Dengue: An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.Severe Dengue: A virulent form of dengue characterized by THROMBOCYTOPENIA and an increase in vascular permeability (grades I and II) and distinguished by a positive pain test (e.g., TOURNIQUET PAIN TEST). When accompanied by SHOCK (grades III and IV), it is called dengue shock syndrome.Dengue Virus: A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.Antibody-Dependent Enhancement: Enhancement of viral infectivity caused by non-neutralizing antibodies. There are at least two mechanisms known to account for this: mediation by Fc receptors (RECEPTORS, FC) or by complement receptors (RECEPTORS, COMPLEMENT). Either the virus is complexed with antiviral IMMUNOGLOBULIN G and binds to Fc receptors, or virus is coated with antiviral IMMUNOGLOBULIN M and binds to complement receptors.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Dengue Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with DENGUE VIRUS. These include live-attenuated, subunit, DNA, and inactivated vaccines.Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.Indonesia: A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.BrazilInsect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Plasma: The residual portion of BLOOD that is left after removal of BLOOD CELLS by CENTRIFUGATION without prior BLOOD COAGULATION.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Insurance Carriers: Organizations which assume the financial responsibility for the risks of policyholders.Insurance Coverage: Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)Group Purchasing: A shared service which combines the purchasing power of individual organizations or facilities in order to obtain lower prices for equipment and supplies. (From Health Care Terms, 2nd ed)Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Arthropod Vectors: Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.Faculty: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Education, Pharmacy, Graduate: Educational programs for pharmacists who have a bachelor's degree or a Doctor of Pharmacy degree entering a specific field of pharmacy. They may lead to an advanced degree.Faculty, Medical: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.Audiovisual Aids: Auditory and visual instructional materials.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.OklahomaFever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Micronesia: The collective name for islands of the Pacific Ocean east of the Philippines, including the Mariana, PALAU, Caroline, Marshall, and Kiribati Islands. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p761 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p350)Flavivirus Infections: Infections with viruses of the genus FLAVIVIRUS, family FLAVIVIRIDAE.Flavivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.Chikungunya virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.Alphavirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by members of the ALPHAVIRUS genus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE.Reunion: One of the Indian Ocean Islands, east of Madagascar. Its capital is Saint-Denis. It was discovered in 1507 by the Portuguese and claimed by France in 1638. It was first colonized in 1662 as Isle de Bourbon but renamed Reunion in 1793. In 1946 it was made an overseas department of France. The name commemorates the reunion of the revolutionaries from Marseilles with the National Guard in Paris in 1792. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1011; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p454; French Embassy)Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)West Nile virus: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.Arbovirus Infections: Infections caused by arthropod-borne viruses, general or unspecified.Arboviruses: Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)West Nile Fever: A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)Myositis: Inflammation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Myositis, Inclusion Body: Progressive myopathies characterized by the presence of inclusion bodies on muscle biopsy. Sporadic and hereditary forms have been described. The sporadic form is an acquired, adult-onset inflammatory vacuolar myopathy affecting proximal and distal muscles. Familial forms usually begin in childhood and lack inflammatory changes. Both forms feature intracytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions in muscle tissue. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1409-10)Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Financing, Organized: All organized methods of funding.Polymyositis: Diseases characterized by inflammation involving multiple muscles. This may occur as an acute or chronic condition associated with medication toxicity (DRUG TOXICITY); CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASES; infections; malignant NEOPLASMS; and other disorders. The term polymyositis is frequently used to refer to a specific clinical entity characterized by subacute or slowly progressing symmetrical weakness primarily affecting the proximal limb and trunk muscles. The illness may occur at any age, but is most frequent in the fourth to sixth decade of life. Weakness of pharyngeal and laryngeal muscles, interstitial lung disease, and inflammation of the myocardium may also occur. Muscle biopsy reveals widespread destruction of segments of muscle fibers and an inflammatory cellular response. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1404-9)
Severe dengue can be fatal, but with good treatment, fewer than 1% of patients die from dengue.[88] Work published in 2012 from ... the severity of the mosquito-transmitted disease could be greater.[89] ... Viral diseases, such as yellow fever, dengue fever, and chikungunya, transmitted mostly by Aedes aegypti. Dengue fever is the ... WHO (2009). Dengue Guidelines for Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control (PDF). Geneva: World Health Organization. ISBN ...
Dengue fever is mostly characterized by high fever, headaches, joint pain, and rash. However, more severe instances can lead to ... As with dengue, changing environmental conditions have led to novel disease characteristics. Due to increased illness severity ... Halstead, Scott B. (June 1990). "Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever". Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases. 3 (3): 434. ISSN ... "Dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever". The Lancet. 352 (9132): 971-977. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(97)12483-7. ISSN 0140-6736. PMID ...
Pandemic Severity Index. 1889-1890 flu pandemic. (Asiatic or Russian Flu)[32]. 1889-1890. 1 million. 0.15%. possibly H3N8. or ... An early-onset, severe form of influenza A H3N2 made headlines when it claimed the lives of several children in the United ... symptoms in 1918 were so unusual that initially influenza was misdiagnosed as dengue, cholera, or typhoid. One observer wrote ... Others have a higher Pandemic Severity Index whose severity warrants more comprehensive social isolation measures.[22] ...
ADE, as a result, can lead to severe dengue disease or dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). Using computer modeling, the company ... the antibodies produced by the immune system can lead to increased severity of the second dengue infection, instead of ... Ongoing fieldwork projects include clinical and biological studies of severe dengue, a pediatric cohort study of dengue ... Currently, there are no approved vaccines for the prevention of dengue, nor are there drugs for treatment of dengue virus ...
It causes a disease of varying severity in humans, from dengue fever (DF), which is usually self-limited, to dengue hemorrhagic ... In such cases, the clinical course of the disease is more severe, and these people have higher viremia compared with those in ... ADE is common in cells cultured in the laboratory, but rarely occurs in vivo except for dengue virus. This virus can use this ... The most widely known example of ADE occurs in the setting of infection with the dengue virus (DENV). DENV is a single-stranded ...
Pandemic Severity Index 1889-1890 flu pandemic. (Asiatic or Russian Flu)[197]. 1889-1890. 1 million. 0.15%. possibly H3N8 or ... though these symptoms are usually not as severe or long-lasting as influenza. The most dangerous adverse effect is a severe ... Symptoms in 1918 were so unusual that initially influenza was misdiagnosed as dengue, cholera, or typhoid. One observer wrote ... Influenza, commonly known as the flu, is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.[1] Symptoms can be mild to severe. ...
... in severe dengue virus infections". J. Med. Virol. 76 (4): 547-52. doi:10.1002/jmv.20397. PMID 15977234. Azzurri A, Sow OY, ... correlating with the severity of the disease. Under these conditions, PTX3 is a rapid marker for primary local activation of ... "Circulating levels of the long pentraxin PTX3 correlate with severity of infection in critically ill patients". Crit. Care Med ...
Others have a higher Pandemic Severity Index whose severity warrants more comprehensive social isolation measures. The 1918 ... An early-onset, severe form of influenza A H3N2 made headlines when it claimed the lives of several children in the United ... Indeed, symptoms in 1918 were so unusual that initially influenza was misdiagnosed as dengue, cholera, or typhoid. One observer ... The unusually severe disease killed between 2 and 20% of those infected, as opposed to the more usual flu epidemic mortality ...
Dysregulation of individual mEMC subunits correlates with the severity of certain types of cancer. Expression of hHSS1, a ... Mutations in the EMC1 gene have been associated with retinal dystrophy and a severe systemic disease phenotype involving ... Dengue Fever Virus (DFV), and Yellow Fever Virus (YFV). In particular, loss of several mEMC subunits (e.g. EMC2, EMC3) lead to ... and a congenital syndrome of severe physical and mental disability. None of these pathologies seem to be related by disruption ...
The severity of thrombocytopenia may be correlated with pathogen type; some research indicates that the most severe cases are ... syndrome Systemic lupus erythematosus Post-transfusion purpura Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia Hypersplenism Dengue fever ... Any patient experiencing severe bleeding symptoms is also usually treated. The threshold for treating ITP has decreased since ... Treatment is guided by the severity and specific cause of the disease. Treatment focuses on eliminating the underlying problem ...
Carey DE (July 1971). "Chikungunya and dengue: a case of mistaken identity?". Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied ... High levels of specific cytokines have been linked to more severe acute disease: interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, RANTES, monocyte ... An analysis of the genetic code of Chikungunya virus suggests that the increased severity of the 2005-present outbreak may be ... The differential diagnosis may include other mosquito-borne diseases, such as dengue or malaria, or other infections such as ...
For forms with middle to high severity, the list includes dengue fever and other hemorrhagic fevers, hepatitis of various ... The rest experience severe disease, which develops during the second stage or occurs as a single progressive illness. The ... In more severe cases cefotaxime or ceftriaxone should be preferred. Glucose and salt solution infusions may be administered; ... Signs and symptoms can range from none to mild such as headaches, muscle pains, and fevers; to severe with bleeding from the ...
Severe cases of diarrhea became common among children, with 18 dying as a result in early June. By mid-July, the outbreak was ... Owing to the severity of agricultural damage, the average cost of avocados, bananas, iceberg lettuce, and papaya increased. On ... In the immediate aftermath of the floods, there were fears that the flooding could worsen an already ongoing dengue fever ... Severe Tropical Cyclone Ita was the strongest tropical cyclone in the Australian region by pressure since George in 2007, and ...
The very young, old, and those with other health problems are at risk of more severe disease. The virus is spread between ... The symptoms can be mistaken for those of dengue fever and Zika fever. After a single infection it is believed most people ... An analysis of the chikungunya virus's genetic code suggests that the increased severity of the 2005-present outbreak may be ... In contrast to dengue fever, Chikungunya fever very rarely causes hemorrhagic complications. Symptoms of bleeding should lead ...
The severity of symptoms and disability is the same regardless of gender, and many experience strongly disabling chronic pain. ... It is unclear, however, whether this is due to those with more severe symptoms being labelled with ME, or if there is an ... Risk factors for developing CFS after mononucleosis, dengue fever or Q-fever include: longer bed-rest during the illness, ... Fatigue is a common symptom in many illnesses, but the unexplained fatigue and severity of functional impairment in CFS is ...
Common causes of ILI include the common cold and influenza, which tends to be less common but more severe than the common cold ... Samples are selected for testing based on severity of ILI, and as part of routine sampling, and at participating surveillance ... Cologna R, Armstrong PM, Rico-Hesse R (January 2005). "Selection for virulent dengue viruses occurs in humans and mosquitoes". ... to severe, sometimes life-threatening, diseases such as meningitis, sepsis, and leukemia. Technically, any clinical diagnosis ...
Severe Tropical Cyclone Hamish was first identified on 4 March 2009 by the Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) as a tropical low over ... Due to the severity of the damage, the Queensland Seafood Industry Association requested that the reef be declared a disaster ... Health officials hoped that rains from Hamish would help to reduce an ongoing dengue fever outbreak; however, little rainfall ... Severe erosion on Bribie Island and further erosion could create a break in the island, creating a passage to the Pumicestone ...
... particularly in large doses and depending on the severity of the disease. Use of aspirin during dengue fever is not recommended ... Reye's syndrome, a rare but severe illness characterized by acute encephalopathy and fatty liver, can occur when children or ... ISBN 0-19-503634-4. "Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever: information for health care practitioners". Archived from the ... Gaudreault P, Temple AR, Lovejoy FH (1982). "The relative severity of acute versus chronic salicylate poisoning in children: a ...
The "Severity of Illness Score for Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis" (SCORTEN) is a scoring system developed to assess the severity ... Before these severe findings develop, people often have a flu-like prodrome, with a cough, runny nose, fever, decreased ... dengue virus. Contrast agents used in imaging studies as well as transplantation of bone marrow or organs have also been linked ... The most common problem with the eyes is severe conjunctivitis. Drug reactions have been reported to cause 80-95% of TEN cases ...
Horstick, Olaf; Tozan, Yesim; Wilder-Smith, Annelies (2015-04-30). "Reviewing Dengue: Still a Neglected Tropical Disease?". ... and treatments of severe acute malnutrition. The Global Health Council suggests a list of 32 treatments and health ... severity, and duration of infections (including measles, pneumonia, and diarrhea). Infection can further contribute to ... They are variously caused by bacteria (Trachoma, Leprosy), viruses (Dengue, Rabies), protozoa (Human African trypanosomiasis, ...
In June 2008 it became known that an expert panel had warned of long-term, maybe irreversible, severe ecological damage for the ... Risk of dengue fever among Australians increases from 170,000 people to 0.75-1.6 million. ... which may impact the severity of summer bushfires.[100] ... severe' drought has occurred in Australia, on average, once ... Global warming could lead to substantial alterations in climate extremes, such as tropical cyclones, heat waves and severe ...
Severity[edit]. Recently, plague outbreaks have become increasingly more severe. The most recent outbreak in August 2017 is the ... Singaporean dengue (2005). *Indian dengue (2006). *Chikungunya outbreaks (2006). *Pakistani dengue (2006) ... However, severe economic limitations make the execution of this program less than ideal. Furthermore, disparities in rural ... Furthermore, outbreaks of plague have become increasingly more severe due to bubonic plague going untreated and developing into ...
"Dengue and Severe Dengue, Fact Sheet". Media Centre. World Health Organization. 2012. Simmon, Cameron; Farrar, Jeremy J.; Chau ... This has led to an increase in the number and severity of extreme weather events. This trend towards more variability and ... Dengue fever used to be considered a tropical disease, but climate change is causing dengue fever to spread. Dengue fever is ... Dengue fever is an infectious disease caused by dengue viruses known to be in the tropical regions. It is transmitted by the ...
Lau YL, Peiris JS (2005). "Pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome". Curr. Opin. Immunol. 17 (4): 404-10. doi:10.1016 ... a mechanism for the unusual severity of human disease?". Lancet. 360 (9348): 1831-7. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(02)11772-7. PMID ... that antibodies may play in facilitating rather than blocking the entry of viruses such as the West Nile virus and the dengue ... 2003). "Coronavirus as a possible cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome". Lancet. 361 (9366): 1319-25. doi:10.1016/S0140- ...
"Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever: Information for Health Care Practitioners". Archived from the original on 17 March 2008. ... Migraine frequency and severity has been shown to be reduced if the hole (PFO) is patched surgically. It has been suggested ... They are the initially recommended treatments for those with moderate to severe pain or those with milder symptoms who do not ... These effects are dose-dependent, and in many cases severe enough to pose the risk of ulcer perforation, upper gastrointestinal ...
... is a mosquito-borne tropical disease caused by the dengue virus. Symptoms typically begin three to fourteen days after infection. This may include a high fever, headache, vomiting, muscle and joint pains, and a characteristic skin rash. Recovery generally takes two to seven days. In a small proportion of cases, the disease develops into the life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever, resulting in bleeding, low levels of blood platelets and blood plasma leakage, or into dengue shock syndrome, where dangerously low blood pressure occurs. Dengue is spread by several species of mosquito of the Aedes type, principally A. aegypti. The virus has five different types; infection with one type usually gives lifelong immunity to that type, but only short-term immunity to the others. Subsequent infection with a different type increases the risk of severe ...
Dengue fever is probably a very old disease. An ancient Chinese medical encyclopedia from the Jin Dynasty (which existed from 265 to 420 AD) talked about a person who probably had dengue. The book talked about a "water poison" that had to do with flying insects.[31][32] Written records from the 17th century talk about what may have been epidemics of dengue (where the disease spread very quickly in a short time). The most likely early reports of dengue epidemics are from 1779 and 1780. These reports talk about an epidemic that spread across Asia, Africa, and North America.[32] From that time until 1940, there were not many more epidemics.[32] In 1906, scientists proved that people were getting infections from Aedes mosquitoes. In 1907, scientists showed that a virus causes dengue. This was just the second disease that was shown to be caused ...
Dengue is common in more than 120 countries.[15] In 2013 it causes about 60 million symptomatic infections worldwide, with 18% admitted to hospital and about 13,600 deaths.[74] The worldwide cost of dengue case is estimated US$9 billion.[74] For the decade of the 2000s, 12 countries in Southeast Asia were estimated to have about 3 million infections and 6,000 deaths annually.[75] In 2019 the Philippines declared a national dengue epidemic due to the deaths reaching 622 people that year.[76] It is reported in at least 22 countries in Africa; but is likely present in all of them with 20% of the population at risk.[77] This makes it one of the most common vector-borne diseases worldwide.[53]. Infections are most commonly acquired in the urban environment.[25] In recent decades, the expansion of villages, towns and cities in the areas in which it is common, and the increased mobility of people has increased the ...
... (ADE) occurs when non-neutralising antiviral proteins facilitate virus entry into host cells, leading to increased infectivity in the cells. Some cells do not have the usual receptors on their surfaces that viruses use to gain entry. The antiviral proteins (i.e., the antibodies) bind to antibody Fc receptors that some of these cells have in the plasma membrane. The viruses bind to the antigen binding site at the other end of the antibody. ADE is common in cells cultured in the laboratory, but rarely occurs in vivo except for dengue virus. This virus can use this mechanism to infect human macrophages, causing a normally mild viral infection to become life-threatening. The most widely known example of ADE occurs in the setting of infection with the dengue virus (DENV). DENV is a single-stranded positive-polarity RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family. It causes a disease of varying severity in humans, from ...
... is director of the Wellcome Trust-funded Oxford University Clinical Research Unit. Over the past ten years he has created a remarkable research institute in which his own research productivity has been phenomenal and an impressive training program has been developed. Under his direction the research programme has conducted seminal work on malaria, dengue, typhoid, tetanus, pyogenic and tuberculous meningitis and has become the leading centre for clinical research on avian influenza. These Pivotal clinical and virological studies have identified the dual importance of viral burden and the cytokine response to the lethal pathogenesis of avian influenza, and have described the rapid emergence of resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors. The unit has also conducted important research into Dengue shock syndrome, conducting the only large prospective randomised trials of fluid replacement and has provided an evidence-base for revision of the ...
Umesh Chandra Chaturvedi (born 1939) is an Indian virologist, immunologist, medical microbiologist, CSIR Emeritus Scientist and a former chairman of the Bharat Immunologicals and Biologicals Corporation. The founder head of the department of microbiology at King George's Medical University, he is known for his studies on Dengue virus infection. Chaturvedi is an elected fellow of all the three major Indian science academies viz. Indian Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Sciences, India and the Indian National Science Academy as well as the Royal College of Pathologists and National Academy of Medical Sciences. The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, the apex agency of the Government of India for scientific research, awarded him the Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize for Science and Technology, one of the highest Indian science awards for his contributions to Medical Sciences in 1981. U. C. Chaturvedi, born on 2 March 1939 at the Unnao, an industrial city in the ...
La Reina (also known as the Creole cattle) is a Nicaraguan local breed originating from the Bos taurus varieties brought to America during the Spanish colonization in the 15th century. In the 1950s Joaquin Reyna and her uncle Juan Diego Sol, both being Nicaraguan breeders, formed a herd with approximately 200 females with typical characteristics of Creole cattle from which the Reyna breed was created, their name originating from Juan Diego Sol himself. Selection of animals was focused on red coat colour (sorrel) and milk production. The Nicaraguan government started an official inventory in the 1970s and in 1988 the Reyna cattle were declared as national patrimony, and in conjunction with the National Agrarian University of Nicaragua (Universidad Nacional Agraria) (UNA) agreed to a genetic improvement program of the cattle. The purebred Reyna Creole cattle population in Nicaragua consists of about 650 purebred females, including calves, heifers and cows distributed in five herds. Considering ...
A vector in biology is an animal on or in which a small living thing gets transported. The vector gets no benefit and sometimes loses fitness by the arrangement. The term is most used for the transport of parasites and agents of disease. So, deadly diseases, such as malaria and dengue fever, are carried by some mosquitoes. The study of vectors gives us knowledge about the life cycle of parasitic diseases, and this helps us control those diseases. ...
The maternal mortality rate is 224 deaths per 100,000 births, which is the 23rd highest in the world. The mean age of mothers at birth is 19.3 years old, and the fertility rate is 5.72 children born per woman, which is the 7th highest in the world. The contraceptive rate is only 40.8%, and the birth rate is the 4th highest in the world at 42.13 births/1,000 population. Infectious disease is a key contributor to the poor health of the nation, and the risk is very high for diseases such as protozoal and bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, typhoid fever, malaria, dengue fever, schistosomiasis, and rabies. The adult prevalence rate of HIV/AIDS is 12.37%, which is the 7th highest in the world. Due to the poor health outcomes for mothers, and the challenges to access of care there is a significant impact on the culture of birth. Diversity in language and ethnicity plays a role in the diversity of care throughout Zambia.[citation needed] Establishing safety for the mother and baby ...
Po penetrácii koža samička vstrekne do krvi svoje sliny, ktoré obsahujú zmes molekúl, ktoré obmedzujú zrážanie krvi a potlačia bolesť po vpichnutí. Zároveň vnikne zápal, ktoré pomáha šíreniu vírusov.[6][13] Práve touto cestou sa do tela zvieraťa či človeka dostanú choroboplodné zárodky. Najvýznamnejšou prenášanou chorobu je malária, ktorú spôsobujú zimničky - parazitické prvoky rodu Plasmodium. Na ľudí ju prenášajú výlučne komáre rodu Anopheles, celkom asi 30 - 40 druhov z 200 tohto rodu, najmä potom anofeles škvrnitokrídly (Anopheles maculipennis)[6]. Komár Aedes aegypti je hlavným prenášačom arbovírusu žltej zimnice, vírusu Zika, horúčky dengue.[14] a ďalších horúčkovitých ochorení. Niektoré druhy komárov vyskytujúce sa aj v Európe môžu pasívne prenášať lymskú boreliózu[6]. Pasívny prenos znamená, že pôvodca choroby sa v tele komára nemnoží, len bol prenesený s čerstvou krvou, ktorú má komár usadenú na ...
The public debt of Puerto Rico has grown at a faster pace than the growth of its economy, reaching $46.7 billion in 2008.[88] In January 2009, Governor Luis Fortuño enacted several measures aimed at eliminating the government's $3.3 billion deficit.[89] Since 2000, the government of Puerto Rico has experienced 19 consecutive negative cash flows which has contributed to the enlargement of its public debt, as the government incurs in new debt in order to pay the older one. On February 4, 2014 Standard & Poor's downgraded the debt of Puerto Rico to junk status. Puerto Rico has roughly $70 billon outstanding debt for a population of four million inhabitants. Despite its small population it is the third issuer of municipal bonds in all 50 states and territories. First being California, second New York.[90] In early 2017, the Puerto Rican government-debt crisis posed serious problems for the government which was saddled with outstanding debt of $70 billion or $12,000 per capita[20] at a time with a ...
The 27th House of Representatives of Puerto Rico was the lower house of the 15th Legislative Assembly of Puerto Rico and met from January 14, 2005, to January 8, 2009. All members were elected in the General Elections of 2004.[1] The House had a majority of members from the New Progressive Party (PNP).. The body was counterparted by the 23rd Senate of Puerto Rico in the upper house.. ...
As part of their commitment to the community in May 2016, Puerto Rico FC had their first three clinics of the season in Dorado, Farjardo and Hatillo with the participation of over a hundred boys and girls. During these clinics the Puerto Rico FC players turned into coaches, teaching the children about ball control, proper goalkeeping and teamwork. After the different workshops the children faced off against the players in a friendly match. The field of Quintas de Dorado was the site of the first clinic with youth clubs Eleven FC and Toa Baja SC. Next, Puerto Rico FC visited the Tomás Donés Sports Complex and the boys and girls of Cariduros FC. To round up the first leg of clinics the players took a trip to the city of Hatillo where they trained with Hatillo SC and Leal Arecibo in the Francisco Deida Sports Complex.[1] ...
Daily Dengue Severity Score to Assess Severe Manifestations. Tangnararatchakit, Kanchana; Chuansumrit, Ampaiwan; ...
The most important factors associated with severe dengue were rash (P , 0.01), severe thrombocytopenia (P , 0.01), and anemia ( ... This study validates the current WHO warning signs of severity. Rash and severe thrombocytopenia may be early warning signs and ... The applicability of World Health Organization (WHO) warning signs for predicting severe dengue and mortality was also studied ... and 207 subjects were classified as severe dengue. Common findings included thrombocytopenia (96%), abdominal pain (71%), and ...
Persons residing in or traveling to areas with risk for dengue should use insect repellent, wear long sleeves and pants, and ... Persons residing in or traveling to areas with risk for dengue should use insect repellent, wear long sleeves and pants, and ... effective interventions are still needed to control dengue, as is continued emphasis on clinical management to reduce mortality ... effective interventions are still needed to control dengue, as is continued emphasis on clinical management to reduce mortality ...
... severity ranges from influenza-like symptoms to severe hepatitis and hemorrhagic fever; occurs only in tropical South America ... Dengue fever - mosquito-borne (Aedes aegypti) viral disease associated with urban environments; manifests as sudden onset of ... The degree of risk is assessed by considering the foreign nature of these infectious diseases, their severity, and the ... Chikungunya - mosquito-borne (Aedes aegypti) viral disease associated with urban environments, similar to Dengue Fever; ...
Several factors contribute and act synergistically to cause severe infection. One of these is dysregulated host immunological ... by assessing their dynamics through acute dengue infection in adults admitted to the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Bangkok, ... and anti-inflammatory cytokines and how they relate to clinical dengue manifestations, ... Dengue is the most common mosquito-borne flaviviral infection in the world today. ...
Set of genes predicts severity of dengue 01/28/2019 Tropical diseases ... Research finds new therapy options for children with severe juvenile idiopathic arthritis. ... in patients with severe and persistent SJIA. After one year of treatment, one third of the patients reached clinically inactive ...
In some patients, endothelial cell and platelet dysfunction lead to life-threatening hemorrhagic dengue... ... Background Dengue is the most widespread mosquito-borne viral disease of public health concern. ... Prognostication of disease severity is urgently required to improve patient management. The pathogenesis of severe dengue has ... not severe). DHF grade III/IV (DSS, Dengue Shock Syndrome) were considered as severe dengues. Each medical records compiled ...
However, although there is a correlation between virus/antigen load and severity, the severe sequaelae of dengue infection ... dengue 2: CprM-26, E-97, NS1-71, NS2-70, NS3-123, NS4-70, NS5-95, dengue 1 NS3-124, dengue 3 NS3-124, and dengue 4 NS3-124). ... 1997) in Dengue and Dengue Haemorrahgic Fever, Laboratory diagnosis of dengue virus infections, eds Gubler DJ, Kuno G (Cabi ... A variety of viral and host factors have been associated with the severity of dengue infections. Because secondary dengue ...
Should you buy a dengue health insurance plan? ... Considering the rising dengue cases, the affordability and ... Considering the rising dengue cases, the affordability and availability of such a plan makes it worth buying, says Harjot Singh ... The symptoms include high fever, severe headache, fatigue, nausea, joint aches, skin rash, etc. There is no specific drug for ... In the cases of high severity, the patient may also require an ICU admission. ...
... had dengue haemorrhagic fever (‎DHF)‎; one of them developed severe dengue ... ... Genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of DENV-3 isolated from patients with different disease severities in Indonesia.  ... The dengue virus causing dengue fever (‎DF)‎ and dengue haemorrhagic fever (‎DHF)‎ is transmitted by the female mosquitoes - ... Use of geographical information system (‎GIS)‎ and global positioning system (‎GPS)‎ for dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever ...
... known as dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), or the less severe form, dengue fever (DF), in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. An ... HLA-B*44 Is Associated with Dengue Severity Caused by DENV-3 in a Brazilian Population. Liciana Xavier Eurico de Alencar,1 ... Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles have been correlated with susceptibility or resistance to severe dengue; however, few ... I and II alleles in a cohort of 187 patients with DENV-3 infection and confirmed clinical diagnosis of either severe dengue, ...
West Bengals disease profile map shows dengues intensity in north and south Bengal ... severity of dengue returns in periodic order. "In 1995, 2005 and 2015, we have seen severe att--acks of dengue. Now, the civic ... However, Chakraborty observes that severity of dengue this year is less compared to the horrific strain in 2015. According to ... For inst-ance, while the symptoms corres-ponded to the dengue virus, blood tests did not confirm it as dengue positive. Chak-ra ...
Antibody-enhanced infection of monocytes as the pathogenetic mechanism for severe dengue illness. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 6 ... Classical dengue hemorrhagic fever resulting from two dengue infections spaced 20 years or more apart: Havana, Dengue 3 ... Dengue viremia titer, antibody response pattern, and virus serotype correlate with disease severity. J. Infect. Dis. 181, 2-9 ( ... 2 Activating Fc phenotype in dengue infection correlates with disease severity.. (A) Increased afucFc on anti-ENV or anti-HA ...
Infection with any of the DENV serotypes may be asymptomatic or may lead to classic dengue fever or more severe dengue ... Differences in DENV serotype or even strain might be a factor in ADE and dengue severity (22, 23). ... dengue virus;. ADE,. antibody-dependent enhancement;. E,. envelope protein;. DHF,. dengue hemorrhagic fever;. DSS,. dengue ... heterotypic DENV infections or in infants with maternally transferred dengue immunity (3, 4). Severe dengue is a major cause of ...
Yellow fever - mosquito-borne viral disease; severity ranges from influenza-like symptoms to severe hepatitis and hemorrhagic ... Dengue fever - mosquito-borne (Aedes aegypti) viral disease associated with urban environments; manifests as sudden onset of ... The degree of risk is assessed by considering the foreign nature of these infectious diseases, their severity, and the ... Chikungunya - mosquito-borne (Aedes aegypti) viral disease associated with urban environments, similar to Dengue Fever; ...
... to the severe clinical and potentially fatal dengue hemorrhagic fever and shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). Recently, a study has ... It has a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from an undifferentiated fever in a mild clinical form (dengue fever ... suggested that excessive inflammation and apoptosis contribute to the pathogenesis of severe dengue disease. Soluble FasL is a ... It can be concluded that the soluble Fas ligand is related to the pathogenesis of dengue infection. ...
In human dengue virus infections, some patients present renal symptoms. The results indicate that marmosets recapitulate some ... a decrease in activity and hematuria upon inoculation with dengue virus (DENV). Presence of DENV genome in urine samples and ... Severity of renal dysfunction was also associated with higher percentages of severe dengue and mortality in humans. Although ... Dengue fever is a serious global health problem. In dengue fever patients, urine samples contain dengue virus (DENV) genomes ...
... filariasis or dengue virus infection. Here, we provide background information and present our hypothesis that IgG4 may not only ... filariasis or dengue virus infection. Here, we provide background information and present our hypothesis that IgG4 may not only ... dengue with warning signs and severe dengue also known as dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) (120 ... Association of human immune response to Aedes aegypti salivary proteins with dengue disease severity. Parasite Immunol (2012) ...
"A novel predictor of severe dengue: The aspartate aminotransferase/platelet count ratio index (APRI), Journal of Medical ... mediators and Monocytes with disease severity ... lp/wiley/a-novel-predictor-of-severe-dengue-the-aspartate- ... Predictive symptoms and signs of severe dengue disease for patients with dengue fever: a meta‐analysis ... to severe dengue diseases (SDD), which occurs in approximately 5% of cases, and includes both dengue shock syndrome (DSS) and ...
In this review, we discuss the potential strengths and limitations of existing mouse models of dengue disease. Human studies ... In this review, we discuss the potential strengths and limitations of existing mouse models of dengue disease. Human studies ... because dengue virus clinical isolates do not readily replicate or cause pathology in immunocompetent mice. However, research ... The development of a compelling murine model of dengue virus (DENV) infection has been challenging, because DENV clinical ...
... may reduce the duration and severity of illness (8). For cases of severe dengue, packed red blood cells should be given in ... bacteria, and dengue, caused by dengue viruses (DENVs), are potentially fatal acute febrile illnesses (AFI) endemic to the ... Dengue/dengue haemorrhagic fever: history and current status. Novartis Found Symp. 2006;277:3-16; discussion 16−22, 71-3, 251-3 ... Bruce MG, Sanders EJ, Leake JA, Zaidel O, Bragg SL, Aye T, Leptospirosis among patients presenting with dengue-like illness in ...
Association between sex, nutritional status, severity of dengue hemorrhagic fever, and immune status in infants with dengue ... There were 20 confirmed severe dengue patients and 188 dengue fever patients determined based on their anti-dengue IgM, dengue ... would develop severe dengue which manifests with severe intravascular leakages, severe organ impairments and severe heamorrhage ... A) Correlation of serum ferritin to sCD163 in severe dengue patients, P=0.008. (B) ROC curve for sCD163 in severe dengue group ...
  • The fatality rate ranged from zero to 0.3% for all forms of dengue and from 0.2% to 18.2% for severe forms. (scielo.br)
  • Both forms of dengue (DF and DHF) have dramatically increased throughout the tropics in the last twenty years. (bishopmuseum.org)
  • The public health response to this outbreak included disposal of solid waste to remove mosquito breeding sites, indoor residual spraying of pesticides in schools, reinforcement of dengue patient management education, and public education on mosquito avoidance and seeking medical care for symptoms of dengue. (cdc.gov)
  • Dengue is the most common mosquito-borne flaviviral infection in the world today. (ajtmh.org)
  • The most effective prevention is the avoidance of mosquito bites when traveling through areas where dengue occurs, such as tropical areas or along the US-Mexico border. (ok.gov)
  • Over the last decade, dengue has emerged as the biggest killer among the mosquito-borne diseases, despite better management and early treatment," said Dr Sujatha Sunil, group leader, Vector Borne Diseases Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB). (hindustantimes.com)
  • Although dengue specifically affects mosquito prone areas, these areas still include over 100 countries worldwide and 300 million people. (borgenproject.org)
  • If the mosquito happens to bite a person who has been infected with the dengue virus, then the virus enters the bloodstream of the mosquito and settles in the salivary glands. (diethealthclub.com)
  • The Dengue Mosquito is highly domestic and breeds in mainly artificial containers of water, especially dark-coloured containers with wide openings in shaded areas. (bishopmuseum.org)
  • Dengue is introduced into the host during the blood meal taken by an infected mosquito. (scirp.org)
  • Ongoing fieldwork projects include clinical and biological studies of severe dengue, a pediatric cohort study of dengue transmission in Managua, and a project on evidence-based, community-derived interventions for prevention of dengue via control of its mosquito vector. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathogenesis of severe dengue diseases (DHF/DSS) has been suggested to be caused by the amplified production of cytokines that ultimately targets the vascular endothelium and leads to an increase in vascular permeability [ 4 , 6 , 7 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Importantly, in 2 independent human dengue cohorts, tryptase levels correlated with the grade of DHF severity. (jci.org)
  • Two hundred and eight confirmed dengue patients were recruited for the study. (medsci.org)
  • Data from 299 healthy subjects (124 males and 175 females) and 205 serologically confirmed Dengue patients (123 males and 82 females) were analyzed in this study. (mdpi.com)
  • During November 2016-October 2018, 1,081 laboratory-confirmed dengue cases were identified, with only dengue virus type 2 detected. (cdc.gov)
  • We conducted a retrospective study of 403 laboratory-confirmed dengue cases hospitalized in Tahiti between August 1989 and March 1997. (nih.gov)
  • They also found that mice deficient in mast cells did not show dengue-induced vascular leakage, and that wild-type animals treated with drugs that block the actions of proteins produced by these cells, showed less vascular leakage than controls. (elifesciences.org)
  • 2018. Development of standard clinical endpoints for use in dengue interventional trials. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 2018. The Estimates of the Health and Economic Burden of Dengue in Vietnam. (ox.ac.uk)
  • However, 3-5-month lagged relative humidity was the strongest explanatory variable for the incidence of dengue. (who.int)
  • Shaffer L. Role of climatic factors in the incidence of dengue in Port Sudan City, Sudan. (who.int)
  • We describe the epidemiology of dengue in NQ from 1995 to 2011, to identify areas to target interventions. (biomedcentral.com)