A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.
An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.
A virulent form of dengue characterized by THROMBOCYTOPENIA and an increase in vascular permeability (grades I and II) and distinguished by a positive pain test (e.g., TOURNIQUET PAIN TEST). When accompanied by SHOCK (grades III and IV), it is called dengue shock syndrome.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with DENGUE VIRUS. These include live-attenuated, subunit, DNA, and inactivated vaccines.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Enhancement of viral infectivity caused by non-neutralizing antibodies. There are at least two mechanisms known to account for this: mediation by Fc receptors (RECEPTORS, FC) or by complement receptors (RECEPTORS, COMPLEMENT). Either the virus is complexed with antiviral IMMUNOGLOBULIN G and binds to Fc receptors, or virus is coated with antiviral IMMUNOGLOBULIN M and binds to complement receptors.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nicaragua" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. Nicaragua is the largest country in the Central American isthmus, bordering Honduras to the north and Costa Rica to the south. It has both Atlantic and Pacific coasts. The term you might be looking for is "Nicotine," which is a highly addictive stimulant found in tobacco leaves and is used as an ingredient in various products, including cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, and some medications.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The presence of viruses in the blood.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
Infections with viruses of the genus FLAVIVIRUS, family FLAVIVIRIDAE.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Vietnam" is not a medical term that can be defined in a medical context; it is a country located in Southeast Asia. If you have any questions related to medical conditions or terminology, I would be happy to help clarify those topics for you.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.
Viruses that produce tumors.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
Aspects of health and disease related to travel.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Brazil" is not a medical term or concept, it is a country located in South America, known officially as the Federative Republic of Brazil. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or science, I'd be happy to help answer those!
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiological agent of Japanese encephalitis found in Asia, southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
An island in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is San Juan. It is a self-governing commonwealth in union with the United States. It was discovered by Columbus in 1493 but no colonization was attempted until 1508. It belonged to Spain until ceded to the United States in 1898. It became a commonwealth with autonomy in internal affairs in 1952. Columbus named the island San Juan for St. John's Day, the Monday he arrived, and the bay Puerto Rico, rich harbor. The island became Puerto Rico officially in 1932. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p987 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p436)
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
The geographical area of Asia comprising BORNEO; BRUNEI; CAMBODIA; INDONESIA; LAOS; MALAYSIA; the MEKONG VALLEY; MYANMAR (formerly Burma), the PHILIPPINES; SINGAPORE; THAILAND; and VIETNAM.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
Inoculation of a series of animals or in vitro tissue with an infectious bacterium or virus, as in VIRULENCE studies and the development of vaccines.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)
The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Infections caused by arthropod-borne viruses, general or unspecified.
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.

Dengue virus NS3 serine protease. Crystal structure and insights into interaction of the active site with substrates by molecular modeling and structural analysis of mutational effects. (1/2185)

The mosquito-borne dengue viruses are widespread human pathogens causing dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and dengue shock syndrome, placing 40% of the world's population at risk with no effective treatment. The viral genome is a positive strand RNA that encodes a single polyprotein precursor. Processing of the polyprotein precursor into mature proteins is carried out by the host signal peptidase and by NS3 serine protease, which requires NS2B as a cofactor. We report here the crystal structure of the NS3 serine protease domain at 2.1 A resolution. This structure of the protease combined with modeling of peptide substrates into the active site suggests identities of residues involved in substrate recognition as well as providing a structural basis for several mutational effects on enzyme activity. This structure will be useful for development of specific inhibitors as therapeutics against dengue and other flaviviral proteases.  (+info)

Variation in oral susceptibility to dengue type 2 virus of populations of Aedes aegypti from the islands of Tahiti and Moorea, French Polynesia. (2/2185)

Twenty three samples of Aedes aegypti populations from the islands of Tahiti and Moorea (French Polynesia) were tested for their oral susceptibility to dengue type 2 virus. The high infection rates obtained suggest that the artificial feeding protocol used was more efficient than those previously described. Statistical analysis of the results allowed us to define two distinct geographic areas on Tahiti with respect to the susceptibility of Ae. aegypti: the east coast, with homogeneous infection rates, and the west coast, with heterogeneous infection rates. No geographic differences could be demonstrated on Moorea. The possible mechanisms of this phenomenon are discussed in connection with recent findings on the variability of susceptibility of Ae. aegypti to insecticides.  (+info)

Replication of dengue type 2 virus in Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). (3/2185)

We were able to infect Culex quinquefasciatus by the parenteral route with dengue virus type 2. The percentage of mosquitoes infected was dose dependent and we obtained a rate of 45.6% infected Cx. quinquefasciatus when a 10(5.9) MID50 (mosquito infectious dose for 50% of the individuals as measured in Aedes aegypti) of dengue virus type 2 per mosquito was used. Infection was detected by an immunofluorescent assay performed on mosquito head squashes 14 days after infection. The replication of dengue virus in Cx. quinquefasciatus was either at a very low level of magnitude or generated a large number of noninfectious particles since the triturated bodies of infected Cx. quinquefasciatus did not infect Ae. aegypti mosquitoes when inoculated parenterally. We were unable to infect Cx. quinquefasciatus females orally with an artificial meal that infected 100% of Ae. aegypti females. These findings lead us to agree with the consensus that Cx. quinquefasciatus should not be considered a biological vector of dengue viruses.  (+info)

Bacterial lipopolysaccharide inhibits dengue virus infection of primary human monocytes/macrophages by blockade of virus entry via a CD14-dependent mechanism. (4/2185)

Monocytes/macrophages (MO/Mphi) are the major target cells for both dengue virus (DV) and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the aim of this study was to define their interactions. We had found that LPS markedly suppressed DV infection of primary human MO/Mphi when it was added to cultures prior to or together with, but not after, viral adsorption. The inhibitory effect of LPS was direct and specific and was not mediated by LPS-induced secretion of cytokines and chemokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, alpha interferon, MIP-1alpha, and RANTES. In fact, productive DV infection was not blocked but was just postponed by LPS, with a time lag equal to one viral replication cycle. Time course studies demonstrated that LPS was only effective in suppressing DV infection of MO/Mphi that had not been previously exposed to the virus. At various time points after viral adsorption, the level of unbound viruses that remained free in the culture supernatants of LPS-pretreated cultures was much higher than that of untreated controls. These observations suggest that the LPS-induced suppression of DV replication was at the level of virus attachment and/or entry. Blockade of the major LPS receptor, CD14, with monoclonal antibodies MY4 or MoS39 failed to inhibit DV infection but could totally abrogate the inhibitory effect of LPS. Moreover, human serum could significantly enhance the LPS-induced DV suppression in a CD14-dependent manner, indicating that the "binding" of LPS to CD14 was critical for the induction of virus inhibition. Taken together, our results suggest that LPS blocked DV entry into human MO/Mphi via its receptor CD14 and that a CD14-associated cell surface structure may be essential for the initiation of a DV infection.  (+info)

The serine protease and RNA-stimulated nucleoside triphosphatase and RNA helicase functional domains of dengue virus type 2 NS3 converge within a region of 20 amino acids. (5/2185)

NS3 protein of dengue virus type 2 has a serine protease domain within the N-terminal 180 residues. NS2B is required for NS3 to form an active protease involved in processing of the viral polyprotein precursor. The region carboxy terminal to the protease domain has conserved motifs present in several viral RNA-stimulated nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase)/RNA helicases. To define the functional domains of protease and NTPase/RNA helicase activities of NS3, full-length and amino-terminal deletion mutants of NS3 were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Deletion of 160 N-terminal residues of NS3 (as in NS3del.2) had no detrimental effect on the basal and RNA-stimulated NTPase as well as RNA helicase activities. However, mutagenesis of the conserved P-loop motif of the RNA helicase domain (K199E) resulted in loss of ATPase activity. The RNA-stimulated NTPase activity was significantly affected by deletion of 20 amino acid residues from the N terminus or by substitutions of the cluster of basic residues, 184RKRK-->QNGN, of NS3del.2, although both mutant proteins retained the conserved RNA helicase motifs. Furthermore, the minimal NS3 protease domain, required for cleavage of the 2B-3 site, was precisely defined to be 167 residues, using the in vitro processing of NS2B-NS3 precursors. Our results reveal that the functional domains required for serine protease and RNA-stimulated NTPase activities map within the region between amino acid residues 160 and 180 of NS3 protein and that a novel motif, the cluster of basic residues 184RKRK, plays an important role for the RNA-stimulated NTPase activity.  (+info)

Effects of dengue fever during pregnancy in French Guiana. (6/2185)

To determine the effects of dengue fever (DF) during pregnancy, pregnant women presenting with a dengue-like syndrome at a hospital in Saint-Laurent du Maroni, French Guiana, from 1 January 1992 to 1 April 1998 were studied. The diagnosis of DF was made by serological tests, virus isolation on AP 61 mosquito cells, and/or reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis. Twenty-two women had either probable or confirmed DF. Dengue virus serotype 2 was detected in four cases, and dengue virus serotype 1 was detected in one. Three fetuses died following the onset of the disease, and three cases of prematurity occurred. All infants appeared normal during physical examination, and no neonatal DF was diagnosed. In conclusion, DF in pregnant women did not cause any infant abnormality, but it may have been responsible for fetal death. The rate of fetal death associated with DF (13.6%) was much higher than the mean rate for the gynecology unit at the hospital (1.9%). However, these differences were not significant, and consequently these preliminary results need to be confirmed.  (+info)

Bystander target cell lysis and cytokine production by dengue virus-specific human CD4(+) cytotoxic T-lymphocyte clones. (7/2185)

Dengue hemorrhagic fever, the severe form of dengue virus infection, is believed to be an immunopathological response to a secondary infection with a heterologous serotype of dengue virus. Dengue virus capsid protein-specific CD4(+) cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) clones were shown to be capable of mediating bystander lysis of non-antigen-presenting target cells. After activation by anti-CD3 or in the presence of unlabeled antigen-presenting target cells, these clones could lyse both Jurkat cells and HepG2 cells as bystander targets. Lysis of HepG2 cells suggests a potential role for CD4(+) CTL in the liver involvement observed during dengue virus infection. Three CD4(+) CTL clones were demonstrated to lyse cognate, antigen-presenting target cells by a mechanism that primarily involves perforin, while bystander lysis occurred through Fas/Fas ligand interactions. In contrast, one clone used a Fas/Fas ligand mechanism to lyse both cognate and bystander targets. Cytokine production by the CTL clones was also examined. In response to stimulation with D2 antigen, CD4(+) T-cell clones produced gamma interferon, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and TNF-beta. The data suggest that CD4(+) CTL clones may contribute to the immunopathology observed upon secondary dengue virus infections through direct cytolysis and/or cytokine production.  (+info)

Evaluation of the MRL diagnostics dengue fever virus IgM capture ELISA and the PanBio Rapid Immunochromatographic Test for diagnosis of dengue fever in Jamaica. (8/2185)

We evaluated two new commercial dengue diagnostic tests, the MRL Diagnostics Dengue Fever Virus IgM Capture ELISA and the PanBio Rapid Immunochromatographic Test, on serum samples collected during a dengue epidemic in Jamaica. The MRL ELISA method correctly identified 98% (78 of 80) of the samples as dengue positive, while the PanBio test identified 100% (80 of 80). Both tests were 100% (20 samples of 20) specific.  (+info)

Dengue virus (DENV) is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus that belongs to the genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae. It is primarily transmitted to humans through the bites of infected female mosquitoes, mainly Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

The DENV genome contains approximately 11,000 nucleotides and encodes three structural proteins (capsid, pre-membrane/membrane, and envelope) and seven non-structural proteins (NS1, NS2A, NS2B, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, and NS5). There are four distinct serotypes of DENV (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4), each of which can cause dengue fever, a mosquito-borne viral disease.

Infection with one serotype provides lifelong immunity against that particular serotype but only temporary and partial protection against the other three serotypes. Subsequent infections with different serotypes can increase the risk of developing severe dengue, such as dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome, due to antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) and original antigenic sin phenomena.

DENV is a significant public health concern in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide, with an estimated 390 million annual infections and approximately 100-400 million clinical cases. Preventive measures include vector control strategies to reduce mosquito populations and the development of effective vaccines against all four serotypes.

Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection that is primarily transmitted by the Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus species of mosquitoes. It is caused by one of four closely related dengue viruses (DENV 1, DENV 2, DENV 3, or DENV 4). The infection can cause a wide range of symptoms, ranging from mild fever and headache to severe flu-like illness, which is often characterized by the sudden onset of high fever, severe headache, muscle and joint pain, nausea, vomiting, and skin rash. In some cases, dengue can progress to more severe forms, such as dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome, which can be life-threatening if not treated promptly and appropriately.

Dengue is prevalent in many tropical and subtropical regions around the world, particularly in urban and semi-urban areas with poor sanitation and inadequate mosquito control. There is no specific treatment for dengue, and prevention efforts focus on reducing mosquito populations and avoiding mosquito bites. Vaccines are available in some countries to prevent dengue infection, but they are not widely used due to limitations in their effectiveness and safety.

Severe dengue, also known as dengue hemorrhagic fever, is a severe and potentially fatal complication of dengue virus infection. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines it as follows:

"Dengue hemorrhagic fever is characterized by a high fever (40°C/104°F) that lasts for 2-7 days, with generalized pain and severe headache, bleeding manifestations (e.g., nose or gum bleed, skin rash with bruising, internal bleeding), plasma leakage leading to accumulation of fluid in the lungs or abdomen, and a rapid decrease in platelet count."

Severe dengue can be life-threatening if not diagnosed and treated promptly. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you suspect you have dengue fever and are experiencing any of the symptoms associated with severe dengue.

Dengue vaccines are designed to protect against dengue fever, a mosquito-borne viral disease that can cause severe flu-like symptoms and potentially life-threatening complications. Dengue is caused by four distinct serotypes of the virus (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4), and infection with one serotype does not provide immunity against the others.

The first licensed dengue vaccine, Dengvaxia (CYD-TDV), is a chimeric yellow fever-dengue tetravalent vaccine developed by Sanofi Pasteur. It is approved for use in several countries and has demonstrated efficacy against dengue fever caused by all four serotypes in clinical trials. However, the vaccine has raised concerns about the risk of severe disease in individuals who have not been previously exposed to dengue. As a result, it is recommended primarily for people with a documented past dengue infection or living in areas with high dengue prevalence and where the benefits outweigh the risks.

Another dengue vaccine candidate, Takeda's TAK-003 (also known as TDV), is a live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine that has shown efficacy against all four serotypes in clinical trials. It was granted approval by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and several other countries for use in individuals aged 4-16 years old, living in endemic areas.

Research and development of additional dengue vaccine candidates are ongoing to address concerns about safety, efficacy, and accessibility, particularly for at-risk populations in low- and middle-income countries where dengue is most prevalent.

"Aedes" is a genus of mosquitoes that are known to transmit various diseases, including Zika virus, dengue fever, chikungunya, and yellow fever. These mosquitoes are typically found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. They are distinguished by their black and white striped legs and thorax. Aedes aegypti is the most common species associated with disease transmission, although other species such as Aedes albopictus can also transmit diseases. It's important to note that only female mosquitoes bite and feed on blood, while males feed solely on nectar and plant juices.

Virus replication is the process by which a virus produces copies or reproduces itself inside a host cell. This involves several steps:

1. Attachment: The virus attaches to a specific receptor on the surface of the host cell.
2. Penetration: The viral genetic material enters the host cell, either by invagination of the cell membrane or endocytosis.
3. Uncoating: The viral genetic material is released from its protective coat (capsid) inside the host cell.
4. Replication: The viral genetic material uses the host cell's machinery to produce new viral components, such as proteins and nucleic acids.
5. Assembly: The newly synthesized viral components are assembled into new virus particles.
6. Release: The newly formed viruses are released from the host cell, often through lysis (breaking) of the cell membrane or by budding off the cell membrane.

The specific mechanisms and details of virus replication can vary depending on the type of virus. Some viruses, such as DNA viruses, use the host cell's DNA polymerase to replicate their genetic material, while others, such as RNA viruses, use their own RNA-dependent RNA polymerase or reverse transcriptase enzymes. Understanding the process of virus replication is important for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Antibodies, viral are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection with a virus. These antibodies are capable of recognizing and binding to specific antigens on the surface of the virus, which helps to neutralize or destroy the virus and prevent its replication. Once produced, these antibodies can provide immunity against future infections with the same virus.

Viral antibodies are typically composed of four polypeptide chains - two heavy chains and two light chains - that are held together by disulfide bonds. The binding site for the antigen is located at the tip of the Y-shaped structure, formed by the variable regions of the heavy and light chains.

There are five classes of antibodies in humans: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each class has a different function and is distributed differently throughout the body. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody found in the bloodstream and provides long-term immunity against viruses, while IgA is found primarily in mucous membranes and helps to protect against respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.

In addition to their role in the immune response, viral antibodies can also be used as diagnostic tools to detect the presence of a specific virus in a patient's blood or other bodily fluids.

RNA viruses are a type of virus that contain ribonucleic acid (RNA) as their genetic material, as opposed to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). RNA viruses replicate by using an enzyme called RNA-dependent RNA polymerase to transcribe and replicate their RNA genome.

There are several different groups of RNA viruses, including:

1. Negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses: These viruses have a genome that is complementary to the mRNA and must undergo transcription to produce mRNA before translation can occur. Examples include influenza virus, measles virus, and rabies virus.
2. Positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses: These viruses have a genome that can serve as mRNA and can be directly translated into protein after entry into the host cell. Examples include poliovirus, rhinoviruses, and coronaviruses.
3. Double-stranded RNA viruses: These viruses have a genome consisting of double-stranded RNA and use a complex replication strategy involving both transcription and reverse transcription. Examples include rotaviruses and reoviruses.

RNA viruses are known to cause a wide range of human diseases, ranging from the common cold to more severe illnesses such as hepatitis C, polio, and COVID-19. Due to their high mutation rates and ability to adapt quickly to new environments, RNA viruses can be difficult to control and treat with antiviral drugs or vaccines.

Vaccinia virus is a large, complex DNA virus that belongs to the Poxviridae family. It is the virus used in the production of the smallpox vaccine. The vaccinia virus is not identical to the variola virus, which causes smallpox, but it is closely related and provides cross-protection against smallpox infection.

The vaccinia virus has a unique replication cycle that occurs entirely in the cytoplasm of infected cells, rather than in the nucleus like many other DNA viruses. This allows the virus to evade host cell defenses and efficiently produce new virions. The virus causes the formation of pocks or lesions on the skin, which contain large numbers of virus particles that can be transmitted to others through close contact.

Vaccinia virus has also been used as a vector for the delivery of genes encoding therapeutic proteins, vaccines against other infectious diseases, and cancer therapies. However, the use of vaccinia virus as a vector is limited by its potential to cause adverse reactions in some individuals, particularly those with weakened immune systems or certain skin conditions.

Antibody-Dependent Enhancement (ADE) is a phenomenon in which the presence of antibodies against a particular virus actually enhances the ability of the virus to infect and replicate within host cells, leading to increased severity of infection. This occurs when the antibodies bind to the virus but do not neutralize it, instead facilitating uptake of the virus into immune cells expressing Fc receptors, such as macrophages. The virus can then use these cells as a site for replication and evasion of the host's immune response. ADE has been observed in various viral infections, including dengue fever and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. It is a concern in the development of vaccines against these viruses, as non-neutralizing antibodies induced by vaccination could potentially enhance subsequent infection with a heterologous strain of the virus.

A viral RNA (ribonucleic acid) is the genetic material found in certain types of viruses, as opposed to viruses that contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). These viruses are known as RNA viruses. The RNA can be single-stranded or double-stranded and can exist as several different forms, such as positive-sense, negative-sense, or ambisense RNA. Upon infecting a host cell, the viral RNA uses the host's cellular machinery to translate the genetic information into proteins, leading to the production of new virus particles and the continuation of the viral life cycle. Examples of human diseases caused by RNA viruses include influenza, COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), hepatitis C, and polio.

Viral nonstructural proteins (NS) are viral proteins that are not part of the virion structure. They play various roles in the viral life cycle, such as replication of the viral genome, transcription, translation regulation, and modulation of the host cell environment to favor virus replication. These proteins are often produced in large quantities during infection and can manipulate or disrupt various cellular pathways to benefit the virus. They may also be involved in evasion of the host's immune response. The specific functions of viral nonstructural proteins vary depending on the type of virus.

Insect vectors are insects that transmit disease-causing pathogens (such as viruses, bacteria, parasites) from one host to another. They do this while feeding on the host's blood or tissues. The insects themselves are not infected by the pathogen but act as mechanical carriers that pass it on during their bite. Examples of diseases spread by insect vectors include malaria (transmitted by mosquitoes), Lyme disease (transmitted by ticks), and plague (transmitted by fleas). Proper prevention measures, such as using insect repellent and reducing standing water where mosquitoes breed, can help reduce the risk of contracting these diseases.

Virus cultivation, also known as virus isolation or viral culture, is a laboratory method used to propagate and detect viruses by introducing them to host cells and allowing them to replicate. This process helps in identifying the specific virus causing an infection and studying its characteristics, such as morphology, growth pattern, and sensitivity to antiviral agents.

The steps involved in virus cultivation typically include:

1. Collection of a clinical sample (e.g., throat swab, blood, sputum) from the patient.
2. Preparation of the sample by centrifugation or filtration to remove cellular debris and other contaminants.
3. Inoculation of the prepared sample into susceptible host cells, which can be primary cell cultures, continuous cell lines, or embryonated eggs, depending on the type of virus.
4. Incubation of the inoculated cells under appropriate conditions to allow viral replication.
5. Observation for cytopathic effects (CPE), which are changes in the host cells caused by viral replication, such as cell rounding, shrinkage, or lysis.
6. Confirmation of viral presence through additional tests, like immunofluorescence assays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or electron microscopy.

Virus cultivation is a valuable tool in diagnostic virology, vaccine development, and research on viral pathogenesis and host-virus interactions. However, it requires specialized equipment, trained personnel, and biosafety measures due to the potential infectivity of the viruses being cultured.

Virus receptors are specific molecules (commonly proteins) on the surface of host cells that viruses bind to in order to enter and infect those cells. This interaction between the virus and its receptor is a critical step in the infection process. Different types of viruses have different receptor requirements, and identifying these receptors can provide important insights into the biology of the virus and potential targets for antiviral therapies.

'Culicidae' is the biological family that includes all species of mosquitoes. It consists of three subfamilies: Anophelinae, Culicinae, and Toxorhynchitinae. Mosquitoes are small, midge-like flies that are known for their ability to transmit various diseases to humans and other animals, such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, and Zika virus. The medical importance of Culicidae comes from the fact that only female mosquitoes require blood meals to lay eggs, and during this process, they can transmit pathogens between hosts.

Vero cells are a line of cultured kidney epithelial cells that were isolated from an African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) in the 1960s. They are named after the location where they were initially developed, the Vervet Research Institute in Japan.

Vero cells have the ability to divide indefinitely under certain laboratory conditions and are often used in scientific research, including virology, as a host cell for viruses to replicate. This allows researchers to study the characteristics of various viruses, such as their growth patterns and interactions with host cells. Vero cells are also used in the production of some vaccines, including those for rabies, polio, and Japanese encephalitis.

It is important to note that while Vero cells have been widely used in research and vaccine production, they can still have variations between different cell lines due to factors like passage number or culture conditions. Therefore, it's essential to specify the exact source and condition of Vero cells when reporting experimental results.

An antigen is any substance that can stimulate an immune response, particularly the production of antibodies. Viral antigens are antigens that are found on or produced by viruses. They can be proteins, glycoproteins, or carbohydrates present on the surface or inside the viral particle.

Viral antigens play a crucial role in the immune system's recognition and response to viral infections. When a virus infects a host cell, it may display its antigens on the surface of the infected cell. This allows the immune system to recognize and target the infected cells for destruction, thereby limiting the spread of the virus.

Viral antigens are also important targets for vaccines. Vaccines typically work by introducing a harmless form of a viral antigen to the body, which then stimulates the production of antibodies and memory T-cells that can recognize and respond quickly and effectively to future infections with the actual virus.

It's worth noting that different types of viruses have different antigens, and these antigens can vary between strains of the same virus. This is why there are often different vaccines available for different viral diseases, and why flu vaccines need to be updated every year to account for changes in the circulating influenza virus strains.

'Cercopithecus aethiops' is the scientific name for the monkey species more commonly known as the green monkey. It belongs to the family Cercopithecidae and is native to western Africa. The green monkey is omnivorous, with a diet that includes fruits, nuts, seeds, insects, and small vertebrates. They are known for their distinctive greenish-brown fur and long tail. Green monkeys are also important animal models in biomedical research due to their susceptibility to certain diseases, such as SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus), which is closely related to HIV.

Flavivirus is a genus of viruses in the family Flaviviridae. They are enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses that are primarily transmitted by arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes and ticks. Many flaviviruses cause significant disease in humans, including dengue fever, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, West Nile fever, and Zika fever. The name "flavivirus" is derived from the Latin word for "yellow," referring to the yellow fever virus, which was one of the first members of this genus to be discovered.

Virus assembly, also known as virion assembly, is the final stage in the virus life cycle where individual viral components come together to form a complete viral particle or virion. This process typically involves the self-assembly of viral capsid proteins around the viral genome (DNA or RNA) and, in enveloped viruses, the acquisition of a lipid bilayer membrane containing viral glycoproteins. The specific mechanisms and regulation of virus assembly vary among different viral families, but it is often directed by interactions between viral structural proteins and genomic nucleic acid.

West Nile Virus (WNV) is an Flavivirus, which is a type of virus that is spread by mosquitoes. It was first discovered in the West Nile district of Uganda in 1937 and has since been found in many countries throughout the world. WNV can cause a mild to severe illness known as West Nile fever.

Most people who become infected with WNV do not develop any symptoms, but some may experience fever, headache, body aches, joint pain, vomiting, diarrhea, or a rash. In rare cases, the virus can cause serious neurological illnesses such as encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) or meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord). These severe forms of the disease can be fatal, especially in older adults and people with weakened immune systems.

WNV is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes, but it can also be spread through blood transfusions, organ transplants, or from mother to baby during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding. There is no specific treatment for WNV, and most people recover on their own with rest and supportive care. However, hospitalization may be necessary in severe cases. Prevention measures include avoiding mosquito bites by using insect repellent, wearing long sleeves and pants, and staying indoors during peak mosquito activity hours.

Viral diseases are illnesses caused by the infection and replication of viruses in host organisms. These infectious agents are obligate parasites, meaning they rely on the cells of other living organisms to survive and reproduce. Viruses can infect various types of hosts, including animals, plants, and microorganisms, causing a wide range of diseases with varying symptoms and severity.

Once a virus enters a host cell, it takes over the cell's machinery to produce new viral particles, often leading to cell damage or death. The immune system recognizes the viral components as foreign and mounts an immune response to eliminate the infection. This response can result in inflammation, fever, and other symptoms associated with viral diseases.

Examples of well-known viral diseases include:

1. Influenza (flu) - caused by influenza A, B, or C viruses
2. Common cold - usually caused by rhinoviruses or coronaviruses
3. HIV/AIDS - caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
4. Measles - caused by measles morbillivirus
5. Hepatitis B and C - caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), respectively
6. Herpes simplex - caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) or type 2 (HSV-2)
7. Chickenpox and shingles - both caused by varicella-zoster virus (VZV)
8. Rabies - caused by rabies lyssavirus
9. Ebola - caused by ebolaviruses
10. COVID-19 - caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)

Prevention and treatment strategies for viral diseases may include vaccination, antiviral medications, and supportive care to manage symptoms while the immune system fights off the infection.

Serotyping is a laboratory technique used to classify microorganisms, such as bacteria and viruses, based on the specific antigens or proteins present on their surface. It involves treating the microorganism with different types of antibodies and observing which ones bind to its surface. Each distinct set of antigens corresponds to a specific serotype, allowing for precise identification and characterization of the microorganism. This technique is particularly useful in epidemiology, vaccine development, and infection control.

Neutralization tests are a type of laboratory assay used in microbiology and immunology to measure the ability of a substance, such as an antibody or antitoxin, to neutralize the activity of a toxin or infectious agent. In these tests, the substance to be tested is mixed with a known quantity of the toxin or infectious agent, and the mixture is then incubated under controlled conditions. After incubation, the mixture is tested for residual toxicity or infectivity using a variety of methods, such as cell culture assays, animal models, or biochemical assays.

The neutralization titer is then calculated based on the highest dilution of the test substance that completely neutralizes the toxin or infectious agent. Neutralization tests are commonly used in the diagnosis and evaluation of immune responses to vaccines, as well as in the detection and quantification of toxins and other harmful substances.

Examples of neutralization tests include the serum neutralization test for measles antibodies, the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) for dengue virus antibodies, and the cytotoxicity neutralization assay for botulinum neurotoxins.

Virus shedding refers to the release of virus particles by an infected individual, who can then transmit the virus to others through various means such as respiratory droplets, fecal matter, or bodily fluids. This occurs when the virus replicates inside the host's cells and is released into the surrounding environment, where it can infect other individuals. The duration of virus shedding varies depending on the specific virus and the individual's immune response. It's important to note that some individuals may shed viruses even before they show symptoms, making infection control measures such as hand hygiene, mask-wearing, and social distancing crucial in preventing the spread of infectious diseases.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

A viral plaque assay is a laboratory technique used to measure the infectivity and concentration of viruses in a sample. This method involves infecting a monolayer of cells (usually in a petri dish or multi-well plate) with a known volume of a virus-containing sample, followed by overlaying the cells with a nutrient-agar medium to restrict viral spread and enable individual plaques to form.

After an incubation period that allows for viral replication and cell death, the cells are stained, and clear areas or "plaques" become visible in the monolayer. Each plaque represents a localized region of infected and lysed cells, caused by the progeny of a single infectious virus particle. The number of plaques is then counted, and the viral titer (infectious units per milliliter or PFU/mL) is calculated based on the dilution factor and volume of the original inoculum.

Viral plaque assays are essential for determining viral titers, assessing virus-host interactions, evaluating antiviral agents, and studying viral pathogenesis.

Simian Virus 40 (SV40) is a polyomavirus that is found in both monkeys and humans. It is a DNA virus that has been extensively studied in laboratory settings due to its ability to transform cells and cause tumors in animals. In fact, SV40 was discovered as a contaminant of poliovirus vaccines that were prepared using rhesus monkey kidney cells in the 1950s and 1960s.

SV40 is not typically associated with human disease, but there has been some concern that exposure to the virus through contaminated vaccines or other means could increase the risk of certain types of cancer, such as mesothelioma and brain tumors. However, most studies have failed to find a consistent link between SV40 infection and cancer in humans.

The medical community generally agrees that SV40 is not a significant public health threat, but researchers continue to study the virus to better understand its biology and potential impact on human health.

A disease outbreak is defined as the occurrence of cases of a disease in excess of what would normally be expected in a given time and place. It may affect a small and localized group or a large number of people spread over a wide area, even internationally. An outbreak may be caused by a new agent, a change in the agent's virulence or host susceptibility, or an increase in the size or density of the host population.

Outbreaks can have significant public health and economic impacts, and require prompt investigation and control measures to prevent further spread of the disease. The investigation typically involves identifying the source of the outbreak, determining the mode of transmission, and implementing measures to interrupt the chain of infection. This may include vaccination, isolation or quarantine, and education of the public about the risks and prevention strategies.

Examples of disease outbreaks include foodborne illnesses linked to contaminated food or water, respiratory infections spread through coughing and sneezing, and mosquito-borne diseases such as Zika virus and West Nile virus. Outbreaks can also occur in healthcare settings, such as hospitals and nursing homes, where vulnerable populations may be at increased risk of infection.

Yellow fever virus (YFV) is an single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus. It is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes, most commonly Aedes and Haemagogus species. The virus is named for the jaundice that can occur in some patients, giving their skin and eyes a yellowish color.

Yellow fever is endemic in tropical regions of Africa and South America, with outbreaks occurring when large numbers of people are infected. After an incubation period of 3 to 6 days, symptoms typically begin with fever, chills, headache, back pain, and muscle aches. In more severe cases, the infection can progress to cause bleeding, organ failure, and death.

Prevention measures include vaccination, mosquito control, and personal protective measures such as wearing long sleeves and using insect repellent in areas where yellow fever is endemic or outbreaks are occurring.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Thailand" is not a medical term. It is a country located in Southeast Asia. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help answer those for you!

A plant virus is not defined in medical terms, as viruses are typically considered within the context of living organisms and plants are not classified as such. However, I can provide a general virology definition for you:

Plant viruses are small infectious agents that consist of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) enclosed in a protein coat. They infect various plant species, causing a wide range of symptoms and diseases, which can result in significant economic losses in agriculture and horticulture. Plant viruses lack the ability to replicate outside a host cell, and they rely on the host's metabolic machinery for their reproduction. They can be transmitted through various means, such as insect vectors, seeds, or mechanical contact.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

DNA viruses are a type of virus that contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) as their genetic material. These viruses replicate by using the host cell's machinery to synthesize new viral components, which are then assembled into new viruses and released from the host cell.

DNA viruses can be further classified based on the structure of their genomes and the way they replicate. For example, double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses have a genome made up of two strands of DNA, while single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses have a genome made up of a single strand of DNA.

Examples of DNA viruses include herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus, human papillomavirus, and adenoviruses. Some DNA viruses are associated with specific diseases, such as cancer (e.g., human papillomavirus) or neurological disorders (e.g., herpes simplex virus).

It's important to note that while DNA viruses contain DNA as their genetic material, RNA viruses contain RNA (ribonucleic acid) as their genetic material. Both DNA and RNA viruses can cause a wide range of diseases in humans, animals, and plants.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nicaragua" is not a medical term. It is the largest country in the Central American Isthmus, bordering Honduras to the north and Costa Rica to the south. It has coastlines on both the Caribbean Sea and the North Pacific Ocean.

If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

Defective viruses are viruses that have lost the ability to complete a full replication cycle and produce progeny virions independently. These viruses require the assistance of a helper virus, which provides the necessary functions for replication. Defective viruses can arise due to mutations, deletions, or other genetic changes that result in the loss of essential genes. They are often non-infectious and cannot cause disease on their own, but they may interfere with the replication of the helper virus and modulate the course of infection. Defective viruses can be found in various types of viruses, including retroviruses, bacteriophages, and DNA viruses.

Neutralizing antibodies are a type of antibody that defends against pathogens such as viruses or bacteria by neutralizing their ability to infect cells. They do this by binding to specific regions on the surface proteins of the pathogen, preventing it from attaching to and entering host cells. This renders the pathogen ineffective and helps to prevent or reduce the severity of infection. Neutralizing antibodies can be produced naturally in response to an infection or vaccination, or they can be generated artificially for therapeutic purposes.

Viral proteins are the proteins that are encoded by the viral genome and are essential for the viral life cycle. These proteins can be structural or non-structural and play various roles in the virus's replication, infection, and assembly process. Structural proteins make up the physical structure of the virus, including the capsid (the protein shell that surrounds the viral genome) and any envelope proteins (that may be present on enveloped viruses). Non-structural proteins are involved in the replication of the viral genome and modulation of the host cell environment to favor viral replication. Overall, a thorough understanding of viral proteins is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Sindbis virus is an alphavirus that belongs to the Togaviridae family. It's named after the location where it was first isolated, in Sindbis, Egypt, in 1952. This virus is primarily transmitted by mosquitoes and can infect a wide range of animals, including birds and humans. In humans, Sindbis virus infection often causes a mild flu-like illness characterized by fever, rash, and joint pain. However, some people may develop more severe symptoms, such as neurological disorders, although this is relatively rare. There is no specific treatment for Sindbis virus infection, and management typically involves supportive care to alleviate symptoms.

Measles virus is a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus belonging to the genus Morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. It is the causative agent of measles, a highly contagious infectious disease characterized by fever, cough, runny nose, and a red, blotchy rash. The virus primarily infects the respiratory tract and then spreads throughout the body via the bloodstream.

The genome of the measles virus is approximately 16 kilobases in length and encodes for eight proteins: nucleocapsid (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrix protein (M), fusion protein (F), hemagglutinin (H), large protein (L), and two non-structural proteins, V and C. The H protein is responsible for binding to the host cell receptor CD150 (SLAM) and mediating viral entry, while the F protein facilitates fusion of the viral and host cell membranes.

Measles virus is transmitted through respiratory droplets and direct contact with infected individuals. The virus can remain airborne for up to two hours in a closed space, making it highly contagious. Measles is preventable through vaccination, which has led to significant reductions in the incidence of the disease worldwide.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

'Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype' is a specific subtype of the influenza A virus that causes flu in humans and animals. It contains certain proteins called hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N) on its surface, with this subtype specifically having H1 and N1 antigens. The H1N1 strain is well-known for causing the 2009 swine flu pandemic, which was a global outbreak of flu that resulted in significant morbidity and mortality. This subtype can also cause seasonal flu, although the severity and symptoms may vary. It is important to note that influenza viruses are constantly changing, and new strains or subtypes can emerge over time, requiring regular updates to vaccines to protect against them.

RNA helicases are a class of enzymes that are capable of unwinding RNA secondary structures using the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis. They play crucial roles in various cellular processes involving RNA, such as transcription, splicing, translation, ribosome biogenesis, and RNA degradation. RNA helicases can be divided into several superfamilies based on their sequence and structural similarities, with the two largest being superfamily 1 (SF1) and superfamily 2 (SF2). These enzymes typically contain conserved motifs that are involved in ATP binding and hydrolysis, as well as RNA binding. By unwinding RNA structures, RNA helicases facilitate the access of other proteins to their target RNAs, thereby enabling the coordinated regulation of RNA metabolism.

Antiviral agents are a class of medications that are designed to treat infections caused by viruses. Unlike antibiotics, which target bacteria, antiviral agents interfere with the replication and infection mechanisms of viruses, either by inhibiting their ability to replicate or by modulating the host's immune response to the virus.

Antiviral agents are used to treat a variety of viral infections, including influenza, herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, hepatitis B and C, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections.

These medications can be administered orally, intravenously, or topically, depending on the type of viral infection being treated. Some antiviral agents are also used for prophylaxis, or prevention, of certain viral infections.

It is important to note that antiviral agents are not effective against all types of viruses and may have significant side effects. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any antiviral therapy.

Viral envelope proteins are structural proteins found in the envelope that surrounds many types of viruses. These proteins play a crucial role in the virus's life cycle, including attachment to host cells, fusion with the cell membrane, and entry into the host cell. They are typically made up of glycoproteins and are often responsible for eliciting an immune response in the host organism. The exact structure and function of viral envelope proteins vary between different types of viruses.

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus from the Togaviridae family that is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes, primarily Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. The name "Chikungunya" is derived from a Makonde word meaning "to become contorted," which describes the stooped posture developed as a result of severe arthralgia (joint pain) that is a primary symptom of infection with this virus.

CHIKV infection typically causes a febrile illness, characterized by an abrupt onset of high fever, severe joint pain, muscle pain, headache, nausea, fatigue, and rash. While the symptoms are usually self-limiting and resolve within 10 days, some individuals may experience persistent or recurring joint pain for several months or even years after the initial infection.

There is no specific antiviral treatment available for Chikungunya virus infection, and management primarily focuses on relieving symptoms with rest, fluids, and over-the-counter pain relievers such as acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Prevention measures include avoiding mosquito bites through the use of insect repellent, wearing long sleeves and pants, staying in air-conditioned or screened rooms, and eliminating standing water where mosquitoes breed.

Chikungunya virus is found primarily in Africa, Asia, and the Indian subcontinent, but it has also caused outbreaks in Europe and the Americas due to the spread of its vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. The virus can cause large-scale epidemics, with millions of cases reported during outbreaks. There is currently no approved vaccine for Chikungunya virus infection.

An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a type of analytical biochemistry assay used to detect and quantify the presence of a substance, typically a protein or peptide, in a liquid sample. It takes its name from the enzyme-linked antibodies used in the assay.

In an ELISA, the sample is added to a well containing a surface that has been treated to capture the target substance. If the target substance is present in the sample, it will bind to the surface. Next, an enzyme-linked antibody specific to the target substance is added. This antibody will bind to the captured target substance if it is present. After washing away any unbound material, a substrate for the enzyme is added. If the enzyme is present due to its linkage to the antibody, it will catalyze a reaction that produces a detectable signal, such as a color change or fluorescence. The intensity of this signal is proportional to the amount of target substance present in the sample, allowing for quantification.

ELISAs are widely used in research and clinical settings to detect and measure various substances, including hormones, viruses, and bacteria. They offer high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, making them a reliable choice for many applications.

Rabies is a viral disease that affects the nervous system of mammals, including humans. It's caused by the rabies virus (RV), which belongs to the family Rhabdoviridae and genus Lyssavirus. The virus has a bullet-shaped appearance under an electron microscope and is encased in a lipid envelope.

The rabies virus primarily spreads through the saliva of infected animals, usually via bites. Once inside the body, it travels along nerve fibers to the brain, where it multiplies rapidly and causes inflammation (encephalitis). The infection can lead to symptoms such as anxiety, confusion, hallucinations, seizures, paralysis, coma, and ultimately death if left untreated.

Rabies is almost always fatal once symptoms appear, but prompt post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which includes vaccination and sometimes rabies immunoglobulin, can prevent the disease from developing when administered after an exposure to a potentially rabid animal. Pre-exposure vaccination is also recommended for individuals at high risk of exposure, such as veterinarians and travelers visiting rabies-endemic areas.

"Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype" is a specific subtype of the Influenza A virus that is often found in avian species (birds) and can occasionally infect humans. The "H5N1" refers to the specific proteins (hemagglutinin and neuraminidase) found on the surface of the virus. This subtype has caused serious infections in humans, with high mortality rates, especially in cases where people have had close contact with infected birds. It does not commonly spread from person to person, but there is concern that it could mutate and adapt to efficiently transmit between humans, which would potentially cause a pandemic.

Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a type of antibody that is primarily found in the blood and lymph fluid. It is the first antibody to be produced in response to an initial exposure to an antigen, making it an important part of the body's primary immune response. IgM antibodies are large molecules that are composed of five basic units, giving them a pentameric structure. They are primarily found on the surface of B cells as membrane-bound immunoglobulins (mlgM), where they function as receptors for antigens. Once an mlgM receptor binds to an antigen, it triggers the activation and differentiation of the B cell into a plasma cell that produces and secretes large amounts of soluble IgM antibodies.

IgM antibodies are particularly effective at agglutination (clumping) and complement activation, which makes them important in the early stages of an immune response to help clear pathogens from the bloodstream. However, they are not as stable or long-lived as other types of antibodies, such as IgG, and their levels tend to decline after the initial immune response has occurred.

In summary, Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the primary immune response to antigens by agglutination and complement activation. It is primarily found in the blood and lymph fluid, and it is produced by B cells after they are activated by an antigen.

Cross reactions, in the context of medical diagnostics and immunology, refer to a situation where an antibody or a immune response directed against one antigen also reacts with a different antigen due to similarities in their molecular structure. This can occur in allergy testing, where a person who is allergic to a particular substance may have a positive test result for a different but related substance because of cross-reactivity between them. For example, some individuals who are allergic to birch pollen may also have symptoms when eating certain fruits, such as apples, due to cross-reactive proteins present in both.

Viremia is a medical term that refers to the presence of viruses in the bloodstream. It occurs when a virus successfully infects a host and replicates within the body's cells, releasing new viral particles into the blood. This condition can lead to various clinical manifestations depending on the specific virus involved and the immune response of the infected individual. Some viral infections result in asymptomatic viremia, while others can cause severe illness or even life-threatening conditions. The detection of viremia is crucial for diagnosing certain viral infections and monitoring disease progression or treatment effectiveness.

A virion is the complete, infectious form of a virus outside its host cell. It consists of the viral genome (DNA or RNA) enclosed within a protein coat called the capsid, which is often surrounded by a lipid membrane called the envelope. The envelope may contain viral proteins and glycoproteins that aid in attachment to and entry into host cells during infection. The term "virion" emphasizes the infectious nature of the virus particle, as opposed to non-infectious components like individual capsid proteins or naked viral genome.

Viral genes refer to the genetic material present in viruses that contains the information necessary for their replication and the production of viral proteins. In DNA viruses, the genetic material is composed of double-stranded or single-stranded DNA, while in RNA viruses, it is composed of single-stranded or double-stranded RNA.

Viral genes can be classified into three categories: early, late, and structural. Early genes encode proteins involved in the replication of the viral genome, modulation of host cell processes, and regulation of viral gene expression. Late genes encode structural proteins that make up the viral capsid or envelope. Some viruses also have structural genes that are expressed throughout their replication cycle.

Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines. By targeting specific viral genes, researchers can develop drugs that inhibit viral replication and reduce the severity of viral infections. Additionally, knowledge of viral gene sequences can inform the development of vaccines that stimulate an immune response to specific viral proteins.

"Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype" is a specific subtype of the influenza A virus that causes respiratory illness and is known to circulate in humans and animals, including birds and pigs. The "H3N2" refers to the two proteins on the surface of the virus: hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N). In this subtype, the H protein is of the H3 variety and the N protein is of the N2 variety. This subtype has been responsible for several influenza epidemics and pandemics in humans, including the 1968 Hong Kong flu pandemic. It is one of the influenza viruses that are monitored closely by public health authorities due to its potential to cause significant illness and death, particularly in high-risk populations such as older adults, young children, and people with certain underlying medical conditions.

Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to amplify and detect specific DNA sequences. This technique is particularly useful for the detection and quantification of RNA viruses, as well as for the analysis of gene expression.

The process involves two main steps: reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the first step, reverse transcriptase enzyme is used to convert RNA into complementary DNA (cDNA) by reading the template provided by the RNA molecule. This cDNA then serves as a template for the PCR amplification step.

In the second step, the PCR reaction uses two primers that flank the target DNA sequence and a thermostable polymerase enzyme to repeatedly copy the targeted cDNA sequence. The reaction mixture is heated and cooled in cycles, allowing the primers to anneal to the template, and the polymerase to extend the new strand. This results in exponential amplification of the target DNA sequence, making it possible to detect even small amounts of RNA or cDNA.

RT-PCR is a sensitive and specific technique that has many applications in medical research and diagnostics, including the detection of viruses such as HIV, hepatitis C virus, and SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). It can also be used to study gene expression, identify genetic mutations, and diagnose genetic disorders.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a DNA virus that belongs to the Hepadnaviridae family and causes the infectious disease known as hepatitis B. This virus primarily targets the liver, where it can lead to inflammation and damage of the liver tissue. The infection can range from acute to chronic, with chronic hepatitis B increasing the risk of developing serious liver complications such as cirrhosis and liver cancer.

The Hepatitis B virus has a complex life cycle, involving both nuclear and cytoplasmic phases. It enters hepatocytes (liver cells) via binding to specific receptors and is taken up by endocytosis. The viral DNA is released into the nucleus, where it is converted into a covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) form, which serves as the template for viral transcription.

HBV transcribes several RNAs, including pregenomic RNA (pgRNA), which is used as a template for reverse transcription during virion assembly. The pgRNA is encapsidated into core particles along with the viral polymerase and undergoes reverse transcription to generate new viral DNA. This process occurs within the cytoplasm of the hepatocyte, resulting in the formation of immature virions containing partially double-stranded DNA.

These immature virions are then enveloped by host cell membranes containing HBV envelope proteins (known as surface antigens) to form mature virions that can be secreted from the hepatocyte and infect other cells. The virus can also integrate into the host genome, which may contribute to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic cases.

Hepatitis B is primarily transmitted through exposure to infected blood or bodily fluids containing the virus, such as through sexual contact, sharing needles, or from mother to child during childbirth. Prevention strategies include vaccination, safe sex practices, and avoiding needle-sharing behaviors. Treatment for hepatitis B typically involves antiviral medications that can help suppress viral replication and reduce the risk of liver damage.

Virology is the study of viruses, their classification, and their effects on living organisms. It involves the examination of viral genetic material, viral replication, how viruses cause disease, and the development of antiviral drugs and vaccines to treat or prevent virus infections. Virologists study various types of viruses that can infect animals, plants, and microorganisms, as well as understand their evolution and transmission patterns.

Flavivirus infections refer to a group of diseases caused by various viruses belonging to the Flaviviridae family, specifically within the genus Flavivirus. These viruses are primarily transmitted to humans through the bites of infected arthropods, such as mosquitoes and ticks.

Some well-known flavivirus infections include:

1. Dengue Fever: A mosquito-borne viral infection that is prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. It can cause a wide range of symptoms, from mild flu-like illness to severe complications like dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome.
2. Yellow Fever: A viral hemorrhagic disease transmitted by the Aedes and Haemagogus mosquitoes, primarily in Africa and South America. It can cause severe illness, including jaundice, bleeding, organ failure, and death.
3. Japanese Encephalitis: A mosquito-borne viral infection that is endemic to Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific. While most infections are asymptomatic or mild, a small percentage of cases can lead to severe neurological complications, such as encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) and meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord).
4. Zika Virus Infection: A mosquito-borne viral disease that has spread to many regions of the world, particularly in tropical and subtropical areas. Most Zika virus infections are mild or asymptomatic; however, infection during pregnancy can cause severe birth defects, such as microcephaly (abnormally small head size) and other neurological abnormalities in the developing fetus.
5. West Nile Virus Infection: A mosquito-borne viral disease that is endemic to North America, Europe, Africa, Asia, and Australia. Most infections are mild or asymptomatic; however, a small percentage of cases can lead to severe neurological complications, such as encephalitis, meningitis, and acute flaccid paralysis (sudden weakness in the arms and legs).

Prevention measures for these diseases typically involve avoiding mosquito bites through the use of insect repellent, wearing long sleeves and pants, staying indoors during peak mosquito hours, and removing standing water from around homes and businesses. Additionally, vaccines are available for some of these diseases, such as Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever, and should be considered for individuals traveling to areas where these diseases are common.

Host-pathogen interactions refer to the complex and dynamic relationship between a living organism (the host) and a disease-causing agent (the pathogen). This interaction can involve various molecular, cellular, and physiological processes that occur between the two entities. The outcome of this interaction can determine whether the host will develop an infection or not, as well as the severity and duration of the illness.

During host-pathogen interactions, the pathogen may release virulence factors that allow it to evade the host's immune system, colonize tissues, and obtain nutrients for its survival and replication. The host, in turn, may mount an immune response to recognize and eliminate the pathogen, which can involve various mechanisms such as inflammation, phagocytosis, and the production of antimicrobial agents.

Understanding the intricacies of host-pathogen interactions is crucial for developing effective strategies to prevent and treat infectious diseases. This knowledge can help identify new targets for therapeutic interventions, inform vaccine design, and guide public health policies to control the spread of infectious agents.

Respiratory Syncytial Viruses (RSV) are a common type of virus that cause respiratory infections, particularly in young children and older adults. They are responsible for inflammation and narrowing of the small airways in the lungs, leading to breathing difficulties and other symptoms associated with bronchiolitis and pneumonia.

The term "syncytial" refers to the ability of these viruses to cause infected cells to merge and form large multinucleated cells called syncytia, which is a characteristic feature of RSV infections. The virus spreads through respiratory droplets when an infected person coughs or sneezes, and it can also survive on surfaces for several hours, making transmission easy.

RSV infections are most common during the winter months and can cause mild to severe symptoms depending on factors such as age, overall health, and underlying medical conditions. While RSV is typically associated with respiratory illnesses in children, it can also cause significant disease in older adults and immunocompromised individuals. Currently, there is no vaccine available for RSV, but antiviral medications and supportive care are used to manage severe infections.

Cricetinae is a subfamily of rodents that includes hamsters, gerbils, and relatives. These small mammals are characterized by having short limbs, compact bodies, and cheek pouches for storing food. They are native to various parts of the world, particularly in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Some species are popular pets due to their small size, easy care, and friendly nature. In a medical context, understanding the biology and behavior of Cricetinae species can be important for individuals who keep them as pets or for researchers studying their physiology.

Viral activation, also known as viral reactivation or virus reactivation, refers to the process in which a latent or dormant virus becomes active and starts to replicate within a host cell. This can occur when the immune system is weakened or compromised, allowing the virus to evade the body's natural defenses and cause disease.

In some cases, viral activation can be triggered by certain environmental factors, such as stress, exposure to UV light, or infection with another virus. Once activated, the virus can cause symptoms similar to those seen during the initial infection, or it may lead to new symptoms depending on the specific virus and the host's immune response.

Examples of viruses that can remain dormant in the body and be reactivated include herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). It is important to note that not all viruses can be reactivated, and some may remain dormant in the body indefinitely without causing any harm.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Vietnam" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in Southeast Asia. If you have any questions about medical conditions or terminology, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests are a type of serological assay used in medical laboratories to detect and measure the amount of antibodies present in a patient's serum. These tests are commonly used to diagnose viral infections, such as influenza or HIV, by identifying the presence of antibodies that bind to specific viral antigens and prevent hemagglutination (the agglutination or clumping together of red blood cells).

In an HI test, a small amount of the patient's serum is mixed with a known quantity of the viral antigen, which has been treated to attach to red blood cells. If the patient's serum contains antibodies that bind to the viral antigen, they will prevent the antigen from attaching to the red blood cells and inhibit hemagglutination. The degree of hemagglutination inhibition can be measured and used to estimate the amount of antibody present in the patient's serum.

HI tests are relatively simple and inexpensive to perform, but they have some limitations. For example, they may not detect early-stage infections before the body has had a chance to produce antibodies, and they may not be able to distinguish between different strains of the same virus. Nonetheless, HI tests remain an important tool for diagnosing viral infections and monitoring immune responses to vaccination or infection.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV) is a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus that belongs to the family Rhabdoviridae and genus Vesiculovirus. It is the causative agent of vesicular stomatitis (VS), a viral disease that primarily affects horses and cattle, but can also infect other species including swine, sheep, goats, and humans.

The virus is transmitted through direct contact with infected animals or their saliva, as well as through insect vectors such as black flies and sandflies. The incubation period for VS ranges from 2 to 8 days, after which infected animals develop fever, lethargy, and vesicular lesions in the mouth, nose, and feet. These lesions can be painful and may cause difficulty eating or walking.

In humans, VSIV infection is typically asymptomatic or causes mild flu-like symptoms such as fever, muscle aches, and headache. Occasionally, individuals may develop vesicular lesions on their skin or mucous membranes, particularly if they have had contact with infected animals.

Diagnosis of VSIV infection is typically made through virus isolation from lesion exudates or blood, as well as through serological testing. Treatment is generally supportive and aimed at relieving symptoms, as there are no specific antiviral therapies available for VS. Prevention measures include vaccination of susceptible animals, vector control, and biosecurity measures to prevent the spread of infection between animals.

Attenuated vaccines consist of live microorganisms that have been weakened (attenuated) through various laboratory processes so they do not cause disease in the majority of recipients but still stimulate an immune response. The purpose of attenuation is to reduce the virulence or replication capacity of the pathogen while keeping it alive, allowing it to retain its antigenic properties and induce a strong and protective immune response.

Examples of attenuated vaccines include:

1. Sabin oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV): This vaccine uses live but weakened polioviruses to protect against all three strains of the disease-causing poliovirus. The weakened viruses replicate in the intestine and induce an immune response, which provides both humoral (antibody) and cell-mediated immunity.
2. Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine: This combination vaccine contains live attenuated measles, mumps, and rubella viruses. It is given to protect against these three diseases and prevent their spread in the population.
3. Varicella (chickenpox) vaccine: This vaccine uses a weakened form of the varicella-zoster virus, which causes chickenpox. By introducing this attenuated virus into the body, it stimulates an immune response that protects against future infection with the wild-type virus.
4. Yellow fever vaccine: This live attenuated vaccine is used to prevent yellow fever, a viral disease transmitted by mosquitoes in tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and South America. The vaccine contains a weakened form of the yellow fever virus that cannot cause the disease but still induces an immune response.
5. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine: This live attenuated vaccine is used to protect against tuberculosis (TB). It contains a weakened strain of Mycobacterium bovis, which does not cause TB in humans but stimulates an immune response that provides some protection against the disease.

Attenuated vaccines are generally effective at inducing long-lasting immunity and can provide robust protection against targeted diseases. However, they may pose a risk for individuals with weakened immune systems, as the attenuated viruses or bacteria could potentially cause illness in these individuals. Therefore, it is essential to consider an individual's health status before administering live attenuated vaccines.

Virus latency, also known as viral latency, refers to a state of infection in which a virus remains dormant or inactive within a host cell for a period of time. During this phase, the virus does not replicate or cause any noticeable symptoms. However, under certain conditions such as stress, illness, or a weakened immune system, the virus can become reactivated and begin to produce new viruses, potentially leading to disease.

One well-known example of a virus that exhibits latency is the varicella-zoster virus (VZV), which causes chickenpox in children. After a person recovers from chickenpox, the virus remains dormant in the nervous system for years or even decades. In some cases, the virus can reactivate later in life, causing shingles, a painful rash that typically occurs on one side of the body.

Virus latency is an important concept in virology and infectious disease research, as it has implications for understanding the persistence of viral infections, developing treatments and vaccines, and predicting the risk of disease recurrence.

Hemagglutinin (HA) glycoproteins are surface proteins found on influenza viruses. They play a crucial role in the virus's ability to infect and spread within host organisms.

The HAs are responsible for binding to sialic acid receptors on the host cell's surface, allowing the virus to attach and enter the cell. After endocytosis, the viral and endosomal membranes fuse, releasing the viral genome into the host cell's cytoplasm.

There are several subtypes of hemagglutinin (H1-H18) identified so far, with H1, H2, and H3 being common in human infections. The significant antigenic differences among these subtypes make them important targets for the development of influenza vaccines. However, due to their high mutation rate, new vaccine formulations are often required to match the circulating virus strains.

In summary, hemagglutinin glycoproteins on influenza viruses are essential for host cell recognition and entry, making them important targets for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of influenza infections.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody, which is a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to foreign substances like bacteria or viruses. IgG is the most abundant type of antibody in human blood, making up about 75-80% of all antibodies. It is found in all body fluids and plays a crucial role in fighting infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and toxins.

IgG has several important functions:

1. Neutralization: IgG can bind to the surface of bacteria or viruses, preventing them from attaching to and infecting human cells.
2. Opsonization: IgG coats the surface of pathogens, making them more recognizable and easier for immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages to phagocytose (engulf and destroy) them.
3. Complement activation: IgG can activate the complement system, a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body. Activation of the complement system leads to the formation of the membrane attack complex, which creates holes in the cell membranes of bacteria, leading to their lysis (destruction).
4. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC): IgG can bind to immune cells like natural killer (NK) cells and trigger them to release substances that cause target cells (such as virus-infected or cancerous cells) to undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death).
5. Immune complex formation: IgG can form immune complexes with antigens, which can then be removed from the body through various mechanisms, such as phagocytosis by immune cells or excretion in urine.

IgG is a critical component of adaptive immunity and provides long-lasting protection against reinfection with many pathogens. It has four subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) that differ in their structure, function, and distribution in the body.

Viral DNA refers to the genetic material present in viruses that consist of DNA as their core component. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is one of the two types of nucleic acids that are responsible for storing and transmitting genetic information in living organisms. Viruses are infectious agents much smaller than bacteria that can only replicate inside the cells of other organisms, called hosts.

Viral DNA can be double-stranded (dsDNA) or single-stranded (ssDNA), depending on the type of virus. Double-stranded DNA viruses have a genome made up of two complementary strands of DNA, while single-stranded DNA viruses contain only one strand of DNA.

Examples of dsDNA viruses include Adenoviruses, Herpesviruses, and Poxviruses, while ssDNA viruses include Parvoviruses and Circoviruses. Viral DNA plays a crucial role in the replication cycle of the virus, encoding for various proteins necessary for its multiplication and survival within the host cell.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

The "Americas" is a term used to refer to the combined landmasses of North America and South America, which are separated by the Isthmus of Panama. The Americas also include numerous islands in the Caribbean Sea, Atlantic Ocean, and Pacific Ocean. This region is home to a diverse range of cultures, ecosystems, and historical sites. It is named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci, who was one of the first Europeans to explore and map parts of South America in the late 15th century.

Oncogenic viruses are a type of viruses that have the ability to cause cancer in host cells. They do this by integrating their genetic material into the DNA of the infected host cell, which can lead to the disruption of normal cellular functions and the activation of oncogenes (genes that have the potential to cause cancer). This can result in uncontrolled cell growth and division, ultimately leading to the formation of tumors. Examples of oncogenic viruses include human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). It is important to note that only a small proportion of viral infections lead to cancer, and the majority of cancers are not caused by viruses.

Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) is a retrovirus that primarily infects African non-human primates and is the direct ancestor of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 2 (HIV-2). It is similar to HIV in its structure, replication strategy, and ability to cause an immunodeficiency disease in its host. SIV infection in its natural hosts is typically asymptomatic and non-lethal, but it can cause AIDS-like symptoms in other primate species. Research on SIV in its natural hosts has provided valuable insights into the mechanisms of HIV pathogenesis and potential strategies for prevention and treatment of AIDS.

A viral attachment, in the context of virology, refers to the initial step in the infection process of a host cell by a virus. This involves the binding or adsorption of the viral particle to specific receptors on the surface of the host cell. The viral attachment proteins, often located on the viral envelope or capsid, recognize and interact with these receptors, leading to a close association between the virus and the host cell. This interaction is highly specific, as different viruses may target various cell types based on their unique receptor-binding preferences. Following attachment, the virus can enter the host cell and initiate the replication cycle, ultimately leading to the production of new viral particles and potential disease manifestations.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "travel" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. In general, travel refers to the act of moving or journeying from one place to another, often over long distances. However, in a medical context, it might refer to the recommendation that individuals with certain medical conditions or those who are immunocompromised avoid traveling to areas where they may be at increased risk of exposure to infectious diseases. It's always best to check with a healthcare professional for advice related to specific medical situations and travel.

Serine endopeptidases are a type of enzymes that cleave peptide bonds within proteins (endopeptidases) and utilize serine as the nucleophilic amino acid in their active site for catalysis. These enzymes play crucial roles in various biological processes, including digestion, blood coagulation, and programmed cell death (apoptosis). Examples of serine endopeptidases include trypsin, chymotrypsin, thrombin, and elastase.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) viruses are a group of related viruses that are primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of infected ticks. The main strains of TBE viruses include:

1. European tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV-Eu): This strain is found mainly in Europe and causes the majority of human cases of TBE. It is transmitted by the tick species Ixodes ricinus.
2. Siberian tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV-Sib): This strain is prevalent in Russia, Mongolia, and China, and is transmitted by the tick species Ixodes persulcatus.
3. Far Eastern tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV-FE): Also known as Russian spring-summer encephalitis (RSSE) virus, this strain is found in Russia, China, and Japan, and is transmitted by the tick species Ixodes persulcatus.
4. Louping ill virus (LIV): This strain is primarily found in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Portugal, and Spain, and is transmitted by the tick species Ixodes ricinus. It mainly affects sheep but can also infect humans.
5. Turkish sheep encephalitis virus (TSEV): This strain is found in Turkey and Greece and is primarily associated with ovine encephalitis, although it can occasionally cause human disease.
6. Negishi virus (NGS): This strain has been identified in Japan and Russia, but its role in human disease remains unclear.

TBE viruses are members of the Flaviviridae family and are closely related to other mosquito-borne flaviviruses such as West Nile virus, dengue virus, and Zika virus. The incubation period for TBE is usually 7-14 days after a tick bite, but it can range from 2 to 28 days. Symptoms of TBE include fever, headache, muscle pain, fatigue, and vomiting, followed by neurological symptoms such as meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord) or encephalitis (inflammation of the brain). Severe cases can lead to long-term complications or even death. No specific antiviral treatment is available for TBE, and management typically involves supportive care. Prevention measures include avoiding tick-infested areas, using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and promptly removing attached ticks. Vaccination is also recommended for individuals at high risk of exposure to TBE viruses.

A disease vector is a living organism that transmits infectious pathogens from one host to another. These vectors can include mosquitoes, ticks, fleas, and other arthropods that carry viruses, bacteria, parasites, or other disease-causing agents. The vector becomes infected with the pathogen after biting an infected host, and then transmits the infection to another host through its saliva or feces during a subsequent blood meal.

Disease vectors are of particular concern in public health because they can spread diseases rapidly and efficiently, often over large geographic areas. Controlling vector-borne diseases requires a multifaceted approach that includes reducing vector populations, preventing bites, and developing vaccines or treatments for the associated diseases.

I apologize, but "Brazil" is not a medical term or condition. It is the largest country in both South America and Latin America by land area and population. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, please provide more information and I will do my best to help.

Haplorhini is a term used in the field of primatology and physical anthropology to refer to a parvorder of simian primates, which includes humans, apes (both great and small), and Old World monkeys. The name "Haplorhini" comes from the Greek words "haploos," meaning single or simple, and "rhinos," meaning nose.

The defining characteristic of Haplorhini is the presence of a simple, dry nose, as opposed to the wet, fleshy noses found in other primates, such as New World monkeys and strepsirrhines (which include lemurs and lorises). The nostrils of haplorhines are located close together at the tip of the snout, and they lack the rhinarium or "wet nose" that is present in other primates.

Haplorhini is further divided into two infraorders: Simiiformes (which includes apes and Old World monkeys) and Tarsioidea (which includes tarsiers). These groups are distinguished by various anatomical and behavioral differences, such as the presence or absence of a tail, the structure of the hand and foot, and the degree of sociality.

Overall, Haplorhini is a group of primates that share a number of distinctive features related to their sensory systems, locomotion, and social behavior. Understanding the evolutionary history and diversity of this group is an important area of research in anthropology, biology, and psychology.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

A viral vaccine is a biological preparation that introduces your body to a specific virus in a way that helps your immune system build up protection against the virus without causing the illness. Viral vaccines can be made from weakened or inactivated forms of the virus, or parts of the virus such as proteins or sugars. Once introduced to the body, the immune system recognizes the virus as foreign and produces an immune response, including the production of antibodies. These antibodies remain in the body and provide immunity against future infection with that specific virus.

Viral vaccines are important tools for preventing infectious diseases caused by viruses, such as influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, polio, hepatitis A and B, rabies, rotavirus, chickenpox, shingles, and some types of cancer. Vaccination programs have led to the control or elimination of many infectious diseases that were once common.

It's important to note that viral vaccines are not effective against bacterial infections, and separate vaccines must be developed for each type of virus. Additionally, because viruses can mutate over time, it is necessary to update some viral vaccines periodically to ensure continued protection.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

The Mumps virus is a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus that belongs to the Paramyxoviridae family and Rubulavirus genus. It is the causative agent of mumps, an acute infectious disease characterized by painful swelling of the salivary glands, particularly the parotid glands.

The Mumps virus has a spherical or pleomorphic shape with a diameter of approximately 150-250 nanometers. It is surrounded by a lipid bilayer membrane derived from the host cell, which contains viral glycoproteins that facilitate attachment and entry into host cells.

The M protein, located beneath the envelope, plays a crucial role in virus assembly and budding. The genome of the Mumps virus consists of eight genes encoding nine proteins, including two major structural proteins (nucleocapsid protein and matrix protein) and several non-structural proteins involved in viral replication and pathogenesis.

Transmission of the Mumps virus occurs through respiratory droplets or direct contact with infected saliva. After infection, the incubation period ranges from 12 to 25 days, followed by a prodromal phase characterized by fever, headache, malaise, and muscle pain. The characteristic swelling of the parotid glands usually appears 1-3 days after the onset of symptoms.

Complications of mumps can include meningitis, encephalitis, orchitis, oophoritis, pancreatitis, and deafness. Prevention relies on vaccination with the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine, which is highly effective in preventing mumps and its complications.

Capsid proteins are the structural proteins that make up the capsid, which is the protective shell of a virus. The capsid encloses the viral genome and helps to protect it from degradation and detection by the host's immune system. Capsid proteins are typically arranged in a symmetrical pattern and can self-assemble into the capsid structure when exposed to the viral genome.

The specific arrangement and composition of capsid proteins vary between different types of viruses, and they play important roles in the virus's life cycle, including recognition and binding to host cells, entry into the cell, and release of the viral genome into the host cytoplasm. Capsid proteins can also serve as targets for antiviral therapies and vaccines.

A capsid is the protein shell that encloses and protects the genetic material of a virus. It is composed of multiple copies of one or more proteins that are arranged in a specific structure, which can vary in shape and symmetry depending on the type of virus. The capsid plays a crucial role in the viral life cycle, including protecting the viral genome from host cell defenses, mediating attachment to and entry into host cells, and assisting with the assembly of new virus particles during replication.

Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human (HPIV-1) is a type of respiratory virus that belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae and genus Respirovirus. It is one of the four serotypes of human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs), which are important causes of acute respiratory infections in children, immunocompromised individuals, and the elderly.

HPIV-1 primarily infects the upper respiratory tract, causing symptoms such as cough, runny nose, sore throat, and fever. However, it can also cause lower respiratory tract infections, including bronchitis, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia, particularly in young children and infants.

HPIV-1 is transmitted through respiratory droplets or direct contact with infected individuals. The incubation period for HPIV-1 infection ranges from 2 to 7 days, after which symptoms can last for up to 10 days. There is no specific antiviral treatment available for HPIV-1 infections, and management typically involves supportive care such as hydration, fever reduction, and respiratory support if necessary.

Prevention measures include good hand hygiene, avoiding close contact with infected individuals, and practicing cough etiquette. Vaccines are not currently available for HPIV-1 infections, but research is ongoing to develop effective vaccines against these viruses.

Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) is a type of flavivirus that is the causative agent of Japanese encephalitis, a mosquito-borne viral infection of the brain. The virus is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Culex species mosquitoes, particularly Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Culex gelidus.

JEV is endemic in many parts of Asia, including China, Japan, Korea, India, Nepal, Thailand, and Vietnam. It is estimated to cause around 68,000 clinical cases and 13,000-20,000 deaths each year. The virus is maintained in a transmission cycle between mosquitoes and vertebrate hosts, primarily pigs and wading birds.

Most JEV infections are asymptomatic or result in mild symptoms such as fever, headache, and muscle aches. However, in some cases, the infection can progress to severe encephalitis, which is characterized by inflammation of the brain, leading to neurological symptoms such as seizures, tremors, paralysis, and coma. The case fatality rate for Japanese encephalitis is estimated to be 20-30%, and around half of those who survive have significant long-term neurological sequelae.

Prevention of JEV infection includes the use of insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and avoiding outdoor activities during peak mosquito feeding times. Vaccination is also an effective means of preventing Japanese encephalitis, and vaccines are available for travelers to endemic areas as well as for residents of those areas.

Mosaic viruses are a group of plant viruses that can cause mottled or mosaic patterns of discoloration on leaves, which is why they're named as such. These viruses infect a wide range of plants, including important crops like tobacco, tomatoes, and cucumbers. The infection can lead to various symptoms such as stunted growth, leaf deformation, reduced yield, or even plant death.

Mosaic viruses are typically spread by insects, such as aphids, that feed on the sap of infected plants and then transmit the virus to healthy plants. They can also be spread through contaminated seeds, tools, or contact with infected plant material. Once inside a plant, these viruses hijack the plant's cellular machinery to replicate themselves, causing damage to the host plant in the process.

It is important to note that mosaic viruses are not related to human or animal health; they only affect plants.

Gene expression regulation, viral, refers to the processes that control the production of viral gene products, such as proteins and nucleic acids, during the viral life cycle. This can involve both viral and host cell factors that regulate transcription, RNA processing, translation, and post-translational modifications of viral genes.

Viral gene expression regulation is critical for the virus to replicate and produce progeny virions. Different types of viruses have evolved diverse mechanisms to regulate their gene expression, including the use of promoters, enhancers, transcription factors, RNA silencing, and epigenetic modifications. Understanding these regulatory processes can provide insights into viral pathogenesis and help in the development of antiviral therapies.

DNA primers are short single-stranded DNA molecules that serve as a starting point for DNA synthesis. They are typically used in laboratory techniques such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The primer binds to a complementary sequence on the DNA template through base pairing, providing a free 3'-hydroxyl group for the DNA polymerase enzyme to add nucleotides and synthesize a new strand of DNA. This allows for specific and targeted amplification or analysis of a particular region of interest within a larger DNA molecule.

Virulence, in the context of medicine and microbiology, refers to the degree or severity of damage or harm that a pathogen (like a bacterium, virus, fungus, or parasite) can cause to its host. It is often associated with the ability of the pathogen to invade and damage host tissues, evade or suppress the host's immune response, replicate within the host, and spread between hosts.

Virulence factors are the specific components or mechanisms that contribute to a pathogen's virulence, such as toxins, enzymes, adhesins, and capsules. These factors enable the pathogen to establish an infection, cause tissue damage, and facilitate its transmission between hosts. The overall virulence of a pathogen can be influenced by various factors, including host susceptibility, environmental conditions, and the specific strain or species of the pathogen.

A viral genome is the genetic material (DNA or RNA) that is present in a virus. It contains all the genetic information that a virus needs to replicate itself and infect its host. The size and complexity of viral genomes can vary greatly, ranging from a few thousand bases to hundreds of thousands of bases. Some viruses have linear genomes, while others have circular genomes. The genome of a virus also contains the information necessary for the virus to hijack the host cell's machinery and use it to produce new copies of the virus. Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is important for developing vaccines and antiviral treatments.

Viral structural proteins are the protein components that make up the viral particle or capsid, providing structure and stability to the virus. These proteins are encoded by the viral genome and are involved in the assembly of new virus particles during the replication cycle. They can be classified into different types based on their location and function, such as capsid proteins, matrix proteins, and envelope proteins. Capsid proteins form the protein shell that encapsulates the viral genome, while matrix proteins are located between the capsid and the envelope, and envelope proteins are embedded in the lipid bilayer membrane that surrounds some viruses.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Puerto Rico" is not a medical term. It is a territorial possession of the United States, located in the northeastern Caribbean Sea. It includes the main island of Puerto Rico and various smaller islands. If you have any questions about a medical topic, please provide more details so I can try to help answer your question.

Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is the causative agent of hepatitis A, a viral infection that causes inflammation of the liver. It is a small, non-enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Picornaviridae family and Hepatovirus genus. The virus primarily spreads through the fecal-oral route, often through contaminated food or water, or close contact with an infected person. After entering the body, HAV infects hepatocytes in the liver, leading to liver damage and associated symptoms such as jaundice, fatigue, abdominal pain, and nausea. The immune system eventually clears the infection, providing lifelong immunity against future HAV infections. Preventive measures include vaccination and practicing good hygiene to prevent transmission.

Semliki Forest Virus (SFV) is an alphavirus in the Togaviridae family, which is primarily transmitted to vertebrates through mosquito vectors. The virus was initially isolated from mosquitoes in the Semliki Forest of Uganda and has since been found in various parts of Africa and Asia. SFV infection in humans can cause a mild febrile illness characterized by fever, headache, muscle pain, and rash. However, it is more commonly known for causing severe disease in animals, particularly non-human primates and cattle, where it can lead to encephalitis or hemorrhagic fever. SFV has also been used as a model organism in laboratory studies of virus replication and pathogenesis.

A Cytopathic Effect (CPE) is a visible change in the cell or group of cells due to infection by a pathogen, such as a virus. When the cytopathic effect is caused specifically by a viral infection, it is referred to as a "Viral Cytopathic Effect" (VCPE).

The VCPE can include various changes in the cell's morphology, size, and structure, such as rounding, shrinkage, multinucleation, inclusion bodies, and formation of syncytia (multinucleated giant cells). These changes are often used to identify and characterize viruses in laboratory settings.

The VCPE is typically observed under a microscope after the virus has infected cell cultures, and it can help researchers determine the type of virus, the degree of infection, and the effectiveness of antiviral treatments. The severity and timing of the VCPE can vary depending on the specific virus and the type of cells that are infected.

Monoclonal antibodies are a type of antibody that are identical because they are produced by a single clone of cells. They are laboratory-produced molecules that act like human antibodies in the immune system. They can be designed to attach to specific proteins found on the surface of cancer cells, making them useful for targeting and treating cancer. Monoclonal antibodies can also be used as a therapy for other diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and inflammatory conditions.

Monoclonal antibodies are produced by fusing a single type of immune cell, called a B cell, with a tumor cell to create a hybrid cell, or hybridoma. This hybrid cell is then able to replicate indefinitely, producing a large number of identical copies of the original antibody. These antibodies can be further modified and engineered to enhance their ability to bind to specific targets, increase their stability, and improve their effectiveness as therapeutic agents.

Monoclonal antibodies have several mechanisms of action in cancer therapy. They can directly kill cancer cells by binding to them and triggering an immune response. They can also block the signals that promote cancer growth and survival. Additionally, monoclonal antibodies can be used to deliver drugs or radiation directly to cancer cells, increasing the effectiveness of these treatments while minimizing their side effects on healthy tissues.

Monoclonal antibodies have become an important tool in modern medicine, with several approved for use in cancer therapy and other diseases. They are continuing to be studied and developed as a promising approach to treating a wide range of medical conditions.

An epitope is a specific region on the surface of an antigen (a molecule that can trigger an immune response) that is recognized by an antibody, B-cell receptor, or T-cell receptor. It is also commonly referred to as an antigenic determinant. Epitopes are typically composed of linear amino acid sequences or conformational structures made up of discontinuous amino acids in the antigen. They play a crucial role in the immune system's ability to differentiate between self and non-self molecules, leading to the targeted destruction of foreign substances like viruses and bacteria. Understanding epitopes is essential for developing vaccines, diagnostic tests, and immunotherapies.

Avian sarcoma viruses (ASVs) are a group of retroviruses that primarily infect birds and cause various types of tumors, particularly sarcomas. These viruses contain an oncogene, which is a gene that has the ability to transform normal cells into cancerous ones. The oncogene in ASVs is often derived from cellular genes called proto-oncogenes, which are normally involved in regulating cell growth and division.

ASVs can be divided into two main types: non-defective and defective. Non-defective ASVs contain a complete set of viral genes that allow them to replicate independently, while defective ASVs lack some of the necessary viral genes and require assistance from other viruses to replicate.

One well-known example of an avian sarcoma virus is the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV), which was first discovered in chickens by Peyton Rous in 1910. RSV causes a highly malignant form of sarcoma in chickens and has been extensively studied as a model system for cancer research. The oncogene in RSV is called v-src, which is derived from the normal cellular gene c-src.

Avian sarcoma viruses have contributed significantly to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer development and have provided valuable insights into the role of oncogenes in tumorigenesis.

BK virus, also known as BK polyomavirus, is a type of virus that belongs to the Polyomaviridae family. It is named after the initials of a patient in whom the virus was first isolated. The BK virus is a common infection in humans and is typically acquired during childhood. After the initial infection, the virus remains dormant in the body, often found in the urinary tract and kidneys.

In immunocompetent individuals, the virus usually does not cause any significant problems. However, in people with weakened immune systems, such as those who have undergone organ transplantation or have HIV/AIDS, BK virus can lead to severe complications. One of the most common manifestations of BK virus infection in immunocompromised individuals is hemorrhagic cystitis, a condition characterized by inflammation and bleeding in the bladder. In transplant recipients, BK virus can also cause nephropathy, leading to kidney damage or even failure.

There is no specific treatment for BK virus infection, but antiviral medications may be used to help control the virus's replication in some cases. Maintaining a strong immune system and monitoring viral load through regular testing are essential strategies for managing BK virus infections in immunocompromised individuals.

Synthetic vaccines are artificially produced, designed to stimulate an immune response and provide protection against specific diseases. Unlike traditional vaccines that are derived from weakened or killed pathogens, synthetic vaccines are created using synthetic components, such as synthesized viral proteins, DNA, or RNA. These components mimic the disease-causing agent and trigger an immune response without causing the actual disease. The use of synthetic vaccines offers advantages in terms of safety, consistency, and scalability in production, making them valuable tools for preventing infectious diseases.

Southeast Asia is a geographical region that consists of the countries that are located at the southeastern part of the Asian continent. The definition of which countries comprise Southeast Asia may vary, but it generally includes the following 11 countries:

* Brunei
* Cambodia
* East Timor (Timor-Leste)
* Indonesia
* Laos
* Malaysia
* Myanmar (Burma)
* Philippines
* Singapore
* Thailand
* Vietnam

Southeast Asia is known for its rich cultural diversity, with influences from Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, and Christianity. The region is also home to a diverse range of ecosystems, including rainforests, coral reefs, and mountain ranges. In recent years, Southeast Asia has experienced significant economic growth and development, but the region still faces challenges related to poverty, political instability, and environmental degradation.

A tumor virus infection is a condition in which a person's cells become cancerous or transformed due to the integration and disruption of normal cellular functions by a viral pathogen. These viruses are also known as oncoviruses, and they can cause tumors or cancer by altering the host cell's genetic material, promoting uncontrolled cell growth and division, evading immune surveillance, and inhibiting apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Examples of tumor viruses include:

1. DNA tumor viruses: These are double-stranded DNA viruses that can cause cancer in humans. Examples include human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV).
2. RNA tumor viruses: Also known as retroviruses, these single-stranded RNA viruses can cause cancer in humans. Examples include human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

Tumor virus infections are responsible for approximately 15-20% of all cancer cases worldwide, making them a significant public health concern. Prevention strategies, such as vaccination against HPV and HBV, have been shown to reduce the incidence of associated cancers.

Genotype, in genetics, refers to the complete heritable genetic makeup of an individual organism, including all of its genes. It is the set of instructions contained in an organism's DNA for the development and function of that organism. The genotype is the basis for an individual's inherited traits, and it can be contrasted with an individual's phenotype, which refers to the observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism that result from the expression of its genes in combination with environmental influences.

It is important to note that an individual's genotype is not necessarily identical to their genetic sequence. Some genes have multiple forms called alleles, and an individual may inherit different alleles for a given gene from each parent. The combination of alleles that an individual inherits for a particular gene is known as their genotype for that gene.

Understanding an individual's genotype can provide important information about their susceptibility to certain diseases, their response to drugs and other treatments, and their risk of passing on inherited genetic disorders to their offspring.

'Mosquito Control' is not a medical term per se, but it is a public health concept that refers to the systematic reduction or elimination of mosquito populations through various methods to prevent or minimize the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases. This multidisciplinary field involves entomologists, ecologists, engineers, and public health professionals working together to manage mosquito habitats, apply insecticides, and educate communities about personal protection measures. By controlling mosquito populations, we can significantly reduce the risk of contracting vector-borne illnesses such as malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, Zika virus, and West Nile virus, among others.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Viruses, Unclassified" is not a recognized medical or scientific category. Generally, viruses are classified based on various characteristics such as genome structure, mode of replication, host range, and symptoms they cause. The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) is the organization responsible for the formal classification of viruses.

If you have any specific questions about certain unclassified viral entities or phenomena, I'd be happy to help if I can! Please provide more context so I can give a more accurate and helpful response.

The JC (John Cunningham) virus, also known as human polyomavirus 2 (HPyV-2), is a type of double-stranded DNA virus that belongs to the Polyomaviridae family. It is named after the initials of the patient in whom it was first identified.

JC virus is a ubiquitous virus, meaning that it is commonly found in the general population worldwide. Most people get infected with JC virus during childhood and do not experience any symptoms. After the initial infection, the virus remains dormant in the kidneys and other organs of the body.

However, in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or who have undergone organ transplantation, JC virus can reactivate and cause a serious brain infection called progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). PML is a rare but often fatal disease that affects the white matter of the brain, causing cognitive decline, weakness, and paralysis.

There is currently no cure for PML, and treatment is focused on managing the underlying immune deficiency and controlling the symptoms of the disease.

"Serial passage" is a term commonly used in the field of virology and microbiology. It refers to the process of repeatedly transmitting or passing a virus or other microorganism from one cultured cell line or laboratory animal to another, usually with the aim of adapting the microorganism to grow in that specific host system or to increase its virulence or pathogenicity. This technique is often used in research to study the evolution and adaptation of viruses and other microorganisms.

Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is a type of retrovirus that primarily affects chickens and other birds. It is responsible for a group of diseases known as avian leukosis, which includes various types of tumors and immunosuppressive conditions. The virus is transmitted horizontally through the shedder's dander, feathers, and vertical transmission through infected eggs.

There are several subgroups of ALV (A, B, C, D, E, and J), each with different host ranges and pathogenicity. Some strains can cause rapid death in young chickens, while others may take years to develop clinical signs. The most common form of the disease is neoplastic, characterized by the development of various types of tumors such as lymphomas, myelomas, and sarcomas.

Avian leukosis virus infection can have significant economic impacts on the poultry industry due to decreased growth rates, increased mortality, and condemnation of infected birds at processing. Control measures include eradication programs, biosecurity practices, vaccination, and breeding for genetic resistance.

Arboviruses are a group of viruses that are primarily transmitted to humans and animals through the bites of infected arthropods, such as mosquitoes, ticks, and sandflies. The term "arbovirus" is short for "arthropod-borne virus."

Arboviruses can cause a wide range of symptoms, depending on the specific virus and the individual host's immune response. Some common symptoms associated with arboviral infections include fever, headache, muscle and joint pain, rash, and fatigue. In severe cases, arboviral infections can lead to serious complications such as encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord), or hemorrhagic fever (bleeding disorders).

There are hundreds of different arboviruses, and they are found in many parts of the world. Some of the most well-known arboviral diseases include dengue fever, chikungunya, Zika virus infection, West Nile virus infection, yellow fever, and Japanese encephalitis.

Prevention of arboviral infections typically involves avoiding mosquito bites and other arthropod vectors through the use of insect repellent, wearing long sleeves and pants, and staying indoors during peak mosquito feeding times. Public health efforts also focus on reducing vector populations through environmental management and the use of larvicides. Vaccines are available for some arboviral diseases, such as yellow fever and Japanese encephalitis.

Viral load refers to the amount or quantity of virus (like HIV, Hepatitis C, SARS-CoV-2) present in an individual's blood or bodily fluids. It is often expressed as the number of virus copies per milliliter of blood or fluid. Monitoring viral load is important in managing and treating certain viral infections, as a higher viral load may indicate increased infectivity, disease progression, or response to treatment.

A genetic vector is a vehicle, often a plasmid or a virus, that is used to introduce foreign DNA into a host cell as part of genetic engineering or gene therapy techniques. The vector contains the desired gene or genes, along with regulatory elements such as promoters and enhancers, which are needed for the expression of the gene in the target cells.

The choice of vector depends on several factors, including the size of the DNA to be inserted, the type of cell to be targeted, and the efficiency of uptake and expression required. Commonly used vectors include plasmids, adenoviruses, retroviruses, and lentiviruses.

Plasmids are small circular DNA molecules that can replicate independently in bacteria. They are often used as cloning vectors to amplify and manipulate DNA fragments. Adenoviruses are double-stranded DNA viruses that infect a wide range of host cells, including human cells. They are commonly used as gene therapy vectors because they can efficiently transfer genes into both dividing and non-dividing cells.

Retroviruses and lentiviruses are RNA viruses that integrate their genetic material into the host cell's genome. This allows for stable expression of the transgene over time. Lentiviruses, a subclass of retroviruses, have the advantage of being able to infect non-dividing cells, making them useful for gene therapy applications in post-mitotic tissues such as neurons and muscle cells.

Overall, genetic vectors play a crucial role in modern molecular biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study gene function, develop new therapies, and modify organisms for various purposes.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, also known as RNA replicase, is an enzyme that catalyzes the production of RNA from an RNA template. It plays a crucial role in the replication of certain viruses, such as positive-strand RNA viruses and retroviruses, which use RNA as their genetic material. The enzyme uses the existing RNA strand as a template to create a new complementary RNA strand, effectively replicating the viral genome. This process is essential for the propagation of these viruses within host cells and is a target for antiviral therapies.

Orthomyxoviridae is a family of viruses that includes influenza A, B, and C viruses, which are the causative agents of flu in humans and animals. These viruses are enveloped, meaning they have a lipid membrane derived from the host cell, and have a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA genome. The genome is segmented, meaning it consists of several separate pieces of RNA, which allows for genetic reassortment or "shuffling" when two different strains infect the same cell, leading to the emergence of new strains.

The viral envelope contains two major glycoproteins: hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). The HA protein is responsible for binding to host cells and facilitating entry into the cell, while NA helps release newly formed virus particles from infected cells by cleaving sialic acid residues on the host cell surface.

Orthomyxoviruses are known to cause respiratory infections in humans and animals, with influenza A viruses being the most virulent and capable of causing pandemics. Influenza B viruses typically cause less severe illness and are primarily found in humans, while influenza C viruses generally cause mild upper respiratory symptoms and are also mainly restricted to humans.

Seroepidemiologic studies are a type of epidemiological study that measures the presence and levels of antibodies in a population's blood serum to investigate the prevalence, distribution, and transmission of infectious diseases. These studies help to identify patterns of infection and immunity within a population, which can inform public health policies and interventions.

Seroepidemiologic studies typically involve collecting blood samples from a representative sample of individuals in a population and testing them for the presence of antibodies against specific pathogens. The results are then analyzed to estimate the prevalence of infection and immunity within the population, as well as any factors associated with increased or decreased risk of infection.

These studies can provide valuable insights into the spread of infectious diseases, including emerging and re-emerging infections, and help to monitor the effectiveness of vaccination programs. Additionally, seroepidemiologic studies can also be used to investigate the transmission dynamics of infectious agents, such as identifying sources of infection or tracking the spread of antibiotic resistance.

Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an infectious agent that causes Bluetongue disease, a non-contagious viral disease affecting sheep and other ruminants. It is a member of the Orbivirus genus within the Reoviridae family. The virus is transmitted by biting midges of the Culicoides species and can infect various animals such as sheep, cattle, goats, and wild ruminants.

The virus has a double-stranded RNA genome and consists of ten segments that encode seven structural and four non-structural proteins. The clinical signs of Bluetongue disease in sheep include fever, salivation, swelling of the head and neck, nasal discharge, and respiratory distress, which can be severe or fatal. In contrast, cattle usually show milder symptoms or are asymptomatic, although they can serve as reservoirs for the virus.

Bluetongue virus is an important veterinary pathogen that has a significant economic impact on the global sheep industry. The disease is prevalent in many parts of the world, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions, but has also spread to temperate areas due to climate change and the movement of infected animals. Prevention and control measures include vaccination, insect control, and restricting the movement of infected animals.

Orthomyxoviridae is a family of viruses that includes influenza A, B, and C viruses, which can cause respiratory infections in humans. Orthomyxoviridae infections are typically characterized by symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, muscle or body aches, headaches, and fatigue.

Influenza A and B viruses can cause seasonal epidemics of respiratory illness that occur mainly during the winter months in temperate climates. Influenza A viruses can also cause pandemics, which are global outbreaks of disease that occur when a new strain of the virus emerges to which there is little or no immunity in the human population.

Influenza C viruses are less common and typically cause milder illness than influenza A and B viruses. They do not cause epidemics and are not usually included in seasonal flu vaccines.

Orthomyxoviridae infections can be prevented through vaccination, good respiratory hygiene (such as covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing), hand washing, and avoiding close contact with sick individuals. Antiviral medications may be prescribed to treat influenza A and B infections, particularly for people at high risk of complications, such as older adults, young children, pregnant women, and people with certain underlying medical conditions.

Viral core proteins are the structural proteins that make up the viral capsid or protein shell, enclosing and protecting the viral genome. These proteins play a crucial role in the assembly of the virion, assist in the infection process by helping to deliver the viral genome into the host cell, and may also have functions in regulating viral replication. The specific composition and structure of viral core proteins vary among different types of viruses.

Genetic recombination is the process by which genetic material is exchanged between two similar or identical molecules of DNA during meiosis, resulting in new combinations of genes on each chromosome. This exchange occurs during crossover, where segments of DNA are swapped between non-sister homologous chromatids, creating genetic diversity among the offspring. It is a crucial mechanism for generating genetic variability and facilitating evolutionary change within populations. Additionally, recombination also plays an essential role in DNA repair processes through mechanisms such as homologous recombinational repair (HRR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ).

Virus internalization, also known as viral entry, is the process by which a virus enters a host cell to infect it and replicate its genetic material. This process typically involves several steps:

1. Attachment: The viral envelope proteins bind to specific receptors on the surface of the host cell.
2. Entry: The virus then enters the host cell through endocytosis or membrane fusion, depending on the type of virus.
3. Uncoating: Once inside the host cell, the viral capsid is removed, releasing the viral genome into the cytoplasm.
4. Replication: The viral genome then uses the host cell's machinery to replicate itself and produce new viral particles.

It's important to note that the specific mechanisms of virus internalization can vary widely between different types of viruses, and are an active area of research in virology and infectious disease.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Sendai virus, also known as murine parainfluenza virus or pneumonia virus of mice, is a species of paramyxovirus that primarily infects rodents. It is an enveloped, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA virus with a nonsegmented genome. The virus is named after the city of Sendai in Japan where it was first isolated in 1952.

Sendai virus is highly contagious and can cause respiratory illness in mice, rats, and other small rodents. It replicates in the respiratory epithelium, leading to inflammation and necrosis of the airways. The virus can also suppress the host's immune response, making infected animals more susceptible to secondary bacterial infections.

In laboratory settings, Sendai virus is sometimes used as a tool for studying viral pathogenesis, immunology, and gene therapy. It has been used as a vector for delivering genes into mammalian cells, including human cells, due to its ability to efficiently infect and transduce a wide range of cell types.

It's important to note that Sendai virus is not known to infect humans or cause disease in humans, and it is not considered a significant public health concern.

The Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MLV) is a type of retrovirus, specifically a gammaretrovirus, that is commonly found in mice. It was first discovered and isolated by John Moloney in 1960. Mo-MLV is known to cause various types of cancerous conditions, particularly leukemia, in susceptible mouse strains.

Mo-MLV has a single-stranded RNA genome that is reverse transcribed into double-stranded DNA upon infection of the host cell. This viral DNA then integrates into the host's genome and utilizes the host's cellular machinery to produce new virus particles. The Mo-MLV genome encodes for several viral proteins, including gag (group-specific antigen), pol (polymerase), and env (envelope) proteins, which are essential for the replication cycle of the virus.

Mo-MLV is widely used in laboratory research as a model retrovirus to study various aspects of viral replication, gene therapy, and oncogenesis. It has also been engineered as a vector for gene delivery applications due to its ability to efficiently integrate into the host genome and deliver large DNA sequences. However, it is important to note that Mo-MLV and other retroviruses have the potential to cause insertional mutagenesis, which can lead to unintended genetic alterations and adverse effects in some cases.

Virus inactivation is the process of reducing or eliminating the infectivity of a virus, making it no longer capable of replicating and causing infection. This can be achieved through various physical or chemical methods such as heat, radiation, chemicals (like disinfectants), or enzymes that damage the viral genome or disrupt the viral particle's structure.

It is important to note that virus inactivation does not necessarily mean complete destruction of the viral particles; it only implies that they are no longer infectious. The effectiveness of virus inactivation depends on factors such as the type and concentration of the virus, the inactivation method used, and the duration of exposure to the inactivating agent.

Virus inactivation is crucial in various settings, including healthcare, laboratory research, water treatment, food processing, and waste disposal, to prevent the spread of viral infections and ensure safety.

Virus integration, in the context of molecular biology and virology, refers to the insertion of viral genetic material into the host cell's genome. This process is most commonly associated with retroviruses, such as HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), which have an enzyme called reverse transcriptase that converts their RNA genome into DNA. This DNA can then integrate into the host's chromosomal DNA, becoming a permanent part of the host's genetic material.

This integration is a crucial step in the retroviral life cycle, allowing the virus to persist within the host cell and evade detection by the immune system. It also means that the viral genome can be passed on to daughter cells when the host cell divides.

However, it's important to note that not all viruses integrate their genetic material into the host's genome. Some viruses, like influenza, exist as separate entities within the host cell and do not become part of the host's DNA.

Encephalitis viruses are a group of viruses that can cause encephalitis, which is an inflammation of the brain. Some of the most common encephalitis viruses include:

1. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and 2: These viruses are best known for causing cold sores and genital herpes, but they can also cause encephalitis, particularly in newborns and individuals with weakened immune systems.
2. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV): This virus causes chickenpox and shingles, and it can also lead to encephalitis, especially in people who have had chickenpox.
3. Enteroviruses: These viruses are often responsible for summertime meningitis outbreaks and can occasionally cause encephalitis.
4. Arboviruses: These viruses are transmitted through the bites of infected mosquitoes, ticks, or other insects. Examples include West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus, Eastern equine encephalitis virus, and Western equine encephalitis virus.
5. Rabies virus: This virus is transmitted through the bite of an infected animal and can cause encephalitis in its later stages.
6. Measles virus: Although rare in developed countries due to vaccination, measles can still cause encephalitis as a complication of the infection.
7. Mumps virus: Like measles, mumps is preventable through vaccination, but it can also lead to encephalitis as a rare complication.
8. Cytomegalovirus (CMV): This virus is a member of the herpesvirus family and can cause encephalitis in people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or organ transplant recipients.
9. La Crosse virus: This arbovirus is primarily transmitted through the bites of infected eastern treehole mosquitoes and mainly affects children.
10. Powassan virus: Another arbovirus, Powassan virus is transmitted through the bites of infected black-legged ticks (also known as deer ticks) and can cause severe encephalitis.

It's important to note that many of these viruses are preventable through vaccination or by avoiding exposure to infected animals or mosquitoes. If you suspect you may have been exposed to one of these viruses, consult a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Simplexvirus is a genus of viruses in the family Herpesviridae, subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae. This genus contains two species: Human alphaherpesvirus 1 (also known as HSV-1 or herpes simplex virus type 1) and Human alphaherpesvirus 2 (also known as HSV-2 or herpes simplex virus type 2). These viruses are responsible for causing various medical conditions, most commonly oral and genital herpes. They are characterized by their ability to establish lifelong latency in the nervous system and reactivate periodically to cause recurrent symptoms.

Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is not typically considered in the context of medical definitions, as it's primarily known for its impact on plants rather than humans or animals. However, I will provide the botanical definition for your interest.

Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that infects a wide range of plants, including tobacco, tomatoes, cucumbers, and many ornamental plants. The virus is named after its initial discovery in tobacco plants, which exhibit symptoms such as mosaic patterns of light and dark green on the leaves, leaf curling, and stunted growth. TMV is highly contagious and can be spread through mechanical means, such as touching infected plants or using contaminated tools. It's also one of the most well-studied viruses due to its impact on agriculture and its historical significance in early virology research.

West Nile Fever is defined as a viral infection primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes. The virus responsible for this febrile illness, known as West Nile Virus (WNV), is maintained in nature between mosquito vectors and avian hosts. Although most individuals infected with WNV are asymptomatic, some may develop a mild, flu-like illness characterized by fever, headache, fatigue, body aches, skin rash, and swollen lymph glands. A minority of infected individuals, particularly the elderly and immunocompromised, may progress to severe neurological symptoms such as encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord), or acute flaccid paralysis (sudden weakness in the limbs). The diagnosis is confirmed through laboratory tests, such as serological assays or nucleic acid amplification techniques. Treatment primarily focuses on supportive care, as there are no specific antiviral therapies available for West Nile Fever. Preventive measures include personal protection against mosquito bites and vector control strategies to reduce mosquito populations.

Molecular epidemiology is a branch of epidemiology that uses laboratory techniques to identify and analyze the genetic material (DNA, RNA) of pathogens or host cells to understand their distribution, transmission, and disease associations in populations. It combines molecular biology methods with epidemiological approaches to investigate the role of genetic factors in disease occurrence and outcomes. This field has contributed significantly to the identification of infectious disease outbreaks, tracking the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, understanding the transmission dynamics of viruses, and identifying susceptible populations for targeted interventions.

Genetic variation refers to the differences in DNA sequences among individuals and populations. These variations can result from mutations, genetic recombination, or gene flow between populations. Genetic variation is essential for evolution by providing the raw material upon which natural selection acts. It can occur within a single gene, between different genes, or at larger scales, such as differences in the number of chromosomes or entire sets of chromosomes. The study of genetic variation is crucial in understanding the genetic basis of diseases and traits, as well as the evolutionary history and relationships among species.

Arbovirus infections are a group of diseases caused by viruses that are transmitted to humans through the bites of infected arthropods, such as mosquitoes, ticks, and midges. "Arbo" is short for "arthropod-borne."

There are over 150 different Arboviruses, but only a few cause significant illness in humans. Some of the most common Arbovirus infections include:

* Dengue fever
* Chikungunya fever
* Yellow fever
* Zika virus infection
* Japanese encephalitis
* West Nile fever
* Tick-borne encephalitis

The symptoms of Arbovirus infections can vary widely, depending on the specific virus and the individual infected. Some people may experience only mild illness or no symptoms at all, while others may develop severe, life-threatening complications.

Common symptoms of Arbovirus infections include fever, headache, muscle and joint pain, rash, and fatigue. In more severe cases, Arbovirus infections can cause neurological problems such as meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord) or encephalitis (inflammation of the brain).

There is no specific treatment for most Arbovirus infections. Treatment is generally supportive, with fluids and medications to relieve symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications such as dehydration or neurological problems.

Prevention of Arbovirus infections involves avoiding mosquito and tick bites, using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and eliminating breeding sites for mosquitoes and ticks. Vaccines are available to prevent some Arbovirus infections, such as yellow fever and Japanese encephalitis.

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infections refer to the clinical illnesses caused by the Respiratory Syncytial Virus. RSV is a highly contagious virus that spreads through respiratory droplets, contact with infected surfaces, or direct contact with infected people. It primarily infects the respiratory tract, causing inflammation and damage to the cells lining the airways.

RSV infections can lead to a range of respiratory illnesses, from mild, cold-like symptoms to more severe conditions such as bronchiolitis (inflammation of the small airways in the lungs) and pneumonia (infection of the lung tissue). The severity of the infection tends to depend on factors like age, overall health status, and presence of underlying medical conditions.

In infants and young children, RSV is a leading cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia, often resulting in hospitalization. In older adults, people with weakened immune systems, and those with chronic heart or lung conditions, RSV infections can also be severe and potentially life-threatening.

Symptoms of RSV infection may include runny nose, cough, sneezing, fever, wheezing, and difficulty breathing. Treatment typically focuses on managing symptoms and providing supportive care, although hospitalization and more aggressive interventions may be necessary in severe cases or for high-risk individuals. Preventive measures such as hand hygiene, wearing masks, and avoiding close contact with infected individuals can help reduce the spread of RSV.

Myxoma virus (MYXV) is a member of the Poxviridae family, specifically in the Leporipoxvirus genus. It is a double-stranded DNA virus that naturally infects European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and causes a fatal disease called myxomatosis. The virus is transmitted through insect vectors such as mosquitoes and fleas, and it replicates in the cytoplasm of infected cells.

Myxoma virus has been studied extensively as a model organism for viral pathogenesis and host-pathogen interactions. It has also been explored as a potential oncolytic virus for cancer therapy due to its ability to selectively infect and kill certain types of cancer cells while leaving normal cells unharmed. However, it is important to note that the use of Myxoma virus in humans is still experimental and requires further research and development before it can be considered safe and effective for therapeutic purposes.

Cowpox virus is a species of the Orthopoxvirus genus, which belongs to the Poxviridae family. It is a double-stranded DNA virus that primarily infects cows and occasionally other animals such as cats, dogs, and humans. The virus causes a mild disease in its natural host, cattle, characterized by the development of pustular lesions on the udder or teats.

In humans, cowpox virus infection can cause a localized skin infection, typically following contact with an infected animal or contaminated fomites. The infection is usually self-limiting and resolves within 1-2 weeks without specific treatment. However, in rare cases, the virus may spread to other parts of the body and cause more severe symptoms.

Historically, cowpox virus has played a significant role in medical research as it was used by Edward Jenner in 1796 to develop the first successful vaccine against smallpox. The similarity between the two viruses allowed for cross-protection, providing immunity to smallpox without exposing individuals to the more deadly disease. Smallpox has since been eradicated globally, and vaccination with cowpox virus is no longer necessary. However, understanding the biology of cowpox virus remains important due to its potential use as a model organism for studying poxvirus infections and developing countermeasures against related viruses.

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Yauch LE, Shresta S (2014). "Dengue virus vaccine development". Advances in Virus Research. 88: 315-372. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12- ... Dengue vaccine is a vaccine used to prevent dengue fever in humans. Development of dengue vaccines began in the 1920s, but was ... dengue viruses which replicate locally and elicit humoral and cellular immune responses against the four dengue virus serotypes ... dengue vaccine. Some of the children who received the vaccine had never been infected by the dengue virus before. The program ...
West Nile virus, Zika virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Kyasanur ... The 1997 classification divided dengue into an undifferentiated fever, dengue fever, and dengue hemorrhagic fever. Dengue ... Dengue fever virus (DENV) is an RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae; genus Flavivirus. Other members of the same genus include ... Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne tropical disease caused by the dengue virus. Symptoms typically begin three to fourteen days ...
American visitors to and visitors from dengue-endemic regions will continue to present a potential pathway for the dengue virus ... Dengue Fever Hits Paraguay Reuters, "Dengue Fever Hits Paraguay", New York Times" (March 4, 2007)] "Dengue Fever Outbreak ... dengue.asp?CodSeccion=25[dead link] "cme-fk-uii-2010-kaji-virus-dengue - lintas.me". Lintasberita.com. 2010-07-14. Archived ... "First dengue virus seroprevalence study on Madeira Island after the 2012 outbreak indicates unreported dengue circulation". ...
... yellow fever virus, dengue virus and Pappataci fever virus. More than 100 of such viruses are now known to cause human diseases ... There are numerous causes, including viruses - particularly hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus. ... As of 2010, dengue virus is the most prevalent arbovirus and increasingly virulent strains of the virus have spread across Asia ... These giant viruses have renewed interest in the role viruses play in evolution. Smallpox virus was a major cause of death in ...
... dengue virus, and yellow fever virus. The virus is primarily transmitted by mosquitoes, mostly species of Culex. The primary ... Carro, Ana C.; Damonte, Elsa B. (2013). "Requirement of cholesterol in the viral envelope for dengue virus infection". Virus ... "Dengue Viruses". www.nature.com. Retrieved 2017-12-19. Colpitts, Tonya M.; Conway, Michael J.; Montgomery, Ruth R.; Fikrig, ... together with Japanese encephalitis virus, Murray Valley encephalitis virus, Saint Louis encephalitis virus and some other ...
Dengue fever becomes the second disease shown to be caused by a virus. Indiana, in the United States, becomes the world's first ... Henchal, Erik A.; Putnak, J. Robert (October 1990). "The Dengue Viruses". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. American Society for ...
"Dengue virus NS3 serine protease. Crystal structure and insights into interaction of the active site with substrates by ... Murthy claimed 1BEF could be used as a potential treatment option for patients with dengue and other flaviviral proteases. The ... These papers covered a range of topics; everything from dengue to Taq DNA polymerase. The UAB investigation turned up ...
Zika Virus and Dengue Virus); first aid training; and sanitation improvement. Community engagement is strongly pushed, and ...
Chan, Miranda; Johansson, Michael A. (Nov 30, 2012). "The Incubation Periods of Dengue Viruses". PLOS ONE. 7 (11): e50972. ... Gubler, D. J. (1998). "Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 11 (3): 480-96. doi:10.1128/CMR. ... This is in contrast to viral latency, a form of dormancy in which the virus does not replicate. An example of latency is HIV ... Erythema Infectiosum at eMedicine Kahn, James O.; Walker, Bruce D. (1998). "Acute Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection ...
It is used extensively in hepatitis C and dengue virus research. Huh7 cells have been instrumental in hepatitis C research. ... "The medicinal chemistry of dengue virus". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 59 (12): 5622-5649. doi:10.1021/acs.jmedchem.5b01653 ... The introduction of the Huh7 cell line permitted screening of drug candidates against laboratory-cultured hepatitis C virus and ... Bartenschlager, R; Pietschmann, T (2005). "Efficient hepatitis C virus cell culture system: what a difference the host cell ...
Martina BE, Koraka P, Osterhaus AD (October 2009). "Dengue virus pathogenesis: an integrated view". Clinical Microbiology ... Langerhans cells are also the initial target of the virus that causes dengue fever during its development. During ageing the ... Fausch, Steven C.; Da Silva, Diane M.; Rudolf, Michael P.; Kast, W. Martin (2002-09-15). "Human papillomavirus virus-like ... High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) are sexually transmitted viruses causally associated with several cancers including ...
The tropical flaviviral infections dengue fever and Zika virus have also been associated with episodes of GBS. Previous ... Two other herpes viruses (Epstein-Barr virus/HHV-4 and varicella zoster virus/HHV-3) and the bacterium Mycoplasma pneumoniae ... Carod-Artal FJ, Wichmann O, Farrar J, Gascón J (September 2013). "Neurological complications of dengue virus infection". The ... The 2009 flu pandemic vaccine against pandemic swine flu virus H1N1/PDM09 did not cause a significant increase in cases. In ...
"Dengue: logran ver la estructura del virus". lanacion.com.ar (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 18 March 2018. ... Additionally, in 2015 they determined what the dengue virus needs to pass from mosquito to human, that is, how it changes to be ... "Dengue Virus Reveals Its Circular Secret". ScienceDaily. May 27, 2016. Retrieved May 27, 2016. "Discover the 2016 L'Oréal- ... She received a 2016 L'Oréal-UNESCO Awards for Women in Science fellowship for work on mosquito-borne viruses include Dengue ...
Lim, K. A., Chan, Y. C., Phoon, W. O., & Hanam, E. (1964). Dengue-type viruses isolated in Singapore. Bulletin of the World ... As a microbiologist at the University of Malaya, Lim was the first to isolate the specific virus (Influenza A/Singapore/1/57) ... Hermes (19 April 2020). "The man who isolated Asian flu virus with help of eggs , The Straits Times". www.straitstimes.com. ... LIM, K A; BENYESH-MELNICK, M (1 March 1960). "Typing of viruses by combinations of antiserum pools. Application to typing of ...
The dengue pandemic in Sri Lanka is part of the tropical disease dengue fever pandemic. Dengue fever is caused by Dengue virus ... Sirisena, P.D.N.N.; Noordeen, F. (2014-02-01). "Evolution of dengue in Sri Lanka-changes in the virus, vector, and climate". ... From 1989 onward, dengue fever has become endemic in Sri Lanka. Dengue outbreaks started to emerge in Sri Lanka in the 1960s, ... In 1990 dengue cases rose 1,350 of 54 deaths.[clarification needed] In the early 1990s, annual dengue cases were reported as ...
There are four strains of dengue virus, DENV-1 to DENV-4. Infection with one serotype confers immunity against it, but not the ... A locally uncommon strain of the dengue virus - one that the local populace would be more susceptible to - had begun to ... In the 2020 dengue outbreak in Singapore, a record-breaking number of dengue fever cases was reported in Singapore. This was ... "Dengue Cases Expected To Exceed Last Year's 16,000 Cases Unless All Stakeholders Take Immediate Concerted Action Against Dengue ...
While endothelial cells are not the major cell type Dengue targets, the virus binds to various cell surface receptors on ... The virus can also target the epithelium of the mucus membranes of these organ systems. Virus particles tend to exit from the ... Once the virus is anchored to the cell surface, virus uptake typically occurs using host mechanisms such as endocytosis. One ... Basu, Atanu; Chaturvedi, Umesh C. (August 2008). "Vascular endothelium: the battlefield of dengue viruses". FEMS Immunology & ...
December 2009). "An adenosine nucleoside inhibitor of dengue virus". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... West Nile virus, yellow fever virus, Powassan virus, hepatitis C virus, Kyasanur Forest disease virus, Omsk hemorrhagic fever ... for flavivirus infections and shows broad spectrum antiviral activity against many related viruses such as dengue virus, ... virus, and Zika virus. However, NITD008 proved too toxic in pre-clinical animal testing to be suitable for human trials, but it ...
December 2009). "An adenosine nucleoside inhibitor of dengue virus". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... The 7-deaza-adenosine analog has been shown to inhibit the replication of the hepatitis C virus. BCX4430 is protective against ... adenosine analog NITD008 has been reported to directly inhibit the recombinant RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of the dengue virus ... October 2004). "A 7-deaza-adenosine analog is a potent and selective inhibitor of hepatitis C virus replication with excellent ...
... severe fever thrombocytopenia syndrome virus, influenza virus, dengue virus (DNV) and Zika virus than control mice, which ... November 2010). "Mouse STAT2 restricts early dengue virus replication". Cell Host & Microbe. 8 (5): 410-21. doi:10.1016/j.chom. ... March 2017). "A novel Zika virus mouse model reveals strain specific differences in virus pathogenesis and host inflammatory ... The virus infection was treated by high-dose of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) after which patients recovered and became ...
Yellow fever viruses, Dengue fever viruses, and Zika viruses are of the Flavivirus genera and Chikungunya virus is of the ... Dengue fever: The Dengue virus is a flavivirus also transmissible by Aedes mosquito vectors to other animal hosts. Dengue was ... were found with antibodies dengue viruses 1 and 2 while sloths (Bradypus torquatus) had antibodies for dengue virus 3 therefore ... A 2009 study in French Guiana found that infections of dengue viruses types 1 through 4 were present in various different types ...
In April 2016, Figueroa contracted dengue virus. He was isolated at home to avoid contagion, before returning to training with ... "Alarma en el Fortín: Un jugador de Vélez tiene dengue". Nuevo Diario. 5 April 2016. Retrieved 20 May 2019. "El renovado Vélez ... "Figueroa, el arquero de Vélez, padece dengue". ESPN. 5 April 2016. Retrieved 20 May 2019. "El tercer arquero de Vélez fue ... arquero del plantel de Vélez tiene dengue". TyC Sports. 5 April 2016. Retrieved 20 May 2019. " ...
There are 50-100 million dengue virus infections annually. Dengue fever is usually not fatal, but infection with one of four ... The virus was first isolated from an outbreak in Tanzania in 1952. Chikungunya virus is a member of the genus Alphavirus and ... No treatment for either dengue or severe dengue exists beyond palliative care. The symptoms are high fever and flu-like ... viruses (dengue, chikungunya, and rabies).[citation needed] The WHO recognizes the twenty diseases below as neglected tropical ...
Finally, lipid droplets are known to be exploited by pathogens such as the hepatitis C virus, the dengue virus and Chlamydia ... Heaton, N.S.; Randall, G (2010). "Dengue virus-induced autophagy regulates lipid metabolism". Cell Host Microbe. 8 (5): 422-32 ...
"Inhibition of interferon signaling by dengue virus". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 100 (24): 14333-14338. ... "Vaccination of Pigs against Swine Influenza Viruses by Using an NS1-Truncated Modified Live-Virus Vaccine". Journal of Virology ... "An enzymatic virus-like particle assay for sensitive detection of virus entry". Journal of Virological Methods. 163 (2): 336- ... "Inhibition of Interferon-Mediated Antiviral Responses by Influenza a Viruses and Other Negative-Strand RNA Viruses". Virology. ...
"Laboratory-Acquired Dengue Virus Infection-A Case Report". PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. Journals.plos.org. 5 (11): e1324. ... "Laboratory-acquired dengue virus infection by needlestick injury: a case report, South Korea, 2014". Annals of Occupational and ... Emond, R T; Evans, B; Bowen, E T; Lloyd, G (27 August 1977). "A case of Ebola virus infection". British Medical Journal. 2 ( ... Helen Regan (2019-09-17). "Explosion and fire break out at Russian lab known for housing deadly smallpox virus". CNN. Retrieved ...
The genus includes human pathogens like Zika virus, West-Nile virus, Dengue virus, Yellow Fever virus and other. The 5' UTR of ... is a critical determinant of dengue virus and West Nile virus RNA synthesis". Virology. 379 (2): 314-323. doi:10.1016/j.virol. ... "Functional RNA Elements in the Dengue Virus Genome". Viruses. 3 (9): 1739-1756. doi:10.3390/v3091739. ISSN 1999-4915. PMC ... Filomatori, C. V. (2006-08-15). "A 5' RNA element promotes dengue virus RNA synthesis on a circular genome". Genes & ...
Tharakarman, Kannan (April 8, 2013). "Redesign of a cross-reactive antibody to dengue virus with broad-spectrum activity and ... 2016-08-04). "Structural basis of potent Zika-dengue virus antibody cross-neutralization". Nature. 536 (7614): 48-53. doi: ... Sasisekharan's lab was the first to produce antibodies for the treatments of influenza A virus and Zika virus infections. The ... "Research advances therapy to protect against dengue virus". ScienceDaily. Retrieved 2023-09-08. ...
The genus includes human pathogens like Zika virus, West-Nile virus, Dengue virus, Yellow Fever virus and other. The 3' UTR ... potato leafroll virus (PLRV), leading responsible virus for worldwide potato yield loss, maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV), ... Romero, T. A.; Tumban, E.; Jun, J.; Lott, W. B.; Hanley, K. A. (2006-11-01). "Secondary structure of dengue virus type 4 3' ... Mutations of sHP are shown to be lethal for Dengue virus in mosquito cells. CRE is highly involved in the 5'-3' UTR interaction ...
Information for healthcare providers about determining the likelihood of dengue virus infection. ... Dengue Vaccineplus icon*For Healthcare Providers: A Dengue Vaccine Can Protect Your Patientsplus icon*Vaccine Eligibility & ... For Parents: A Safe and Effective Vaccine to Prevent Dengue Is Now Availableplus icon*Who Can Get a Dengue Vaccine & Whenplus ... to determine the likelihood that the current or recent illness is due to an infection with dengue virus. ...
Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. Virus Properties. Antigenic Relationship. Biologic ... Classical dengue with rash after appropriate incubation in first and subsequent volunteers and Ae aegypti transmission.** ... Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. You can get a copy of the PDF viewer by ...
This report details the identification of the first locally acquired human dengue virus infection in Maricopa County, Arizona. ... On November 7, 2022, dengue virus (DENV), which is not endemic in the continental United States,[1] was identified in a ... First Pill for Dengue Shows Promise in Human Challenge Trial * Dengue Will Take Off in Southern Europe, US, Africa This ... First Evidence of Locally Acquired Dengue Virus Infection. Maricopa County, Arizona, November 2022. ...
Dengue virus (DENV) is the cause of dengue fever. It is a mosquito-borne, single positive-stranded RNA virus of the family ... Scholia has a topic profile for Dengue virus. 3D electron microscopy structures of dengue virus from the EM Data Bank (EMDB) " ... especially dengue virus, has the ability to inhibit the innate immune response during the infection. Indeed, dengue virus has ... Comparative evolutionary epidemiology of dengue virus serotypes. Infect Genet Evol 12(2):309-314 "Dengue virus". Pathogen ...
... but closely related forms of the virus that cause dengue. Once people have recovered from infection with one form of the virus ... "In the past researchers have relied on mouse studies to understand how the immune system kills dengue virus and assumed that ... Achilles heel of dengue virus identified Washington, Thu, 12 Apr 2012 ANI ... Washington, April 12 (ANI): Scientists have identified the region on dengue virus that is neutralized in people who overcome ...
... complicate the search for a safe and effective vaccine that protects against Zika without also increasing the risk of dengue. ... A new study finds that people who have antibodies to the mosquito-borne Zika virus are more vulnerable to developing dengue ... tries to stick to a slightly different virus, like dengue. Antibodies to Zika virus can attach to dengue viruses, but not quite ... more severe dengue infection. In addition, when a person had two sequential dengue infections, the type of dengue virus that ...
Overall, each model has its advantages and disadvantages and is differentially suited for studies of dengue pathogenesis and ... syndrome seen in severe dengue in humans. Humanized mouse models can sustain DENV replication and show some signs of disease, ... The development of animal models of dengue virus (DENV) infection and disease has been challenging, as epidemic DENV does not ... Non-structural proteins of dengue 2 virus offer limited protection to interferon-deficient mice after dengue 2 virus challenge ...
Multiplex polymerase chain reaction-based serotype analysis of dengue virus during 2015 dengue outbreak in Pakistan ... Dengue is caused by dengue virus complex, which consists of 4 antigenically and immunogenically distinct serotypes, DENV1, ... So, NS1 antigen positivity is a good surrogate marker of dengue virus viremia because NS1 antigen is expressed by all 4 dengue ... Analyse des sérotypes du virus de la dengue par amplification en chaîne par polymérase multiplexe pendant la flambée de dengue ...
However, even though São Paulo is the most populous city in the Americas and has experienced major dengue epidemics, natural ... Since DENV infection dynamics vary among wild-type viruses and vector populations, vertical transmission rates can also vary ... during unfavorable conditions and may be implicated in dengue outbreaks. ... Vertical transmission in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus is considered a maintenance mechanism for dengue virus (DENV) ...
Near-atomic resolution cryo-EM structure of Dengue serotype 4 virus ... Dengue virus (DENV), a mosquito-borne virus, is responsible for millions of cases of infections worldwide. There are four DENV ... Dengue virus (DENV), a mosquito-borne virus, is responsible for millions of cases of infections worldwide. There are four DENV ... Near-Atomic Resolution Cryo-Electron Microscopic Structure of Dengue Serotype 4 Virus.. Kostyuchenko, V.A., Chew, P.L., Ng, T. ...
Mosquitoes can spread deadly viruses - such as dengue, Zika, chikungunya, and yellow fever - that can cause significant ... The World Health Organization reports that almost half of the worlds population is at risk for dengue and that there are up to ... 390 million dengue infections annually. Aedes species mosquitoes can transmit viruses through bites to people. They are found ... The World Health Organization reports that almost half of the worlds population is at risk for dengue and that there are up to ...
... J Infect Dis. 2021 Feb 3;223(2):258-267. ... Background: Dengue human infection models (DHIM) have been used as a safe means to test the viability of prophylaxis and ... Methods: A phase 1 study of 12 healthy adult volunteers using a challenge virus, DENV-1-LVHC strain 45AZ5, was performed. A ... Results: Twelve subjects received the challenge virus: 6 with 0.5 mL of 6.5 × 103 plaque-forming units (PFU)/mL (low-dose group ...
Dengue Fever and Zika Virus Make Humans More Attractive to Mosquitoes. Scientists conducted human and mouse studies to find the ... The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, spreads dengue fever, Zika, chikungunya and other viruses that infect humans. Smith ... to test whether humans infected with dengue fever and Zika virus are more attractive to mosquitos. Their new study published ... And individuals in at least 86 countries have been infected with the Zika virus. Cases are rarely fatal, but they have been ...
... where dengue virus, a virus closely related to Zika virus, is endemic. The research team led by Jean Lim, PhD, associate ... Dengue Virus Infection May Cause Severe Outcomes Following Zika Virus Infection During Pregnancy. February 8, 2019. Article ... Our data demonstrate that antibodies generated from a previous dengue virus infection can enhance the severity of Zika virus ... Results of the study, Dengue virus immunity increases Zika virus-induced damage during pregnancy, were published in the ...
A breakthrough in understanding the innate immune response activated by dengue and Zika viruses - Find all the Institut Pasteur ... RIG-I Recognizes the 5 Region of Dengue and Zika Virus Genomes, Cell Reports, July 10, 2018.. Maxime Chazal1,2,3, Guillaume ... HomeThe research journalNewsA breakthrough in understanding the innate immune response activated by dengue and Zika viruses ... The circulation of the dengue virus for the past sixty years in South-East Asia is relatively well known. For Zika, the ...
Drug blocks Zika and dengue viruses in study. The small-molecule inhibitor, named NGI-1, shows promise as a treatment for Zika ... In experiments, the research team infected human cells with either dengue or Zika viruses and treated the cells with NGI-1. ... "This group includes Zika, dengue, West Nile, and yellow fever viruses, which affect hundreds of millions of people per year ... including Zika and dengue viruses, according to a new study published in Cell Reports. ...
Infection by any of the 4 dengue virus (DENV) serotypes can result in a spectrum of disease severity. We investigated the ... Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease that afflicts millions of individuals worldwide every year. ... High Anti-Dengue Virus Activity of the OAS Gene Family Is Associated With Increased Severity of Dengue J Infect Dis. 2015 Dec ... Infection by any of the 4 dengue virus (DENV) serotypes can result in a spectrum of disease severity. We investigated the ...
Scientists @UofGlasgow have found a way to block the transmission of mosquito-borne #dengue virus, using a strain of the ... Bacteria used to control the mosquito-borne virus dengue in the wild Published: 21 November 2019 ... It is exciting to see, for the first time, a strain of Wolbachia successfully reduce the number of dengue cases in very hot ... The success of lowering dengue cases at these sites has led to a cessation of insecticide fogging in these areas, highlighting ...
From the virologic point of view, the possibility has been raised that the co-circulation of the three viruses could generate ... Dengue, zika, and chikungunya outbreaks in Central and South America countries have presented significant challenges related to ... In order to discuss this hypothesis it must be taken into account that Zika, dengue (DENV) and chikungunya viruses are closely ... Dengue, chikungunya, and Zika virus infections in Latin America and the Caribbean: a systematic review ...
According to the World Health Organization, the Dengue virus threatens millions of people in tropical and sub-tropical climates ... which spread the Dengue virus. Akbari said that once a female mosquito takes in blood, the antibody is activated and expressed ... has engineered mosquitoes that stop the transmission of the Dengue virus. The UC San Diego Lab worked with colleagues at ... led by Omar Akbaris lab at UC San Diego has engineered the first mosquitoes that repel the four known types of Dengue virus. ...
Dengue virus study provides new foundation for understanding DENV infection ... Our data support other reports that show that bats may serve as hosts for dengue virus and that dengue serotypes exploit unique ... Dengue virus study provides new foundation for understanding DENV infection. DENV are major re-emerging pathogens that are ... Dengue virus study provides new foundation for understanding DENV infection. *Geroprotectors as a Novel Therapeutic Strategy ...
The aim of the project was to develop and validate Dengue virus DENV VLP based vaccines for the elicitation of broadly reactive ... The aim of the project was to develop and validate Dengue virus DENV VLP based vaccines for the elicitation of broadly reactive ...
... We answered some of the most common questions about these mosquito- ... There are no records yet of the Zika virus being transmitted through breastfeeding. Although the Zika virus is known to ... Talks of Zika virus is getting more widespread by the day, and its presence is becoming a scary mystery. Many times, fear ... On the other hand, victims of the Zika virus can get a low fever or rash, conjunctivitis or muscle and joint pain, which will ...
Flikr, CDC Global Mosquitos infected with the bacteria Wolbachia are significantly worse vectors for dengue virus, and are ... Mosquitoes infected with virus-suppressing bacteria could help control dengue fever. Strategic releases could transform ... Mosquitos infected with the bacteria Wolbachia are significantly worse vectors for dengue virus, and are therefore a promising ... "Eliminate Dengue Program" demonstrates that over time, strategic releases may allow mosquitoes infected with the dengue- ...
... mediated enhancement of dengue virus infection is independent of DC-SIGN internalization signals. Download Prime PubMed App to ... DC-SIGN (CD209) mediates dengue virus infection of human dendritic cells.. *Beyond attachment: Roles of DC-SIGN in dengue virus ... Base SequenceCell Adhesion MoleculesCell LineDNA PrimersDengueDengue VirusFlow CytometryHumansLectins, C-TypeReceptors, Cell ... Dengue virus (DV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes hemorrhagic fever in humans. In the natural infection, DV is ...
Broad antiviral activity of carbohydrate-binding agents against the four serotypes of dengue virus in monocyte-derived ... Bovine Lactoferrin Inhibits Dengue Virus Infectivity by Interacting with Heparan Sulfate, Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor, and ... Dendritic cells (DC), present in the skin, are the first target cells of dengue virus (DENV). Dendritic cell-specific ... TY - JOUR T1 - Broad antiviral activity of carbohydrate-binding agents against the four serotypes of dengue virus in monocyte- ...
Monoclonal Antibodies against Dengue 2 Virus E-Glycoprotein Protect Mice against Lethal Dengue Infection published on Mar 1987 ... Monoclonal Antibodies against Dengue 2 Virus E-Glycoprotein Protect Mice against Lethal Dengue Infection ... The nine E-glycoprotein-reactive monoclonal antibodies also neutralized dengue 2 virus in a plaque reduction assay. Of the ... A panel of 11 murine monoclonal antibodies directed against dengue type 2 was evaluated for antigen specificity by dot ...
In December 2018, the Ministry of Health reported its first-ever cases of the Dengue Serotype 3 virus which the small country ... Dengue Fever, Drugs, Global Poverty, Housing, Life Expectancy, Palau, Pollution. 10 Facts About Life Expectancy in Palau. ... Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne disease which can cause high fever, headache, vomiting and skin rash. Palau is no stranger to ... Fortunately, the country did not report any deaths from dengue fever and it had only 250 cases as of June 2019. ...
Avis relatif à lactualisation des mesures de prévention vis-à-vis du virus de la dengue à appliquer aux produits issus du ... Following an increase in the circulation of the dengue virus in the French West Indies, which has led to severe forms of the ... Notice concerning the updating of prevention measures against the dengue virus to be applied to products derived from the human ... Notice concerning the updating of prevention measures against the dengue virus to be applied to products derived from the human ...
  • On November 7, 2022, dengue virus (DENV), which is not endemic in the continental United States, [ 1 ] was identified in a Maricopa County, Arizona resident by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing at Arizona State Public Health Laboratory (ASPHL). (medscape.com)
  • Whole genome sequencing by CDC's Dengue Branch later revealed that closely related DENV-3 strains not known to be circulating in the patient's travel region were identified in both patient A and pool A, suggesting local DENV transmission. (medscape.com)
  • Dengue virus (DENV) is the cause of dengue fever. (wikipedia.org)
  • The development of animal models of dengue virus (DENV) infection and disease has been challenging, as epidemic DENV does not naturally infect non-human species. (mdpi.com)
  • In contrast, certain immunodeficient mouse models infected with mouse-adapted DENV strains show signs of severe disease similar to the 'vascular-leak' syndrome seen in severe dengue in humans. (mdpi.com)
  • Vertical transmission in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus is considered a maintenance mechanism for dengue virus (DENV) during unfavorable conditions and may be implicated in dengue outbreaks. (nature.com)
  • Since DENV infection dynamics vary among wild-type viruses and vector populations, vertical transmission rates can also vary between regions. (nature.com)
  • Dengue virus (DENV), a mosquito-borne virus, is responsible for millions of cases of infections worldwide. (rcsb.org)
  • A phase 1 study of 12 healthy adult volunteers using a challenge virus, DENV-1-LVHC strain 45AZ5, was performed. (nih.gov)
  • We conclude that DENV-1-LVHC was well-tolerated, resulted in an uncomplicated dengue illness, and may be a suitable DHIM for therapeutic and prophylactic product testing. (nih.gov)
  • Infection by any of the 4 dengue virus (DENV) serotypes can result in a spectrum of disease severity. (nih.gov)
  • In order to discuss this hypothesis it must be taken into account that Zika, dengue (DENV) and chikungunya viruses are closely related flaviviruses, with identical urban transmission and some immune interactions (1). (paho.org)
  • Also, it is known that secondary DENV infections may be more severe than primary infections due to the antibody-dependent immune response (i.e., heterotypic sub-neutralizing antibodies that increase virus entry into poorly susceptible cells) (2,3). (paho.org)
  • These findings provide a new foundation upon which our understanding of DENV infection and evolution may be built, and may provide new insights for treatment of this terrible disease,' explains Dr. Jonathan Dinman, editor-in-cheif, Virus Adaptation and Treatment journal. (dovepress.com)
  • The aim of the project was to develop and validate Dengue virus DENV VLP based vaccines for the elicitation of broadly reactive immune responses. (dtic.mil)
  • Dendritic cells (DC), present in the skin, are the first target cells of dengue virus (DENV). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The CBAs act at an early step of DENV infection as they bind to the viral envelope of DENV and subsequently prevent virus attachment. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The CBAs exerted broad spectrum antiviral activity against the four DENV serotypes, laboratory-adapted viruses and low passage clinical isolates, evaluated in Raji/DC-SIGN(+) cells and in primary MDDC. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Despite that, there is no clinically approved antiviral for treatment of dengue virus (DENV) infections. (monash.edu)
  • In this study, the role of the His residue at position 39 in the M protein (M39) of dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) in the virus life cycle was investigated. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Mutations encoding basic (Arg), non-polar (Leu and Pro) and uncharged polar (Asn, Gln and Tyr) amino acids at M39 were introduced into a DENV-2 genomic-length cDNA clone and their effects on virus replication were examined. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Dengue virus (DENV) is the most geographically widespread arbovirus causing dengue disease epidemics in tropical and subtropical regions. (ugm.ac.id)
  • In conclusion, curcumin and 6‐gingerol exhibit antiviral properties against DENV infection and could provide a new therapeutic approach for dengue disease treatment strategies. (ugm.ac.id)
  • The rational design of dengue virus (DENV) vaccines requires a detailed understanding of the molecular basis for antibody-mediated immunity . (bvsalud.org)
  • Dengue is caused by Dengue virus (DENV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus. (denguevirusnet.com)
  • DENV is an single stranded RNA positive-strand virus of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus. (denguevirusnet.com)
  • DENV causes a wide range of diseases in humans, from a self limited Dengue Fever (DF) to a life-threatening syndrome called Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) or Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS) . (denguevirusnet.com)
  • DENV is a 50-nm virus enveloped with a lipid membrane (see figure 1). (denguevirusnet.com)
  • Scrub typhus (ST, Orientia tsutsugamushi), murine typhus (MT, Rickettsia typhi), and dengue virus (DENV) are important causes of childhood morbidity in Cambodia. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Dengue virus seroprevalence steadily increased with age, indicating constant DENV exposure. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Methodology and Principal Findings: Using a proteomics differential approach with two-Dimensional Differential in-Gel Electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), we defined the protein modulations in the midgut of Aedes aegypti that were triggered seven days after an oral infection (7 DPI) with dengue 2 (DENV-2) and chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses. (hal.science)
  • Zika virus (ZIKV) and dengue virus (DENV) are closely related flaviviruses primarily transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The involvement of the immune system in the protection and pathology of natural dengue virus (DENV) has been extensively studied. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In vitro incubation of NETs with DENV-2 virus significantly decreased DENV infectivity. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The activation of autophagy and ER stress during infection enhances virus reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Washington, April 12 (ANI): Scientists have identified the region on dengue virus that is neutralized in people who overcome infection with the deadly pathogen. (newstrackindia.com)
  • Once people have recovered from infection with one form of the virus, they have lifelong immunity against that form. (newstrackindia.com)
  • The leading theory to explain why some people develop dengue hemorrhagic fever is that under some conditions the human immune response can actually enhance the virus and disease during a second infection. (newstrackindia.com)
  • We have to figure out a way to develop dengue vaccines that induce the good response that protects against infection, at the same time avoiding the bad response that enhances disease," the researcher stated. (newstrackindia.com)
  • Its findings confirm earlier suspicions that some antibodies to the Zika virus, which usually serve to protect the body from infection, may actually interact with dengue viruses in ways that can make dengue infection worse. (sciencedaily.com)
  • The key thing that our study establishes is that prior Zika infection does significantly increase your risk of both symptomatic and more severe forms of dengue disease," said study first author Leah Katzelnick, who performed the research as postdoctoral scholar at the University of California, Berkeley's School of Public Health. (sciencedaily.com)
  • The first question was, 'How will prior dengue virus infection affect Zika? (sciencedaily.com)
  • Using data from the cohort, Harris published a 2019 study showing that prior dengue virus infection can grant a small amount of protection against Zika, and other studies now support this conclusion. (sciencedaily.com)
  • By mid-autumn, the researchers had enough evidence to prove that having a prior Zika infection made a person more likely to have a symptomatic dengue infection. (sciencedaily.com)
  • However, in a secondary infection with another serotype, the preexisting antibodies may cause antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection of macrophage cells, leading to the development of the more severe form of disease, dengue hemorrhagic fever. (rcsb.org)
  • Dengue human infection models (DHIM) have been used as a safe means to test the viability of prophylaxis and therapeutics. (nih.gov)
  • The scientists concluded that virus infection changes a mouse's odor, making it more attractive to mosquitoes. (smithsonianmag.com)
  • The research team led by Jean Lim, PhD, associate professor of microbiology and co-director of microbiology multidisciplinary training in the Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, transferred dengue virus-specific antibodies into mice prior to infection with Zika virus during pregnancy. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Our data demonstrate that antibodies generated from a previous dengue virus infection can enhance the severity of Zika virus infection during pregnancy,' said Dr. Lim. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • By investigating two of these receptors during infection by dengue and Zika viruses, scientists from the Institut Pasteur discovered that a precise region of the viral genome was recognized by a receptor known as RIG-I. Their discovery paves the way for the future development of vaccines for these diseases. (pasteur.fr)
  • They found that the molecule treatment significantly limited replication of the viruses as well as infection in cells. (yale.edu)
  • Our report shows, for the first time, that we can use a small-molecule inhibitor to block infection by the flaviviridae family of viruses," Contessa said. (yale.edu)
  • Michael Chew, Infection and Immunobiology Portfolio Manager at Wellcome said: "These findings mark important progress in the future of dengue fever control. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Prospective studies are needed to fully assess the risk of dengue infection after exposure to Zika and chikungunya viruses and to determine whether the supposed cross-protection is long-lasting. (paho.org)
  • It causes an estimated 50 million cases of dengue infection, half a million hospitalizations, and approximately 15,000 deaths. (dovepress.com)
  • Virus Adaptation and Treatment is an international, peer-reviewed, open access journal focusing on the study of virology, viral adaptation and the development and use of antiviral drugs and vaccines to achieve improved outcomes in infection control and treatment. (dovepress.com)
  • In particular, the question arose as to the consistency of the measures deployed for blood donations between Reunion Island, the French Indies and mainland France, taking into account the risk factors resulting from territorial specificities such as a history of infection by the Zika virus or the frequency of sickle cell disease. (hcsp.fr)
  • Studies on clinical and pathophysiological aspects of dengue virus infection / Albert Thomas Adriaan Mairuhu. (who.int)
  • Activation of endothelial cells via antibody-enhanced dengue virus infection of peripheral blood monocytes. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • We evaluated the characteristics of dengue cases imported into Japan and the relationship between the incidence of infection and season of travel to popular destinations. (who.int)
  • The number of reported cases per number of Japanese travellers to a dengue-endemic country was calculated to estimate the country-specific incidence of imported dengue virus infection. (who.int)
  • The incidence of dengue infection among Japanese travellers was compared between dengue high season and low season in each country using relative risk (RR) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CI). (who.int)
  • The RR of dengue infection among Japanese travellers during dengue high season versus low season was 4.92 (95% CI: 3.01-8.04) for the Philippines, 2.76 (95% CI: 1.67-4.54) for Thailand and 0.37 (95% CI: 0.15-0.92) for Indonesia. (who.int)
  • Chikungunya virus infection has a clinical presentation that overlaps with that of Ross River virus infection (fever, rash, polyarthritis) and dengue fever transmitted by the same mosquitoes. (medscape.com)
  • Both natural and Chikungunya virus infection-induced specific antibodies were essential for controlling Chikungunya virus infections. (medscape.com)
  • Chikungunya virus infection elicited strong innate immunity with an abundant production of proinflammatory markers and cytokines, including high levels of alpha interferon, interleukin (IL)-4, IL10, and gamma interferon. (medscape.com)
  • Human skin Langerhans cells are targets of dengue virus infection. (jefferson.edu)
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced today the approval of Dengvaxia, the first vaccine approved for the prevention of dengue disease caused by all dengue virus serotypes (1, 2, 3 and 4) in people ages 9 through 16 who have laboratory-confirmed previous dengue infection and who live in endemic areas. (news-medical.net)
  • Researchers at Duke-NUS Medical School have demonstrated for the first time a physical interaction between two types of immune cells that plays an important role in the early fight against dengue virus infection. (news-medical.net)
  • We identify antigens of interest that are important for dengue virus infection and pathogenesis, display them on VLPs using a variety of molecular biology techniques, and then test them for their immunogenicity and ability to elicit antibodies that can block dengue virus infection or key functions of the antigens. (frietzelab.com)
  • Transovarial dengue infection in Ae.aegypti larvae appeared to maintain or enhance epidemics. (univmed.org)
  • An outbreak of dengue virus serotype 1 infection in Cixi, Ningbo, People's Republic of China, 2004. (univmed.org)
  • Double infection of heteroserotypes of dengue viruses in field populations of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and serological features of dengue viruses found in patients in southern Thailand. (univmed.org)
  • The heaviest burden of dengue is in the Asia Pacific countries, where about 1800 million people are at risk of infection. (who.int)
  • Neutrophil Activation and Early Features of NET Formation Are Associated With Dengue Virus Infection in Human. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Interestingly, increased levels of NET components were found in the serum of patients with more severe disease form-dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), but not uncomplicated dengue fever, during the acute phase of the infection. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Yellow fever (YF) is a mosquito-borne infection that is caused by the YF virus and is endemic to Africa and South America. (medscape.com)
  • Doctors suspect dengue based on your symptoms and if you've been in an area where mosquitoes carry the infection. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Until a few hundred years ago, dengue virus was transmitted in sylvatic cycles in Africa, Southeast Asia and South Asia between mosquitoes of the genus Aedes and nonhuman primates, with rare emergences into human populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The global spread of dengue virus, however, has followed its emergence from sylvatic cycles and the primary lifecycle now exclusively involves transmission between humans and Aedes mosquitoes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mosquitoes can spread deadly viruses - such as dengue, Zika, chikungunya, and yellow fever - that can cause significant outbreaks and disease. (federallabs.org)
  • Aedes species mosquitoes can transmit viruses through bites to people. (federallabs.org)
  • CDC's AGO technology has significant advantages: 100% non-toxic trap, inexpensive to manufacture and maintain, successfully field-tested in communities, proven to reduce mosquito populations and the viruses they spread, and currently in use to control the spread of Zika and dengue through Aedes mosquitoes. (federallabs.org)
  • In the first part of their multi-step study, Cheng's team tested whether two species of mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus , were more attracted to Zika or dengue infected mice than to uninfected mice. (smithsonianmag.com)
  • To test whether humans become more attractive to mosquitoes when they get infected, Cheng's team recruited both dengue patients and uninfected participants. (smithsonianmag.com)
  • As with the mice, the mosquitoes showed the strongest attraction to odors from humans that were infected with dengue. (smithsonianmag.com)
  • Using a strain of the bacteria Wolbachia , which inhibit mosquitoes from transmitting viruses to humans, researchers at the Universities of Glasgow and Melbourne and the Institute for Medical Research in Malaysia were successfully able to reduce cases of dengue at sites in Kuala Lumpur. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Researchers released batches of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes carrying the w AlbB strain of Wolbachia into the wild, in six different sites in greater Kuala Lumpur with high levels of dengue transmission. (gla.ac.uk)
  • The Wolbachia carrying mosquitoes - both male and female - then went on to mate with the wild mosquito population, resulting in the spread and establishment of the virus-inhibiting bacteria. (gla.ac.uk)
  • A team led by Omar Akbari's lab at UC San Diego has engineered the first mosquitoes that repel the four known types of Dengue virus. (isaaa.org)
  • An international team of scientists led by Associate Professor Omar Akbari's Lab at the University of California San Diego (UC San Diego) has engineered mosquitoes that stop the transmission of the Dengue virus. (isaaa.org)
  • The development marks the first engineered approach in mosquitoes that targets the four known types of Dengue, improving upon previous designs that addressed single strains. (isaaa.org)
  • The research team then designed the antibody "cargo" to be synthetically expressed in female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, which spread the Dengue virus. (isaaa.org)
  • A study publishing on 30th May 2017 in the open access journal PLOS Biology by Michael Turelli from University of California, Davis in collaboration with Nick Barton from the Institute of Science and Technology (IST Austria) and colleagues from Scott O'Neill's "Eliminate Dengue Program" demonstrates that over time, strategic releases may allow mosquitoes infected with the dengue-suppressing bacteria to spread across large cities. (ist.ac.at)
  • Suppression efforts have mainly focused on mosquito control, but an international, non-profit research collaboration, the Eliminate Dengue Program, is trialing a new approach: harnessing bacteria that infect mosquitoes and so reduce their capacity to transmit viruses. (ist.ac.at)
  • Mosquitoes tend to breed in stagnant water but you do not directly get the virus from water or food. (smartparenting.com.ph)
  • albopictus adult mosquitoes collected and inoculated, DEN1 virus was isolated only from a pool of two Ae. (scielo.br)
  • Dengue, also known as dengue fever, is a viral disease transmitted to humans by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. (news-medical.net)
  • Researchers have found a way to reduce the blood thirst of mosquitoes and prevent mosquito bites and spread of mosquito borne illnesses such as Zika, dengue fever, malaria and chikungunya. (news-medical.net)
  • So a lot of mosquitoes that can transmit dengue will be moving towards regions that are now considered to be temperate, either north or south of the tropics. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • Dengue is a disease that is caused by dengue virus and transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes, especially Aedes aegypti. (univmed.org)
  • The results showed that 20% of the mosquitoes were positive for dengue virus. (univmed.org)
  • Persistence of dengue-3 virus through transovarial transmission passage in successive generations of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. (univmed.org)
  • Angel B, Joshi V. Distribution and seasonality of vertically transmitted dengue viruses in Aedes mosquitoes in arid and semi-arid areas of Rajasthan, India. (univmed.org)
  • Horizontal and vertical transmission of dengue-2 virus in highly and lowly susceptible strains of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. (univmed.org)
  • It's not the province's fault that it has Dengue mosquitoes. (pinoyboyjournals.com)
  • In December 2018, the Ministry of Health reported its first-ever cases of the Dengue Serotype 3 virus which the small country had never seen. (borgenproject.org)
  • Identification of Dengue Virus Serotype 3 Specific Antigenic Sites Targeted by Neutralizing Human Antibodies. (bvsalud.org)
  • Here, a serotype is a group of viruses classified together based on their antigens on the surface of the virus. (denguevirusnet.com)
  • Aravinda de Silva from the University of North Carolina and colleagues injected rodents with specially designed protein-studded particles and found the mice produced antibodies against one form, or serotype, of the virus for almost seven months. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • And immunising against more than one serotype, using bits of actual dengue virus, can dial down any protection bestowed by previous immunisations. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • They built and tested a new type of vaccine to combat serotype 2 of the dengue virus using nanoparticles studded with copies of DENV2-E, a key protein from that particular serotype. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • during 2013-2014 the presence of dengue virus serotype 3 was recorded in Fiji and in several other islands after 30 years of absence, leading to an increased number of cases in a population particularly susceptible to that serotype. (who.int)
  • But if they become infected with one of the other three forms of the virus, they increase their chances of developing the severe bleeding and sometimes fatal dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. (newstrackindia.com)
  • 3 Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Research Unit Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University. (nih.gov)
  • 12 Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Research Unit Center for Emerging and Neglected Infectious Diseases Medical Biotechnology Research Unit, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, National Science and Technology Development Agency, Bangkok. (nih.gov)
  • Dengue virus (DV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes hemorrhagic fever in humans. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever / edited by D. J. Gubler and G. Kuno. (who.int)
  • The disease is hyper-endemic in Southeast Asia, where a more severe form, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS), is a major public health concern. (univmed.org)
  • A more serious version of the disease, called dengue hemorrhagic fever, causes bleeding and can be deadly. (msdmanuals.com)
  • What is dengue hemorrhagic fever? (msdmanuals.com)
  • Dengue hemorrhagic fever is a much more severe type of dengue. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Go to the hospital right away if you have symptoms of dengue hemorrhagic fever. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Dengue virus is transmitted by species of the mosquito genus Aedes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti , spreads dengue fever, Zika, chikungunya and other viruses that infect humans. (smithsonianmag.com)
  • 2017): Local introduction and heterogeneous spatial spread of dengue-suppressing Wolbachia through an urban population of Aedes aegypti. (ist.ac.at)
  • The study's purpose was to identify whether Aedes albopictus was transmitting the dengue virus during an epidemic in the locality of Vila Bethânia (Viana County),Vitória, ES. (scielo.br)
  • Conclusion/Significance: Our study constitutes the first analysis of the protein response of Aedes aegypti's midgut infected with viruses belonging to different families. (hal.science)
  • Rohani A, Zamree I, Lee HL, Mustafakamal I. Detection of transovarian dengue virus for field caught Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquito using C6/36 cell line and RT-PCR. (univmed.org)
  • Natural vertical transmission of dengue viruses by Aedes aegypti in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. (univmed.org)
  • Lee HL, Rohani A. Transovarial transmission of Dengue virus in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in relation to Dengue outbreak in an urban area in Malaysia. (univmed.org)
  • Recombinant domains of the E protein are used as well-defined antigens in the serological detection of antibodies directed against dengue virus and as immunogens in vaccine candidates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The finding achieved by a team of scientists from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Vanderbilt University challenge the current state of dengue vaccine research, which is based on studies in mice and targets a different region of the virus. (newstrackindia.com)
  • Creation of a vaccine is complicated by the fact that there are four distinct, but closely related forms of the virus that cause dengue. (newstrackindia.com)
  • This immune interaction, called antibody-dependent enhancement, could complicate the search for a safe and effective vaccine that protects against Zika without also increasing the risk of dengue. (sciencedaily.com)
  • This interaction, known as antibody-dependent enhancement, could make it harder for researchers to design a safe and effective vaccine that protects against Zika without also increasing the risk of dengue. (sciencedaily.com)
  • That finding raises the questions: Could a vaccine only targeted at Zika actually put people at increased risk of more severe dengue disease? (sciencedaily.com)
  • Thus, a safe vaccine should stimulate protection against all dengue serotypes simultaneously. (rcsb.org)
  • There is currently no specific treatment or effective vaccine for dengue or Zika . (pasteur.fr)
  • Pediatric Dengue Vaccine Initiative. (who.int)
  • While many people are infected with these viruses or receive the rubella vaccine, only a few people develop arthritis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Dengue Virus Net is run by a policy officer in the clinical vaccine trial assessment procedure in the Netherlands. (denguevirusnet.com)
  • Using the only licensed dengue vaccine, Dengvaxia, the Philippines launched its first public immunisation program for dengue fever for more than a million children in April. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • Paradkar says the work is a critical step towards achieving a dengue vaccine, especially as mosquitos spread into higher latitudes. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • And while the researchers also need to determine if all four serotypes could be combined into a single vaccine, there may be something about using nanoparticles instead of chunks of virus that provides long-lasting, broad-spectrum protection. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • The dengue virus evolved "dramatically" over the last few decades in India, according to a study led by scientists at the Indian Institute of Science (IISc), which stresses the need for developing a vaccine against the strains found in the country. (instadsc.in)
  • The vaccine is not approved for travelers who are visiting but not living in an area where dengue is common. (msdmanuals.com)
  • UNC investigators identified 7 local individuals who had contracted dengue during travel to an endemic region and sent blood cells from these individuals to Vanderbilt School of Medicine. (newstrackindia.com)
  • Zika virus outbreaks were first found to be associated with birth defects including microcephaly, in which the baby is born with an abnormally small head and brain, in 2015 in Brazil, where dengue virus, a virus closely related to Zika virus, is endemic. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • In Japan, although dengue cases are currently seen only among travellers returning from endemic areas, the number of reported cases is rising according to the national case-based surveillance system. (who.int)
  • Travellers planning to visit dengue-endemic countries should be aware of historic dengue seasonality and the current dengue situation. (who.int)
  • Dengue fever is endemic in 29 Member States. (who.int)
  • Günther J, Martínez-Muñoz JP, Pérez-Ishiwara DG, Salas-Benito J. Evidence of vertical transmission of dengue virus in two endemic localities in the state of Oaxaca, Mexico. (univmed.org)
  • Dengue virus is another flavivirus and causes dengue fever which is a rapidly emerging mosquito-borne infectious disease and now endemic in over 128 countries and regions around the world [ 15 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Dengue is an acute systemic viral infectious disease, established worldwide in epidemic and endemic transmission cycles. (bvsalud.org)
  • When Zika first emerged in Latin America in late 2015, many speculated whether the flavivirus, a close cousin to the dengue viruses, might interact with the dengue viruses in a similar way. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Expression of cloned envelope protein genes from the flavivirus tick-borne encephalitis virus in mammalian cells and random mutagenesis by PCR. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The study, which drew on data from two cohorts of Nicaraguan children who lived through a Zika epidemic in 2016 and a dengue epidemic in 2019, is the first to investigate the impacts of Zika immunity on dengue disease in humans. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Fortunately, the country did not report any deaths from dengue fever and it had only 250 cases as of June 2019. (borgenproject.org)
  • 2013. The global distribution and burden of dengue. (ugm.ac.id)
  • Researchers have now conducted an analysis of the economic burden of dengue fever in Burkina Faso, Kenya and Cambodia. (news-medical.net)
  • ABSTRACT Dengue is one of the most important arthropod-borne viral diseases. (who.int)
  • Abstract Background: Arthropod borne virus infections cause several emerging and resurgent infectious diseases. (hal.science)
  • Each year there are around 90 million symptomatic cases of dengue, with severe disease in around 1% of cases, including life-threatening hemorrhage or shock syndrome. (gla.ac.uk)
  • The Western Pacific Region reported cases of dengue in more than 30 countries and territories. (who.int)
  • Getting sick with the mosquito-borne Zika virus makes people more vulnerable to developing dengue disease later on, and to suffering from more severe symptoms when they do get sick from dengue, finds a new study published online today (Thursday, Aug. 27) in the journal Science . (sciencedaily.com)
  • Getting sick with one type of dengue virus can increase the likelihood that a person will develop a second, more severe illness when infected with a separate type of dengue virus. (sciencedaily.com)
  • The two arrived at the very beginning of what would become a massive epidemic of dengue virus Type 2, one of the more severe of the four flavors, or serotypes, of dengue, and the first major outbreak of dengue since the Zika epidemic in 2016. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Severe dengue has long been associated with a cytokine storm of unclear origin. (nih.gov)
  • This work identifies an early innate immunity process that could lead to the immune overreaction observed in severe dengue and could be triggered by a specific host genotype-pathogen genotype interaction. (nih.gov)
  • Among the diseases caused by arboviruses, dengue and chikungunya are responsible for a high rate of severe human diseases worldwide. (hal.science)
  • Mortality is highest during the initial period of the outbreak or epidemic, and increasing numbers of severe dengue cases overwhelm health facilities. (who.int)
  • In more severe cases, people may feel weak for several weeks, but it's rare to die from dengue fever. (msdmanuals.com)
  • However, even though São Paulo is the most populous city in the Americas and has experienced major dengue epidemics, natural vertical transmission had never been detected in this area before. (nature.com)
  • Despite the fact that São Paulo, the capital of the state, is the most populous city in Brazil and Latin America 22 and in recent years has experienced major dengue epidemics, such as those in 2014 and 2015 23 , natural vertical transmission has never been detected in the city 15 . (nature.com)
  • albopictus still cannot be considered an inter-human vector in dengue epidemics in Brazil. (scielo.br)
  • Our study for the first time shows what region the immune system of humans target when they are fighting off the virus. (newstrackindia.com)
  • New vaccines as well as those already in the pipeline will need to be assessed to see if they bind just a small fragment or the whole virus, which may determine whether or not they work in humans," the researcher added. (newstrackindia.com)
  • That quest led Gong Cheng , a microbiologist at the Tsinghua University-Peking University Joint Center for Life Sciences, to test whether humans infected with dengue fever and Zika virus are more attractive to mosquitos. (smithsonianmag.com)
  • The antibody is able to hinder the replication of the virus and prevent its dissemination throughout the mosquito, which then prevents its transmission to humans," he added. (isaaa.org)
  • The major difference for humans lies in subtle differences in the surface proteins of the different dengue subtypes. (denguevirusnet.com)
  • Additionally, coinfection with and lack of rapid tests for Zika virus and chikungunya complicate matters in real-world infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Current estimates indicate that as many as 390 million infections occur each year, and many dengue infections are increasingly understood to be asymptomatic or subclinical. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dengue is considered the most serious re-emergent viral disease transmitted by arthropods, with approximately 390 million infections worldwide each year, 7% of which occur in Brazil 1 , 2 . (nature.com)
  • The World Health Organization reports that almost half of the world's population is at risk for dengue and that there are up to 390 million dengue infections annually. (federallabs.org)
  • But around 4 billion individuals live in regions with a high risk of dengue fever infections, which cause about 40,000 deaths every year. (smithsonianmag.com)
  • Unraveling the molecular mechanisms used by human cells to detect viral infections will help improve understanding of the diseases caused by these viruses. (pasteur.fr)
  • Although temporary associations do not prove causation, the strength and consistency of the observations suggest that infections with Zika virus and chikungunya virus could induce cross-protective immunity against dengue. (paho.org)
  • Seroprevalence of Dengue Virus and Rickettsial Infections in Cambodian Children. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Overview of Viral Infections A virus is a tiny living organism. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Overall, each model has its advantages and disadvantages and is differentially suited for studies of dengue pathogenesis and immunopathogenesis and/or pre-clinical testing of antiviral drugs and vaccines. (mdpi.com)
  • Mazumder R, Hu ZZ, Vinayaka CR, Sagripanti JL, Frost SD, Kosakovsky Pond SL, Wu CH. Computational analysis and identification of amino acid sites in dengue E proteins relevant to development of diagnostics and vaccines. (jefferson.edu)
  • We are using virus-like particles (VLPs) derived from small RNA bacteriophages as antigen-display platforms for dengue virus vaccines. (frietzelab.com)
  • Drs. Scott Smith and James Crowe at Vanderbilt were able to isolate dengue antibodies from these cells for further study at UNC. (newstrackindia.com)
  • The team found that instead of binding to small fragments of the virus-like mouse antibodies do-human antibodies that neutralized the virus bound to a complex structure that was only present on a completely assembled dengue virus. (newstrackindia.com)
  • Though this is the first time this phenomenon has been shown with dengue, just last year there were a number of studies showing that antibodies recognize similar complex epitopes in both HIV and West Nile Virus," said de Alwis. (newstrackindia.com)
  • A new study finds that people who have antibodies to the mosquito-borne Zika virus are more vulnerable to developing dengue disease. (sciencedaily.com)
  • because everyone in Latin America, to some degree or another, is eventually dengue immune and has dengue antibodies," said study senior author Eva Harris, a professor of infectious diseases and vaccinology at UC Berkeley. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Since 2004, Harris and her colleagues in Nicaragua have monitored a cohort of approximately 3,800 children living in Managua, the country's capital, tracking any signs of dengue disease and collecting annual blood samples to test for the virus and its antibodies. (sciencedaily.com)
  • But the inverse question, whether Zika antibodies protect against future dengue disease, or potentially enhance it, remained a mystery. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Zika-infected human placental tissues also showed increased replication in the presence of dengue antibodies. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • A panel of 11 murine monoclonal antibodies directed against dengue type 2 was evaluated for antigen specificity by dot immunobinding assay and Western blot analysis and for in vitro and in vivo biological activities. (ajtmh.org)
  • The nine E-glycoprotein-reactive monoclonal antibodies also neutralized dengue 2 virus in a plaque reduction assay. (ajtmh.org)
  • Of the neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, five passively protected mice in vivo against lethal intracerebral dengue 2 challenge. (ajtmh.org)
  • Using a murine model, Lum et al showed that anti-Chikungunya virus antibodies were elicited early in the course of the illness and were directed against the C-terminus of the viral E2 glycoprotein. (medscape.com)
  • In fact, the number of cases requiring hospitalization fell by 86 percent and this technique was found to be equally effective against the four different types of dengue virus. (thecherawchronicle.com)
  • This same study identified 47 strains of dengue virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • These four subtypes are different strains of dengue virus that have 60-80% homology between each other. (denguevirusnet.com)
  • Attempts to provide detailed summaries of the life cycle of dengue at the cellular level are published in review articles from different research groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • The life cycle of dengue involves endocytosis via a cell surface receptor (see video 1 and figure 3). (denguevirusnet.com)
  • Using an RLR-purification technique in conjunction with high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analysis, "we demonstrated that a precise region of the genomes of the dengue and Zika viruses (known as the 5' untranslated region) was recognized by RIG-I," explains Nolwenn Jouvenet, a scientist in the Viral Genomics and Vaccination Unit at the Institut Pasteur and last author of the paper. (pasteur.fr)
  • There is currently no specific treatment for dengue, and vector control and vaccination are the only effective methods to prevent future outbreaks. (who.int)
  • Dengue, zika, and chikungunya outbreaks in Central and South America countries have presented significant challenges related to their prevention and control. (paho.org)
  • A similar situation was observed in Colombia, where the decrease in dengue cases following the zika and chikungunya outbreaks went from 334.1 cases per 100 000 people in 2015 to 90.7 cases per 100 000 in 2017 and 173,1 cases per 100 000 in 2018 (5). (paho.org)
  • The epidemiology of dengue is rapidly evolving as outbreaks occur with increasing frequency and are expanding to new previously-unaffected geographical areas (from urban to rural areas). (who.int)
  • Since late 2013, a few countries in the Pacific have reported concurrent outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus disease. (who.int)
  • Four serotypes of the virus have been found, and a reported fifth has yet to be confirmed, all of which can cause the full spectrum of disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dengue disease is caused by not one but four closely related types of flaviviruses, each of which can strike with a slightly different set of symptoms and severity. (sciencedaily.com)
  • However, after a person has been infected with two types of dengue viruses, they usually gain some degree of immune protection against future dengue disease severity. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Incidence of dengue has increased many fold in the past 50 years and has expanded to areas that were previously free from the disease. (who.int)
  • Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease that afflicts millions of individuals worldwide every year. (nih.gov)
  • Mosquitos infected with the bacteria Wolbachia are significantly worse vectors for dengue virus, and are therefore a promising tool in fighting the disease, but how to establish and spread Wolbachia in an urban mosquito population is unclear. (ist.ac.at)
  • More than 2.5 billion people live in areas afflicted by dengue fever, a mosquito-borne viral disease that is increasing at alarming rates in tropical and subtropical countries. (ist.ac.at)
  • Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne disease which can cause high fever, headache, vomiting and skin rash. (borgenproject.org)
  • Most viral arthritis disappears within several days or weeks when the virus-related disease goes away. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne tropical disease caused by the dengue virus. (news-medical.net)
  • Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease of public health significance that has rapidly spread in all regions of WHO in recent years. (who.int)
  • Although the full global burden of the disease is uncertain, the initiation of activities to record all dengue cases partly explains the sharp increase in the number of cases reported in recent years. (who.int)
  • Other features of the disease include its epidemiological patterns, including hyper-endemicity of multiple dengue virus serotypes in many countries and the alarming impact on both human health and the global and national economies. (who.int)
  • isolated from Guangdong province, China, is a potential vector for ZIKV and should therefore be considered in vector control programs to prevent and control of Zika virus disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • And individuals in at least 86 countries have been infected with the Zika virus. (smithsonianmag.com)
  • Women who have previously been infected with dengue virus may be at risk for increased damage to their fetuses and placentas if they should later become infected with the Zika virus, researchers from the Department of Microbiology at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai report. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • This study is the first to report a possible mechanism for the enhancement of Zika virus progression during pregnancy in an animal model. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Results of the study, 'Dengue virus immunity increases Zika virus-induced damage during pregnancy,' were published in the February issue of Immunity, a journal published by Cell Press. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Our research may explain the high rate of microcephaly and birth defects observed in the recent Zika virus outbreak in South America. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • RIG-I Recognizes the 5' Region of Dengue and Zika Virus Genomes, Cell Reports , July 10, 2018. (pasteur.fr)
  • Talks of Zika virus is getting more widespread by the day, and its presence is becoming a scary mystery. (smartparenting.com.ph)
  • Myth #2: Do I have to worry about the Zika virus if I am not pregnant or thinking about becoming pregnant? (smartparenting.com.ph)
  • It's suspected that the Zika virus can cause neurological problems and autoimmune disorders -as well as long-term complications on babies like microcephaly. (smartparenting.com.ph)
  • Fact #3: The benefits of breastfeeding outweigh any potential risk of Zika virus transmission. (smartparenting.com.ph)
  • There are no records yet of the Zika virus being transmitted through breastfeeding. (smartparenting.com.ph)
  • Although the Zika virus is known to circulate in the blood, through sexual contact and blood transfusion, there are no indications yet that the same could be said about breast milk. (smartparenting.com.ph)
  • Rather than keeping your kids in a room, it's best to make sure you follow the World Health Organization and the Department of Health's guidelines to keeping your kids safe from Dengue and the Zika virus. (smartparenting.com.ph)
  • Myth #5: Does the Zika virus have identical symptoms to seasonal flu? (smartparenting.com.ph)
  • On the other hand, victims of the Zika virus can get a low fever or rash, conjunctivitis or muscle and joint pain, which will only appear a few days after being bitten by an infected mosquito. (smartparenting.com.ph)
  • The Zika virus outbreak in Latin America has affected over 60 million people up to now. (news-medical.net)
  • Researchers at QUT and QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute have found that the dengue fever mosquito common to north and central Queensland poses the greatest danger of spreading the Zika virus in Australia. (news-medical.net)
  • We determined the frequency of different serotypes of dengue virus to highlight its hyperendemicity in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. (who.int)
  • Also, observed variations in amino acid residues involved in interactions between envelope and membrane proteins on the virus surface correlate with their ability to undergo structural changes at higher temperatures. (rcsb.org)
  • Oligomeric rearrangement of tick-borne encephalitis virus envelope proteins induced by an acidic pH. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Twenty proteins were regulated by both viruses in either similar or different ways. (hal.science)
  • Both viruses caused an increase of proteins involved in the generation of reactive oxygen species, energy production, and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. (hal.science)
  • On the other hand, we propose that the modulation of other proteins like transferrin, hsp60 and alpha glucosidase, may favour virus survival, replication and transmission, suggesting a subversion of the insect cell metabolism by the arboviruses. (hal.science)
  • In addition, the recent introduction of Zika and chikungunya viruses in the Americas and the large-scale exposure of a uniformly unexposed population could affect subsequent transmission of dengue virus. (paho.org)
  • These results provide evidence that geraniin is a potential candidate for the development of anti-dengue drug. (monash.edu)
  • Evaluation of commercially available anti-dengue virus immunoglobulin M tests. (who.int)
  • Two of these protein receptors, RIG-I and MDA5, had previously been identified as playing a key role in the innate response against the replication of flaviviruses, a family of mosquito-borne viruses that includes dengue, yellow fever and Zika. (pasteur.fr)
  • This group includes Zika, dengue, West Nile, and yellow fever viruses, which affect hundreds of millions of people per year worldwide. (yale.edu)
  • The w AlbB strain of Wolbachia is also effective for blocking transmission of other viruses including Zika, chikungunya, and yellow fever. (gla.ac.uk)
  • This genus includes also the West Nile virus, Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus, Yellow Fever Virus, and several other viruses which may cause encephalitis. (denguevirusnet.com)
  • The global incidence of dengue has grown dramatically in recent decades, putting about half of the world's population at risk. (newstrackindia.com)
  • Overall, higher incidence of imported cases appeared to be related to historic dengue high seasons. (who.int)
  • While dengue symptoms can be as mild as a fever and achy muscles, they can also cause persistent vomiting, bleeding, difficulty breathing and even death. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • On the other hand, there's so much to be thankful for - it's not Covid-19, and that i was able to fly back to Manila in time before my Dengue symptoms started showing. (pinoyboyjournals.com)
  • What are the symptoms of dengue? (msdmanuals.com)
  • No specific treatment is available and measures to stop spreading the virus depend on prevention and control. (isaaa.org)
  • In the Americas, primate species likely to harbor Zika - and potentially transmit the virus - are common, abundant, and often live near people. (news-medical.net)
  • Both the main vectors transmit not only dengue virus but also other closely related arboviruses such as chikungunya and Zika viruses. (who.int)
  • Recognition of the genome of a virus initiates a signaling cascade that results in the expression of several hundreds of genes that are capable of blocking various stages of viral replication. (pasteur.fr)
  • In collaboration with Stanford researchers, Contessa's team investigated whether NGI-1 could prevent replication of the viruses in host cells. (yale.edu)
  • However, the mutations that abolished virus replication prevented secretion of prM/E complexes. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Replication of all positive-stranded RNA viruses occurs in close association with virus-induced intracellular membrane structures. (denguevirusnet.com)
  • La Crosse virus: replication in vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. (univmed.org)
  • After the virus enters the bloodstream, hematogenous spread to the bone marrow, kidney (probable), liver (the main target), myocardium, and spleen ensues, and further replication occurs. (medscape.com)
  • Although they [nanoparticles] have been used before, this case is important because the nanoparticles have shown that they can achieve a significant antibody response to dengue for a longer time period," says Prasad Paradkar, a research team leader at the Australian science organisation CSIRO who focuses on mosquito-borne viruses but was not involved with the study. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • This helps us to design the best strategy for transforming mosquito populations, so that dengue can no longer spread. (ist.ac.at)
  • According to the World Health Organization, the Dengue virus threatens millions of people in tropical and sub-tropical climates. (isaaa.org)
  • Diagnostic Options and Challenges for Dengue and Chikungunya Viruses. (jefferson.edu)
  • Classical dengue with rash after appropriate incubation in first and subsequent volunteers and Ae aegypti transmission. (cdc.gov)
  • When chikungunya, another mosquito-borne virus, and Zika appeared in Nicaragua in 2014 and 2016, respectively, the cohort was expanded to capture cases of these emerging pathogens. (sciencedaily.com)
  • In Malaysia alone, over 100,000 dengue cases were reported in 2016, with an annual cost estimated at $175 million. (gla.ac.uk)
  • This virus is in most tropical and subtropical parts of the world. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The purpose of the present study was to find evidence of dengue virus transovarial transmision in local vectors in Jakarta. (univmed.org)
  • Dengue virus detection with an immunohistochemical method demonstrated the occurrence of transovarial transmission in local DHF vectors in Tebet subdistrict. (univmed.org)
  • YF virus, an arbovirus, is the type species for the family Flaviviridae and is a single, positive-stranded, enveloped RNA virus. (medscape.com)
  • The region on the virus targeted by the human immune system is quite different from the region targeted by mice," he stated. (newstrackindia.com)
  • These side chambers had air piped in from nearby containers of mice, which were either uninfected or infected with Zika or dengue. (smithsonianmag.com)
  • Twenty chemical compounds differed between the mice infected with Zika or dengue compared to the uninfected mice. (smithsonianmag.com)
  • Acetophenone was emitted into the air more by mice that were infected with Zika or dengue compared to uninfected mice. (smithsonianmag.com)
  • Injections of nanoparticles immunised mice against the dengue virus for nearly seven months, a US study has shown. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • Background: Dengue continues to be a major international public health concern. (monash.edu)
  • Dengue fever is a major public health concern in many parts of South-East Asia and South America and its prevalence in Africa is thought to be expanding. (news-medical.net)
  • Dengue virus has increased dramatically within the last 20 years, becoming one of the worst mosquito-borne human pathogens that tropical countries have to deal with. (wikipedia.org)
  • A small-molecule inhibitor tested by researchers at Yale and Stanford may be the answer to blocking the spread of harmful mosquito-borne pathogens, including Zika and dengue viruses, according to a new study published in Cell Reports . (yale.edu)
  • The study, published in the journal PLOS Pathogens, examined all available (408) genetic sequences of Indian dengue strains from infected patients collected between the years 1956 and 2018 by others as well as the team themselves. (instadsc.in)
  • New research presented at this year's European Congress of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases in Amsterdam, Netherlands shows that the geographical range of vector-borne diseases such as chikungunya, dengue fever, leishmaniasis, and tick-borne encephalitis is expanding rapidly. (news-medical.net)
  • This observation supports the supposition that YF virus originated in West Africa. (medscape.com)
  • Scientists studying such diseases are now investigating whether viruses could tweak human physiology to their benefit, and if so, how they do it. (smithsonianmag.com)
  • Cheng writes in an email that his team's findings could "inform real-world public health strategies for controlling mosquito-borne flaviviral viral diseases such as dengue and Zika. (smithsonianmag.com)
  • The unprecedented rise of dengue worldwide make control methods such as these a vital addition to the tools we currently have to tackle one of the fastest-spreading mosquito-borne viral diseases. (gla.ac.uk)
  • So here we go, the nerd in me has researched and found that there are many misconceptions to mosquito-borne diseases like Dengue and Zika. (smartparenting.com.ph)
  • Several murine models with Chikungunya virus-related joint and neurological diseases are being investigated. (medscape.com)