Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials
Nerve Tissue Proteins
Green Fluorescent Proteins
Sensory Receptor Cells
Retinal Bipolar Cells
CA1 Region, Hippocampal
S100 Calcium Binding Protein G
Retinal Ganglion Cells
Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor
Animals, Genetically Modified
Organ Culture Techniques
SOXB2 Transcription Factors
Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists
Mice, Inbred C57BL
Identification of the Kv2.1 K+ channel as a major component of the delayed rectifier K+ current in rat hippocampal neurons. (1/4513)Molecular cloning studies have revealed the existence of a large family of voltage-gated K+ channel genes expressed in mammalian brain. This molecular diversity underlies the vast repertoire of neuronal K+ channels that regulate action potential conduction and neurotransmitter release and that are essential to the control of neuronal excitability. However, the specific contribution of individual K+ channel gene products to these neuronal K+ currents is poorly understood. We have shown previously, using an antibody, "KC, " specific for the Kv2.1 K+ channel alpha-subunit, the high-level expression of Kv2.1 protein in hippocampal neurons in situ and in culture. Here we show that KC is a potent blocker of K+ currents expressed in cells transfected with the Kv2.1 cDNA, but not of currents expressed in cells transfected with other highly related K+ channel alpha-subunit cDNAs. KC also blocks the majority of the slowly inactivating outward current in cultured hippocampal neurons, although antibodies to two other K+ channel alpha-subunits known to be expressed in these cells did not exhibit blocking effects. In all cases the blocking effects of KC were eliminated by previous incubation with a recombinant fusion protein containing the KC antigenic sequence. Together these studies show that Kv2.1, which is expressed at high levels in most mammalian central neurons, is a major contributor to the delayed rectifier K+ current in hippocampal neurons and that the KC antibody is a powerful tool for the elucidation of the role of the Kv2.1 K+ channel in regulating neuronal excitability. (+info)
Cellular sites for dynorphin activation of kappa-opioid receptors in the rat nucleus accumbens shell. (2/4513)The nucleus accumbens (Acb) is prominently involved in the aversive behavioral aspects of kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) agonists, including its endogenous ligand dynorphin (Dyn). We examined the ultrastructural immunoperoxidase localization of KOR and immunogold labeling of Dyn to determine the major cellular sites for KOR activation in this region. Of 851 KOR-labeled structures sampled from a total area of 10,457 microm2, 63% were small axons and morphologically heterogenous axon terminals, 31% of which apposed Dyn-labeled terminals or also contained Dyn. Sixty-eight percent of the KOR-containing axon terminals formed punctate-symmetric or appositional contacts with unlabeled dendrites and spines, many of which received convergent input from terminals that formed asymmetric synapses. Excitatory-type terminals that formed asymmetric synapses with dendritic spines comprised 21% of the KOR-immunoreactive profiles. Dendritic spines within the neuropil were the major nonaxonal structures that contained KOR immunoreactivity. These spines also received excitatory-type synapses from unlabeled terminals and were apposed by Dyn-containing terminals. These results provide ultrastructural evidence that in the Acb shell (AcbSh), KOR agonists play a primary role in regulating the presynaptic release of Dyn and other neuromodulators that influence the output of spiny neurons via changes in the presynaptic release of or the postsynaptic responses to excitatory amino acids. The cellular distribution of KOR complements those described previously for the reward-associated mu- and delta-opioid receptors in the Acb shell. (+info)
Langerhans cells in the human oesophagus. (3/4513)The dendrite cells of Langerhans, first identified in the epidermis, have now been observed in the middle and superficial layers of the normal human oesophageal mucosa. They exhibit typical Langerhans granules, but no desmosomes and tonofilaments. They often have irregular indented nuclei, with a relatively pale cytoplasm contrasting with that of the adjacent squamous cells. These cells are sometimes difficult to distinguish from intra-epithelial lymphocytes, which are also encountered in the oesophageal mucosa and which share certain ultrastructural characteristics with Langerhans cells. (+info)
Single synaptic events evoke NMDA receptor-mediated release of calcium from internal stores in hippocampal dendritic spines. (4/4513)We have used confocal microscopy to monitor synaptically evoked Ca2+ transients in the dendritic spines of hippocampal pyramidal cells. Individual spines respond to single afferent stimuli (<0.1 Hz) with Ca2+ transients or failures, reflecting the probability of transmitter release at the activated synapse. Both AMPA and NMDA glutamate receptor antagonists block the synaptically evoked Ca2+ transients; the block by AMPA antagonists is relieved by low Mg2+. The Ca2+ transients are mainly due to the release of calcium from internal stores, since they are abolished by antagonists of calcium-induced calcium release (CICR); CICR antagonists, however, do not depress spine Ca2+ transients generated by backpropagating action potentials. These results have implications for synaptic plasticity, since they show that synaptic stimulation can activate NMDA receptors, evoking substantial Ca2+ release from the internal stores in spines without inducing long-term potentiation (LTP) or depression (LTD). (+info)
Voltage-dependent properties of dendrites that eliminate location-dependent variability of synaptic input. (5/4513)We examined the hypothesis that voltage-dependent properties of dendrites allow for the accurate transfer of synaptic information to the soma independent of synapse location. This hypothesis is motivated by experimental evidence that dendrites contain a complex array of voltage-gated channels. How these channels affect synaptic integration is unknown. One hypothesized role for dendritic voltage-gated channels is to counteract passive cable properties, rendering all synapses electrotonically equidistant from the soma. With dendrites modeled as passive cables, the effect a synapse exerts at the soma depends on dendritic location (referred to as location-dependent variability of the synaptic input). In this theoretical study we used a simplified three-compartment model of a neuron to determine the dendritic voltage-dependent properties required for accurate transfer of synaptic information to the soma independent of synapse location. A dendrite that eliminates location-dependent variability requires three components: 1) a steady-state, voltage-dependent inward current that together with the passive leak current provides a net outward current and a zero slope conductance at depolarized potentials, 2) a fast, transient, inward current that compensates for dendritic membrane capacitance, and 3) both alpha amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid- and N-methyl-D-aspartate-like synaptic conductances that together permit synapses to behave as ideal current sources. These components are consistent with the known properties of dendrites. In addition, these results indicate that a dendrite designed to eliminate location-dependent variability also actively back-propagates somatic action potentials. (+info)
In vivo intracellular analysis of granule cell axon reorganization in epileptic rats. (6/4513)In vivo intracellular recording and labeling in kainate-induced epileptic rats was used to address questions about granule cell axon reorganization in temporal lobe epilepsy. Individually labeled granule cells were reconstructed three dimensionally and in their entirety. Compared with controls, granule cells in epileptic rats had longer average axon length per cell; the difference was significant in all strata of the dentate gyrus including the hilus. In epileptic rats, at least one-third of the granule cells extended an aberrant axon collateral into the molecular layer. Axon projections into the molecular layer had an average summed length of 1 mm per cell and spanned 600 microm of the septotemporal axis of the hippocampus-a distance within the normal span of granule cell axon collaterals. These findings in vivo confirm results from previous in vitro studies. Surprisingly, 12% of the granule cells in epileptic rats, and none in controls, extended a basal dendrite into the hilus, providing another route for recurrent excitation. Consistent with recurrent excitation, many granule cells (56%) in epileptic rats displayed a long-latency depolarization superimposed on a normal inhibitory postsynaptic potential. These findings demonstrate changes, occurring at the single-cell level after an epileptogenic hippocampal injury, that could result in novel, local, recurrent circuits. (+info)
The fine structural organization of the cuneate nucleus in the monkey (Macaca fascicularis). (7/4513)The fine structure of the cuneate nucleus of the monkey (Macaca fascicularis) has been studied. The neurons were classified into three groups according to their nuclear morphology, the arrangement of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and the appearance of the Golgi complexes. Group I neurons had a regular nucleus and contained abundant cytoplasm in which were found well-developed RER and Golgi complexes. Group II neurons had a slightly irregular nucleus and a variable arrangement of the RER and Golgi complexes. Group III neurons were characterized by a deeply indented nucleus, and scanty cytoplasm in which the cytoplasmic organelles were poorly developed. Group II neurons were the most commonly encountered while Group I neurons were the rarest. Axon terminals contained either round of flattened vesicles. Axon terminals and dendrites commonly formed synaptic complexes. In one type the axon terminal, containing round vesicles, formed the central element, which is presynaptic to the dendrites surrounding it; in addition it is postsynaptic to axon terminals containing flattened vesicles. In another type a large dendrite formed the central element which is postsynaptic to axon terminals containing round or flattened vesicles. (+info)
Blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation suppresses learning-induced synaptic elimination. (8/4513)Auditory filial imprinting in the domestic chicken is accompanied by a dramatic loss of spine synapses in two higher associative forebrain areas, the mediorostral neostriatum/hyperstriatum ventrale (MNH) and the dorsocaudal neostriatum (Ndc). The cellular mechanisms that underlie this learning-induced synaptic reorganization are unclear. We found that local pharmacological blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the MNH, a manipulation that has been shown previously to impair auditory imprinting, suppresses the learning-induced spine reduction in this region. Chicks treated with the NMDA receptor antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV) during the behavioral training for imprinting (postnatal day 0-2) displayed similar spine frequencies at postnatal day 7 as naive control animals, which, in both groups, were significantly higher than in imprinted animals. Because the average dendritic length did not differ between the experimental groups, the reduced spine frequency can be interpreted as a reduction of the total number of spine synapses per neuron. In the Ndc, which is reciprocally connected with the MNH and not directly influenced by the injected drug, learning-induced spine elimination was partly suppressed. Spine frequencies of the APV-treated, behaviorally trained but nonimprinted animals were higher than in the imprinted animals but lower than in the naive animals. These results provide evidence that NMDA receptor activation is required for the learning-induced selective reduction of spine synapses, which may serve as a mechanism of information storage specific for juvenile emotional learning events. (+info)
In the medical field, dendrites are the branched extensions of neurons that receive signals from other neurons or sensory receptors. They are responsible for transmitting signals from the dendrites to the cell body of the neuron, where they are integrated and processed before being transmitted to other neurons or to muscles or glands. Dendrites are essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system and are involved in a wide range of neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy.
In the medical field, an axon is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell (neuron) that conducts electrical impulses away from the cell body towards other neurons, muscles, or glands. The axon is covered by a myelin sheath, which is a fatty substance that insulates the axon and helps to speed up the transmission of electrical signals. Axons are responsible for transmitting information throughout the nervous system, allowing the brain and spinal cord to communicate with other parts of the body. They are essential for many bodily functions, including movement, sensation, and cognition. Damage to axons can result in a variety of neurological disorders, such as multiple sclerosis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and peripheral neuropathy. Treatments for these conditions often focus on preserving and regenerating axons to restore normal function.
Dendritic spines are small protrusions on the dendrites of neurons, which are the branching extensions of the cell body that receive signals from other neurons. These spines are important for the formation and function of synapses, which are the junctions between neurons where information is transmitted. In the medical field, dendritic spines are of particular interest because they are thought to play a role in the development and progression of neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and depression. Changes in the structure and number of dendritic spines have been observed in the brains of individuals with these conditions, and research is ongoing to better understand the relationship between dendritic spine abnormalities and these disorders. In addition to their role in neurological disorders, dendritic spines are also important for normal brain function and development. They are thought to be involved in learning, memory, and other cognitive processes, and changes in dendritic spine structure and function have been linked to cognitive impairments in both healthy individuals and those with neurological disorders.
Action potentials are electrical signals that are generated by neurons in the nervous system. They are responsible for transmitting information throughout the body and are the basis of all neural communication. When a neuron is at rest, it has a negative electrical charge inside the cell and a positive charge outside the cell. When a stimulus is received by the neuron, it causes the membrane around the cell to become more permeable to sodium ions. This allows sodium ions to flow into the cell, causing the membrane potential to become more positive. This change in membrane potential is called depolarization. Once the membrane potential reaches a certain threshold, an action potential is generated. This is a rapid and brief change in the membrane potential that travels down the length of the neuron. The action potential is characterized by a rapid rise in membrane potential, followed by a rapid fall, and then a return to the resting membrane potential. Action potentials are essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system. They allow neurons to communicate with each other and transmit information throughout the body. They are also involved in a variety of important physiological processes, including muscle contraction, hormone release, and sensory perception.
Guanine deaminase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in purine metabolism. It catalyzes the conversion of guanine, one of the four nitrogenous bases in DNA and RNA, to xanthine, which is then further metabolized to uric acid. In the medical field, guanine deaminase deficiency is a rare genetic disorder that affects the metabolism of purines. People with this condition have a reduced ability to produce guanine deaminase, leading to an accumulation of guanine and xanthine in the body. This can cause a range of symptoms, including developmental delays, seizures, and kidney problems. Guanine deaminase deficiency is typically diagnosed through blood tests that measure the levels of guanine and xanthine in the body. Treatment for this condition typically involves medications that help to lower the levels of these substances in the body, as well as supportive care to manage the symptoms.
Nerve tissue proteins are proteins that are found in nerve cells, also known as neurons. These proteins play important roles in the structure and function of neurons, including the transmission of electrical signals along the length of the neuron and the communication between neurons. There are many different types of nerve tissue proteins, each with its own specific function. Some examples of nerve tissue proteins include neurofilaments, which provide structural support for the neuron; microtubules, which help to maintain the shape of the neuron and transport materials within the neuron; and neurofilament light chain, which is involved in the formation of neurofibrillary tangles, which are a hallmark of certain neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Nerve tissue proteins are important for the proper functioning of the nervous system and any disruption in their production or function can lead to neurological disorders.
The cerebral cortex is the outermost layer of the brain, responsible for many of the higher functions of the nervous system, including perception, thought, memory, and consciousness. It is composed of two hemispheres, each of which is divided into four lobes: the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. The cerebral cortex is responsible for processing sensory information from the body and the environment, as well as generating motor commands to control movement. It is also involved in complex cognitive processes such as language, decision-making, and problem-solving. Damage to the cerebral cortex can result in a range of neurological and cognitive disorders, including dementia, aphasia, and apraxia.
The cerebellar cortex is the outer layer of the cerebellum, a part of the brain that plays a crucial role in motor coordination, balance, and posture. It is composed of several layers of neurons that receive and process information from various parts of the brain and body, and then send signals to the spinal cord and muscles to control movement. The cerebellar cortex is divided into several regions, each of which is responsible for controlling different aspects of movement. For example, the anterior lobe of the cerebellum is involved in controlling movements of the arms and hands, while the posterior lobe is involved in controlling movements of the legs and trunk. Damage to the cerebellar cortex can result in a range of movement disorders, including ataxia (lack of coordination), tremors, and difficulty with balance and posture. These disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, infections, and head injuries.
Green Fluorescent Proteins (GFPs) are a class of proteins that emit green light when excited by blue or ultraviolet light. They were first discovered in the jellyfish Aequorea victoria and have since been widely used as a tool in the field of molecular biology and bioimaging. In the medical field, GFPs are often used as a marker to track the movement and behavior of cells and proteins within living organisms. For example, scientists can insert a gene for GFP into a cell or organism, allowing them to visualize the cell or protein in real-time using a fluorescent microscope. This can be particularly useful in studying the development and function of cells, as well as in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. GFPs have also been used to develop biosensors, which can detect the presence of specific molecules or changes in cellular environment. For example, researchers have developed GFP-based sensors that can detect the presence of certain drugs or toxins, or changes in pH or calcium levels within cells. Overall, GFPs have become a valuable tool in the medical field, allowing researchers to study cellular processes and diseases in new and innovative ways.
The cerebellum is a part of the brain located at the base of the skull, just above the brainstem. It is responsible for coordinating and regulating many of the body's movements, as well as playing a role in balance, posture, and motor learning. The cerebellum receives information from the sensory systems, including the eyes, ears, and muscles, and uses this information to fine-tune motor movements and make them more precise and coordinated. It also plays a role in cognitive functions such as attention, language, and memory. Damage to the cerebellum can result in a range of movement disorders, including ataxia, which is characterized by uncoordinated and poorly controlled movements.
Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) is a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in the central nervous system. It is a non-protein amino acid that is synthesized from glutamate in the brain and spinal cord. GABA acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter, meaning that it reduces the activity of neurons and helps to calm and relax the brain. In the medical field, GABA is often used as a treatment for anxiety disorders, insomnia, and epilepsy. It is available as a dietary supplement and can also be prescribed by a doctor in the form of medication. GABA supplements are believed to help reduce feelings of anxiety and promote relaxation by increasing the levels of GABA in the brain. However, more research is needed to fully understand the effects of GABA on the human body and to determine the most effective ways to use it as a treatment.
In the medical field, "Cells, Cultured" refers to cells that have been grown and maintained in a controlled environment outside of their natural biological context, typically in a laboratory setting. This process is known as cell culture and involves the isolation of cells from a tissue or organism, followed by their growth and proliferation in a nutrient-rich medium. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including human or animal tissues, and can be used for a wide range of applications in medicine and research. For example, cultured cells can be used to study the behavior and function of specific cell types, to develop new drugs and therapies, and to test the safety and efficacy of medical products. Cultured cells can be grown in various types of containers, such as flasks or Petri dishes, and can be maintained at different temperatures and humidity levels to optimize their growth and survival. The medium used to culture cells typically contains a combination of nutrients, growth factors, and other substances that support cell growth and proliferation. Overall, the use of cultured cells has revolutionized medical research and has led to many important discoveries and advancements in the field of medicine.
Amacrine cells are a type of neuron found in the retina of the eye. They are located between the photoreceptor cells (rods and cones) and the bipolar cells, and are involved in processing and integrating the visual information received from the photoreceptors. Amacrine cells receive input from multiple photoreceptors and can transmit signals to multiple bipolar cells, allowing them to contribute to the complex neural processing that underlies vision. There are many different types of amacrine cells, each with its own specific functions and characteristics. Damage or dysfunction of amacrine cells can contribute to a variety of vision problems, including color blindness, night blindness, and visual field defects.
In the medical field, "Animals, Newborn" typically refers to animals that are less than 28 days old. This age range is often used to describe the developmental stage of animals, particularly in the context of research or veterinary medicine. Newborn animals may require specialized care and attention, as they are often more vulnerable to illness and injury than older animals. They may also have unique nutritional and behavioral needs that must be addressed in order to promote their growth and development. In some cases, newborn animals may be used in medical research to study various biological processes, such as development, growth, and disease. However, the use of animals in research is highly regulated, and strict ethical guidelines must be followed to ensure the welfare and safety of the animals involved.
Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP) is an enzyme that is commonly used in medical research and diagnostics. It is a protein that catalyzes the oxidation of a wide range of substrates, including hydrogen peroxide, which is a reactive oxygen species that is produced by cells as a byproduct of metabolism. In medical research, HRP is often used as a label for antibodies or other molecules, allowing researchers to detect the presence of specific proteins or other molecules in tissues or cells. This is done by first attaching HRP to an antibody or other molecule of interest, and then using a substrate that reacts with HRP to produce a visible signal. This technique is known as immunohistochemistry or immunofluorescence. HRP is also used in diagnostic tests, such as pregnancy tests, where it is used to detect the presence of specific hormones or other molecules in urine or blood samples. In these tests, HRP is attached to an antibody that binds to the target molecule, and the presence of the target molecule is detected by the production of a visible signal. Overall, HRP is a versatile enzyme that is widely used in medical research and diagnostics due to its ability to catalyze the oxidation of a wide range of substrates and its ability to be easily labeled and detected.
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin that is produced by certain species of marine animals, including pufferfish, cone snails, and some species of sea slugs. TTX is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless compound that is highly toxic to humans and other animals. In the medical field, TTX is primarily used as a research tool to study the function of voltage-gated sodium channels, which are essential for the transmission of nerve impulses. TTX blocks these channels, leading to a loss of electrical activity in nerve cells and muscles. TTX has also been used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as chronic pain and epilepsy. However, its use in humans is limited due to its toxicity and the difficulty in administering it safely. In addition to its medical uses, TTX has also been used as a pesticide and a tool for controlling invasive species. However, its use as a pesticide is controversial due to its potential toxicity to non-target organisms and its persistence in the environment.
Microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) are a group of proteins that bind to microtubules, which are important components of the cytoskeleton in cells. These proteins play a crucial role in regulating the dynamics of microtubules, including their assembly, disassembly, and stability. MAPs are involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell division, intracellular transport, and the maintenance of cell shape. They can also play a role in the development of diseases such as cancer, where the abnormal regulation of microtubules and MAPs can contribute to the growth and spread of tumors. There are many different types of MAPs, each with its own specific functions and mechanisms of action. Some MAPs are involved in regulating the dynamics of microtubules, while others are involved in the transport of molecules along microtubules. Some MAPs are also involved in the organization and function of the mitotic spindle, which is essential for the proper segregation of chromosomes during cell division. Overall, MAPs are important regulators of microtubule dynamics and play a crucial role in many cellular processes. Understanding the function of these proteins is important for developing new treatments for diseases that are associated with abnormal microtubule regulation.
Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) are a type of ionotropic glutamate receptor found in the central nervous system. They are named after the agonist N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), which binds to and activates these receptors. NMDA receptors are important for a variety of physiological processes, including learning and memory, synaptic plasticity, and neuroprotection. They are also involved in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, depression, and addiction. NMDA receptors are heteromeric complexes composed of two subunits, NR1 and NR2, which can be differentially expressed in various brain regions and cell types. The NR2 subunit determines the pharmacological properties and functional profile of the receptor, while the NR1 subunit is essential for receptor function. Activation of NMDA receptors requires the binding of both glutamate and a co-agonist, such as glycine or d-serine, as well as the depolarization of the postsynaptic membrane. This leads to the opening of a cation-permeable channel that allows the influx of calcium ions, which can trigger various intracellular signaling pathways and modulate gene expression. In summary, NMDA receptors are a type of glutamate receptor that play a crucial role in various physiological and pathological processes in the central nervous system.
Calcium is a chemical element with the symbol Ca and atomic number 20. It is a vital mineral for the human body and is essential for many bodily functions, including bone health, muscle function, nerve transmission, and blood clotting. In the medical field, calcium is often used to diagnose and treat conditions related to calcium deficiency or excess. For example, low levels of calcium in the blood (hypocalcemia) can cause muscle cramps, numbness, and tingling, while high levels (hypercalcemia) can lead to kidney stones, bone loss, and other complications. Calcium supplements are often prescribed to people who are at risk of developing calcium deficiency, such as older adults, vegetarians, and people with certain medical conditions. However, it is important to note that excessive calcium intake can also be harmful, and it is important to follow recommended dosages and consult with a healthcare provider before taking any supplements.
Afferent pathways refer to the neural pathways that carry sensory information from the body's sensory receptors to the central nervous system (CNS), which includes the brain and spinal cord. These pathways are responsible for transmitting information about the external environment and internal bodily sensations to the CNS for processing and interpretation. Afferent pathways can be further divided into two types: sensory afferent pathways and motor afferent pathways. Sensory afferent pathways carry information about sensory stimuli, such as touch, temperature, pain, and pressure, from the body's sensory receptors to the CNS. Motor afferent pathways, on the other hand, carry information about the state of the body's muscles and organs to the CNS. Afferent pathways are essential for our ability to perceive and respond to the world around us. Any damage or dysfunction to these pathways can result in sensory deficits or other neurological disorders.
The CA1 region is a subfield of the hippocampus, a structure in the brain that is involved in learning and memory. The hippocampus is located in the temporal lobe of the brain and is divided into several subfields, including the CA1, CA2, CA3, and dentate gyrus regions. The CA1 region is located at the tip of the hippocampus and is the main output region of the hippocampus. It is composed of pyramidal neurons, which are the main type of neuron in the hippocampus. These neurons receive input from the CA3 region and send output to the entorhinal cortex, a region of the brain that is involved in memory and spatial navigation. Damage to the CA1 region has been linked to memory loss and cognitive impairment, and it is a common site of damage in conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia. Research on the CA1 region has focused on understanding how it contributes to learning and memory, as well as on developing treatments for conditions that affect this region of the brain.
Receptors, AMPA are a type of ionotropic glutamate receptor that are widely expressed in the central nervous system. They are named after the neurotransmitter AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid), which is a major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. AMPA receptors are important for fast synaptic transmission, as they are rapidly activated by glutamate and can mediate strong postsynaptic currents. They are also involved in a variety of physiological processes, including learning and memory, and have been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and depression. AMPA receptors are composed of four subunits, each of which contains an ion channel that opens in response to binding of glutamate. There are several different subunit combinations that can form AMPA receptors, which can affect their properties and distribution in the brain.
S100 Calcium Binding Protein G (S100G) is a protein that belongs to the S100 family of calcium-binding proteins. It is primarily expressed in the brain, where it plays a role in the regulation of intracellular calcium levels and the modulation of neuronal excitability. S100G has also been implicated in the development and progression of certain neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis. In addition, S100G has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects, and it may have potential as a therapeutic target for these conditions.
Parvalbumins are a family of calcium-binding proteins that are primarily expressed in the nervous system, particularly in neurons and astrocytes. They are characterized by their small size and high calcium-binding capacity, which allows them to regulate intracellular calcium levels and play a role in various cellular processes, including neurotransmission, synaptic plasticity, and cell survival. In the medical field, parvalbumins have been implicated in a number of neurological disorders, including epilepsy, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's disease. For example, changes in the expression or function of parvalbumin-containing neurons have been observed in the brains of patients with epilepsy, and parvalbumin has been proposed as a potential therapeutic target for this condition. Additionally, parvalbumins have been shown to play a role in the regulation of inflammation and immune responses, which may contribute to their involvement in various neurological disorders.
Glutamic acid is an amino acid that is naturally occurring in the human body and is essential for various bodily functions. It is a non-essential amino acid, meaning that the body can produce it from other compounds, but it is still important for maintaining good health. In the medical field, glutamic acid is sometimes used as a medication to treat certain conditions. For example, it is used to treat epilepsy, a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures. Glutamic acid is also used to treat certain types of brain injuries, such as stroke, by promoting the growth of new brain cells. In addition to its medicinal uses, glutamic acid is also an important component of the diet. It is found in many foods, including meats, fish, poultry, dairy products, and grains. It is also available as a dietary supplement.
Calcium signaling is a complex process that involves the movement of calcium ions (Ca2+) within and between cells. Calcium ions play a crucial role in many cellular functions, including muscle contraction, neurotransmitter release, gene expression, and cell division. Calcium signaling is regulated by a network of proteins that sense changes in calcium levels and respond by activating or inhibiting specific cellular processes. In the medical field, calcium signaling is important for understanding the mechanisms underlying many diseases, including cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer. Calcium signaling is also a target for many drugs, including those used to treat hypertension, arrhythmias, and osteoporosis. Understanding the complex interactions between calcium ions and the proteins that regulate them is therefore an important area of research in medicine.
Calbindins are a family of calcium-binding proteins that play important roles in the regulation of calcium homeostasis in various tissues and organs in the body. They are primarily found in the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria of cells, where they help to transport and store calcium ions. There are several different types of calbindins, including calbindin-D28k, calbindin-D9k, and calbindin-1. Calbindin-D28k is the most abundant and widely distributed of the calbindins, and it is found in a variety of tissues, including the brain, liver, and kidneys. Calbindin-D9k is found primarily in the brain and spinal cord, and it is thought to play a role in the regulation of calcium signaling in neurons. Calbindin-1 is found in the pancreas and is thought to play a role in the regulation of insulin secretion. Calbindins are important for maintaining proper calcium levels in the body, and disruptions in their function have been linked to a number of diseases, including osteoporosis, hypertension, and certain neurological disorders.
Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a protein that plays a crucial role in the development, maintenance, and survival of neurons in the brain. It is produced by neurons themselves and acts as a growth factor, promoting the growth and differentiation of new neurons, as well as the survival of existing ones. BDNF is involved in a wide range of brain functions, including learning, memory, mood regulation, and neuroplasticity, which is the brain's ability to change and adapt in response to new experiences and environmental stimuli. It has also been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as depression, anxiety, Alzheimer's disease, and schizophrenia. BDNF is synthesized in the brain and released into the extracellular space, where it binds to specific receptors on the surface of neurons, triggering a cascade of intracellular signaling pathways that promote neuronal growth and survival. It is also involved in the regulation of synaptic plasticity, which is the ability of synapses (connections between neurons) to strengthen or weaken in response to changes in their activity. Overall, BDNF is a critical factor in the maintenance and function of the brain, and its dysregulation has been linked to a range of neurological and psychiatric disorders.
In the medical field, "cats" typically refers to Felis catus, which is the scientific name for the domestic cat. Cats are commonly kept as pets and are known for their agility, playful behavior, and affectionate nature. In veterinary medicine, cats are commonly treated for a variety of health conditions, including respiratory infections, urinary tract infections, gastrointestinal issues, and dental problems. Cats can also be used in medical research to study various diseases and conditions, such as cancer, heart disease, and neurological disorders. In some cases, the term "cats" may also refer to a group of animals used in medical research or testing. For example, cats may be used to study the effects of certain drugs or treatments on the immune system or to test new vaccines.
In the medical field, "Animals, Genetically Modified" refers to animals that have undergone genetic modification, which involves altering the DNA of an organism to introduce new traits or characteristics. This can be done through various techniques, such as gene editing using tools like CRISPR-Cas9, or by introducing foreign DNA into an animal's genome through techniques like transgenesis. Genetically modified animals are often used in medical research to study the function of specific genes or to develop new treatments for diseases. For example, genetically modified mice have been used to study the development of cancer, to test new drugs for treating heart disease, and to understand the genetic basis of neurological disorders like Alzheimer's disease. However, the use of genetically modified animals in medical research is controversial, as some people are concerned about the potential risks to animal welfare and the environment, as well as the ethical implications of altering the genetic makeup of living organisms. As a result, there are strict regulations in place to govern the use of genetically modified animals in research, and scientists must follow strict protocols to ensure the safety and welfare of the animals involved.
In the medical field, cell polarity refers to the of a cell, which means that the cell has a distinct front and back, top and bottom, or other spatial orientation. This polarity is established through the differential distribution of proteins and other molecules within the cell, which creates distinct domains or compartments within the cell. Cell polarity is essential for many cellular processes, including cell migration, tissue development, and the proper functioning of organs. For example, in the developing embryo, cells must polarize in order to move and differentiate into specific cell types. In the adult body, cells must maintain their polarity in order to carry out their specialized functions, such as the absorption of nutrients in the small intestine or the secretion of hormones in the pancreas. Disruptions in cell polarity can lead to a variety of diseases and disorders, including cancer, developmental disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms that regulate cell polarity is an important area of research in the medical field.
Drosophila proteins are proteins that are found in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which is a widely used model organism in genetics and molecular biology research. These proteins have been studied extensively because they share many similarities with human proteins, making them useful for understanding the function and regulation of human genes and proteins. In the medical field, Drosophila proteins are often used as a model for studying human diseases, particularly those that are caused by genetic mutations. By studying the effects of these mutations on Drosophila proteins, researchers can gain insights into the underlying mechanisms of these diseases and potentially identify new therapeutic targets. Drosophila proteins have also been used to study a wide range of biological processes, including development, aging, and neurobiology. For example, researchers have used Drosophila to study the role of specific genes and proteins in the development of the nervous system, as well as the mechanisms underlying age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's.
SOXB2 transcription factors are a family of proteins that play a crucial role in regulating gene expression in various biological processes, including development, differentiation, and homeostasis. The SOXB2 family includes three members: SOX2, SOX3, and SOX17. SOX2 is a well-known transcription factor that is involved in the development of many organs and tissues, including the brain, spinal cord, and lungs. It is also involved in the maintenance of stem cells and has been implicated in several types of cancer. SOX3 is a less well-characterized transcription factor that is involved in the development of the central nervous system and the regulation of cell proliferation. SOX17 is a transcription factor that is involved in the development of the digestive system, particularly the liver and pancreas. It is also involved in the regulation of cell differentiation and proliferation. In the medical field, SOXB2 transcription factors are of interest because of their role in the development and maintenance of various tissues and organs. They have been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, and are being studied as potential therapeutic targets.
N-Methylaspartate (NMA) is a chemical compound that is found in the human body. It is a non-essential amino acid that is structurally similar to aspartate, another amino acid that is important for the proper functioning of the nervous system. NMA is thought to play a role in the regulation of neurotransmitter release and has been implicated in a number of neurological disorders, including epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, and multiple sclerosis. In the medical field, NMA is often used as a research tool to study the function of the nervous system and to develop new treatments for neurological disorders.
Receptors, Glutamate are a type of ionotropic receptor that are activated by the neurotransmitter glutamate. These receptors are found throughout the central nervous system and play a critical role in many important brain functions, including learning, memory, and mood regulation. There are several different subtypes of glutamate receptors, each with its own unique properties and functions. Some of the most well-known subtypes include the NMDA receptor, the AMPA receptor, and the kainate receptor. These receptors are activated by glutamate binding, which leads to the opening of ion channels and the flow of ions across the cell membrane. This can result in changes in the electrical activity of the cell and can trigger a variety of cellular responses, including the release of other neurotransmitters and the activation of intracellular signaling pathways.
Axonal transport is the movement of molecules and organelles within the axons of neurons. It is a vital process for maintaining the proper functioning of neurons and the nervous system as a whole. Axonal transport occurs in two main directions: anterograde transport, which moves materials from the cell body towards the axon terminal, and retrograde transport, which moves materials from the axon terminal towards the cell body. There are two main types of axonal transport: fast axonal transport and slow axonal transport. Fast axonal transport is faster and moves larger molecules, such as mitochondria and synaptic vesicles, while slow axonal transport is slower and moves smaller molecules, such as proteins and RNA. Disruptions in axonal transport can lead to a variety of neurological disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, as well as traumatic brain injury and stroke.
In the medical field, cell shape refers to the three-dimensional structure of a cell, including its size, shape, and overall configuration. The shape of a cell can vary depending on its function and the environment in which it exists. For example, red blood cells are disc-shaped to maximize their surface area for oxygen exchange, while nerve cells have long, branching extensions called dendrites and axons to facilitate communication with other cells. Changes in cell shape can be indicative of disease or abnormal cell function, and are often studied in the context of cancer, inflammation, and other medical conditions.
David the Dendrite
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- Electrical stimulation is transmitted onto dendrites by upstream neurons (usually via their axons) via synapses which are located at various points throughout the dendritic tree. (wikipedia.org)
- Typically, axons transmit electrochemical signals and dendrites receive the electrochemical signals, although some types of neurons in certain species lack specialized axons and transmit signals via their dendrites. (wikipedia.org)
- Dendrites provide an enlarged surface area to receive signals from axon terminals of other neurons. (wikipedia.org)
- The dendrite of a large pyramidal cell receives signals from about 30,000 presynaptic neurons. (wikipedia.org)
- The general structure of the dendrite is used to classify neurons into multipolar, bipolar and unipolar types. (wikipedia.org)
- Pyramidal cells are multipolar cortical neurons with pyramid-shaped cell bodies and large dendrites that extend towards the surface of the cortex (apical dendrite). (wikipedia.org)
- Bipolar neurons have two main dendrites at opposing ends of the cell body. (wikipedia.org)
- Unipolar neurons, typical for insects, have a stalk that extends from the cell body that separates into two branches with one containing the dendrites and the other with the terminal buttons. (wikipedia.org)
- Dendrites are the long projections on neurons that seem to reach out to form synapses with other neurons. (bipolarnews.org)
- Dendrites, the branched projections of neurons where electrical signals are passed from one cell to the next, are covered in hundreds to thousands of spines that facilitate the synaptic connections with other neurons. (bipolarnews.org)
- Oftentimes neurons may be represented by a tree, where the axons are the roots, the soma is the trunk and dendrites are the branches. (ym-actionpotential.com)
- The main function of dendrites is to receive and process incoming communication from other neurons. (ym-actionpotential.com)
- Expression of constitutively active SGK in neurons leads to the elaboration of neuronal dendrites and their branching. (northwestern.edu)
- Electrical stimulation is transmitted onto dendrites by upstream neurons via synapses which are located at various points throughout the dendritic arbor. (wikidoc.org)
- The structure and branching of a neuron's dendrites, as well as the availability and variation in voltage-gated ion conductances , strongly influences how it integrates the input from other neurons, particularly those that input only weakly. (wikidoc.org)
- File:Complete neuron cell diagram.svg Despite the critical role that dendrites play in the computational tendencies of neurons, very little is known about the process by which dendrites orient themselves in vivo and are compelled to create the intricate branching pattern unique to each specific neuronal class. (wikidoc.org)
- Sema3A may act as a dendritic chemoattractant that aids cortical pyramidal neurons in orienting their apical dendrites to the pial surface. (wikidoc.org)
- Dendrites are the branch-like fibers that extend from neurons and receive signals from other neurons. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Dendritic spines are the small projections on dendrites that receive signals from other neurons. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- We were also the first to identify and map the dopaminergic projections to the habenula and the spinal cord, and reveal the special dendritic projections from the nigra compacta neurons that allow dopamine to be released from dendrites in the pars reticulata. (lu.se)
- 4. Björklund, A., Lindvall, O.: Dopamine in dendrites of substantia nigra neurons: suggestions for a role in dendritic terminals. (lu.se)
- Dendrites are one of two types of protoplasmic protrusions that extrude from the cell body of a neuron, the other type being an axon. (wikipedia.org)
- The action potential, which typically starts at the axon hillock, propagates down the length of the axon to the axon terminals where it triggers the release of neurotransmitters, but also backwards into the dendrite (retrograde propagation), providing an important signal for spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). (wikipedia.org)
- Most synapses are axodendritic, involving an axon signaling to a dendrite. (wikipedia.org)
- An autapse is a synapse in which the axon of one neuron transmits signals to its own dendrite. (wikipedia.org)
- German anatomist Otto Friedrich Karl Deiters is generally credited with the discovery of the axon by distinguishing it from the dendrites. (wikipedia.org)
- Dendrites often develop after the formation of the axon. (ym-actionpotential.com)
- Regardless of the stage of axon development, dendrites start to form after the neuron approaches its final mature stage, whether heterotopic (in an abnormal place) or normal. (ym-actionpotential.com)
- Dasm1 (Dendrite arborization and synapse maturation 1) expression appears to be highly localized to dendrites and may have substantial influence on dendrite (but not axon) development. (wikidoc.org)
- Normally, nerves transmit impulses electrically in one direction-from the impulse-sending axon of one nerve cell (also called a neuron) to the impulse-receiving dendrites of the next nerve cell. (msdmanuals.com)
- Although the axon-to-dendrite proximity is an insufficient condition for establishing a functional synapse, it is still a necessary one. (lu.se)
- A dendrite (from Greek δένδρον déndron, "tree") or dendron is a branched protoplasmic extension of a nerve cell that propagates the electrochemical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body, or soma, of the neuron from which the dendrites project. (wikipedia.org)
- Dendrites play a critical role in integrating these synaptic inputs and in determining the extent to which action potentials are produced by the neuron. (wikipedia.org)
- Dendrites are the parts of the neuron that receive stimulation in order for the cell to become active. (ym-actionpotential.com)
- Each dendrite is approximately 2 μm (micrometers), with between 5-7 sets of dendrites per neuron. (ym-actionpotential.com)
- In addition to deciding whether or not a neuron will fire, dendrites also play a vital role in determining the degree or strength of the impulse fired. (ym-actionpotential.com)
- Additionally, every type of neuron has an unique pattern of dendrites and spines that develop synaptic surfaces on them. (ym-actionpotential.com)
- A single dendrite has tens of thousands of dendritic spines (on average, 200 000 dendritic spines per neuron. (ym-actionpotential.com)
- Based on passive cable theory one can track how changes in a neuron's dendritic morphology changes the membrane voltage at the soma, and thus how variation in dendrite architectures affects the overall output characteristics of the neuron. (wikidoc.org)
- As such, the term dendritic tree describes how dendrites branch out and form dense arborizations like the branches of a tree. (ym-actionpotential.com)
- The "middle-aged" rats in the placebo group had shorter dendrites and fewer dendritic branches than the younger rats. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- This is what gives a dendrite its iconic branches. (minimuseum.com)
- Each individual neuron's dendrites can receive thousands of signals. (ym-actionpotential.com)
- Climbing fiber multi-innervation of mouse Purkinje dendrites with arborization common to human. (uchicago.edu)
- In line with this, agomelatine-treated stressed animals displayed significantly increased number and length of dendrites at glutamate synapses in the hippocampus (including the dentate gyrus and CA1) and reversed the hippocampal neuronal retraction observed in the rats who were given the placebo. (bipolarnews.org)
- Activity-dependent Golgi satellite formation in dendrites reshapes the neuronal surface glycoproteome. (uchicago.edu)
- Son cruciales para el desarrollo neuronal debido a su capacidad para crecer en una dirección determinada y a su papel en la sinaptogénesis. (bvsalud.org)
- Notch acts as a neurotrophic factor in aiding dendrite growth and branching, while CREST may play an important role in regulating calcium dependent growth signals. (wikidoc.org)
- With this system we could detect [Ca 2+ ] i and [Na + ] i changes from single action potentials in axons and synaptically evoked signals in dendrites, both with submicron resolution and a good signal-to-noise ratio (S/N). (eneuro.org)
- It is likely that a complex array of extracellular and intracellular cues modulate dendrite development. (wikidoc.org)
- Axons can be distinguished from dendrites by several features including shape, length, and function. (wikipedia.org)
- Dendrites often taper off in shape and are shorter, while axons tend to maintain a constant radius and can be very long. (wikipedia.org)
- Bulbous enlargement of the growing tip of nerve axons and dendrites. (bvsalud.org)
- Although passive cable theory offers insights regarding input propagation along dendrite segments, it is important to remember that dendrite membranes are host to a cornucopia of proteins some of which may help amplify or attenuate synaptic input. (wikidoc.org)
- Passive cable theory describes how voltage changes at a particular location on a dendrite transmit this electrical signal through a system of converging dendrite segments of different diameters, lengths, and electrical properties. (wikidoc.org)
- However, both the dendrite lengths and the branching in the rats that received ampakine were almost the same as those in the young rats. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Synaptic activity causes local changes in the electrical potential across the plasma membrane of the dendrite. (wikipedia.org)
- One important feature of dendrites, endowed by their active voltage gated conductances, is their ability to send action potentials back into the dendritic arbor. (wikidoc.org)
- Dendrite Clinical Systems has received an order to extend the clinical database system and install its new Data Analysis System at the Al Babtain Hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. (e-dendrite.com)
- Retrieved November 22, 2021, from https://study.com/academy/lesson/dendrites-definition-function-quiz.html . (ym-actionpotential.com)
- Beneficial effect on dendrites in neural cells was detectable already before any aggregates or fibrils were detectable. (lu.se)
- 1 . Acker CD, Antic SD (2009) Quantitative assessment of the distributions of membrane conductances involved in action potential backpropagation along basal dendrites. (yale.edu)
- Though being widely employed in aqueous energy storage systems, metallic zinc suffers from dendrite formation that severely hinders its applications. (ntu.edu.sg)
- Dendrites are an incredible and completely natural formation of branching lines and colors. (minimuseum.com)
- May be involved in melanosome transport, or alternatively, it may be required for some polarization process involved in dendrite formation. (lu.se)
- The dendrites are tree-like structures. (medlineplus.gov)
- Benchmarking against its (101) textured‐counterpart by the conventional sulphate‐based electrolyte, the Zn (002) texture enables highly reversible stripping/plating at a high current density of 10 mA cm−2, showing its dendrite‐free characteristics. (ntu.edu.sg)
- Dendrite Clinical Systems' unique and innovation clinical software is been employed for a new innovative Quality Improvement, Patient Safety and Research trial that is seeking to improve the quality of care delivered to patients requiring hip or knee joint replacement surgery by introducing two complimentary care-bundles for mild anaemia and Methicillin Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) into routine clinical practice. (e-dendrite.com)
- Much like how a gardener might prune a bush to get rid of unwanted parts, pruning of dendrite trees is the process of trimming useless dendrites during the development of the nervous system. (ym-actionpotential.com)
- One known problem for both the lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries used in today's mobile phones as well as next-generation lithium metal batteries is that they are susceptible to the growth of finger-like deposits of lithium called dendrites inside the battery. (ieee.org)
- Now researchers at the University of Michigan-inspired by the potential of next-generation lithium metal batteries to store 10 times more charge than conventional Li-ion batteries-have peered into lithium metal batteries to observe the growth of dendrites . (ieee.org)
- They leveraged a novel microscopy tool that enables them to watch how the lithium changes inside the battery during cycling to create conditions conducive to dendrite growth. (ieee.org)
- Dendritic pruning is essential to eliminate unused dendrites and accelerate the growth of new dendrites. (ym-actionpotential.com)
- are translucent, colorless to whitish-gray variety of Agate, Chalcedony Quartz and is distinguished by its distinct tree or fern like markings known as Dendrites. (chloeyves.com)
- Dendrites: Definition & Function. (ym-actionpotential.com)
- These dendrites grow so long that they pierce the barrier between the two sides of the battery and cause a short circuit, possibly leading to a fire. (ieee.org)
- Extensive multiple dendrites may suggest immunocompromise (eg, due to long-term topical steroid therapy, systemic immunosuppressive medications, HIV infection). (medscape.com)
- Rodent, monkey and human studies have indicated that dendrites decline over time, starting in middle age. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- This is, as far as I remember, a silver dendrite which grew in a Ag-As film after some current was passed through. (maxsidorov.com)