are known for their high accuracy and detail.

The dental impression technique is an essential part of many dental procedures, including creating crowns, bridges, dentures, and orthodontic appliances. The accuracy and detail of the impression can significantly impact the fit and function of the final restoration or appliance.

An incisor is a type of tooth that is primarily designed for biting off food pieces rather than chewing or grinding. They are typically chisel-shaped, flat, and have a sharp cutting edge. In humans, there are eight incisors - four on the upper jaw and four on the lower jaw, located at the front of the mouth. Other animals such as dogs, cats, and rodents also have incisors that they use for different purposes like tearing or gnawing.

X-ray emission spectrometry is a technique used to analyze the elements present in a sample by measuring the characteristic X-rays that are emitted when the sample is bombarded with high-energy X-rays or charged particles. The sample is excited to emit X-rays, which have specific energies (wavelengths) that correspond to the energy levels of the electrons in the atoms of the elements present in the sample. These X-ray emissions are then detected and analyzed using a spectrometer, which separates and measures the intensity of the different X-ray energies. The resulting spectrum provides information about the identity and quantity of the elements present in the sample. This technique is widely used in materials analysis, particularly for the identification and quantification of heavy metals and other elements in a variety of samples, including geological, biological, and industrial materials.

Methyl Methacrylate (MMA) is not a medical term itself, but it is a chemical compound that is used in various medical applications. Therefore, I will provide you with a general definition and some of its medical uses.

Methyl methacrylate (C5H8O2) is an organic compound, specifically an ester of methacrylic acid and methanol. It is a colorless liquid at room temperature, with a characteristic sweet odor. MMA is primarily used in the production of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), a transparent thermoplastic often referred to as acrylic glass or plexiglass.

In the medical field, PMMA has several applications:

1. Intraocular lenses: PMMA is used to create artificial intraocular lenses (IOLs) that replace natural lenses during cataract surgery. These IOLs are biocompatible and provide excellent optical clarity.
2. Bone cement: MMA is mixed with a powdered polymer to form polymethyl methacrylate bone cement, which is used in orthopedic and trauma surgeries for fixation of prosthetic joint replacements, vertebroplasty, and kyphoplasty.
3. Dental applications: PMMA is used in the fabrication of dental crowns, bridges, and dentures due to its excellent mechanical properties and biocompatibility.
4. Surgical implants: PMMA is also used in various surgical implants, such as cranial plates and reconstructive surgery, because of its transparency and ability to be molded into specific shapes.

Air abrasion, dental, is a method of removing decay and minor defects from teeth using a stream of air and fine particles. This technique is an alternative to the traditional drilling method and is often used in preventative dentistry and for preparing teeth for fillings or sealants. The process is generally considered to be more comfortable for patients as it typically does not require anesthesia, and it can be more precise and less invasive than drilling. However, air abrasion may not be suitable for all types of dental work and its use is determined by the dentist on a case-by-case basis.

The chemical element aluminum (or aluminium in British English) is a silvery-white, soft, non-magnetic, ductile metal. The atomic number of aluminum is 13 and its symbol on the periodic table is Al. It is the most abundant metallic element in the Earth's crust and is found in a variety of minerals such as bauxite.

Aluminum is resistant to corrosion due to the formation of a thin layer of aluminum oxide on its surface that protects it from further oxidation. It is lightweight, has good thermal and electrical conductivity, and can be easily formed and machined. These properties make aluminum a widely used metal in various industries such as construction, packaging, transportation, and electronics.

In the medical field, aluminum is used in some medications and medical devices. For example, aluminum hydroxide is commonly used as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid and treat heartburn, while aluminum salts are used as adjuvants in vaccines to enhance the immune response. However, excessive exposure to aluminum can be harmful and has been linked to neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, although the exact relationship between aluminum and these conditions is not fully understood.

Dental enamel hypoplasia is a condition characterized by the deficiency or reduction in the thickness of the tooth's enamel surface. This results in the enamel being thin, weak, and prone to wear, fractures, and dental cavities. The appearance of teeth with enamel hypoplasia may be yellowish, brownish, or creamy white, and they can have pits, grooves, or bands of varying widths and shapes.

Enamel hypoplasia can occur due to various factors, including genetics, premature birth, low birth weight, malnutrition, infections during childhood (such as measles or chickenpox), trauma, exposure to environmental toxins, and certain medical conditions that affect enamel formation.

The condition is usually diagnosed through a dental examination, where the dentist can observe and assess the appearance and structure of the teeth. Treatment options depend on the severity of the hypoplasia and may include fluoride treatments, sealants, fillings, crowns, or extractions in severe cases. Preventive measures such as maintaining good oral hygiene, a balanced diet, and regular dental check-ups can help reduce the risk of developing enamel hypoplasia.

Fluorides are ionic compounds that contain the fluoride anion (F-). In the context of dental and public health, fluorides are commonly used in preventive measures to help reduce tooth decay. They can be found in various forms such as sodium fluoride, stannous fluoride, and calcium fluoride. When these compounds come into contact with saliva, they release fluoride ions that can be absorbed by tooth enamel. This process helps to strengthen the enamel and make it more resistant to acid attacks caused by bacteria in the mouth, which can lead to dental caries or cavities. Fluorides can be topically applied through products like toothpaste, mouth rinses, and fluoride varnishes, or systemically ingested through fluoridated water, salt, or supplements.

Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu (from Latin: *cuprum*) and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable, and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. Copper is found as a free element in nature, and it is also a constituent of many minerals such as chalcopyrite and bornite.

In the human body, copper is an essential trace element that plays a role in various physiological processes, including iron metabolism, energy production, antioxidant defense, and connective tissue synthesis. Copper is found in a variety of foods, such as shellfish, nuts, seeds, whole grains, and organ meats. The recommended daily intake of copper for adults is 900 micrograms (mcg) per day.

Copper deficiency can lead to anemia, neutropenia, impaired immune function, and abnormal bone development. Copper toxicity, on the other hand, can cause nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and in severe cases, liver damage and neurological symptoms. Therefore, it is important to maintain a balanced copper intake through diet and supplements if necessary.

I'm not a medical professional, but I can provide some information on this topic. "Dental libraries" generally refer to collections of resources related to dental medicine and oral health. These libraries may contain various materials such as books, journals, articles, multimedia resources, and electronic databases. They serve as a valuable source of knowledge and information for dental professionals, students, researchers, and educators in the field of dentistry. Dental libraries play an essential role in supporting evidence-based practice, continuing education, and research advancements in oral health care.

A cuspid, also known as a canine tooth or cuspid tooth, is a type of tooth in mammals. It is the pointiest tooth in the dental arch and is located between the incisors and bicuspids (or premolars). Cuspids have a single cusp or pointed tip that is used for tearing and grasping food. In humans, there are four cuspids, two on the upper jaw and two on the lower jaw, one on each side of the dental arch.

A diagnosis that is made based on the examination and evaluation of the oral cavity, including the teeth, gums, tongue, and other soft tissues. This type of diagnosis may involve a visual exam, medical history review, and various diagnostic tests such as imaging studies or tissue biopsies. The goal of an oral diagnosis is to identify any underlying conditions or diseases that may be present in the oral cavity and determine the appropriate course of treatment. Dentists, dental specialists, and other healthcare professionals may perform oral diagnoses.

Evidence-Based Dentistry (EBD) is a systematic approach to professional dental practice that incorporates the best available scientific evidence from research, along with clinical expertise and patient values and preferences. The goal of EBD is to provide dental care that is safe, effective, efficient, and equitable. It involves the integration of three key components:

1. Clinical Judgment and Experience: The dentist's knowledge, training, and experience play a critical role in the application of evidence-based dentistry. Clinical expertise helps to identify patient needs, determine the most appropriate treatment options, and tailor care to meet individual patient preferences and values.
2. Patient Values and Preferences: EBD recognizes that patients have unique perspectives, values, and preferences that must be taken into account when making treatment decisions. Dentists should engage in shared decision-making with their patients, providing them with information about the benefits and risks of various treatment options and involving them in the decision-making process.
3. Best Available Scientific Evidence: EBD relies on high-quality scientific evidence from well-designed clinical studies to inform dental practice. This evidence is systematically reviewed, critically appraised, and applied to clinical decision-making. The strength of the evidence is evaluated based on factors such as study design, sample size, and statistical analysis.

In summary, Evidence-Based Dentistry is a method of practicing dentistry that combines clinical expertise, patient values and preferences, and the best available scientific evidence to provide high-quality, individualized care to dental patients.

A Group Practice, Dental is a type of dental care delivery model where two or more dentists collaborate and share resources to provide comprehensive dental services to patients. This can include sharing office space, equipment, staff, and support services. The goal of this arrangement is often to improve efficiency, reduce costs, and enhance the quality of patient care through collaboration and coordination of services.

In a group practice, dentists may work together as partners or employees, and they may share profits or salaries based on pre-determined agreements. Patients may have access to a wider range of dental services and specialists within the same practice, which can improve continuity of care and patient satisfaction. Additionally, group practices may be better equipped to invest in advanced technology and training, further enhancing the quality of care they provide.

Dental pulp diseases are conditions that affect the soft tissue inside a tooth, known as dental pulp. The two main types of dental pulp diseases are pulpitis and apical periodontitis.

Pulpitis is inflammation of the dental pulp, which can be either reversible or irreversible. Reversible pulpitis is characterized by mild to moderate inflammation that can be treated with a dental filling or other conservative treatment. Irreversible pulpitis, on the other hand, involves severe inflammation that cannot be reversed and usually requires root canal therapy.

Apical periodontitis, also known as a tooth abscess, is an infection of the tissue surrounding the tip of the tooth's root. It occurs when the dental pulp dies and becomes infected, causing pus to accumulate in the surrounding bone. Symptoms of apical periodontitis may include pain, swelling, and drainage. Treatment typically involves root canal therapy or extraction of the affected tooth.

Other dental pulp diseases include pulp calcification, which is the hardening of the dental pulp due to age or injury, and internal resorption, which is the breakdown and destruction of the dental pulp by the body's own cells. These conditions may not cause any symptoms but can weaken the tooth and increase the risk of fracture.

In the field of medicine, ceramics are commonly referred to as inorganic, non-metallic materials that are made up of compounds such as oxides, carbides, and nitrides. These materials are often used in medical applications due to their biocompatibility, resistance to corrosion, and ability to withstand high temperatures. Some examples of medical ceramics include:

1. Bioceramics: These are ceramic materials that are used in medical devices and implants, such as hip replacements, dental implants, and bone grafts. They are designed to be biocompatible, which means they can be safely implanted into the body without causing an adverse reaction.
2. Ceramic coatings: These are thin layers of ceramic material that are applied to medical devices and implants to improve their performance and durability. For example, ceramic coatings may be used on orthopedic implants to reduce wear and tear, or on cardiovascular implants to prevent blood clots from forming.
3. Ceramic membranes: These are porous ceramic materials that are used in medical filtration systems, such as hemodialysis machines. They are designed to selectively filter out impurities while allowing essential molecules to pass through.
4. Ceramic scaffolds: These are three-dimensional structures made of ceramic material that are used in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. They provide a framework for cells to grow and multiply, helping to repair or replace damaged tissues.

Overall, medical ceramics play an important role in modern healthcare, providing safe and effective solutions for a wide range of medical applications.

Tooth injuries are damages or traumas that affect the teeth's structure and integrity. These injuries can occur due to various reasons, such as accidents, sports-related impacts, falls, fights, or biting on hard objects. The severity of tooth injuries may range from minor chips and cracks to more severe fractures, luxations (displacement), or avulsions (complete tooth loss).

Tooth injuries are typically classified into two main categories:

1. Crown injuries: These involve damages to the visible part of the tooth, including chipping, cracking, or fracturing. Crown injuries may be further categorized as:
* Uncomplicated crown fracture: When only the enamel and dentin are affected without pulp exposure.
* Complicated crown fracture: When the enamel, dentin, and pulp are all exposed.
2. Root injuries: These involve damages to the tooth root or the supporting structures, such as the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. Root injuries may include luxations (displacements), intrusions (teeth pushed into the socket), extrusions (teeth partially out of the socket), or avulsions (complete tooth loss).

Immediate medical attention is necessary for severe tooth injuries, as they can lead to complications like infection, tooth decay, or even tooth loss if not treated promptly and appropriately. Treatment options may include dental fillings, crowns, root canal therapy, splinting, or reimplantation in the case of avulsions. Preventive measures, such as wearing mouthguards during sports activities, can help reduce the risk of tooth injuries.

Dental calculus, also known as tartar, is a hardened deposit that forms on the surface of teeth. It's composed of mineralized plaque, which is a sticky film containing bacteria, saliva, and food particles. Over time, the minerals in saliva can cause the plaque to harden into calculus, which cannot be removed by brushing or flossing alone. Dental calculus can contribute to tooth decay and gum disease if not regularly removed by a dental professional through a process called scaling and root planing.

Osseointegration is a direct structural and functional connection between living bone and the surface of an implant. It's a process where the bone grows in and around the implant, which is typically made of titanium or another biocompatible material. This process provides a solid foundation for dental prosthetics, such as crowns, bridges, or dentures, or for orthopedic devices like artificial limbs. The success of osseointegration depends on various factors, including the patient's overall health, the quality and quantity of available bone, and the surgical technique used for implant placement.

Dental pulp calcification, also known as pulp stones or denticles, refers to the formation of hard tissue within the pulp chamber of a tooth. The pulp chamber is the central part of a tooth that contains its nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissues.

Pulp calcification occurs when the soft tissue of the pulp gradually transforms into a harder, calcified substance. This can happen as a result of aging, injury, or inflammation in the pulp chamber. Over time, these calcifications can build up and make the pulp chamber smaller, which can potentially lead to problems with the tooth's nerve and blood supply.

While dental pulp calcification is not usually harmful on its own, it can cause issues if it becomes severe enough to compress the tooth's nerve or restrict blood flow. In some cases, calcifications may also make root canal treatment more difficult, as there may be less space to work within the pulp chamber.

A deciduous tooth, also known as a baby tooth or primary tooth, is a type of temporary tooth that humans and some other mammals develop during childhood. They are called "deciduous" because they are eventually shed and replaced by permanent teeth, much like how leaves on a deciduous tree fall off and are replaced by new growth.

Deciduous teeth begin to form in the womb and start to erupt through the gums when a child is around six months old. By the time a child reaches age three, they typically have a full set of 20 deciduous teeth, including incisors, canines, and molars. These teeth are smaller and less durable than permanent teeth, but they serve important functions such as helping children chew food properly, speak clearly, and maintain space in the jaw for the permanent teeth to grow into.

Deciduous teeth usually begin to fall out around age six or seven, starting with the lower central incisors. This process continues until all of the deciduous teeth have been shed, typically by age 12 or 13. At this point, the permanent teeth will have grown in and taken their place, with the exception of the wisdom teeth, which may not erupt until later in adolescence or early adulthood.

The maxilla is a paired bone that forms the upper jaw in vertebrates. In humans, it is a major bone in the face and plays several important roles in the craniofacial complex. Each maxilla consists of a body and four processes: frontal process, zygomatic process, alveolar process, and palatine process.

The maxillae contribute to the formation of the eye sockets (orbits), nasal cavity, and the hard palate of the mouth. They also contain the upper teeth sockets (alveoli) and help form the lower part of the orbit and the cheekbones (zygomatic arches).

Here's a quick rundown of its key functions:

1. Supports the upper teeth and forms the upper jaw.
2. Contributes to the formation of the eye sockets, nasal cavity, and hard palate.
3. Helps shape the lower part of the orbit and cheekbones.
4. Partakes in the creation of important sinuses, such as the maxillary sinus, which is located within the body of the maxilla.

Prostheses: Artificial substitutes or replacements for missing body parts, such as limbs, eyes, or teeth. They are designed to restore the function, appearance, or mobility of the lost part. Prosthetic devices can be categorized into several types, including:

1. External prostheses: Devices that are attached to the outside of the body, like artificial arms, legs, hands, and feet. These may be further classified into:
a. Cosmetic or aesthetic prostheses: Primarily designed to improve the appearance of the affected area.
b. Functional prostheses: Designed to help restore the functionality and mobility of the lost limb.
2. Internal prostheses: Implanted artificial parts that replace missing internal organs, bones, or tissues, such as heart valves, hip joints, or intraocular lenses.

Implants: Medical devices or substances that are intentionally placed inside the body to replace or support a missing or damaged biological structure, deliver medication, monitor physiological functions, or enhance bodily functions. Examples of implants include:

1. Orthopedic implants: Devices used to replace or reinforce damaged bones, joints, or cartilage, such as knee or hip replacements.
2. Cardiovascular implants: Devices that help support or regulate heart function, like pacemakers, defibrillators, and artificial heart valves.
3. Dental implants: Artificial tooth roots that are placed into the jawbone to support dental prostheses, such as crowns, bridges, or dentures.
4. Neurological implants: Devices used to stimulate nerves, brain structures, or spinal cord tissues to treat various neurological conditions, like deep brain stimulators for Parkinson's disease or cochlear implants for hearing loss.
5. Ophthalmic implants: Artificial lenses that are placed inside the eye to replace a damaged or removed natural lens, such as intraocular lenses used in cataract surgery.

Cobalt is a chemical element with the symbol Co and atomic number 27. It is a hard, silver-white, lustrous, and brittle metal that is found naturally only in chemically combined form, except for small amounts found in meteorites. Cobalt is used primarily in the production of magnetic, wear-resistant, and high-strength alloys, as well as in the manufacture of batteries, magnets, and pigments.

In a medical context, cobalt is sometimes used in the form of cobalt-60, a radioactive isotope, for cancer treatment through radiation therapy. Cobalt-60 emits gamma rays that can be directed at tumors to destroy cancer cells. Additionally, small amounts of cobalt are present in some vitamin B12 supplements and fortified foods, as cobalt is an essential component of vitamin B12. However, exposure to high levels of cobalt can be harmful and may cause health effects such as allergic reactions, lung damage, heart problems, and neurological issues.

Dentition refers to the development, arrangement, and appearance of teeth in the dental arch. It includes the number, type, size, and shape of teeth, as well as their alignment and relationship with each other and the surrounding structures in the oral cavity. Dentition can be classified into two main types: deciduous (primary) dentition and permanent (secondary) dentition. Deciduous dentition consists of 20 temporary teeth that erupt during infancy and childhood, while permanent dentition consists of 32 teeth that replace the deciduous teeth and last for a lifetime, excluding the wisdom teeth which may or may not erupt. Abnormalities in dentition can indicate various dental and systemic conditions, making it an essential aspect of oral health assessment and diagnosis.

Denture design refers to the plan and configuration of a removable dental prosthesis, which is created to replace missing teeth and surrounding tissues in the mouth. The design process involves several factors such as:

1. The number and position of artificial teeth (pontics) used to restore the functional occlusion and aesthetics.
2. The type and arrangement of the denture base material that supports the artificial teeth and conforms to the oral tissues.
3. The selection and placement of various rests, clasps, or attachments to improve retention, stability, and support of the denture.
4. The choice of materials used for the construction of the denture, including the type of acrylic resin, metal alloys, or other components.
5. Consideration of the patient's individual needs, preferences, and oral conditions to ensure optimal fit, comfort, and functionality.

The design process is typically carried out by a dental professional, such as a prosthodontist or denturist, in close collaboration with the patient to achieve a custom-made solution that meets their specific requirements.

Dental cavity preparation is the process of removing decayed and damaged tissue from a tooth and shaping the remaining healthy structure in order to prepare it for the placement of a filling or a crown. The goal of cavity preparation is to remove all traces of decay and create a clean, stable surface for the restoration to bond with, while also maintaining as much of the natural tooth structure as possible.

The process typically involves the use of dental drills and other tools to remove the decayed tissue and shape the tooth. The size and depth of the preparation will depend on the extent of the decay and the type of restoration that will be used. After the preparation is complete, the dentist will place the filling or crown, restoring the function and integrity of the tooth.

Sulfur compounds refer to chemical substances that contain sulfur atoms. Sulfur can form bonds with many other elements, including carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, among others. As a result, there is a wide variety of sulfur compounds with different structures and properties. Some common examples of sulfur compounds include hydrogen sulfide (H2S), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and sulfonic acids (R-SO3H).

In the medical field, sulfur compounds have various applications. For instance, some are used as drugs or drug precursors, while others are used in the production of medical devices or as disinfectants. Sulfur-containing amino acids, such as methionine and cysteine, are essential components of proteins and play crucial roles in many biological processes.

However, some sulfur compounds can also be harmful to human health. For example, exposure to high levels of hydrogen sulfide or sulfur dioxide can cause respiratory problems, while certain organosulfur compounds found in crude oil and coal tar have been linked to an increased risk of cancer. Therefore, it is essential to handle and dispose of sulfur compounds properly to minimize potential health hazards.

The dental plaque index (DPI) is a clinical measurement used in dentistry to assess the amount of dental plaque accumulation on a person's teeth. It was first introduced by Silness and Löe in 1964 as a method to standardize the assessment of oral hygiene and the effectiveness of oral hygiene interventions.

The DPI is based on a visual examination of the amount of plaque present on four surfaces of the teeth, including the buccal (cheek-facing) and lingual (tongue-facing) surfaces of both upper and lower first molars and upper and lower incisors. The examiner assigns a score from 0 to 3 for each surface, with higher scores indicating greater plaque accumulation:

* Score 0: No plaque detected, even after probing the area with a dental explorer.
* Score 1: Plaque detected by visual examination and/or probing but is not visible when the area is gently dried with air.
* Score 2: Moderate accumulation of soft deposits that are visible upon visual examination before air drying, but which can be removed by scraping with a dental explorer.
* Score 3: Abundant soft matter, visible upon visual examination before air drying and not easily removable with a dental explorer.

The DPI is calculated as the average score of all surfaces examined, providing an overall measure of plaque accumulation in the mouth. It can be used to monitor changes in oral hygiene over time or to evaluate the effectiveness of different oral hygiene interventions. However, it should be noted that the DPI has limitations and may not accurately reflect the presence of bacterial biofilms or the risk of dental caries and gum disease.

Magnesium oxide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula MgO. It is a white, odorless solid that is highly basic and stable. Medically, magnesium oxide is used as a dietary supplement to prevent or treat low amounts of magnesium in the blood. It is also used as a antacid to neutralize stomach acid and as a laxative to relieve constipation.

Tooth discoloration, also known as tooth staining or tooth color change, refers to the darkening or staining of teeth. It can be categorized into two main types: extrinsic and intrinsic. Extrinsic discoloration occurs when the outer layer of the tooth (enamel) becomes stained due to exposure to colored substances such as coffee, tea, wine, tobacco, and certain foods. Intrinsic discoloration, on the other hand, occurs when the inner structure of the tooth (dentin) darkens or gets a yellowish tint due to factors like genetics, aging, trauma, or exposure to certain medications during tooth development. Tooth discoloration can also be caused by dental diseases or decay. It is important to note that while some forms of tooth discoloration are cosmetic concerns, others may indicate underlying oral health issues and should be evaluated by a dental professional.

Toothbrushing is the act of cleaning teeth and gums using a toothbrush to remove plaque, food debris, and dental calculus (tartar) from the surfaces of the teeth and gums. It is typically performed using a soft-bristled toothbrush and fluoride toothpaste, with gentle circular or back-and-forth motions along the gumline and on all surfaces of the teeth. Toothbrushing should be done at least twice a day, preferably after every meal and before bedtime, for two minutes each time, to maintain good oral hygiene and prevent dental diseases such as tooth decay and gum disease. It is also recommended to brush the tongue to remove bacteria and freshen breath.

Dental impression materials are substances used to create a replica or negative reproduction of the oral structures, including teeth, gums, and surrounding tissues. These materials are often used in dentistry to fabricate dental restorations, orthodontic appliances, mouthguards, and various other dental devices.

There are several types of dental impression materials available, each with its unique properties and applications:

1. Alginate: This is a common and affordable material derived from algae. It is easy to mix and handle, sets quickly, and provides a detailed impression of the oral structures. However, alginate impressions are not as durable as other materials and must be poured immediately after taking the impression.
2. Irreversible Hydrocolloid: This material is similar to alginate but offers better accuracy and durability. It requires more time to mix and set, but it can be stored for a longer period before pouring the cast.
3. Polyvinyl Siloxane (PVS): Also known as silicone impression material, PVS provides excellent detail, accuracy, and dimensional stability. It is available in two types: addition-cured and condensation-cured. Addition-cured PVS offers better accuracy but requires more time to mix and set. Condensation-cured PVS sets faster but may shrink slightly over time.
4. Polyether: This material provides high accuracy, excellent detail, and good tear resistance. It is also sensitive to moisture, making it suitable for impressions where a dry field is required. However, polyether has a strong odor and taste, which some patients find unpleasant.
5. Vinyl Polysiloxane (VPS): This material is similar to PVS but offers better tear strength and flexibility. It is also less sensitive to moisture than polyether, making it suitable for various applications.
6. Zinc Oxide Eugenol: This is a traditional impression material used primarily for temporary impressions or bite registrations. It has a low cost and is easy to mix and handle but does not provide the same level of detail as other materials.

The choice of dental impression material depends on various factors, including the type of restoration, the patient's oral condition, and the clinician's preference.

Light-curing of dental adhesives refers to the process of using a special type of light to polymerize and harden the adhesive material used in dentistry. The light is typically a blue spectrum light, with a wavelength of approximately 460-490 nanometers, which activates a photoinitiator within the adhesive. This initiates a polymerization reaction that causes the adhesive to solidify and form a strong bond between the tooth surface and the dental restoration material, such as a filling or a crown.

The light-curing process is an important step in many dental procedures as it helps ensure the durability and longevity of the restoration. The intensity and duration of the light exposure are critical factors that can affect the degree of cure and overall strength of the bond. Therefore, it is essential to follow the manufacturer's instructions carefully when using dental adhesives and light-curing equipment.

Endodontics is a branch of dentistry that deals with the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases or injuries of the dental pulp (the soft tissue inside the tooth that contains nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissue) and the tissues surrounding the root of the tooth. The most common endodontic procedure is root canal therapy, which involves removing infected or inflamed pulp tissue from within the tooth, cleaning and shaping the root canals, and filling and sealing the space to prevent reinfection. Endodontists are dental specialists who have undergone additional training in this field beyond dental school.

Prosthodontics is a specialized branch of dentistry that focuses on the diagnosis, restoration, and replacement of missing or damaged teeth. A prosthodontist is a dental professional who has completed additional training beyond dental school in this field, learning advanced techniques for creating and placing various types of dental prostheses, such as:

1. Dental crowns: Artificial restorations that cover damaged or weakened teeth to restore their function and appearance.
2. Dental bridges: Fixed or removable appliances used to replace one or more missing teeth by connecting artificial teeth to adjacent natural teeth or implants.
3. Complete dentures: Removable appliances that replace all the teeth in an arch, resting on the gums and supported by the underlying bone structure.
4. Partial dentures: Removable appliances that replace some missing teeth, typically attached to remaining natural teeth with clasps or precision attachments.
5. Dental implants: Titanium screws that are surgically placed into the jawbone to serve as anchors for crowns, bridges, or dentures, providing a more secure and stable solution for tooth replacement.
6. Maxillofacial prosthetics: Custom-made devices used to restore or improve the function and appearance of facial structures affected by congenital defects, trauma, or surgical removal of tumors.

Prosthodontists work closely with other dental specialists, such as oral surgeons, periodontists, and orthodontists, to develop comprehensive treatment plans for their patients, ensuring optimal functional and aesthetic outcomes.

Calcium sulfate is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula CaSO4. It is a white, odorless, and tasteless solid that is insoluble in alcohol but soluble in water. Calcium sulfate is commonly found in nature as the mineral gypsum, which is used in various industrial applications such as plaster, wallboard, and cement.

In the medical field, calcium sulfate may be used as a component of some pharmaceutical products or as a surgical material. For example, it can be used as a bone void filler to promote healing after bone fractures or surgeries. Calcium sulfate is also used in some dental materials and medical devices.

It's important to note that while calcium sulfate has various industrial and medical uses, it should not be taken as a dietary supplement or medication without the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Odontogenesis is the process of tooth development that involves the formation and calcification of teeth. It is a complex process that requires the interaction of several types of cells, including epithelial cells, mesenchymal cells, and odontoblasts. The process begins during embryonic development with the formation of dental lamina, which gives rise to the tooth bud. As the tooth bud grows and differentiates, it forms the various structures of the tooth, including the enamel, dentin, cementum, and pulp. Odontogenesis is completed when the tooth erupts into the oral cavity. Abnormalities in odontogenesis can result in developmental dental anomalies such as tooth agenesis, microdontia, or odontomas.

The mandible, also known as the lower jaw, is the largest and strongest bone in the human face. It forms the lower portion of the oral cavity and plays a crucial role in various functions such as mastication (chewing), speaking, and swallowing. The mandible is a U-shaped bone that consists of a horizontal part called the body and two vertical parts called rami.

The mandible articulates with the skull at the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) located in front of each ear, allowing for movements like opening and closing the mouth, protrusion, retraction, and side-to-side movement. The mandible contains the lower teeth sockets called alveolar processes, which hold the lower teeth in place.

In medical terminology, the term "mandible" refers specifically to this bone and its associated structures.

Nonparametric statistics is a branch of statistics that does not rely on assumptions about the distribution of variables in the population from which the sample is drawn. In contrast to parametric methods, nonparametric techniques make fewer assumptions about the data and are therefore more flexible in their application. Nonparametric tests are often used when the data do not meet the assumptions required for parametric tests, such as normality or equal variances.

Nonparametric statistical methods include tests such as the Wilcoxon rank-sum test (also known as the Mann-Whitney U test) for comparing two independent groups, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for comparing two related groups, and the Kruskal-Wallis test for comparing more than two independent groups. These tests use the ranks of the data rather than the actual values to make comparisons, which allows them to be used with ordinal or continuous data that do not meet the assumptions of parametric tests.

Overall, nonparametric statistics provide a useful set of tools for analyzing data in situations where the assumptions of parametric methods are not met, and can help researchers draw valid conclusions from their data even when the data are not normally distributed or have other characteristics that violate the assumptions of parametric tests.

According to the American Academy of Periodontology, periodontal diseases are chronic inflammatory conditions that affect the tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth. These tissues include the gums, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. The primary cause of periodontal disease is bacterial plaque, a sticky film that constantly forms on our teeth.

There are two major stages of periodontal disease:

1. Gingivitis: This is the milder form of periodontal disease, characterized by inflammation of the gums (gingiva) without loss of attachment to the teeth. The gums may appear red, swollen, and bleed easily during brushing or flossing. At this stage, the damage can be reversed with proper dental care and improved oral hygiene.
2. Periodontitis: If left untreated, gingivitis can progress to periodontitis, a more severe form of periodontal disease. In periodontitis, the inflammation extends beyond the gums and affects the deeper periodontal tissues, leading to loss of bone support around the teeth. Pockets filled with infection-causing bacteria form between the teeth and gums, causing further damage and potential tooth loss if not treated promptly.

Risk factors for developing periodontal disease include poor oral hygiene, smoking or using smokeless tobacco, genetic predisposition, diabetes, hormonal changes (such as pregnancy or menopause), certain medications, and systemic diseases like AIDS or cancer. Regular dental check-ups and good oral hygiene practices are crucial for preventing periodontal disease and maintaining overall oral health.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "mechanical phenomena" is not a standard medical term. The term "mechanical phenomenon" is more commonly used in the fields of physics and engineering to refer to events or processes that involve physical forces and movements, such as the movement of a lever or the flow of a fluid due to pressure differences.

If you have any questions about a specific medical concept or condition, I would be happy to try to help you with that instead!

In medical terms, "immersion" is not a term with a specific clinical definition. However, in general terms, immersion refers to the act of placing something or someone into a liquid or environment completely. In some contexts, it may be used to describe a type of wound care where the wound is covered completely with a medicated dressing or solution. It can also be used to describe certain medical procedures or therapies that involve submerging a part of the body in a liquid, such as hydrotherapy.

Mouth diseases refer to a variety of conditions that affect the oral cavity, including the lips, gums, teeth, tongue, palate, and lining of the mouth. These diseases can be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or other organisms. They can also result from injuries, chronic illnesses, or genetic factors.

Some common examples of mouth diseases include dental caries (cavities), periodontal disease (gum disease), oral herpes, candidiasis (thrush), lichen planus, and oral cancer. Symptoms may include pain, swelling, redness, bleeding, bad breath, difficulty swallowing or speaking, and changes in the appearance of the mouth or teeth. Treatment depends on the specific diagnosis and may involve medications, dental procedures, or lifestyle changes.

Biocompatible materials are non-toxic and non-reacting substances that can be used in medical devices, tissue engineering, and drug delivery systems without causing harm or adverse reactions to living tissues or organs. These materials are designed to mimic the properties of natural tissues and are able to integrate with biological systems without being rejected by the body's immune system.

Biocompatible materials can be made from a variety of substances, including metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites. The specific properties of these materials, such as their mechanical strength, flexibility, and biodegradability, are carefully selected to meet the requirements of their intended medical application.

Examples of biocompatible materials include titanium used in dental implants and joint replacements, polyethylene used in artificial hips, and hydrogels used in contact lenses and drug delivery systems. The use of biocompatible materials has revolutionized modern medicine by enabling the development of advanced medical technologies that can improve patient outcomes and quality of life.

Potassium compounds refer to substances that contain the element potassium (chemical symbol: K) combined with one or more other elements. Potassium is an alkali metal that has the atomic number 19 and is highly reactive, so it is never found in its free form in nature. Instead, it is always found combined with other elements in the form of potassium compounds.

Potassium compounds can be ionic or covalent, depending on the properties of the other element(s) with which it is combined. In general, potassium forms ionic compounds with nonmetals and covalent compounds with other metals. Ionic potassium compounds are formed when potassium donates one electron to a nonmetal, forming a positively charged potassium ion (K+) and a negatively charged nonmetal ion.

Potassium compounds have many important uses in medicine, industry, and agriculture. For example, potassium chloride is used as a salt substitute and to treat or prevent low potassium levels in the blood. Potassium citrate is used to treat kidney stones and to alkalinize urine. Potassium iodide is used to treat thyroid disorders and to protect the thyroid gland from radioactive iodine during medical imaging procedures.

It's important to note that some potassium compounds can be toxic or even fatal if ingested in large quantities, so they should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

Biocompatible coated materials refer to surfaces or substances that are treated or engineered with a layer or film designed to interact safely and effectively with living tissues or biological systems, without causing harm or adverse reactions. The coating material is typically composed of biomaterials that can withstand the conditions of the specific application while promoting a positive response from the body.

The purpose of these coatings may vary depending on the medical device or application. For example, they might be used to enhance the lubricity and wear resistance of implantable devices, reduce the risk of infection, promote integration with surrounding tissues, control drug release, or prevent the formation of biofilms.

Biocompatible coated materials must undergo rigorous testing and evaluation to ensure their safety and efficacy in various clinical settings. This includes assessing potential cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, sensitization, hemocompatibility, carcinogenicity, and other factors that could impact the body's response to the material.

Examples of biocompatible coating materials include:

1. Hydrogels: Cross-linked networks of hydrophilic polymers that can be used for drug delivery, tissue engineering, or as lubricious coatings on medical devices.
2. Self-assembling monolayers (SAMs): Organosilane or thiol-based molecules that form a stable, well-ordered film on surfaces, which can be further functionalized to promote specific biological interactions.
3. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG): A biocompatible polymer often used as a coating material due to its ability to reduce protein adsorption and cell attachment, making it useful for preventing biofouling or thrombosis on medical devices.
4. Bioactive glass: A type of biomaterial composed of silica-based glasses that can stimulate bone growth and healing when used as a coating material in orthopedic or dental applications.
5. Drug-eluting coatings: Biocompatible polymers impregnated with therapeutic agents, designed to release the drug over time to promote healing, prevent infection, or inhibit restenosis in various medical devices.

'Adhesiveness' is a term used in medicine and biology to describe the ability of two surfaces to stick or adhere to each other. In medical terms, it often refers to the property of tissues or cells to adhere to one another, as in the case of scar tissue formation where healing tissue adheres to adjacent structures.

In the context of microbiology, adhesiveness can refer to the ability of bacteria or other microorganisms to attach themselves to surfaces, such as medical devices or human tissues, which can lead to infection and other health problems. Adhesives used in medical devices, such as bandages or wound dressings, also have adhesiveness properties that allow them to stick to the skin or other surfaces.

Overall, adhesiveness is an important property in many areas of medicine and biology, with implications for wound healing, infection control, and the design and function of medical devices.

"Age determination by teeth" is a method used in forensic dentistry to estimate the age of an individual based on the development and wear of their teeth. This process involves examining various features such as tooth eruption, crown and root formation, and dental attrition or wear.

The developmental stages of teeth can provide a rough estimate of age during childhood and adolescence, while dental wear patterns can offer insights into an individual's age during adulthood. However, it is important to note that there can be significant variation in tooth development and wear between individuals, making this method somewhat imprecise.

In addition to forensic applications, age determination by teeth can also be useful in archaeology and anthropology for studying past populations and their lifestyles.

Polymethacrylic acids are not typically referred to as a medical term, but rather as a chemical one. They are a type of synthetic polymer made up of repeating units of methacrylic acid (MAA). These polymers have various applications in different industries, including the medical field.

In medicine, polymethacrylates are often used in the formulation of controlled-release drug delivery systems, such as beads or microspheres, due to their ability to swell and shrink in response to changes in pH or temperature. This property allows for the gradual release of drugs encapsulated within these polymers over an extended period.

Polymethacrylates are also used in dental applications, such as in the production of artificial teeth and dentures, due to their durability and resistance to wear. Additionally, they can be found in some surgical sealants and adhesives.

While polymethacrylic acids themselves may not have a specific medical definition, their various forms and applications in medical devices and drug delivery systems contribute significantly to the field of medicine.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

Velasco-Ortega, E (Sep 2010). "In vitro evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of a commercial titanium alloy for dental ... "This alpha-beta alloy is the workhorse alloy of the titanium industry. The alloy is fully heat treatable in section sizes up to ... Titanium alloys are alloys that contain a mixture of titanium and other chemical elements. Such alloys have very high tensile ... Near-alpha alloys contain small amount of ductile beta-phase. Besides alpha-phase stabilisers, near-alpha alloys are alloyed ...
... dental wax; disinfectants; preparation for destroying vermin; fungicides, herbicides Class 6. Common metals and their alloys; ... dental and veterinary apparatus and instruments, artificial limbs, eyes and teeth; orthopaedic articles; suture materials Class ... Precious metals and their alloys and goods in precious metals or coated therewith, not included in other classes; jewellery, ...
... adding it as a dental alloy. Small quantities of indium harden and strengthen a metal to which it is alloyed, and it increases ... of Buffalo in his study "Use of Indium in Dental Alloys" for "their assistance in the preparation of pure indium, the special ... Williams, R.V. (March-June 1938). "Use of Indium in Dental Alloys" (PDF). Journal of the American College of Dentists. 5 (1-2 ... but is more than three times as hard Indium-gold dental alloys stand up well to molar pressure and resist the tarnishing action ...
What Alloys Tooth Implants Are Made Of". uniqa.dental. Retrieved 2023-04-12. "Glossary of Implant Dentistry" (PDF). ... "What are Multi-Unit Abutments? - Chicago Dental Implants". Teeth Chicago Dental Implants. 2020-05-23. Retrieved 2023-04-04. ... A multi-unit abutment (MUA) is an abutment most commonly used with dental implants in "All-on-Four" protocols. They are ... Nazarian, Dr Ara (2022-02-18). "Predictable immediate guided implant placement and provisionalisation". Dental Tribune ...
Recent developments have seen the advent of CAD/CAM milling of 100 mm diameter pucks of dental alloy to facilitate the direct ... Dental restorations are often made from a combination of precious metals. As the dental industry adopted CAD/CAM processes for ... In 2005, Nelly released the rap single "Grillz" which promotes the dental procedure. Medicine portal Dental restoration Grill ... Gold dental appliances have gone in and out of popularity as a status symbol for many years. Archeologists also found gold ...
"Biocompatibility of dental alloys used in dental fixed prosthodontics". Tanta Dental Journal. 11 (2): 150-159. doi:10.1016/j. ... Beryllium is a component of several dental alloys. Approximately 35 micrograms of beryllium is found in the average human body ... To reduce costs, beryllium can be alloyed with significant amounts of aluminium, resulting in the AlBeMet alloy (a trade name ... When added as an alloying element to aluminium, copper (notably the alloy beryllium copper), iron, or nickel, beryllium ...
The American Dental Association categories alloys in three groups: high-noble, noble and base metal alloys. Noble and high- ... In dentistry, a crown or a dental cap is a type of dental restoration that completely caps or encircles a tooth or dental ... The metal part is normally made of a base metal alloy (termed bonding alloy). The properties of the metal alloy chosen should ... ISBN 978-953-51-3593-7. Media related to Dental crowns at Wikimedia Commons Dental Health: Dental Crowns Videos from Sheffield ...
Gallium alloys are used mostly for dental purposes. Gallium ammonium chloride is used for the leads in transistors. A major ... Gallium can be added to alloys of other metals to lower their melting points. Indium's uses can be divided into four categories ... Aluminium is a component of alloys used for making lightweight bodies for aircraft. Cars also sometimes incorporate aluminium ... Uncompounded thallium is used in low-melting glasses, photoelectric cells, switches, mercury alloys for low-range glass ...
This discussion of the dental amalgam controversy outlines the debate over whether dental amalgam (the mercury alloy in dental ... Dental composite and palladium alloys are used instead. Erethism American Journal of Dental Science. Massachusetts, U.S: ... "Dental Amalgam FAQs". Canadian Dental Association. Retrieved 24 November 2014. "Safety of Dental Amalgam". Policy Statement ... Retrieved 13 June 2015.[dead link] "Statement on Dental Amalgam". American Dental Association. Retrieved 12 June 2015. "Dental ...
The particularly hard nature of the dental material Alba (an alloy of gold, silver and palladium) allowed Heraeus to supply ... For example, they started producing the first dental alloys. This approach took the company from strength to strength and ... After Heraeus Dental was sold to the Mitsui Group, a Japanese company, in 2013, Heraeus Holding comprised six business groups. ... Heraeus Kulzer was split up in 2009 to form Heraeus Dental and Heraeus Medical. The process of smelting metals in a vacuum is ...
... dental wax; disinfectants; preparations for destroying vermin; fungicides, herbicides Class 6 Common metals and their alloys, ... dental and veterinary apparatus and instruments; artificial limbs, eyes and teeth; orthopaedic articles; suture materials; ... fireworks Class 14 Precious metals and their alloys; jewellery, precious and semi-precious stones; horological and chronometric ...
... gold-platina alloy silver-palladium alloy Base metallic alloys cobalt-chrome alloy nickel-chrome alloy Amalgams are alloys ... Medicine portal Dental curing light Dental dam Dental fear Dental braces Dental treatment Fixed prosthodontics Gold teeth Oral ... The composition of dental amalgam is controlled by the ISO Standard for dental amalgam alloy (ISO 1559). The major components ... Dental implants are anchors placed in bone, usually made from titanium or titanium alloy. They can support dental restorations ...
... is used to replace gold for the casting of dental crowns. The alloys used are chemically inert and have the ... Its alloy was finalized in 1967 to 92% copper, 6% aluminium, and 2% nickel, and was since used in the 20, 200 and 500 Italian ... These alloys are tarnish-resistant and show low rates of corrosion in atmospheric conditions, low oxidation rates at high ... Aluminium bronze is a type of bronze in which aluminium is the main alloying metal added to copper, in contrast to standard ...
It is also the name of a dental alloy. The company has acquired films from many parts of the world, and especially at film ...
... is added to some dental amalgam alloys to decrease the surface tension of the mercury and allow for less mercury and ... "Effect of Admixed Indium on Mercury Vapor Release from Dental Amalgam". Journal of Dental Research. 68 (8): 1231-3. CiteSeerX ... Other alloys of indium with bismuth, cadmium, lead, and tin, which have higher but still low melting points (between 50 and 100 ... It is most notably used in the semiconductor industry, in low-melting-point metal alloys such as solders, in soft-metal high- ...
Marie Laura Violet Gayler A metallurgist who specialized in aluminium alloys and dental amalgams. Gayler was one of the first ...
"Mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy dental castings". Journal of Materials Science: Materials in ... "Mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy dental castings". Journal of Materials Science: Materials in ... similar to Ti-6Al-4V alloy), however the strength of Nb alloy is little less than that of Ti-6Al-4V .The main difference ... it has higher corrosion resistance and biotolerance in relation to Ti-6Al-4V alloys. Physical properties of the alloy are ...
Compomer luting cement can however be used for cast alloy and ceramic-metal restorations. Dental restorative materials Dental ... They were introduced in the early 1990s as a hybrid of two other dental materials, dental composites and glass ionomer cement, ... but do not perform as well as dental composites. Handling and ease of use of composites is generally seen as good by dental ... resin modified glass ionomer cement and dental composites. Compomers are resin-based materials like dental composites, and the ...
Mixed with aluminium in titanium alloys, it is used in jet engines, high-speed airframes and dental implants. The most common ... Another common alloy, primarily produced in sheets, is Titanium 6AL-4V, a titanium alloy with 6% aluminium and 4% vanadium. ... Powder-metallurgic alloys contain up to 18% percent vanadium. The high content of vanadium carbides in those alloys increases ... It is mainly used to produce specialty steel alloys such as high-speed tool steels, and some aluminium alloys. The most ...
Dental mercury is classified as a Class I medical device, with extensive safety regulations on its use. Dental amalgam alloy is ... In 2005 the American Dental Association (ADA) estimated that 50% of the mercury entering POTWs was discharged by dental offices ... as they disposed of dental amalgam waste. The ADA study and other research supported EPA's 2014 estimate that dental offices- ... "Dental Office Point Source Category." Effluent Guidelines and Standards. 40 CFR 441 EPA. "Effluent Limitations Guidelines and ...
... and dental implants that can stay in place for up to 20 years. The titanium is often alloyed with about 4% aluminium or 6% Al ... Titanium is also alloyed with gold to produce an alloy that can be marketed as 24-karat gold because the 1% of alloyed Ti is ... The titanium 6AL-4V alloy accounts for almost 50% of all alloys used in aircraft applications. The Lockheed A-12 and its ... dental and endodontic instruments and files, dental implants, sporting goods, jewelry, mobile phones, and other applications. ...
... which are significant factors for dental prosthesis. The alloy is a commonly used as a metal framework for dental partials. A ... Kettelarij, J. A.; Liden, C.; Axen, E.; Julander, A. Cobalt, Nickel, and Chromium Release from Dental Tools and Alloys. Contact ... Co-Cr alloy was first discovered by Elwood Haynes in the early 1900s by fusing cobalt and chromium. The alloy was first ... However, Co-Cr alloys tend to have low ductility, which can cause component fracture. This is a concern as the alloys are ...
One example is the prevalence of dental braces using SMA technology to exert constant tooth-moving forces on the teeth; the ... The "training" dictates the shape that the alloy will remember when it is heated. This occurs by heating the alloy so that the ... In metallurgy, a shape-memory alloy (SMA) is an alloy that can be deformed when cold but returns to its pre-deformed (" ... The shape of the curve depends on the material properties of the shape-memory alloy, such as the alloy's composition and work ...
Orthodontics, Dental prosthesis, Dental implant, and Dentures . Anusavice, Kenneth; Shen, Chiayi; Rawls, Ralph (2014). Phillips ... "The Effect Of Sprue Numbers And Investment Types On Casting Accuracy Of Base Metal Alloys - An In Vitro Study". Indian Journal ... Science of Dental Materials, 12th Edition. St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 27. ISBN 9781437724189. Bolla, ... of Dental Sciences. 8 (1): 28-31. Morris, Christopher (1992). Academic Press Dictionary of Science and Technology. San Diego, ...
Allergy to base metal alloys e.g. nickel Poor patient motivation. Active dental disease (caries, periodontal disease) and poor ... Dental bridges offer several advantages. They can usually be completed in only two dental appointments, restore the tooth back ... WorkNC Dental machining video, "Dental Bridge implant CNC Machining 5 axis" PATTERN RESIN™ LS Self-Curing, Acrylic Die Material ... A bridge is a fixed dental restoration (a fixed dental prosthesis) used to replace one or more missing teeth by joining an ...
... alloys have been evaluated as substitutes for mercury dental amalgams, but these materials have yet to see wide ... Gallium readily alloys with most metals, and is used as an ingredient in low-melting alloys. The nearly eutectic alloy of ... 2 alloys prepared by selenization/sulfurization of metallic alloys". Thin Solid Films. 451-452: 207-211. Bibcode:2004TSF...451 ... This alloy, with the trade-name Galinstan (with the "-stan" referring to the tin, stannum in Latin), has a low melting point of ...
... and chemical analyses of the binary system Au-Ti in the development of a dental alloy". J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 52 (4): 678-86. ... Titanium and its alloys are not immune to corrosion when in the human body. Titanium alloys are susceptible to hydrogen ... In titanium alloys such as Ti-Zr and Ti-Nb, zirconium and niobium ions that are liberated due to corrosion are not released ... The alloying elements in the passive layer add a degree of biocompatibility and corrosion resistance depending on the original ...
Unwanted tetracalcium phosphate can be formed when metal alloy implants (orthopaedic and dental) are plasma spayed with ...
... and chemical analyses of the binary system Au-Ti in the development of a dental alloy". J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 52 (4): 678-86. ... Such alloys are used in dentistry, ceramics and jewelry. Like many other alloys, titanium gold alloys have a higher yield ... In the 2008 film Iron Man, the title character wears an armor made from a titanium-gold alloy. According to actor Robert Downey ... "Lab discovers titanium-gold alloy that is four times harder than most steels". phys.org. Retrieved 2018-09-06. "Iron Man". May ...
Mercury is an ingredient in dental amalgams. Thiomersal (called Thimerosal in the United States) is an organic compound used as ... By 500 BC mercury was used to make amalgams (Medieval Latin amalgama, "alloy of mercury") with other metals. Alchemists thought ... Mercury, and mercury compounds, remain in use in scientific research applications and in amalgam for dental restoration in some ... Afterwards, fine sulfur, zinc, or some other powder that readily forms an amalgam (alloy) with mercury at ordinary temperatures ...
To view this site, you must enable JavaScript or upgrade to a JavaScript-capable browser ...
Velasco-Ortega, E (Sep 2010). "In vitro evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of a commercial titanium alloy for dental ... Metal alloys made by combining titanium with other elements. Titanium alloys are alloys that contain a mixture of titanium and ... "This alpha-beta alloy is the workhorse alloy of the titanium industry. The alloy is fully heat treatable in section sizes up to ... Titanium alloys are generally classified into four main categories:[1] *Alpha alloys which contain neutral alloying elements ( ...
The issue of corrosion in dental implants: a review. Acta Odontol Latinoam. 2009. 22 (1):3-9. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... molybdenum alloys and alloys made of stainless steel are more wear-resistant than titanium or titanium-based alloys. When ... Titanium-Based Alloys. In 1951, Levanthal introduced titanium as a metal for surgery. [13] Titanium-based alloys have excellent ... The alloys used in orthopedic surgery must have particular properties. For example, because the alloy of the implant is bathed ...
2. Co-Cr Dental Alloys: Metal Ions and Wear Particles Release. A dental biomaterial should satisfy diverse criteria to be ... A recent study [24] compared the corrosion resistance of cast Co- and Ni-Cr dental alloys. Two alloys were tested in contact ... 3. Toxicological Risks of Co-Cr Dental Alloys. A selection of the latest research on the toxicological risks of Co-Cr dental ... the year 2017 was pivotal for Co-Cr dental alloys. How can the production of Co-Cr alloy be managed for the manufacture of ...
Call us: 01803 520280 , Mon - Fri 9am - 5:30pm ...
Leading supplier of high alloy castings and forgings. There are 4 companies with sales of more than 100 million yuan, across ... Dental Alloys for Dentistry. Read more. * Ni Based Dental Alloy. Read more ...
Studi ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji karakteristik lapisan HA-Gelatin pada substrat Ti alloy sebagai dental implant untuk ... Cicilia Indrawati Martono (2020) Karakterisasi Lapisan Hidroksiapatit-Gelatin Pada Ti Alloy Sebagai Dental Implant. Skripsi ... Ti alloy, Plasma Spray method, electrophoretic deposition method, hydroxyapatite, gelatin. Subjects:. H Social Sciences , HV ...
... micromechanical components or systems with complex geometries made from precious metal alloys. ... Cendres+Métaux - Micromachining and Precious Metal Alloys for Medical Components For companies in the dental and medical ... Over the past decades, our thermoset and thermoplastic polymers have been widely employed in the dental market. The material ... To ensure that the highest quality requirements for homogeneous alloys are met we operate our own accredited metallurgical and ...
Mesa is an Italian company specialised in the production of alloys for the dental sector since 1975. ... Mesa is an Italian company specialised in the production of alloys for the dental sector since 1975. Over the years, it has ...
Amalgam Alloys Capsules 2 Spill 45% silver high copper 500pk (ADS). $69.99. - $499.99. ...
ALLOY. You are here: Home1 / 2 / Dental Fix Home3 / ALLOY ... Buy Dental Equipment *Buy Small Equipment. *Buy Sterilization ... DENTAL FIX OFFICE. 1287 Matheson Blvd East, Mississauga ON, L4W 1R1 , Phone: (866) 740 8829 ...
Eplus3D Dental Metal 3D Printer EP-M150 can professionally print dental metal crowns, bridges, brackets with improved powder ... Advanced Alloys & Manufacturing" MB veikla -tai prekyba ferolydiniais ir metalo milteliais, skirtais ne tik Lietuvos, bet ir ...
... we have everything you need for your crown and bridge workflow from plasters and dowel pins through to specialist dental alloy ... Reliably and durably bonds resins to all dental alloys, zirconia and alumina - even without the use of retention beads. ... Ultra-fine micro ceramic for veneering all conventional, high-fusing PFM alloys, with a recommended CTE range of 13.6 to 15.2. ... Liquid for isolating plaster/stone from wax, wax from wax or alloy from wax , extremely thin layer. ...
cobalt chrome dental cad cam disc alloy. 0 dentsma 22/07/2019 22/07/2019 dental lab supplies Dental cad cam disc is a nickel ... cobalt chrome dental alloy dental cad cam materials dental lab material manufacturer ...
Dental IndustryNewsOral Health Dental Practice Receives Over 27,000 Calls and 700 Emails After It Announced It Would Take New ... Dental IndustryNewsOral Health Dental Practice Receives Over 27,000 Calls and 700 Emails After It Announced It Would Take New ... Home , Features , Oral Health , 3D Fabrication Workflow: Solid & Lattice-structured Titanium Alloy Dental Implant Overdenture ... Dental IndustryNewsOral Health Dental Students Presented Their Clinically Challenging Case Studies at the Global Clinical Case ...
Processing of alloys used in performance of partial dentures. Electrochemical polishing in selected electrolytes ...
ISO 24234:2004 specifies the requirements and test methods for alloys and for mercury suitable for the preparation of dental ... It is applicable to alloys supplied in the form of either a powder in bulk, or a powder compressed to form a tablet, or a ... ISO 24234:2004 is not applicable to alloys intended for use with liquid metals that are not mercury, nor is it applicable to ... It is applicable to dental mercury supplied either in bulk quantities, or in predosed sachets, or in predosed capsules. ...
Shop for dental alloy accessories for your dental practice needs and purchase amalgam wells and amalgam squeeze cloths. ... established with the California Dental Association in October 2020, serves dentists nationwide and members of all 50 state ... dental associations with a transparent and competitively priced, online-only option for obtaining dental supplies. TDSC, Inc., ... and added savings for members of state dental associations. ...
CATAO, Carmem Dolores de Sá et al. Bioactivity evaluation of laser treated NiTi alloys for dental application. RFO UPF [online ... Palavras-chave : Laser.; Apatites.; Dental Implants.; Osseointegration.. · resumo em Português · texto em Português · pdf em ... NiTi alloys are extensively used in devices for dentistry, as in Implantology, due to their biocompatibility properties, shape ... Materials and method: The NiTi alloys were obtained by the Plasma Skull Push-Pull process, superficially treated. The samples ...
Alloys * Alloys * Amalgam Waste Recycling * Amalgamators * Anesthetics * Anesthetics * Needles * Nitrous Oxide Accessories * ... Dental Disposables * Cotton * Cups * Headrest Covers * Miscellaneous * Paper Towels * Patient Bibs (Towels) * Sponges (Gauze) * ... M&S Dental Supply offers low cost financing solutions. We propose financing for small or large equipment as well as startup or ... M&S Dental Supply 105-30 101st Avenue Ozone Park, NY 11416 ... Hygenic Latex Dental Dam - Coltene * Hygenic Non-Latex Rubber ...
Your personal data will be used to support your experience throughout this website, to manage access to your account, and for other purposes described in our privacy policy.. ...
Limited Time Offer to Save More on Dental Alloys. ... Revere Ultra Dispersed Phase Alloy Fast Set 2 Spill at a great ... Subscribe to receive dental supplies & equipment promotions and deals. Subscribe to receive dental supplies & equipment ... Prime Dental Supply makes finding, ordering and receiving your dental supplies very easy and at great prices. As a leading ... Youre reviewing:Ultra Dispersed Phase Alloy Fast Set 2 Spill Goldsmith & Revere 099-55072. Your Rating. Quality. 1 star 2 ...
Ray Foster AG04 High Speed Dental Alloy Grinder. 10,000 and 24,000 RPM belt controlled speeds. 1/3 HP capacitor start motor in ... Ray Foster High Speed Dental Alloy Grinder AG04. For 60 years Foster High Speed Dental Alloy Grinders have been providing ... Rugged and comfortable to use, the Foster Alloy Grinder is a proven time saver when it comes to tasks like sprue separating, or ...
Velasco-Ortega, E (Sep 2010). "In vitro evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of a commercial titanium alloy for dental ... "This alpha-beta alloy is the workhorse alloy of the titanium industry. The alloy is fully heat treatable in section sizes up to ... Titanium alloys are alloys that contain a mixture of titanium and other chemical elements. Such alloys have very high tensile ... Near-alpha alloys contain small amount of ductile beta-phase. Besides alpha-phase stabilisers, near-alpha alloys are alloyed ...
Return to Article Details The dental alloys determine the choice of composite resins to be used. Download Download PDF ...
7 pcs/set Dental Tooth Extracting Tools Set Titanium Alloy Implant Instrument Dental Elevator Set Dental Extraction Root Tooth ... 7 pcs/set Dental Tooth Extracting Tools Set Titanium Alloy Implant Instrument Dental Elevator Set Dental Extraction Root Tooth ... Professional Dental Extraction Kit 7-Piece Titanium Alloy Elevator Set for Root and Tooth Removal. Save $-89.99 ...
Dental Orthodontic Micro Implants Kit Titanium Alloy Mini Screw Screwdriver ... HomeDental ProductsDental Implant KitsDental Orthodontic Micro Implants Kit Titanium Alloy Mini Screw Screwdriver. ... Dental Implant Kits. Dental Orthodontic Micro Implants Kit Titanium Alloy Mini Screw Screwdriver. Add to wishlist ... Category: Dental Implant Kits Tag: Dental Orthodontic Micro Implants Kit Titanium Alloy Mini Screw Screwdriver ...
Producing high quality Versatile Slm Metal 3d Printer For Dental Crown Titanium Alloy Dental 3d Printer products. ... High quality Versatile Slm Metal 3d Printer For Dental Crown Titanium Alloy Dental 3d Printer from China, Chinas leading SLM ... 3D Metal Dental Printer Versatile Printer For Dental Crown Dental 3d Printer TITANIUM ALLOY ... Dental Metal 3D Printer. 220V D-100 Laboratory Dental Metal 3D Printer For Denture Partial Riton. Light Curing Dental Metal 3D ...
Zirconium alloy dental implants contain 15% zirconium and 85% titanium. Theyre actually stronger than pure titanium dental ... The Benefits of Zirconium Alloy and Metal-Free Zirconia Dental Implants. Posted on March 16, 2022. March 30, 2022. by Jen Reyes ... To improve the biocompatibility of dental implants, we use zirconium alloy and metal-free zirconia ceramic implants. ... Zirconia allows us to give dental implants without any metal whatsoever. Instead, these advanced dental implants are made of ...
  • This metal laser 3D printer D-100 is a 3D printing equipment specially designed for the production of dental metal restorations. (riton3dprinter.com)
  • Indirect restorations generally consist of five categories of materials: noble metal alloys, base metal alloys, ceramics, resin-based composites, and metal-ceramics. (ada.org)
  • Dental laboratories constructing artificial dentures, bridges, inlays, and other dental restorations on specifications from dentists are classified in Services, Industry 8072. (naics.com)
  • Whether or not particular metals or metal alloys are appropriate for dental restorations is based upon a group of characteristics or properties. (usp.br)
  • Alloys for prosthodontic restorations. (thejcdp.com)
  • Consult with dentists for evaluation of dental restorations and teeth occlusion. (medscape.com)
  • Ingredients in dental restorations may be responsible. (medscape.com)
  • Oral lichen planus and allergy to dental amalgam restorations. (medscape.com)
  • More than one in five people had untreated dental caries and 75% had existing dental restorations. (cdc.gov)
  • This report describes the prevalence of untreated dental caries, existing dental restorations, dental sealants, and tooth loss in the United States by age, race and ethnicity, and poverty level in 2005-2008. (cdc.gov)
  • This change was made to clarify that the prevalence estimates shown for tooth decay and dental restorations was for all teeth present at the time of assessment, not permanent teeth alone. (cdc.gov)
  • The prevalence of existing dental restorations increased as individuals aged from childhood into adulthood and plateaued in age groups starting at 45 and over. (cdc.gov)
  • During the 20th century, the history of dentistry has intimately been linked with metal alloys and those using cobalt (Co, CAS no. 7440-48-4, EC/List no. 231-158-0) and chromium (Cr, CAS no. 7440-47-3, EC/List no. 231-157-5) hold an important place. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Co-Cr dental alloys consist of Co, Cr and also other metals (e.g., gallium (Ga), iron (Fe), Mo, nickel (Ni), ruthenium (Ru), W). In Table 1 , some Co-Cr alloys actually used are listed, but only those used in the field of dentistry. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • NiTi alloys are extensively used in devices for dentistry, as in Implantology, due to their biocompatibility properties, shape memory, and superelasticity. (bvsalud.org)
  • Digital dentistry and new techniques for the dental protheses' suprastructure fabrication have undergone a great evolution in recent years, revolutionizing the quality of dental prostheses. (upc.edu)
  • Amalgam use in dentistry has been time or part-time practising licensed questionnaire developed based on embroiled in controversy for the past 3 dental practitioners in Islamabad and standard, validated questions gleaned decades, which has led to widely differ- Rawalpindi. (who.int)
  • Cobalt-chromium based non-precious bonding alloy. (johnwinterdental.co.uk)
  • Cobalt-chromium alloys are now commonly used for fixed dentures and single crowns. (niom.no)
  • Nowadays, clinical practice commonly uses materials that primarily provide long-term structural stability, such as cobalt chromium alloys, titanium alloys, stainless steel, and other metals. (hindawi.com)
  • The Cobalt (Co)-Chromium (Cr)-Molybdenum (Mo) (Co-Cr-Mo) alloy and Ultra High Molecular Polyethylene are the important materials used in the biomedical applications and Bio-inerts lime hip implants, ophthalmological implants and dental implants are increasing day by day due to their unique wear resistance characteristics. (amrita.edu)
  • Magnesium and its alloys have been the subject of interest and appear promising as biodegradable implant materials, though their fast corrosion rate in biologic environments has limited their clinical application. (medscape.com)
  • Alloys that provide for a long-term stable implant need to have a high level of corrosion resistance as well as certain mechanical properties (see Immune Response to Implants ). (medscape.com)
  • Grupp et al concluded that failure of modular titanium alloy neck adapters can be initiated by surface micromotions due to surface contamination or highly loaded implant components. (medscape.com)
  • Studi ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji karakteristik lapisan HA-Gelatin pada substrat Ti alloy sebagai dental implant untuk meningkatkan kemampuan osteointegrasi. (unair.ac.id)
  • Structured surface of a dental implant through a microscope. (medicaldevice-network.com)
  • This report explains the workflow developed for the fabrication of additive manufactured solid & lattice-structured titanium alloy dental implant overdenture bars. (oralhealthgroup.com)
  • A dental implant metal bar was sourced from Panthera Dental (Quebec QC). (oralhealthgroup.com)
  • Fig. 1 ) The implant bar was milled from medical grade titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) on a fully robotic CNC machine at a 4.0 manufacturing facility. (oralhealthgroup.com)
  • Patient soft tissue model with implants and milled dental implant bar. (oralhealthgroup.com)
  • The 3D printer utilizes alloy powder within the range of 30-50µm in diameter, with a 400W laser of 70µm diameter, to consolidate the final implant bars within a 250 mm x 250 mm x 250 mm build volume. (oralhealthgroup.com)
  • Fig. 4 ) The final processing step included cleaning of all implant bars using ADEISS ultrasonic cleaning methods to remove any remaining alloy powder and polishing agents. (oralhealthgroup.com)
  • Titanium allergy can cause unexplained flu-like symptoms (similar to any allergic response) and may cause unexplained dental implant failure. (zeramexusa.com)
  • In fact, more than half of people with titanium allergies experienced an unexplained dental implant failure. (zeramexusa.com)
  • It's likely that other people might experience a more minor reaction to titanium, including less pronounced symptoms or dental implant problems that might be attributed to other sources. (zeramexusa.com)
  • When a dental implant is placed in your jaw, your body will respond to heal your bone, but not all responses are the same. (zeramexusa.com)
  • Alla [ 3 ] and Stanford [ 12 ] has reported a roughened surface in the range of R a 1-10 µm for better ooseointegration and greater than 10 µm macro scale roughness value suitable for dental implants and threads on implant helps to get initial stability. (researchsquare.com)
  • Candidates for dental implants and mini-implants include partially and totally edentulous patients with proper bone height and width for implant placement. (medscape.com)
  • 1. Yoneyama T., Miyazaki S. Shape memory alloys for biomedical applications. (rudmet.ru)
  • The global shape memory alloys market is estimated to be valued at USD 11.0 billion in 2021 and is projected to reach USD 18.8 billion by 2026, growing at a cagr 11.2% from 2021 to 2026. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • ISO 24234:2004 specifies the requirements and test methods for alloys and for mercury suitable for the preparation of dental amalgam, together with the requirements and test methods for that amalgam and the requirements for packaging and marking. (iso.org)
  • Very few (5.9%) had an amalgam separator installed in their dental office. (who.int)
  • Amalgam manipulation and its waste management in the dental office, if not strictly regulated, contribute to the risk of occupational exposure as well as environmental pollution from this neuro- and nephrotoxic metal [1]. (who.int)
  • and autoclaving/heat sterilizing of amalgam-filling dental instruments [1]. (who.int)
  • Scandinavian countries have begun to phase out the use of amalgams completely [3-5], whereas organizations such as the American Dental Association, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the US Public Health Service and the World Health Organization support the use of dental amalgam to fill cavities but with strict observance of amalgam waste protocols [2]. (who.int)
  • Duplica- dental office include: unregulated dis- million, while Rawalpindi, its adjoining tion was avoided by asking dentists in posal of amalgam waste in the regular city,hasapopulationof3.04mil ion. (who.int)
  • Grupp et al reported their experience regarding failed modular titanium neck adapters, in combination with a titanium alloy modular short hip stem, after hip arthroplasty, as a result of fretting or corrosion. (medscape.com)
  • The authors noted that by the end of 2008, 1.4% (68/~5000) of the implanted titanium alloy neck adapters failed at an average of 2 years (range, 0.7-4.0) postoperatively. (medscape.com)
  • STL designs for AM were prepared for printing in medical-grade titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V). (oralhealthgroup.com)
  • Although "commercially pure" titanium has acceptable mechanical properties and has been used for orthopedic and dental implants , for most applications titanium is alloyed with small amounts of aluminium and vanadium , typically 6% and 4% respectively, by weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinical studies have demonstrated that such metallic alloys can be used safely and effectively in the manufacturing of orthopedic implants that are left in vivo for extended periods. (medscape.com)
  • Dental implants remain the gold standard for the replacement of one or more missing teeth. (oralhealthgroup.com)
  • The bar was monobloc, with no welded areas and no porosity, and had a very accurate and passive fit with the dental implants on the model. (oralhealthgroup.com)
  • Dental Implants. (bvsalud.org)
  • Titanium became the metal used in dental implants because it showed the remarkable ability for being bonded directly to the bone. (zeramexusa.com)
  • However, it is a mistake to assume that because the body builds bone around dental implants, titanium is actually biocompatible. (zeramexusa.com)
  • We prefer to avoid these risks by avoiding titanium dental implants altogether. (zeramexusa.com)
  • To improve the biocompatibility of dental implants, we use zirconium alloy and metal-free zirconia ceramic implants. (zeramexusa.com)
  • Zirconium alloy dental implants contain 15% zirconium and 85% titanium. (zeramexusa.com)
  • They're actually stronger than pure titanium dental implants. (zeramexusa.com)
  • Zirconia allows us to give dental implants without any metal whatsoever. (zeramexusa.com)
  • Instead, these advanced dental implants are made of ceramic. (zeramexusa.com)
  • People who want to avoid metal altogether can use zirconia for their dental implants. (zeramexusa.com)
  • because zirconia implants are white, not silver like dental implants, zirconia implants can give you a more natural appearance if you have thin gums - there will be no grey showing through to give away your dental implants. (zeramexusa.com)
  • Adding metal dental implants can cause significant interference. (zeramexusa.com)
  • This entry was posted in All , Zirconia Versus Titanium and tagged Dental implants , Zeramex , Zirconia , Zirconia Implants , Zirconia vs Titanium . (zeramexusa.com)
  • Emerginnova is the official North American distributor of ZERAMEX Ceramic Dental Implants and other biological dental products and equipment. (zeramexusa.com)
  • These alloys are widely used in the health care industry for biomedical implants and surgical tools. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • It's four times harder than pure titanium, which is what's currently being used in most dental implants and replacement joints. (sme.org)
  • Among the Magnesium alloys, AZ31B magnesium alloy is recommended, due to its low content of Aluminium which favours the implants as confirmed by previous researchers. (researchsquare.com)
  • Endosseous dental implants are titanium fixtures that are placed in edentulous ridges to serve as support for fixed or removable dental prostheses used to restore dentition. (medscape.com)
  • Mini-implants are smaller versions of dental implants that are often used to support partial or full dentures. (medscape.com)
  • There are many commercial brands of dental implants that may vary slightly in design, surface treatment, and other qualities. (medscape.com)
  • The use of a PMMA composite with graphene is being commercialized for application as dental prostheses. (upc.edu)
  • The different proportions of fibers provide a wide range of colors that favors dental esthetics in prostheses. (upc.edu)
  • Effect of argon purity on mechanical properties, microstructure and fracture mode of commercially pure (cp) Ti and Ti-6Al-4V alloys for ceramometal dental prostheses. (thejcdp.com)
  • In 2003, the ADA Council on Scientific Affairs classified dental restorative materials into two broad groups distinguished according to whether laboratory work (sometimes in-office) or an additional visit was required to complete the restoration. (ada.org)
  • This type of alloy replaced stainless steel for certain uses, as stainless steel had dominated orthodontics since the 1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • 8. Zhang J., Sun F., Hao Y. L., Gozdecki N. Influence of equiatomic Zr/Nb substitution on superelastic behavior of Ti - Nb - Zr alloy. (rudmet.ru)
  • Microstructure and mechanical behavior of superelastic Ti - 24Nb - 0.5O and Ti - 24Nb - 0.5N biomedical alloys. (rudmet.ru)
  • Results were submitted to statistical analysis (ANOVA Tukey level of significance of 95%) and showed that there was a statistically significant difference in the corrosive behavior between the alloys. (usp.br)
  • Coating treatment plays an irreplaceable role in propelling the clinical application of magnesium alloys. (hindawi.com)
  • The MgF 2 layer was prepared on the surface of AZ31 magnesium alloy in saturated NH 4 HF 2 solution by microarc fluorination (MAF) at 190 V. The cross-sectional SEM, EDS, and XRD analysis indicated that the alloy surface was covered with MgF 2 . (hindawi.com)
  • Meanwhile, SEM observation was used to compare the magnesium alloy samples before and after treatment, and it was found that the samples after coating were flatter and smoother. (hindawi.com)
  • The MAF coating was shown to be effective in controlling the corrosion rate and progression of the magnesium alloy. (hindawi.com)
  • As a biomaterial, magnesium (Mg) and magnesium alloys are promising for medical applications. (hindawi.com)
  • Magnesium and magnesium alloys provide with high specific strength and desirable biocompatibility as implantable materials. (hindawi.com)
  • Moreover, the density of magnesium and magnesium alloys is similar to that of the human bone [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Consequently, magnesium alloy seems to be a more desirable option. (hindawi.com)
  • Therefore, it is a standing concern for scholars to control the corrosion rate of magnesium alloy. (hindawi.com)
  • The composition modification and alloy surface treatment can be used to slow down the corrosion progress of magnesium alloys. (hindawi.com)
  • At this stage of research, electrochemical corrosion analysis has demonstrated that the magnesium fluoride (MgF 2 ) layer can increase the polarization resistance of magnesium alloys [ 7 - 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The negative effects of the magnesium alloy on the degradation and precipitation of hydrogen gas in body fluids have been mitigated to some extent [ 8 , 12 , 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • They carried out Laser jet peening on AZ91D magnesium alloys and found enhancement of corrosion resistance. (researchsquare.com)
  • Dental cad cam disc is a nickel and beryllium-free chrome/cobalt. (dontbbald.com)
  • OSHA's beryllium OEL: inadequacy and urgent need for a new standard, the case of recycling operations and dental technicians. (cdc.gov)
  • Methods: Critical literature review Results: In Puerto Rico, although there are no beryllium processing plants, it represents an occupational risk in electronics recycling plants and in the dental prosthetics industry. (cdc.gov)
  • Beryllium alloys are used in automobiles, computers, sports equipment (golf clubs and bicycle frames), and dental bridges. (cdc.gov)
  • 9. Miyazaki S., Kim H. Y., Hosoda H. Development and characterization of Ni-free Ti-base shape memory and superelastic alloys. (rudmet.ru)
  • Studies show that the body reacts less strongly to a zirconium alloy than they do to pure titanium. (zeramexusa.com)
  • The alloys are attractive because they are light and provide high stiffness due to their high elastic modulus (Young's modulus) compared with noble metal alloys, pure titanium or titanium alloys. (niom.no)
  • Tests by colleagues at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston showed that the new alloy was even more biocompatible than pure titanium, and the results were same for wear resistance. (sme.org)
  • Vickers hardness of cast commercially pure titanium and Ti-6Al-4V alloy submitted to heat treatments. (thejcdp.com)
  • Premium high fusing, pre solder for nickel based casting alloys. (johnwinterdental.co.uk)
  • Metal-ceramic alloy based on nickel. (johnwinterdental.co.uk)
  • Non precious Cobalt chrome bonding alloy Nickel free, CTE 14.0. (johnwinterdental.co.uk)
  • Corrosion of dental nickel-aluminum bronze with a minor gold content - mechanism and biological impact. (niom.no)
  • o study corrosion and to evaluate biological effects in vitro of corrosion products of a copper-aluminum-nickel alloy with 2% gold. (niom.no)
  • Nickel is also present in dental braces, bridges, and crowns (see the image below). (medscape.com)
  • This volume of the IARC Monographs provides evaluations of the carcinogenicity of nine agents: cobalt metal (without tungsten carbide or other metal alloys), soluble cobalt(II) salts, cobalt(II) oxide, cobalt(II,III) oxide, cobalt(II) sulfide, other cobalt(II) compounds, trivalent antimony, pentavalent antimony, and weapons-grade tungsten (with nickel and cobalt) alloy. (who.int)
  • Weapons-grade tungsten (with nickel and cobalt) alloy is used in armour-penetrating munitions. (who.int)
  • Sensitization to palladium and nickel in Europe and the relationship with oral disease and dental alloys. (medscape.com)
  • It's the same kind of ceramic that is recommended for many sturdy dental crowns, and it's actually stronger than titanium. (zeramexusa.com)
  • A permanent crown is then made in a dental prosthetics laboratory, using the impression. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Composite stems combine the physical properties of alloys with those of other biomaterials. (medscape.com)
  • This study aimed to evaluate the printing procedure and printing axis and its influence on the dimensional accuracy, surface roughness, porosity, and strength of 3D-printed dental alloys used in orthodontics prepared using binder jetting (BJ), electron beam melting (EBM), or selective laser melting (SLM). (apospublications.com)
  • Currently, low-modulus biocompatible Ti - Nb - Zr alloys are considered promising for medical applications. (rudmet.ru)
  • Conclusion: The combination of laser irradiation and chemical deposition of apatites by the biomimetic method in SBF-6, although performing better in terms of bioactivity and topography of alloys, the mass gain was not statistically significant at the 5% level. (bvsalud.org)
  • This paper deals with the effect of water jet peening on the corrosion resistance and the surface topography of AZ31B Mg alloy. (researchsquare.com)
  • However, AZ31B Mg alloys show rapid and intense corrosion rate in physiological environment [ 10 ] leading to adverse effects and harm to tissues during recovery. (researchsquare.com)
  • GS-80 regular set triple spill (800 mg) dispersed phase alloy capsule, package of 50 capsules. (mvpdentalsupply.com)
  • Ultra-fine micro ceramic for veneering all conventional, high-fusing PFM alloys, with a recommended CTE range of 13.6 to 15.2. (johnwinterdental.co.uk)
  • Manuscripts showcasing studies on dental biomaterial proper ties, performance, induced host response, immunology and toxicology will attain the highest priority for publication. (ijdm.co.in)
  • The success of Co-Cr alloys is mainly due to mechanical properties such as stiffness, strength and corrosion resistance, which are regarded as excellent [ 2 ] . (encyclopedia.pub)
  • These alloys are favored due to their better elasticity, long fatigue life, and corrosion resistance. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Corrosion resistance of metal alloys with differet percentages of titanium for dental use. (usp.br)
  • Hence, this work aims to evaluate in vitro the corrosion resistance and surface condition of three Ni/Cr-based alloys with different percentages of Ti added for dental use: VAT80A (2.4%), Inconel X 750 (2.5%), Waspaloy (3.0%), and a Ni/Cr alloy (Verabond). (usp.br)
  • The Verabond alloy showed higher corrosion resistance, and the Waspaloy alloy had the lowest resistance. (usp.br)
  • It is concluded that the corrosion of an alloy is directly associated with its composition, and that the quantity of Ti added interfered with the corrosion resistance of dental alloys. (usp.br)
  • FWHM value measured from XRD peaks showed the formation of grain refinement on the peened surface, and the results showed promising improvements in the corrosion resistance compared to the unpeened AZ31B Mg alloy. (researchsquare.com)
  • Determination of the corrosion resistance of dental alloys with a new measurement method]. (bvsalud.org)
  • Europe has, therefore, developed a regulatory package to protect all players involved in alloys, whether they are metal producers, manufacturers of alloys and medical devices, healthcare professionals and patients. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • These multi-metal alloys are nevertheless called "Co-Cr" because of the very high proportion of these two metals inside alloys. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Cendres+Métaux is specialised in the production of implantable, micromechanical components or systems with complex geometries made from precious metal or titanium alloys. (medicaldevice-network.com)
  • ISO 24234:2004 is not applicable to alloys intended for use with liquid metals that are not mercury, nor is it applicable to liquid metal alloys. (iso.org)
  • Adding different concentrations of this metal may lead to the development of an excellent alloy. (usp.br)
  • The metal is a special alloy to which bone cells can attach. (msdmanuals.com)
  • tematic selection of every 6th clinic was management in the dental office, if not made.Phase1wasfollowedbyphase2 strictly regulated, contribute to the A cross-sectional study was conducted to minimize the risk of duplication since risk of occupational exposure as well overaperiodof5monthsfromFebru- many dentists augment their morning as environmental pol ution from this arytoJune2007inthetwincitiesof employment in a teaching and/or pub- neuro- and nephrotoxic metal [ 1 ]. (who.int)
  • Materials and method: The NiTi alloys were obtained by the Plasma Skull Push-Pull process, superficially treated. (bvsalud.org)
  • International Journal of Dental Materials (IJDM) is an Open Access, International Peer-Reviewed journal published quarterly. (ijdm.co.in)
  • International Journal of Dental Materials welcomes editorial queries, original studies, evidence-based research works and practical innovations, reviews, case reports and concise communications. (ijdm.co.in)
  • Documentation emphasising advancing dental technology, innovations in dental materials design and their clinical viability succeeds the hie rarchy of publishing preference. (ijdm.co.in)
  • 1 Although advances in technologies (particularly CAD-CAM) since 2003 have blurred the division between direct and indirect materials, this Oral Health Topic follows the 2003 classification generally (see our Oral Health Topic on Direct Restorative Dental Materials ). (ada.org)
  • General characteristics of classes of indirect dental materials. (ada.org)
  • Noble alloys, specifically gold, have had the longest use in dental history, and are often referred to as the standard by which other dental materials are judged. (ada.org)
  • The national survey of adverse reactions to dental materials in the UK: a preliminary study by the UK Adverse Reactions Reporting Project. (medscape.com)
  • In Europe, an estimated 0.01% of the population has oral symptoms related to dental materials. (medscape.com)
  • Ingredients of dental prosthesis are reported to cause irritant or allergic contact stomatitis. (medscape.com)
  • Also bearing the environmental hazards in laboratory and clinical environments, safe levels of exposure to these alloys and aspects of selecting the best option among the different alternatives is important. (ijdm.co.in)
  • It is applicable to alloys supplied in the form of either a powder in bulk, or a powder compressed to form a tablet, or a powder in predosed capsules. (iso.org)
  • It is applicable to dental mercury supplied either in bulk quantities, or in predosed sachets, or in predosed capsules. (iso.org)
  • Synthesis and characterization of a Ti - Zr-based alloy with ultralow young's modulus and excellent biocompatibility. (rudmet.ru)
  • In corrosion experiments, the Mg 2+ and F - ions produced during the degradation of the alloy are not only nontoxic to the surrounding tissues but also have a nutritional effect on the formation of the bone [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Rugged and comfortable to use, the Foster Alloy Grinder is a proven time saver when it comes to tasks like sprue separating, or finishing and polishing chrome alloy framework. (lionsdentalsupply.com)
  • The extensive use in modern times of metallic alloys is related to the availability and success at the beginning of the 20th century of several different alloys made of the noble metals. (medscape.com)
  • Metallic alloys. (medscape.com)
  • By combining several metallic elements in alloys, improved properties can be achieved beyond those of a single element. (medscape.com)
  • as can be observed during deformation of alloy 18-15. (rudmet.ru)
  • Structure, mechanical properties, and grindability of dental Ti-Zr alloys. (thejcdp.com)
  • Study of low-modulus biomedical β Ti - Nb - Zr alloys based on single-crystal elastic constants modeling. (rudmet.ru)
  • Supported, in part, by grants 5R01OH03945-01A1 and T42CCT610417 from alloys), methacrylates, irritant aerosolized medications (e.g., the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health/Centers for Disease pentamidine and ribavirin), and cleaning products (5, 6). (cdc.gov)
  • Alpha alloys which contain neutral alloying elements (such as tin ) and/ or alpha stabilisers (such as aluminium or oxygen ) only. (wikipedia.org)
  • Titanium alloys are generally classified into four main categories: Alpha alloys which contain neutral alloying elements (such as tin) and/ or alpha stabilisers (such as aluminium or oxygen) only. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such alloys have very high tensile strength and toughness (even at extreme temperatures). (wikipedia.org)
  • This heat treatment process is carried out after the alloy has been worked into its final shape but before it is put to use, allowing much easier fabrication of a high-strength product. (wikipedia.org)
  • For 60 years Foster High Speed Dental Alloy Grinders have been providing precise, efficient, and reliable service worldwide. (lionsdentalsupply.com)
  • What the team didn't know at the time was that making TiA3 at relatively high temperature produces an almost pure crystalline form of the beta version of the alloy-the crystal structure that's four times harder than titanium. (sme.org)
  • In the present investigation, pin on plate wear test is carried out using ducom linear reciprocating tribometer, to evaluate average wear rate, Coefficient of Friction (COF), and frictional force between Co-Cr-Mo alloy and Ultra High Molecular Polyethylene with and without third body particles under load condition of 20 N, stroke of 6 mm, and frequency of 5 Hz. (amrita.edu)
  • In 1907, the first Co-Cr alloys were designed as Co-Cr-W and Co-Cr-Mo alloys (W = tungsten and Mo = molybdenum) [ 1 ] and in the 1930s they began to be used for the preparation of removable partial denture (RPD) frameworks [ 2 ] . (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Graf S, Berger M, Rohr N. Influence of printing procedure and printing axis of dental alloys on dimensional accuracy, surface roughness, and porosity. (apospublications.com)
  • After corrosion, the alloys showed different levels of roughness and porosity. (usp.br)
  • Tensile tests and static fracture toughness tests were conducted on dental type 4 gold alloys subjected to various heat treatments. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Los sellantes dentales son materiales que se emplean en estomatología para sellar las fosas y fisuras oclusales de los dientes y evitar la adherencia del estreptococus mutans agente que produce la caries dental. (upc.edu)
  • The composition of an alloy influences the stability of the initial β-phase, which tends to decrease with an increase in the concentration of Zr, which replaces Nb. (rudmet.ru)
  • Effect of crystallographic texture and phase composition on the superelasticity of Ti - Nb alloy foils. (rudmet.ru)
  • Garau V, Masala MG, Cortis MC, Pittau R. Contact stomatitis due to palladium in dental alloys: a clinical report. (medscape.com)
  • The legislative changes also bring the need to propose new alternatives to Co-Cr dental alloys. (encyclopedia.pub)