Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Spiny processes on DENDRITES, each of which receives excitatory input from one nerve ending (NERVE ENDINGS). They are commonly found on PURKINJE CELLS and PYRAMIDAL CELLS.
The output neurons of the cerebellar cortex.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.
Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.
The largest portion of the CEREBRAL CORTEX in which the NEURONS are arranged in six layers in the mammalian brain: molecular, external granular, external pyramidal, internal granular, internal pyramidal and multiform layers.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of guanine to form xanthine. EC 3.5.4.3.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.
Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.
The superficial GRAY MATTER of the CEREBELLUM. It consists of two main layers, the stratum moleculare and the stratum granulosum.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
INTERNEURONS of the vertebrate RETINA. They integrate, modulate, and interpose a temporal domain in the visual message presented to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS, with which they synapse in the inner plexiform layer.
Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
A dense intricate feltwork of interwoven fine glial processes, fibrils, synaptic terminals, axons, and dendrites interspersed among the nerve cells in the gray matter of the central nervous system.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
INTERNEURONS of the vertebrate RETINA containing two processes. They receive inputs from the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and send outputs to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS. The bipolar cells also make lateral connections in the retina with the RETINAL HORIZONTAL CELLS and with the AMACRINE CELLS.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
One of four subsections of the hippocampus described by Lorente de No, located furthest from the DENTATE GYRUS.
GRAY MATTER situated above the GYRUS HIPPOCAMPI. It is composed of three layers. The molecular layer is continuous with the HIPPOCAMPUS in the hippocampal fissure. The granular layer consists of closely arranged spherical or oval neurons, called GRANULE CELLS, whose AXONS pass through the polymorphic layer ending on the DENDRITES of PYRAMIDAL CELLS in the hippocampus.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).
A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.
Low molecular weight, calcium binding muscle proteins. Their physiological function is possibly related to the contractile process.
The use of silver, usually silver nitrate, as a reagent for producing contrast or coloration in tissue specimens.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.
Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
Calcium-binding proteins that are found in DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES, INTESTINES, BRAIN, and other tissues where they bind, buffer and transport cytoplasmic calcium. Calbindins possess a variable number of EF-HAND MOTIFS which contain calcium-binding sites. Some isoforms are regulated by VITAMIN D.
A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional repressors.
Fibers that arise from cells within the cerebral cortex, pass through the medullary pyramid, and descend in the spinal cord. Many authorities say the pyramidal tracts include both the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts.
An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).
Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.
Cell-surface proteins that bind glutamate and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors include ionotropic receptors (AMPA, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors), which directly control ion channels, and metabotropic receptors which act through second messenger systems. Glutamate receptors are the most common mediators of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. They have also been implicated in the mechanisms of memory and of many diseases.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.

Identification of the Kv2.1 K+ channel as a major component of the delayed rectifier K+ current in rat hippocampal neurons. (1/4513)

Molecular cloning studies have revealed the existence of a large family of voltage-gated K+ channel genes expressed in mammalian brain. This molecular diversity underlies the vast repertoire of neuronal K+ channels that regulate action potential conduction and neurotransmitter release and that are essential to the control of neuronal excitability. However, the specific contribution of individual K+ channel gene products to these neuronal K+ currents is poorly understood. We have shown previously, using an antibody, "KC, " specific for the Kv2.1 K+ channel alpha-subunit, the high-level expression of Kv2.1 protein in hippocampal neurons in situ and in culture. Here we show that KC is a potent blocker of K+ currents expressed in cells transfected with the Kv2.1 cDNA, but not of currents expressed in cells transfected with other highly related K+ channel alpha-subunit cDNAs. KC also blocks the majority of the slowly inactivating outward current in cultured hippocampal neurons, although antibodies to two other K+ channel alpha-subunits known to be expressed in these cells did not exhibit blocking effects. In all cases the blocking effects of KC were eliminated by previous incubation with a recombinant fusion protein containing the KC antigenic sequence. Together these studies show that Kv2.1, which is expressed at high levels in most mammalian central neurons, is a major contributor to the delayed rectifier K+ current in hippocampal neurons and that the KC antibody is a powerful tool for the elucidation of the role of the Kv2.1 K+ channel in regulating neuronal excitability.  (+info)

Cellular sites for dynorphin activation of kappa-opioid receptors in the rat nucleus accumbens shell. (2/4513)

The nucleus accumbens (Acb) is prominently involved in the aversive behavioral aspects of kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) agonists, including its endogenous ligand dynorphin (Dyn). We examined the ultrastructural immunoperoxidase localization of KOR and immunogold labeling of Dyn to determine the major cellular sites for KOR activation in this region. Of 851 KOR-labeled structures sampled from a total area of 10,457 microm2, 63% were small axons and morphologically heterogenous axon terminals, 31% of which apposed Dyn-labeled terminals or also contained Dyn. Sixty-eight percent of the KOR-containing axon terminals formed punctate-symmetric or appositional contacts with unlabeled dendrites and spines, many of which received convergent input from terminals that formed asymmetric synapses. Excitatory-type terminals that formed asymmetric synapses with dendritic spines comprised 21% of the KOR-immunoreactive profiles. Dendritic spines within the neuropil were the major nonaxonal structures that contained KOR immunoreactivity. These spines also received excitatory-type synapses from unlabeled terminals and were apposed by Dyn-containing terminals. These results provide ultrastructural evidence that in the Acb shell (AcbSh), KOR agonists play a primary role in regulating the presynaptic release of Dyn and other neuromodulators that influence the output of spiny neurons via changes in the presynaptic release of or the postsynaptic responses to excitatory amino acids. The cellular distribution of KOR complements those described previously for the reward-associated mu- and delta-opioid receptors in the Acb shell.  (+info)

Langerhans cells in the human oesophagus. (3/4513)

The dendrite cells of Langerhans, first identified in the epidermis, have now been observed in the middle and superficial layers of the normal human oesophageal mucosa. They exhibit typical Langerhans granules, but no desmosomes and tonofilaments. They often have irregular indented nuclei, with a relatively pale cytoplasm contrasting with that of the adjacent squamous cells. These cells are sometimes difficult to distinguish from intra-epithelial lymphocytes, which are also encountered in the oesophageal mucosa and which share certain ultrastructural characteristics with Langerhans cells.  (+info)

Single synaptic events evoke NMDA receptor-mediated release of calcium from internal stores in hippocampal dendritic spines. (4/4513)

We have used confocal microscopy to monitor synaptically evoked Ca2+ transients in the dendritic spines of hippocampal pyramidal cells. Individual spines respond to single afferent stimuli (<0.1 Hz) with Ca2+ transients or failures, reflecting the probability of transmitter release at the activated synapse. Both AMPA and NMDA glutamate receptor antagonists block the synaptically evoked Ca2+ transients; the block by AMPA antagonists is relieved by low Mg2+. The Ca2+ transients are mainly due to the release of calcium from internal stores, since they are abolished by antagonists of calcium-induced calcium release (CICR); CICR antagonists, however, do not depress spine Ca2+ transients generated by backpropagating action potentials. These results have implications for synaptic plasticity, since they show that synaptic stimulation can activate NMDA receptors, evoking substantial Ca2+ release from the internal stores in spines without inducing long-term potentiation (LTP) or depression (LTD).  (+info)

Voltage-dependent properties of dendrites that eliminate location-dependent variability of synaptic input. (5/4513)

We examined the hypothesis that voltage-dependent properties of dendrites allow for the accurate transfer of synaptic information to the soma independent of synapse location. This hypothesis is motivated by experimental evidence that dendrites contain a complex array of voltage-gated channels. How these channels affect synaptic integration is unknown. One hypothesized role for dendritic voltage-gated channels is to counteract passive cable properties, rendering all synapses electrotonically equidistant from the soma. With dendrites modeled as passive cables, the effect a synapse exerts at the soma depends on dendritic location (referred to as location-dependent variability of the synaptic input). In this theoretical study we used a simplified three-compartment model of a neuron to determine the dendritic voltage-dependent properties required for accurate transfer of synaptic information to the soma independent of synapse location. A dendrite that eliminates location-dependent variability requires three components: 1) a steady-state, voltage-dependent inward current that together with the passive leak current provides a net outward current and a zero slope conductance at depolarized potentials, 2) a fast, transient, inward current that compensates for dendritic membrane capacitance, and 3) both alpha amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid- and N-methyl-D-aspartate-like synaptic conductances that together permit synapses to behave as ideal current sources. These components are consistent with the known properties of dendrites. In addition, these results indicate that a dendrite designed to eliminate location-dependent variability also actively back-propagates somatic action potentials.  (+info)

In vivo intracellular analysis of granule cell axon reorganization in epileptic rats. (6/4513)

In vivo intracellular recording and labeling in kainate-induced epileptic rats was used to address questions about granule cell axon reorganization in temporal lobe epilepsy. Individually labeled granule cells were reconstructed three dimensionally and in their entirety. Compared with controls, granule cells in epileptic rats had longer average axon length per cell; the difference was significant in all strata of the dentate gyrus including the hilus. In epileptic rats, at least one-third of the granule cells extended an aberrant axon collateral into the molecular layer. Axon projections into the molecular layer had an average summed length of 1 mm per cell and spanned 600 microm of the septotemporal axis of the hippocampus-a distance within the normal span of granule cell axon collaterals. These findings in vivo confirm results from previous in vitro studies. Surprisingly, 12% of the granule cells in epileptic rats, and none in controls, extended a basal dendrite into the hilus, providing another route for recurrent excitation. Consistent with recurrent excitation, many granule cells (56%) in epileptic rats displayed a long-latency depolarization superimposed on a normal inhibitory postsynaptic potential. These findings demonstrate changes, occurring at the single-cell level after an epileptogenic hippocampal injury, that could result in novel, local, recurrent circuits.  (+info)

The fine structural organization of the cuneate nucleus in the monkey (Macaca fascicularis). (7/4513)

The fine structure of the cuneate nucleus of the monkey (Macaca fascicularis) has been studied. The neurons were classified into three groups according to their nuclear morphology, the arrangement of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and the appearance of the Golgi complexes. Group I neurons had a regular nucleus and contained abundant cytoplasm in which were found well-developed RER and Golgi complexes. Group II neurons had a slightly irregular nucleus and a variable arrangement of the RER and Golgi complexes. Group III neurons were characterized by a deeply indented nucleus, and scanty cytoplasm in which the cytoplasmic organelles were poorly developed. Group II neurons were the most commonly encountered while Group I neurons were the rarest. Axon terminals contained either round of flattened vesicles. Axon terminals and dendrites commonly formed synaptic complexes. In one type the axon terminal, containing round vesicles, formed the central element, which is presynaptic to the dendrites surrounding it; in addition it is postsynaptic to axon terminals containing flattened vesicles. In another type a large dendrite formed the central element which is postsynaptic to axon terminals containing round or flattened vesicles.  (+info)

Blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation suppresses learning-induced synaptic elimination. (8/4513)

Auditory filial imprinting in the domestic chicken is accompanied by a dramatic loss of spine synapses in two higher associative forebrain areas, the mediorostral neostriatum/hyperstriatum ventrale (MNH) and the dorsocaudal neostriatum (Ndc). The cellular mechanisms that underlie this learning-induced synaptic reorganization are unclear. We found that local pharmacological blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the MNH, a manipulation that has been shown previously to impair auditory imprinting, suppresses the learning-induced spine reduction in this region. Chicks treated with the NMDA receptor antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV) during the behavioral training for imprinting (postnatal day 0-2) displayed similar spine frequencies at postnatal day 7 as naive control animals, which, in both groups, were significantly higher than in imprinted animals. Because the average dendritic length did not differ between the experimental groups, the reduced spine frequency can be interpreted as a reduction of the total number of spine synapses per neuron. In the Ndc, which is reciprocally connected with the MNH and not directly influenced by the injected drug, learning-induced spine elimination was partly suppressed. Spine frequencies of the APV-treated, behaviorally trained but nonimprinted animals were higher than in the imprinted animals but lower than in the naive animals. These results provide evidence that NMDA receptor activation is required for the learning-induced selective reduction of spine synapses, which may serve as a mechanism of information storage specific for juvenile emotional learning events.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of backpropagating action potentials in mitral cell lateral dendrites by A-type potassium currents. AU - Christie, J. M.. AU - Westbrook, G. L.. PY - 2003/5/1. Y1 - 2003/5/1. N2 - Dendrodendritic synapses, distributed along mitral cell lateral dendrites, provide powerful and extensive inhibition in the olfactory bulb. Activation of inhibition depends on effective penetration of action potentials into dendrites. Although action potentials backpropagate with remarkable fidelity in apical dendrites, this issue is controversial for lateral dendrites. We used paired somatic and dendritic recordings to measure action potentials in proximal dendritic segments (0-200 μm from soma) and action potential-generated calcium transients to monitor activity in distal dendritic segments (200-600 μm from soma). Somatically elicited action potentials were attenuated in proximal lateral dendrites. The attenuation was not due to impaired access resistance in dendrites or to basal ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Homophilic Dscam Interactions Control Complex Dendrite Morphogenesis. AU - Hughes, Michael E.. AU - Bortnick, Rachel. AU - Tsubouchi, Asako. AU - Bäumer, Philipp. AU - Kondo, Masahiro. AU - Uemura, Tadashi. AU - Schmucker, Dietmar. PY - 2007/5/3. Y1 - 2007/5/3. N2 - Alternative splicing of the Drosophila gene Dscam results in up to 38,016 different receptor isoforms proposed to interact by isoform-specific homophilic binding. We report that Dscam controls cell-intrinsic aspects of dendrite guidance in all four classes of dendrite arborization (da) neurons. Loss of Dscam in single neurons causes a strong increase in self-crossing. Restriction of dendritic fields of neighboring class III neurons appeared intact in mutant neurons, suggesting that dendritic self-avoidance, but not heteroneuronal tiling, may depend on Dscam. Overexpression of the same Dscam isoforms in two da neurons with overlapping dendritic fields forced a spatial segregation of the two fields, supporting the ...
This function makes a list with oblique branches in addition to // the primary list in apical-tip-list.hoc // written by Yiota Poirazi, July 2001, [email protected] objref apical_tip_list_addendum apical_tip_list_addendum=new SectionList() // SISTER of apical_dendrite[3] is apical_dendrite[2] // SISTER of apical_dendrite[34] is apical_dendrite[33] // SISTER of apical_dendrite[37] is apical_dendrite[36] // SISTER of apical_dendrite[40] is apical_dendrite[39] // SISTER of apical_dendrite[45] is apical_dendrite[44] // SISTER of apical_dendrite[54] is apical_dendrite[53] // SISTER of apical_dendrite[68] is apical_dendrite[67] // SISTER of apical_dendrite[111] is apical_dendrite[110] // SISTER of apical_dendrite[115] is apical_dendrite[114] // SISTER of apical_dendrite[118] is apical_dendrite[117] apical_dendrite[2] apical_tip_list_addendum.append() // 1 degree 69.9821 microns from soma apical_dendrite[33] apical_tip_list_addendum.append() // 2 degrees 177.4831 (vertical distance) ...
Dendrites (from Greek δένδρον déndron, tree)(also dendron) are the branched projections of a neuron that act to propagate the electrochemical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body, or soma, of the neuron from which the dendrites project. Electrical stimulation is transmitted onto dendrites by upstream neurons (usually their axons) via synapses which are located at various points throughout the dendritic tree. Dendrites play a critical role in integrating these synaptic inputs and in determining the extent to which action potentials are produced by the neuron.[1] Long outgrowths on immune system dendritic cells are also called dendrites. These are not to be confused with dendrites on a neuron. Dendritic cells are antigen-presenting cells in the mammalian immune system.[2] Their dendrites do not process electrical signals. Dendrites are one of two types of protoplasmic protrusions that extrude from the cell body of a neuron, the other type being an axon. Axons can ...
A rich literature describes inhibitory innervation of pyramidal neurons in terms of the distinct inhibitory cell types that target the soma, axon initial segment, or dendritic arbor. Less attention has been devoted to how localization of inhibition to specific parts of the pyramidal dendritic arbor influences dendritic signal detection and integration. The effect of inhibitory inputs can vary based on their placement on dendritic spines versus shaft, their distance from the soma, and the branch order of the dendrite they inhabit. Inhibitory synapses are also structurally dynamic, and the implications of these dynamics depend on their dendritic location. Here we consider the heterogeneous roles of inhibitory synapses as defined by their strategic placement on the pyramidal cell dendritic arbor ...
APP and its catabolite, Aβ, play critical roles in the etiology of AD (Selkoe and Schenk, 2003). In addition to neuronal death, numerous changes in dendritic architecture have been observed, including decrease of dendrite length and branching and loss of spines in transgenic mice overexpressing APP and in brains of persons dying of AD (Einstein et al., 1994; Masliah et al., 2001). The dendritic atrophy correlates well with the decrease of neurotrophins, such as BDNF (Hu and Russek, 2008; Zuccato and Cattaneo, 2009). In the present study, we found a regulatory role of LLLT for neuroprotection and dendritic morphogenesis. We demonstrated the ability of LLLT to rescue Aβ-induced dendritic atrophy and neuronal death. In Aβ-treated neurons, LLLT attenuated the decrease of both BDNF mRNA and protein levels and p-CREB, a transcriptional regulator of BDNF. Additionally, dendrite growth was improved after LLLT treatment, characterized by upregulation of PSD-95 expression, Rac1 activity, and the ...
Although hippocampal neurons are well-distinguished by the morphological characteristics of their dendrites and their structural plasticity, the mechanisms involved in regulating their neurite initiation, dendrite growth, network formation and remodeling are still largely unknown, in part because the key molecules involved remain elusive. Identifying new dendrite-active cues could uncover unknown molecular mechanisms that would add significant understanding to the field and possibly lead to the development of novel neuroprotective therapy since these neurons are impaired in many neuropsychiatric disorders. In our previous studies, we deleted the gene coding CRMP3 in mice and identified the protein as a new endogenous signaling molecule that shapes diverse features of the hippocampal pyramidal dendrites without affecting axon morphology. We also found that CRMP3 protects dendrites against dystrophy induced by prion peptide PrP106-126. Here, we report that CRMP3 has a profound influence on neurite ...
This model simulates the effects of dendritic sodium spikes initiated in distal apical dendrites on the voltage and the calcium dynamics revealed by calcium imaging. It shows that dendritic sodium spike promotes large and transient calcium influxes via NMDA receptor and L-type voltage-gated calcium channels, which contribute to the induction of LTP at distal synapses ...
Genetic anomalies on the JNK pathway confer susceptibility to autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia and intellectual disability. The mechanism whereby a gain or loss of function in JNK signaling predisposes to these prevalent dendrite disorders, with associated motor dysfunction, remains unclear. Here we find that JNK1 regulates the dendritic field of L2/3 and L5 pyramidal neurons of the mouse motor cortex (M1), the main excitatory pathway controlling voluntary movement. In Jnk1-/- mice, basal dendrite branching of L5 pyramidal neurons is increased in M1, as is cell soma size, whereas in L2/3, dendritic arborization is decreased. We show that JNK1 phosphorylates rat HMW-MAP2 on T1619, T1622 and T1625 (Uniprot P15146) corresponding to mouse T1617, T1620, T1623, to create a binding motif, that is critical for MAP2 interaction with and stabilization of microtubules, and dendrite growth control. Targeted expression in M1 of GFP-HMW-MAP2 that is pseudo-phosphorylated on T1619, T1622 and T1625 increases
Pruning, referred to as selective removal of unnecessary neurites without cell death, occurs in both vertebrates and invertebrates. The Drosophila dorsal class IV dendritic arborization neuron (ddaC) can serve as an excellent model to study the mechanisms of dendrite pruning. To identify novel molecules orchestrating this developmental degeneration process, I performed an RNAi screen, from which a previously uncharacterized gene named pruning defect 1(prd1) was isolated. It binds to Adaptor Protein (AP)-2 complex and regulates dendrite pruning in a cell-autonomous manner. Consistently, AP-2 complex dependent endocytic degradation pathway is also important for dendrite pruning. Interestingly, Prd1 also complexes with a Kinesin-3 family member Immaculate connections (Imac), which plays a critical role in regulating dendrite pruning as well. With the help of Prd1, Imac transports AP-2 enriched Clathrin Coated Vesicles (CCVs) or endocytic vesicles from plasma membrane to early endosomes along ...
Although the concept of positional information was first applied to embryonic development (Wolpert, 1969), intracellular positional information governs morphogenesis of individual cells as well. For example, positioning the nucleus at the cell center and growth zones at the cell periphery depends on positional information from the microtubule cytoskeleton in Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Bähler and Pringle, 1998; Castagnetti et al., 2007; Hagan and Yanagida, 1997). Several lines of evidence support the existence of distinct subcompartments in axons and dendrites, but the forms of intracellular positional information and the coordinate systems that guide the development of these subcompartments have not been extensively characterized. Results from our screen and other studies suggest that at least two types of positional information govern C4da dendrite patterning. First, terminal branch distribution along the proximal-distal axis depends on microtubule-based processes; perturbing microtubule-based ...
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Although inhibitory inputs were also shown to terminate on the somata of SBC, the poorly understood eponymous bushy dendrite of SBC could play a key role in modulation. Anatomical studies of other labs revealed unexplained complexity: additional auditory nerve synapses, inhibitory synapses of various identities and sources and even non-auditory excitatory inputs are all found on the dendrites. Additionally, anatomical indications of electrical coupling of SBC dendrites were found. Physiological knowledge about all these findings is scarce or non-existent. It is therefore one of the main goals of the Künzel-lab to analyze the SBCs dendritic inputs and better understand their role in SBC signal processing. The main feature of SBC now becomes an experimental advantage: their responses are precisely phase-locked and their output eventually has to suffice for the coding interaural phase differences. Thus we possess an experimentally well-defined functional read-out that will likely reveal even ...
Dendrite formation is one of the most pressing issues in current battery research. Lithium based batteries are prone to forming short-circuit causing dendrites, while magnesium based batteries are not. Recently it was proposed that the tendency towards dendrite growth is related to the height of the self-dif 2018 Energy and Environmental Science HOT Articles
Antibodies and reagents. Mouse anti-MAP2 (AP20; specific for high-molecular-weight MAP2) and mouse anti-β-tubulin (KMX-1) were obtained from Leinco Technologies (St. Louis, MO). Mouse anti-JNK1 (G151-333) was obtained from PharMingen (San Diego, CA), and mouse anti-striatin was obtained from Transduction Laboratories (Lexington, KY). Rabbit anti-P-JNK, mouse anti-P-ERK, and mouse anti-ERK1/2 were obtained from Cell Signaling Technology (Beverly, MA), and anti-phosphorylated threonine flanked by proline (phospho-TP) was a gift from M. Melnick (Cell Signaling Technology). Mouse anti-actin was a gift from B. Jockusch (Technical University of Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany). Polyclonal anti-stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) and anti-dephospho-MAP2 (972) were gifts from J. Kyriakis (Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA) and J. Avila (Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain). Purified bovine high-molecular weight (HMW)-MAP2 was obtained from Cytoskeleton (Denver, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Layer-specific high-frequency action potential spiking in the prefrontal cortex of awake rats. AU - Boudewijns, Z.S.R.M.. AU - Groen, M.R.. AU - Lodder, B.N.. AU - McMaster, M.T.. AU - Kaleogrades, L.. AU - de Haan, R.. AU - Narayanan, R.T.. AU - Meredith, R.M.. AU - Mansvelder, H.D.. AU - de Kock, C.P.J.. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - Cortical pyramidal neurons show irregular in vivo action potential (AP) spiking with high frequency bursts occurring on sparse background activity. Somatic APs can backpropagate from soma into basal and apical dendrites and locally generate dendritic calcium spikes. The critical AP frequency for generation of such dendritic calcium spikes can be very different depending on cell-type or brain area involved. Previously, it was shown in vitro that calcium electrogenesis can also be induced in L(ayer) 5 pyramidal neurons of prefrontal cortex (PFC). It remains an open question whether somatic burst spiking and the resulting dendritic calcium electrogenesis ...
Protein synthesis in neuronal dendrites underlies long-term memory formation in the brain. Local translation of reporter mRNAs has demonstrated translation in dendrites at focal points called translational hotspots. Various reports have shown that hundreds to thousands of mRNAs are localized to dendrites, yet the dynamics of translation of multiple dendritic mRNAs has remained elusive. Here, we show that the protein translational activities of two dendritically localized mRNAs are spatiotemporally complex but constrained by the translational hotspots in which they are colocalized. Cotransfection of glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2) and GluR4 mRNAs (engineered to encode different fluorescent proteins) into rat hippocampal neurons demonstrates a heterogeneous distribution of translational hotspots for the two mRNAs along dendrites. Stimulation with s-3,5-dihydroxy-phenylglycine modifies the translational dynamics of both of these RNAs in a complex saturable manner. These results suggest that the ...
Huang W., She L., Chang X.Y., Yang R.R., Wang L., Ji H.B., Jiao J.W., Poo M.M.. Adult-born granule cells in the dentate gyrus of the rodent hippocampus are important for memory formation and mood regulation, but the cellular mechanism underlying their polarized development, a process critical for their incorporation into functional circuits, remains unknown. We found that deletion of the serine-threonine protein kinase LKB1 or overexpression of dominant-negative LKB1 reduced the polarized initiation of the primary dendrite from the soma and disrupted its oriented growth toward the molecular layer. This abnormality correlated with the dispersion of Golgi apparatus that normally accumulated at the base and within the initial segment of the primary dendrite, and was mimicked by disrupting Golgi organization via altering the expression of Golgi structural proteins GM130 or GRASP65. Thus, besides its known function in axon formation in embryonic pyramidal neurons, LKB1 plays an additional role in ...
We study the influences of thin and general diameter passive dendrites on the dynamics of single neuronal oscillators. For sufficiently thin dendrites and general somatic dynamics, we elucidate the mechanisms by which dendrites modulate the firing frequency of neurons. We find that the average value of the somatic oscillators phase response curve indicates whether or not the dendrite will cause an increase or decrease in firing frequency. For general diameter dendrites and idealized somatic dynamics, we find that the neuron displays bistable behavior between periodic firing and quiescence. In this case, the dendritic properties cause the cell to behave like a neuronal switch. Furthermore, we identify the mechanism that causes this bistability to occur. This mechanism was previously only described in models that contain active dendritic conductances ...
What about later events in the development of dendrites such as the formation of synapses? Initial studies showed that the Drosophila latheo gene, which encodes the fly Orc3, is required for proper development and transmission at neuromuscular synapses (Pinto et al., 1999; Rohrbough et al., 1999), suggesting a role in synapse development. In the current study, Reichardt and colleagues found that RNAi-mediated knockdown of either Orc3 or Orc5 results in a profound loss of dendritic spines on mammalian hippocampal neurons. This loss of spines was not accompanied by a change in spine morphology or a failure to accumulate the postsynaptic density protein PSD-95, suggesting that ORC loss of function perturbs an early step of spine formation without affecting maturation. Such selectivity is unlike many actin-regulatory and postsynaptic density proteins, which typically influence both spine initiation and maturation (Terry-Lorenzo et al., 2005). Consistent with a role for the ORC in spine initiation, ...
We report the electrodeposition of novel zinc dendrites composed of self-assembled regular hexagonal zinc nanodisks shelled with ZnO layers. The Zn nanodisks range in diameter from about 100 nm to several hundreds of nanometers and are about 20-40 nm thick. The thickness of ZnO layer is about 3-4 nm. In the as-prepared condition, the photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the dendrites are composed of a violet emission band at about 415 nm and a green emission band at about 550 nm at room temperature. The violet and green emissions are attributed to the radiative recombination of a delocalized electron close to the conduction band with a deeply trapped hole in the V Zn - and V O + centers, respectively. The PL of the dendrites can be tuned by heat treatment. With an increase in the heating temperature, the intensity of the green emission increases, while the intensity of the violet emission decreases ...
All the measurements on the brain sections were performed at the approximate level of bregma −2.18. For analysis of apical dendritic length of CA1 pyramidal neurons, the total area of EGFP labeled apical dendrites from the exit point of pyramidal cell layer to the distal end of apical dendrites were measured and normalized to the total area from the exit point of pyramidal cell layer to the pia surface (the boundary between CA1 and dentate gyrus). One normalized value of apical dendrite length was obtained from one brain and a total of 3-4 brains were measured for each group. For analysis of spine morphology, a total of about 2 mm dendrites from 3 brains for each group were examined. Spine density was calculated as the average number on a 20 µm length scale. For analysis of spine size, 100 largest spines from each section (one section from one brain) were identified and their head sizes were measured. 300 values of each group were pooled together for comparison between groups. For analysis of ...
The formation of dendritic arbors is necessary for the proper establishment of neuronal circuits. The Drosophila transcription factor Spineless has been shown to play an important role in the control of dendritic morphogenesis, although the pathways through which it functions are not completely understood. Here, we show genetic evidence that Spineless interacts with the actin/microtubule cross linking protein Shortstop to control the dendrite arbor development of the dendritic arborization (da) sensory neurons. In addition, we have discovered a novel function for spineless as we show that spineless mutant larvae exhibit an increased sensitivity to specific odorants in the absence of morphological defects of the chemosensory organs. These data show that spineless acts in multiple cell-specific contexts to control the diversification of sensory neuron morphology and function.
Scanning electron micrograph of dendrite. From the Greek dendron or tree, dendrites are bush like projections sprouting from a nerves center, or cell body. Dendrites bring information from outside sources such as other neurons or sensory cells to the neurons cell body. As the dendrites transmit information towards the cell body, a longer projection called the axon will carry information away from the cell body to other neurons. - Stock Image C001/5259
Precise pattering of dendrites as well as axons is essential for correct wiring and function of neural circuits. In addition, dendrites from certain mature neurons change their shape in response to changes in the environment. We combine fly/mice genetics, imaging, and biochemical approaches to investigate the interplay between genetic and epigenetic control of dendrite morphogenesis in vivo, and deduce the functional importance of these regulatory systems in disease etiology. In particular, we focus our researches on the genetic and molecular regulation of dendrite pattering and plasticity in the Drosophila sensory circuits. In this talk, I first present how intrinsic and extrinsic cues instruct Drosophila sensory neurons to establish their unique dendritic fields on the body wall. In the latter part, I present two novel mechanisms, dendrite pruning and reshaping, that critically regulate dendrite plasticity in metamorphosis.. ...
Precise pattering of dendrites as well as axons is essential for correct wiring and function of neural circuits. In addition, dendrites from certain mature neurons change their shape in response to changes in the environment. We combine fly/mice genetics, imaging, and biochemical approaches to investigate the interplay between genetic and epigenetic control of dendrite morphogenesis in vivo, and deduce the functional importance of these regulatory systems in disease etiology. In particular, we focus our researches on the genetic and molecular regulation of dendrite pattering and plasticity in the Drosophila sensory circuits. In this talk, I first present how intrinsic and extrinsic cues instruct Drosophila sensory neurons to establish their unique dendritic fields on the body wall. In the latter part, I present two novel mechanisms, dendrite pruning and reshaping, that critically regulate dendrite plasticity in metamorphosis.. ...
Many central nervous system (CNS) neurons have extensively pocampal pyramidal neurons, markedly reducing AP firing arborized dendrites on which they receive the majority of their when initiated from dendritic depolarization, but minimally synaptic contacts. Recent advances in electrophysiological tech- affecting APs initiated from somatic depolarization. This effect niques have shown that the apical dendrites of hippocampal on dendritic excitability was not due to action on Na+ chan- and neocortical pyramidal neurons have markedly different nels, but rather to an increase in Ih, a voltage-gated current electrical properties from those of their corresponding soma- present in high density in the dendrites. These results show ta, and these differing properties are due to non-uniform dis- that a drug can affect excitability and AP firing regionally with- tributions and kinetics of voltage-gated channels. For example, in a neuron, and provide evidence that Ih is centrally involved in hippocampal ...
Intracellular mRNA transport and local translation play a key role in neuronal physiology. Translationally repressed mRNAs are transported as a part of ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles to distant dendritic sites, but the properties of different RNP particles and mechanisms of their repression and transport remain largely unknown. Here, we describe a new class of RNP-particles, the dendritic P-body-like structures (dlPbodies), which are present in the soma and dendrites of mammalian neurons and have both similarities and differences to P-bodies of non-neuronal cells. These structures stain positively for a number of P-body and microRNP components, a microRNA-repressed mRNA and some translational repressors. They appear more heterogeneous than P-bodies of HeLa cells, and they rarely contain the exonuclease Xrn1 but are positive for rRNA. These particles show motorized movements along dendrites and relocalize to distant sites in response to synaptic activation. Furthermore, Dcp1a is stably ...
unc-104bris larvae are characterized by impairments in the reliable apposition of AZs and PSDs as quantified by staining for Brp (Wagh et al. 2006) and glutamate receptors. Brp clusters calcium channels at AZs and stabilizes T-bars, which are electron-dense presynaptic structures that have been shown to facilitate synaptic release (Kittel et al. 2006). In wild-type larvae, primarily very young (,3 h), immature synapses are Brp negative (Rasse et al. 2005). Because Brp-negative synapses have a low vesicle release probability, the accumulation of Brp at nascent AZs is an important step during synapse maturation (Rasse et al. 2005; Kittel et al. 2006; Schmid et al. 2008). The high percentage of Brp-negative synapses in the unc-104bris mutant suggests that synapse maturation is impaired either by rate-limiting axonal transport of Brp, defective delivery of Brp to AZs, or the inability to stabilize synaptic Brp. Restoration of Brp abundance at NMJs in unc-104bris larvae ameliorates but does not ...
Kv4.2 is abundant in the dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus.[293]. Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 are expressed in membranes of somata, dendrites, and spines of pyramidal cells and GABAergic neurons. [319]. KChIP2 co-localizes with Kv4.2 in the dendrites of granule cells in the dentate gyrus (Fig. 3d-f), in the apical and basal dendrites of hippocampal and neocortical pyramidal cells, and in several subcortical structures including the striatum and thalamus [1195]. Immunocytochemical studies have shown that the subcellular distribution of neuronal rat Kv4.2 channels is restricted to the somatodendritic area, and the high abundance of Kv4.2 in the soma and dendrites led to the hypothesis that these channels may have an important influence on postsynaptic neuronal signal transduction [1686]. Immunohistochemical analysis shows that Kv4.2 has a somatodendritic distribution, and in adult hippocampus, Kv4.2 is expressed on distal dendrites and neuropils of CA1-3 neurons. The somatodendritic ...
Each neuron has a hair-like structure surrounding it - these are the dendrites. Dendrites are some tens of microns in length. The branch out into a tree-like form around the cell body. The dendrites are like electrical cables which serve to conduct incoming signals to the cell. The axon or nerve fiber is the outgoing connection for signals emitted by the neuron. It differs from the dendrites in its shape and by the properties of its external membrane. It is usually much longer than the dendrites, varying from a millimeter (one thousandth of a meter) to one meter. At its end it branches into smaller structures which communicate with other neurons. The branching of the dendrites, in contrast, takes place much closer to the cell body. Neurons are connected together at these extremities in a complex spatial arrangement. Typically a given neuron is connected to about ten thousand other neurons. The specific point of contact between the axon of one cell and a dendrite of another is called a synapse. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - RNA trafficking and local protein synthesis in dendrites. T2 - an overview.. AU - Martin, Kelsey C.. AU - Zukin, R. Suzanne. PY - 2006/7/5. Y1 - 2006/7/5. N2 - It is now widely accepted that mRNAs localize to dendrites and that translation of these mRNAs is regulated in response to neuronal activity. Recent studies have begun to reveal the underpinnings of these processes and to underscore the importance of local protein synthesis to synaptic remodeling and plasticity. When Steward and Levy (1982) first reported their observation of polyribosomes at the base of spines, the prevailing view was that all proteins were synthesized in the cell body and then transported to distal compartments of neurons. Steward and Levys discovery, however, raised the intriguing possibility that mRNAs could be transported to synapses and locally translated in response to synaptic stimulation. This provided an elegant mechanism for spatially restricting gene expression within the neuron, such that ...
The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4) is essential in muscle fibers for the establishment of the neuromuscular junction. Here, we show that LRP4 is also expressed by embryonic cortical and hippocampal neurons, and that downregulation of LRP4 in these neurons causes a reduction in density of synapses and number of primary dendrites. Accordingly, overexpression of LRP4 in cultured neurons had the opposite effect inducing more but shorter primary dendrites with an increased number of spines. Transsynaptic tracing mediated by rabies virus revealed a reduced number of neurons presynaptic to the cortical neurons in which LRP4 was knocked down. Moreover, neuron-specific knockdown of LRP4 by in utero electroporation of LRP4 miRNA in vivo also resulted in neurons with fewer primary dendrites and a lower density of spines in the developing cortex and hippocampus. Collectively, our results demonstrate an essential and novel role of neuronal LRP4 in dendritic development and ...
Down regulation of GGTβ decreases dendrite growth and branching of PCs. A) HEK293 cells were co-transfected with Myc-GGTα and HA-GGTβ, together with pSUPER-G
July 14th, 2017 , by April Gocha. New research from MIT shows that firmness isnt the most important parameter for developing a solid electrolyte that is effective against dendrite formation-instead, a defect-free surface, which doesnt provide a place for dendrites to form, is key to a better battery. ...
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Researchers have proposed that a malfunction during brain development when neurons are growing and forming connections with other nerve cells is an underlying cause of autism. In particular, there appears to be impairments in the growth of dendrites-branch-like protrusions the neurons use to form connections with other nerve cells.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Development of dendrite polarity in Drosophila neurons. AU - Hill, Sarah E.. AU - Parmar, Manpreet. AU - Gheres, Kyle W.. AU - Guignet, Michelle A.. AU - Huang, Yanmei. AU - Jackson, F. R.. AU - Rolls, Melissa M.. PY - 2012/10/30. Y1 - 2012/10/30. N2 - Background: Drosophila neurons have dendrites that contain minus-end-out microtubules. This microtubule arrangement is different from that of cultured mammalian neurons, which have mixed polarity microtubules in dendrites.Results: To determine whether Drosophila and mammalian dendrites have a common microtubule organization during development, we analyzed microtubule polarity in Drosophila dendritic arborization neuron dendrites at different stages of outgrowth from the cell body in vivo. As dendrites initially extended, they contained mixed polarity microtubules, like mammalian neurons developing in culture. Over a period of several days this mixed microtubule array gradually matured to a minus-end-out array. To determine whether ...
Activity of protein kinase C (PKC), and in particular the PKCgamma-isoform, has been shown to strongly affect and regulate Purkinje cell dendritic development, suggesting an important role for PKC in activity-dependent Purkinje cell maturation. In this study we have analyzed the role of two additional Ca(2+)-dependent PKC isoforms, PKCalpha and -beta, in Purkinje cell survival and dendritic morphology in slice cultures using mice deficient in the respective enzymes. Pharmacological PKC activation strongly reduced basal Purkinje cell dendritic growth in wild-type mice whereas PKC inhibition promoted branching. Purkinje cells from mice deficient in PKCbeta, which is expressed in two splice forms by granule but not Purkinje cells, did not yield measurable morphological differences compared to respective wild-type cells under either experimental condition. In contrast, Purkinje cell dendrites in cultures from PKCalpha-deficient mice were clearly protected from the negative effects on dendritic ...
TPLSM allowed high-resolution imaging of three-dimensional neuronal structure deep within brain slices (50 to 200 μm). For time-lapse observations, the tissue was placed into a perfusion chamber and superfused continuously (2 ml/min) with ACSF: 119 mM NaCl, 2.5 mM KCl, 4 mM CaCl2, 4 mM MgCl2, 26.2 mM NaHCO3, 1 mM NaH2PO4, 11 mM glucose, and 100 μM picrotoxin; then gassed with 95% O2 and 5% CO2 at 32° to 33°C. Data acquired at room temperature were indistinguishable but were not used in the analysis. Imaging was performed with a custom-built TPLSM microscope (17). The light source was a Ti:Sapphire laser (Mira, Coherent) running at a wavelength of 900 to 910 nm (repetition frequency, 76 MHz; pulse length, 100 fs). The average power delivered to the backfocal plane of the objective (63×, NA 0.9, Zeiss) varied depending on the imaging depth (range, 30 to 200 mW). Fluorescence was detected in whole-field detection mode with a photomultiplier tube (Hamamatsu, R3896). The transillumination light ...
TPLSM allowed high-resolution imaging of three-dimensional neuronal structure deep within brain slices (50 to 200 μm). For time-lapse observations, the tissue was placed into a perfusion chamber and superfused continuously (2 ml/min) with ACSF: 119 mM NaCl, 2.5 mM KCl, 4 mM CaCl2, 4 mM MgCl2, 26.2 mM NaHCO3, 1 mM NaH2PO4, 11 mM glucose, and 100 μM picrotoxin; then gassed with 95% O2 and 5% CO2 at 32° to 33°C. Data acquired at room temperature were indistinguishable but were not used in the analysis. Imaging was performed with a custom-built TPLSM microscope (17). The light source was a Ti:Sapphire laser (Mira, Coherent) running at a wavelength of 900 to 910 nm (repetition frequency, 76 MHz; pulse length, 100 fs). The average power delivered to the backfocal plane of the objective (63×, NA 0.9, Zeiss) varied depending on the imaging depth (range, 30 to 200 mW). Fluorescence was detected in whole-field detection mode with a photomultiplier tube (Hamamatsu, R3896). The transillumination light ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Activation of interneurons at the stratum oriens/alveus border suppresses excitatory transmission to apical dendrites in the CA1 area of the mouse hippocampus. AU - Yanovsky, Y.. AU - Sergeeva, O. A.. AU - Freund, T.. AU - Haas, H. L.. PY - 1997/1/6. Y1 - 1997/1/6. N2 - The consequences of activation or inactivation of interneurons at the CA1 stratum oriens/alveus border for signal transmission at the apical dendritic region of pyramidal cells were investigated in slices from mice submerged in a perfusion chamber. A characteristic subpopulation of interneurons with a horizontal dendritic tree in this region, which sends a GABAergic projection to the apical dendrites of CA1 pyramidal cells is strongly excited by metabotropic glutamate receptor activation and receives GABAergic input from vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-containing interneurons. Pressure ejection of glutamate or the metabotropic agonist 1s,3r-aminocyclopentane dicarboxylic acid from micropipettes onto the stratum ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dendritic spine morphogenesis and plasticity. AU - Lippman, Jocelyn. AU - Dunaevsky, Anna. PY - 2005/7. Y1 - 2005/7. N2 - Dendritic spines are small protrusions off the dendrite that receive excitatory synaptic input. Spines vary in size, likely correlating with the strength of the synapses they form. In the developing brain, spines show highly dynamic behavior thought to facilitate the formation of new synaptic contacts. Recent studies have illuminated the numerous molecules regulating spine development, many of which converge on the regulation of actin filaments. In addition, interactions with glial cells are emerging as important regulators of spine morphology. In many cases, spine morphogenesis, plasticity, and maintenance also depend on synaptic activity, as shown by recent studies demonstrating changes in spine dynamics and maintenance with altered sensory experience.. AB - Dendritic spines are small protrusions off the dendrite that receive excitatory synaptic input. ...
Objective: Motor neurons (MNs) die in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a clinically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disease of unknown aetiology. In human or rodent studies, MN loss is preceded by increased excitability. As increased neuronal excitability correlates with structural changes in dendritic arbors and spines, we have examined longitudinal changes in dendritic structure in vulnerable neuron populations in a mouse model of familial ALS. Methods: We used a modified Golgi-Cox staining method to determine the progressive changes in dendritic structure of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, striatal medium spiny neurons, and resistant (trochlear, IV) or susceptible (hypoglossal, XII; lumbar) MNs from brainstem and spinal cord of mice over-expressing the human SOD1G93A (SOD1) mutation, in comparison to wild-type (WT) mice, at 4 postnatal (P) ages of 8-15, 28-35, 65-75 and 120 days. Results: In SOD1 mice, dendritic changes occur at pre-symptomatic ages in both XII and spinal cord lumbar MNs.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Basal forebrain neurons undergo somatal and dendritic remodeling during postnatal development. T2 - a single-section Golgi and choline acetyltransferase analysis. AU - Gould, Elizabeth. AU - Farris, Todd W.. AU - Butcher, Larry L.. N1 - Funding Information: This research was supported by USPHS Grant NS-10928 to L.L.B.. PY - 1989/4/1. Y1 - 1989/4/1. N2 - In an attempt to determine whether or not morphologic changes occur in the cholinergic basal forebrain during postnatal development, Golgi-impregnated and choline acetyltransferase-positive cells were examined in adult and postnatal day (P) 10, 14, 18, and 27 rats. Light microscopic analyses revealed progressive increases in cross-sectional cell body area, number of primary dendrites, number of dendritic branch points, and length of the longest dendrite that peaked at P18 and thereafter decreased to smaller adult values with the exception of dendritic length which monotonically increased until adulthood. These findings suggest ...
Looking for Dionysos Dendrites? Find out information about Dionysos Dendrites. in Greek religion and mythology, god of fertility and wine. Legends concerning him are profuse and contradictory. However, he was one of the most important... Explanation of Dionysos Dendrites
Rechargeable aprotic alkali metal (Li or Na)-O2 batteries are the subject of great interest because of their high theoretical specific energy. However, the growth of dendrites and cracks at the Li or Na anode, as well as their corrosive oxidation lead to poor cycling stability and safety issues. Understanding the mechanism and improving Li/Na-ion plating and stripping electrochemistry are therefore essential to realizing their technological potential. Here, we report how the use of a Li-Na alloy anode and an electrolyte additive realizes an aprotic bimetal Li-Na alloy-O2 battery with improved cycling stability. Electrochemical investigations show that stripping and plating of Li and Na and the robust and flexible passivation film formed in situ (by 1,3-dioxolane additive reacting with the Li-Na alloy) suppress dendrite and buffer alloy anode volume expansion and thus prevent cracking, avoiding electrolyte consumption and ensuring high electron transport efficiency and continued electrochemical reactions
Fast-spiking, parvalbumin-expressing basket cells (BCs) play a key role in feedforward and feedback inhibition in the hippocampus. However, the dendritic mechanisms underlying rapid interneuron recruitment have remained unclear. To quantitatively address this question, we developed detailed passive cable models of BCs in the dentate gyrus based on dual somatic or somatodendritic recordings and complete morphologic reconstructions. Both specific membrane capacitance and axial resistivity were comparable to those of pyramidal neurons, but the average somatodendritic specific membrane resistance (R(m)) was substantially lower in BCs. Furthermore, R(m) was markedly nonuniform, being lowest in soma and proximal dendrites, intermediate in distal dendrites, and highest in the axon. Thus, the somatodendritic gradient of R(m) was the reverse of that in pyramidal neurons. Further computational analysis revealed that these unique cable properties accelerate the time course of synaptic potentials at the ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Circuit Mechanisms of a Retinal Ganglion Cell with Stimulus-Dependent Response Latency and Activation Beyond Its Dendrites. AU - Mani, Adam. AU - Schwartz, Gregory William. PY - 2017/2/20. Y1 - 2017/2/20. N2 - Center-surround antagonism has been used as the canonical model to describe receptive fields of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) for decades. We describe a newly identified RGC type in the mouse, called the ON delayed (OND) RGC, with receptive field properties that deviate from center-surround organization. Responding with an unusually long latency to light stimulation, OND RGCs respond earlier as the visual stimulus increases in size. Furthermore, OND RGCs are excited by light falling far beyond their dendrites. We unravel details of the circuit mechanisms behind these phenomena, revealing new roles for inhibition in controlling both temporal and spatial receptive field properties. The non-canonical receptive field properties of the OND RGC-integration of long temporal and ...
Neurons are all about specialized structures having specialized roles. Youve given a good justification for dendrites---an efficient way to fit lots of connections in a small space. A pyramidal neuron in cortex, for instance, will have tens of thousands of synapses. If you only had axosomatic connections, the soma would have to be enormous to fit all of them (and this would cause lots of other issues).. Dendritic structure also allows the cell more efficient electrical properties (see cable theory) and to process inputs independently. In fact, different parts of the dendrite are now thought of as independent computational compartments. For instance, the cell might want to selectively strengthen a single synapse or all the synapses on one dendritic branch. By physically isolating those synapses in small dendritic structures, it is easier to make those targeted changes without unwanted crosstalk on other synapses or cell activities. Whats more, incoming connections from different areas often ...
1st Paragraph: Many studies have shown that Pd-based nanocrystals (NCs) with multifarious nanoarchitectures from zero to three dimensions represent comparable or even higher catalytic activity for liquid fuel oxidation or oxygen reduction reaction and greater resistance to CO poisoning than that of Pt [1, 2]. Among them, hollow NCs (HNCs) have sparked tremendous research attention for their cost-saving feature [3]. Owing to its high utilization of noble metal, high surface-to-volume ratio, void interior and high porosity, Pd-based NCs with hollow features present great potential as efficient catalysts in fuel cell technologies [4]. Besides, a series of previous work has demonstrated that the rough dendritic architecture highly favour desirable high mass-activity of noble metal NCs [5]. It would be greatly advantageous to prepare dendritic NCs with hollow interior because of the expected utilization of noble metals and the high surface area-driven activity. For instance, Yusuke Yusuke Yamauchis ...
Dendritic spines, small actin-rich protrusions from dendritic shafts, are the primary locus of excitatory synapses on neurons. Changes in dendritic spine morphology play a key role in memory formation and learning (Kasai et al., 2003). The loss or malformation of spines is also linked to many neurological diseases, which indicates the importance of proper regulation of spine morphology (Calabrese et al., 2006). Spines come in a wide range of sizes and shapes, even within the same brain region and the same dendrite. Individual spines also change shape continuously. Developmental shape changes follow a progressive replacement of the thin, elongated, and highly motile filopodia-like structures by more stable dendritic spines, which reach morphological maturity with a distinct neck and head (Oray et al., 2006).. The actin cytoskeleton is central to numerous cellular processes involving membrane dynamics such as motility, morphogenesis, and endocytosis. During these processes, the barbed ends of ...
Developing chick NL neurons express both HVA and LVA-type Ca2+ channels in their dendrites. These currents were larger than those recorded from the avian cochlear nucleus magnocellularis (Koyano et al. 1996; Sivaramakrishnan and Laurent 1995), mammalian ventral cochlear nucleus (octopus cells: Bal and Oertel 2007), or neurons enzymatically isolated from the mammalian dorsal cochlear nucleus (Molitor and Manis 1999). Both current types could be activated rapidly by spikes. Given that these signals arose within milliseconds of the stimulus (and thus are not likely to arise from Ca2+ diffusion from distant sources) and were larger in more distal dendrites than proximal ones, it is likely that HVA and LVA channels are distributed even on the most distal processes of NL.. Because NL dendrites are relatively small, it is difficult to determine directly the amplitude of the voltage transient that activated Ca2+ channels. Recent studies indicate that spikes in NL of hatchling chicks are initiated in the ...
EH}} ==Overview== A pseudounipolar neuron (pseudo - false, uni - one) is a [[sensory neuron,sensory]] [[neuron]] in the [[peripheral nervous system]]. This neuron contains a long [[dendrite]] and a short [[axon]] that connects to the [[spinal cord]]. The dendrite and axon are sometimes called distal process and proximal process, respectively.,ref>http://neuro.vetmed.ufl.edu/neuro/neurocl.htm,/ref> ==The dendrite of a pseudounipolar neuron== By definition a pseudounipolar neuron has one dendrite and one axon. Just as for every neuron, the dendrite conducts [[nerve impulses]] toward the [[cell body]], and the axon conducts them away from the cell body. However, the dendrite of a pseudounipolar neuron is structurally and functionally an axon, except at its terminal part where it contacts a specialized [[sensory organ]].,ref>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=mcb.figgrp.6110,/ref> When the sensory organ transduces information, it initiates an [[action potential]] ...
ICAM-5 was first described as a telencephalon-specific molecule (telencephalin) with high homology to the previously described ICAM-molecules (Gahmberg, 1997; Yoshihara and Mori, 1994). In the immune system, the receptor of ICAM-5 is the β2 integrin LFA-1 expressed on peripheral blood leukocytes and microglia (Tian et al., 1997; Mizuno et al., 1999; Tian et al., 2000a; Zhang et al., 2008; Ransohoff and Cardona, 2010). In the CNS, the roles of ICAM-5 in stimulating dendrite outgrowth, delaying spine maturation and increasing LTP have been extensively studied (Tian et al., 2000b; Nyman-Huttunen et al., 2006; Matsuno et al., 2006; Nakamura et al., 2001). Upon stimulation of NMDA receptors and MMP activation, ICAM-5 ectodomain cleavage is promoted, which induces spine maturation (Tian et al., 2007). Furthermore, the addictive drug methamphetamine stimulates ICAM-5 cleavage, and this cleavage was blocked with MMP inhibitors (Conant et al., 2010). These findings highlight important roles of ICAM-5 in ...
In a note to Science (Rall, 1957), it was pointed out that the rapid voltage transient recorded in response to an applied current step from a single cat spinal motoneuron, by means of the recently introduced glass micro-electrode, was being misinterpreted, because the cable properties of the dendrites had been neglected. By assuming this transient to be a single exponential, Eccles and others implicitly assumed that they were recording from a soma without dendrites. If , on the other hand, one assumes the dendrites to be dominant, one expects a significantly different transient function, that is much closer to those known to cable theory for non-myelinated axons. The actual problem is a soma with significant dendrites. Rall prepared a detailed analysis of this intermediate problem, and submitted it to the Journal of General Physiology, in 1958. A negative referee persuaded the editors to reject this MS. The fact that Eccles was this referee was obvious from the many marginal notes found on the ...
Scientists have used cryo-electron microscopy to capture the first atomic-level images of the crystalline dendrites that can grow in batteries.
But I dont understand why youd want to do this anyway. The whole point of having a dendrite is to introduce membrane that is not isopotential with the spike trigger zone. It has been a decade at least since it was demonstrated that somatic spikes do not suck all synaptic charge out of the dendrites of real cells or reset membrane potential to ek or resting level (sorry, I dont recall the authors but I think that was published in Science). And years before that it was known that backpropagating spikes spread decrementally into dendrites, often dying out over relatively short distances. So why reset the whole dendrite after a somatic spike ...
There have been few quantitative characterizations of the morphological, biophysical, and cable properties of neurons in the human neocortex. We employed feature-based statistical methods on a rare data set of 60 3D reconstructed pyramidal neurons from L2 and L3 in the human temporal cortex (HL2/L3 PCs) removed after brain surgery. Of these cells, 25 neurons were also characterized physiologically. Thirty-two morphological features were analyzed (e.g., dendritic surface area, 36 333 +/- 18 157 mu m(2); number of basal trees, 5.55 +/- 1.47; dendritic diameter, 0.76 +/- 0.28 mu m). Eighteen features showed a significant gradual increase with depth from the pia (e.g., dendritic length and soma radius). The other features showed weak or no correlation with depth (e.g., dendritic diameter). The basal dendritic terminals in HL2/L3 PCs are particularly elongated, enabling multiple nonlinear processing units in these dendrites. Unlike the morphological features, the active biophysical features (e.g., spike
The function of Ric-3, which is required for nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) expression in C. elegans, is unclear. Here we found that Ric-3 can promote or inhibit cell-surface delivery of alpha-bungarotoxin-binding nAChRs (BgtRs) composed of alpha7 subunits. At low levels, Ric-3 promoted BgtR assembly, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) release, and cell-surface delivery without trafficking from the ER. At high Ric-3 levels, Ric-3 suppressed BgtR surface delivery, but not its assembly, and BgtRs were retained in the ER or in Ric-3-containing aggregates. In PC12 cells, native BgtRs trafficked to the cell surface from the ER where low levels of endogenous Ric-3 were observed. In cultured neurons, native Ric-3 levels were higher than in PC12 cells, and Ric-3 and alpha7 subunits were found in somata and dendrites, but not axons, of inhibitory interneurons. Ric-3 trafficked with alpha7 subunits in rapidly moving vesicles to dendrites, where it was restricted to the ER subcompartment. We conclude ...
the sphingolipid mutations look like IQ boosters. The key datum is the effect of increased levels of the storage compounds. Glucosylceramide, the Gaucher storage compound, promotes axonal growth and branching (Schwartz et al., 1995). In vitro, decreased glucosylceramide results in stunted neurones with short axons while an increase over normal levels (caused by chemically inhibiting glucocerebrosidase) increases axon length and branching. There is a similar effect in Tay-Sachs (Walkley et al., 2000; Walkley, 2003): decreased levels of GM2 ganglioside inhibit dendrite growth, while an increase over normal levels causes a marked increase in dendritogenesis. This increased dendritogenesis also occurs in Niemann-Pick type A cells, and in animal models of Tay-Sachs and Niemann-Pick. (Cochran et al., 2006 ...
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A large number of predictions from passive electrotonic analyses [38-40] have revealed general principles of dendritic computation that were consequently also shown to be true in experiments [41, 42] or complex active computational models [43-45]. Using simplified branched morphological models and the resulting derived compartmental models, we showed that dendritic retraction in passive dendrites leads to a selective boost of bAPs specifically in the retracted dendritic region. This is in line with a previous study that proposed the number of branch points as a predictor of bAP efficacy [18] since reducing the number of dendritic branches decreases the number of branch points [46]. Because of its general applicability, we would like to claim that the principle that we describe in this manuscript will apply under a wide variety of biologically relevant settings in adult animals.. First, we have tested this in the case of the dentate gyrus granule cell. Retracting distal dendrites as a consequence ...
Dendritic spines are major sites of excitatory synapses in the brain and display rapid motility, which is believed to be important for synapse formation and plasticity. Spine morphology was previously shown to be regulated by the Rho GTPases Rac1 and RhoA. Here, we analyzed the roles of Rac1 and a d …
Dendrites: Each granule cell has 3 - 4 stubby dendrites which end in a claw. Each of the dendrites are only about 15 μm in ... The dendrite branches terminate within the outer plexiform layer among the dendrites in the olfactory tract.[7] In the ... Shorter granule cell dendrites[edit]. Patients suffering from Alzheimer's have shorter granule cell dendrites. Furthermore, the ... The granule cell has a characteristic cone-shaped tree of spiny apical dendrites. The dendrite branches project throughout the ...
A series of papers explored the hypothesis that the apical dendrite is not "just another dendrite" but has its own special ... A formal description of a theory of electric resonance in apical dendrites appeared in an article by Kasevich & LaBerge (2010 ... Kasevich, R.S., and LaBerge, D. (2010). Theory of electric resonance in the neocortical apical dendrite. PLoS ONE, 6(8): e23412 ... David LaBerge (born 1929) is a neuropsychologist specializing in the attention process and the role of apical dendrites in ...
Cumulate; see also layered intrusion Decussate Devitirification; devitrified Dendritic texture; dendrites Diatextite; see also ...
Research to inhibit dendrite formation has been an active area due in part to the need for a stable anode for these new beyond- ... No dendrites form. The cell has 3 times the energy density of conventional lithium-ion batteries. An extended life of more than ... The notion is that solid-state designs are safer because they prevent dendrites from causing short circuits. They also have the ... The batteries used a zinc charge carrier with a solid polymer electrolyte that prevents dendrite formation and provides greater ...
Dendrites −3.5 to −10 26 to 14 0.5 to 1.2 0.013 to 0.032 Solid prisms Hollow prisms ...
This effect is known as shunting inhibition (as opposed to inhibition by hyperpolarization). Illuminating the dendrite prevents ... Takahashi, Naoya; Oertner, Thomas G.; Hegemann, Peter; Larkum, Matthew E. (2016-12-23). "Active cortical dendrites modulate ...
Since dendrites are very common in Solnhofen limestones, it is possible that the structures could have formed along the cracks ... Billy, C.; Cailleux, A. (1969). "Dendrites de manganèse et bactéries". Science Progrès Découverte. 3414: 381-385. Davis, P.G.; ... that reminded him of dendrites, which are inorganic pseudofossils. He thought it was possible that someone had skillfully ...
Li dendrites reduce coulombic efficiency. Dendrites commonly form during electrodeposition during charge and discharge. Li ions ... Such anodes tend to suffer from the formation and the growth of Li dendrites. Dendrites penetrate the separator between the ... "Stress-driven lithium dendrite growth mechanism and dendrite mitigation by electroplating on soft substrates". Nature Energy. 3 ... However, if the growth is uneven, dendrites form. Stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) was found to be the most effective ...
Dendrites in solidification, liquid crystals. Solitons. Sphere packings and coverings. Mathematics underlies the other pattern ...
Dendrite test. A multi-part test:(1) the plaintiff must make good faith efforts to notify the poster and give the poster a ... When deciding this case, the court set forth a new three-part test by considering both of the Dendrite and Cahill tests: (1) ...
Active dendrites: cell recognizes hundreds of unique patterns - Models dendrites and NMDA spikes with each array of coincident ... Thousands of synapses on the dendrites - Active dendrites: cell recognizes hundreds of unique patterns ... Each individual piece, or compartment, of a dendrite is modeled by a straight cylinder of arbitrary length l and diameter d ... We can iterate these equations through the tree until we get the point where the dendrites connect to the cell body (soma), ...
Active dendrites: cell recognizes hundreds of unique patterns. *Models dendrites and NMDA spikes with each array of coincident ... Active dendrites: cell recognizes hundreds of unique patterns. *Co-activation of a set of synapses on a dendritic segment ... Apical dendrites that depolarize the soma (usually not sufficient enough to generate a somatic action potential) ...
They typically have a single primary dendrite, which they project into a single glomerulus in the glomerular layer, and a few ... In mice, each mitral cell sends a single primary dendrite into a glomerulus receiving input from a population of olfactory ... The role of the mitral cell lateral dendrite and granule cell circuit is currently a bit more uncertain. One possible ... Dryer, L.; Graziadei, P.P.C. (1994). "Mitral cell dendrites: A comparative approach". Anatomy and Embryology. 189 (2): 91-106. ...
Dendrites can also aid neuron classification. Dendrites with spines are classified as spiny, those without spines are ... Apart from visual classification of the aspinous dendrites, they can be immunohistochemically labelled with glutamic acid ...
Most basal dendrites enter the hilus. These hilar dendrites are shorter and thinner, and have fewer side branches. A second ... The granule cells only have apical dendrites in the rat. But in the monkey and human, many granule cells also have basal ... Seress, L; Mrzljak, L (3 March 1987). "Basal dendrites of granule cells are normal features of the fetal and adult dentate ... Some of the basal dendrites of the granule cells curve up into the molecular layer. ...
Tai HC, Schuman EM (February 2006). "MicroRNA: microRNAs reach out into dendrites". Current Biology. 16 (4): R121-3. doi: ...
Impaired dendrite outgrowth. In one study, reeler mice were shown to have attenuated methamphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion, ... Niu S, Renfro A, Quattrocchi CC, Sheldon M, D'Arcangelo G (Jan 2004). "Reelin promotes hippocampal dendrite development through ...
... dendrite cytoplasm) of neuronal cells. Will CL, Lührmann R (July 2011). "Spliceosome structure and function". Cold Spring ... "RNA splicing capability of live neuronal dendrites". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ...
In neurophysiology, a dendritic spike refers to an action potential generated in the dendrite of a neuron. Dendrites are ... There seems to be no general pattern of distribution for voltage-gated channels within dendrites. Different neuronal dendrites ... Dendrites contain voltage-gated ion channels giving them the ability to generate action potentials. Dendritic spikes have been ... T-type and R-type voltage-gated calcium channels have been found in basal dendrites, and it is thought that the activation of ...
These patterns are dendrites of various salts. Arranged century egg on a plate Century egg with congee Century eggs for sale in ...
It promotes localized microtubule assembly in neuronal dendrites. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000119125 - Ensembl, May ...
For dendrites, new evidence suggests that an abnormal tau invasion into dendrites causes a heightened level of dendritic TTLL6 ... In a healthy neuron, this process does not occur at a significant degree in dendrites, causing the absence of tau on dendritic ... A juvenile isoform of MAP2 is present on neurotubules of axons and dendrites of developing neurons but becomes down-regulated ... The adult isoform of MAP2 is enriched in the neurotubules of dendrites and is virtually absent from axonal neurotubules. In ...
Hippocampus Dendrite India portal Biology portal "Brief Profile of the Awardee". Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize. 2016. Retrieved ... Ashhad S, Narayanan R (June 2016). "Active dendrites regulate the impact of gliotransmission on rat hippocampal pyramidal ... Rishikesh Narayanan, Daniel Johnston (June 2008). "Active dendrites: colorful wings of the mysterious butterflies". Trends ...
The scope of these changes could be global or compartmentalized in the dendrites. One well studied example of heterosynaptic ... Ca2+ is not restricted to dendrites specifically activated). This spillover represents another mechanism of heterosynaptic ...
How do axons and dendrites form during development? How do axons know where to target and how to reach these targets? How do ... Computational modeling of biophysically realistic neurons and dendrites began with the work of Wilfrid Rall, with the first ... The computational functions of complex dendrites are also under intense investigation. There is a large body of literature ... which postulates that the formation of axons and dendrites effectively minimizes resource allocation while maintaining maximal ...
... s may lack dendrites or have no axon. The term neurite is used to describe either a dendrite or an axon, particularly ... The axon and dendrites are filaments that extrude from it. Dendrites typically branch profusely and extend a few hundred ... However, synapses can connect an axon to another axon or a dendrite to another dendrite. The signaling process is partly ... The dendrites of a neuron are cellular extensions with many branches. This overall shape and structure is referred to ...
Volkmar FR, Greenough WT (June 1972). "Rearing complexity affects branching of dendrites in the visual cortex of the rat". ... Brains in richer, more stimulating environments have higher rates of synaptogenesis and more complex dendrite arbors, leading ... Environmental enrichment affects the complexity and length of the dendrite arbors (upon which synapses form). Higher-order ... Schapiro S, Vukovich KR (January 1970). "Early experience effects upon cortical dendrites: a proposed model for development". ...
... affects dendrites and axons as well. There is evident shrinkage in the main dendritic shafts. The ... In the initial parts of the dendrites, mitochondrial swelling and dilation can be seen. This swelling can also be seen in the ... but this disease also causes apoptosis in purkinje cells and causes them to have dystrophic dendrites. Loss of sensory ... causes the hyperphosphorylation of the tau protein and redistributing those proteins from the axon to the dendrites, which ...
The melanin produced and stored inside the melanocyte in the melanosomal compartment is transported via dendrites to the ... from these melanocytes originate dendrites that reach keratinocytes. Melanosomes along with the melanin they contain are ... overlaying keratinocytes." "Each melanocyte resides in the basal epithelial layer and, by virtue of its dendrites, interacts ...
These shapes include hexagons, cubes, columns, and dendrites. This process is referred to as "ice enhancement" by atmospheric ...
Dendrites are one of two types of short, threadlike fibers that extend from the cell body of a nerve cell, or neuron . The ... Dendrite ,Nerve cell fibers that receive signals from other cells. ... dendrite Any of the slender branching processes that arise from the dendrons of the cell body of a motor neuron. A dendrite ... Dendrite. Nerve cell fibers that receive signals from other cells.. Dendrites are one of two types of short, threadlike fibers ...
... produce outgrowths called axons and dendrites, by which the cells of the nervous system establish communication with one ... Other articles where Dendrite is discussed: animal development: The brain and spinal cord: … ... Dendrites are thought to form receiving surfaces for synaptic input from other neurons. In many dendrites these surfaces are ... In nervous system: Dendrites. ) Besides the axon, neurons have other branches called dendrites that are usually shorter than ...
Unipolar dendrites are used to detect sensory stimuli such as touch or temperature. The term dendrites was first used in 1889 ... However, synapses involving dendrites can also be axodendritic, involving an axon signaling to a dendrite, or dendrodendritic, ... These contribute to the organization of the dendrites on individual cell bodies and the placement of these dendrites in the ... Axons can be distinguished from dendrites by several features including shape, length, and function. Dendrites often taper off ...
... which triggers dendrite retraction and limits dendrite outgrowth. ... Pruning Dendrites Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a ... The inhibitory effect of CaMKIIβ on dendrite growth required its catalytic activity and a domain that localized the protein to ... Neurons with Cdc20 localized at the centrosome had longer dendrites than those in which Cdc20 was not localized at the ... uncovered a role for Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIβ (CaMKIIβ) in dendrite patterning. Rat granule neurons ...
Newborn female rat pups have only about half the number of dendritic spines on their hypothalamic neurons as newborn male rat pups, a difference that disappears when the newborn females are treated with testosterone (which is aromatized to estradiol in the brain). Schwarz et al. found that estradiol treatment increased dendritic length and number of spines on neurons in the medial basal hypothalamus of newborn females to levels comparable to those in male pups and increased the abundance of the protein spinophilin. The glutamate agonist N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) mimicked these effects, whereas NMDA- and AMPA-type glutamate receptor antagonists blocked the increase in spinophilin. Estradiol did not affect the abundance or the function of hypothalamic NMDA- and AMPA-type glutamate receptors. Rather, analysis of the ratio of the amplitudes of paired excitatory postsynaptic currents indicated that estradiol increased glutamate release from presynaptic neurons, as did experiments assessing ...
The integrative properties of dendrites are determined by a complex mixture of factors, including their morphology, the spatio- ... Dendrites: bug or feature? Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2003 Jun;13(3):372-83. doi: 10.1016/s0959-4388(03)00075-8. ... The integrative properties of dendrites are determined by a complex mixture of factors, including their morphology, the spatio- ...
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... leads to a remodeling of dendrites during brain development, according to a new study conducted in cultured neurons and an ASD ... Autism-linked gene stunts developing dendrites Genetic variation leads to excessive pruning of dendrites in rats cells and ... Autism-linked gene stunts developing dendrites. Society for Neuroscience. Journal. Journal of Neuroscience. Funder. National ... Changes in the number and structure of dendrites have been observed in patients with ASDs, which are typically diagnosed during ...
Dendrite derives from the Greek word "dendron" meaning (lit. "tree-like"), and may refer to: Dendrite, a branched projection of ... a neuron Dendrite (non-neuronal), branching projections of certain skin cells and immune cells Dendrite (metal), a ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Dendrite. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to ... a locally connected continuum that contains no simple closed curves Dendrite (crystal), a crystal that develops with a typical ...
Dendrites form when metallic lithium takes root on a batterys anode and begins growing haphazardly. If the dendrites grow too ... "Then you see theres a dendrite-but so what? Now that we can see exactly how the dendrites are forming using our technique, we ... ORNL microscopy directly images problematic lithium dendrites in batteries. ORNL microscopy directly images problematic lithium ... The researchers studied dendrite formation by using a miniature electrochemical cell that mimics the liquid conditions inside a ...
Synaptically triggered action potentials in dendrites.. Regehr W1, Kehoe JS, Ascher P, Armstrong C. ... Fibers synapsing in unclamped regions far out on the apical dendrite caused small, slow synaptic currents, as recorded at the ... We tested the hypothesis that action potentials originate in apical dendrites of pyramidal cells. Layer V somata were voltage ... We conclude that Na+ action potentials are initiated in the apical dendrite in response to synaptic input. ...
... frontiersOFperception mitchell at wolfe.net Fri Jun 23 15:51:44 EST 1995 *Previous message: ... The report is VR immersion yields new dendrite paths, that can produce hardwired re-wirings of sensory data coordination. Does ...
Glutamate-receptor-interacting protein GRIP1 directly steers kinesin to dendrites.. Setou M1, Seog DH, Tanaka Y, Kanai Y, Takei ... can directly interact and steer kinesin heavy chains to dendrites as a motor for AMPA receptors. As would be expected if this ... transport such as the transport of synaptic vesicle components to axons and of neurotransmitter receptors to dendrites, ...
mRNA in dendrites: this message will self-destruct in 10 seconds * facebook ... Once they are exported and packaged into an RNA granule they are transported up dendrites to post-synaptic sites. When synaptic ... These "RNA granules" travel up dendrites and are though to provide storage/delivery for certain transcripts. These dendritic ... the Kosik lab show that neurons express miRNAs that inhibit the translation of transcripts that are found in dendrites. ...
Dendrite architecture determines fine control of motor abilities 22.01.2015 Dendrites are branched projections of nerve cells ... Structural defects in dendrites are linked to various brain disorders such as autism, Alzheimers, and schizophrenia. However ... This kind of correlation between the severity of dendrite defects and the degree of neural deficiency can also be observed in ... One fundamental problem that is being considered in basic neurobiological research is why nerve cells have so many dendrites. ...
The nylon walls developed very beautiful dust dendrites, akin to the more familiar frost dendrites (like these frost dendrites ... However, in order to get dendrites there must be particular affinity to the dendritic tips. Namely, once a small protrusion is ...
Dendrite development is an important and unsolved problem in neuroscience. The nervous system is composed of a vast number of ... The control of dendrite development Neuron. 2003 Oct 9;40(2):229-42. doi: 10.1016/s0896-6273(03)00631-7. ... Dendrite development is an important and unsolved problem in neuroscience. The nervous system is composed of a vast number of ... In contrast, the control of dendrite development is still much less well understood. However, recent progress has begun to shed ...
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Building on Marcia Tates 20 successful "dendrite-growing" teaching strategies, Reading and Language Arts Worksheets Dont Grow ... Reading and Language Arts Worksheets Dont Grow Dendrites 20 Literacy Strategies That Engage the Brain ... Dendrites, based on the very latest research, contains more than 200 activities for delivering brain-based literacy instruction ...
Copper Dendrites A. Cyganowski-Notre Dame Prep.. Cadmium. A. Cyganowski-Notre Dame Prep.. Silver Dendrites NASA-GSFC. ... Nickel Cadmium Batteries: A Medium for the Study of Metal Whiskers and Dendrites. By Anna Cyganowski / Notre Dame Preparatory ... This section of the NASA Metal Whisker WWW Site is being constructed to provide examples of the phenomenon of metal DENDRITE ... Unfortunately, the terms dendrites and whiskers are sometimes used interchangeably. In fact, the morphology and mechanisms ...
Dendrites form when metallic lithium takes root on a batterys anode and begins growing haphazardly. If the dendrites grow too ... "Then you see theres a dendrite--but so what? Now that we can see exactly how the dendrites are forming using our technique, we ... The researchers studied dendrite formation by using a miniature electrochemical cell that mimics the liquid conditions inside a ... "It gives us a nanoscopic view of how dendrites nucleate and grow," said ORNLs Raymond Unocic, in situ microscopy team leader ...
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Dendrites are the treelike extensions that originate from the soma of the neuron and form electrical and chemical synapses with ... Different types of neurone differ greatly in their dendritic morphology; some neurons have just one or two long dendrites that ... both dendrites of other cells (dendro-dendritic synapses) and with axons (Axon-dendritic synaspes) and are considered to be the ... have few if any branches; some others have many short dendrites with profuse branches. ...
To verify that only a single dendrite was stimulated, we made line scans through nearby dendrites. Events where the glutamate ... ending on proximal dendrites, and modulatory feedback from visual cortex, ending on distal dendrites (Wilson et al., 1984). An ... where Rdendrite(t) is the time course of the intensity at a dendritic region, Rnoise(t) the time course of the intensity at an ... 2000) NMDA spikes in basal dendrites of cortical pyramidal neurons. Nature 404:285-289, doi:10.1038/35005094, pmid:10749211. ...
The cross section of dendrites, at least of the main apical dendrite 50 μm from the soma, was found to be cylindrical; however ... For eachRi value, steady-state attenuation (Vdendrite/Vsoma) was plotted against the corresponding Ri value (Fig. 2A, filled ... As can be seen in Figure 3C, the lower values ofRi combined with nonuniformRm (lower in the distal dendrites) not only ... 7C). In contrast, in models in which Ih was nonuniform and higher in the distal dendrites (Fig. 7E), the size of the distal ...
b) How are axons and dendrites alike? In what ways (structurally and functionally) do they. ... Most neurons have three parts, the cell body, the dendrites, and the axon. The cell body contains the nucleus. The nucleus is ... b) How are axons and dendrites alike? In what ways (structurally and functionally) do they differ? ... https://brainmass.com/biology/human-anatomy-and-physiology/cell-body-axons-dendrites-106332 Solution Preview. Cell Body ...
The 2021 Gordon Research Conference on Dendrites: Molecules, Structure and Function will be held in Les Diablerets, Switzerland ... Further, dendrites can undergo plastic changes in structure and function during development and learning, but also during ... In many instances, the dendrites themselves can be the engines of active processes that contribute to computation at the ... Recent advances in molecular, electrophysiological, and imaging techniques have led to a new picture of dendrites, and a deeper ...
From the Greek dendron or tree, dendrites are bush like projections sprouting from a nerves center, or cell body. Dendrites ... As the dendrites transmit information towards the cell body, a longer projection called the axon will carry information away ... Keywords: axon, axons, cell body, dendrite, dendrites, information, magnification, micrograph, micrographs, micrography, nerve ... From the Greek dendron or tree, dendrites are bush like projections sprouting from a nerves center, or cell body. Dendrites ...
... dendrite alert issued last night, they were deluged by public outrag... ... Electroshock Halted By Dendrite Alert. By Judy Castelli , Jul 23, 2006 , 0 , ... Forced Electroshock Halted for Kathleen Garrett: Hospital spokesperson says due to a "dendrite" alert issued last night, they ... DesPeres Hospital spokesperson John Shelton told DENDRITE today that the hospital was "deluged" overnight by public comment ...
  • Structural features of a motor neuron include the cell body, nerve fibres, and dendrites. (britannica.com)
  • Dendrites (from Greek δένδρον déndron, "tree"), also dendrons, are branched protoplasmic extensions of a nerve cell that propagate the electrochemical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body, or soma, of the neuron from which the dendrites project. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dendrites play a critical role in integrating these synaptic inputs and in determining the extent to which action potentials are produced by the neuron. (wikipedia.org)
  • The morphology of dendrites such as branch density and grouping patterns are highly correlated to the function of the neuron. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dendrites are one of two types of protoplasmic protrusions that extrude from the cell body of a neuron, the other type being an axon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically, when an electrochemical signal stimulates a neuron, it occurs at a dendrite and causes changes in the electrical potential across the neuron's plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • An autapse is a synapse in which the axon of one neuron transmits signals to its own dendrites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dendrites are the treelike extensions that originate from the soma of the neuron and form electrical and chemical synapses with both dendrites of other cells (dendro-dendritic synapses) and with axons (Axon-dendritic synaspes) and are considered to be the main 'input channels' of a neuron. (citizendium.org)
  • This suggests that the cell body seems to represent ongoing experience, while dendrites, the treelike branches of a neuron, help to store that experience as a memory. (richarddawkins.net)
  • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill researchers have discovered that dendrites do more than passively relay information from one neuron to the next - they actively process information, according to Spencer Smith, PhD, an assistant professor in the UNC School of Medicine. (kurzweilai.net)
  • This revealed that dendrites fired spikes while other parts of the neuron did not, meaning that the spikes were the result of local processing within the dendrites - not a electrical signal from the body of the neuron. (kurzweilai.net)
  • This revealed that dendrites fired spikes while other parts of the neuron did not, meaning that the spikes were the result of local processing within the dendrites. (futurity.org)
  • The chemical signals are generally released from the axon of one neuron and bind to receptor proteins on a dendrite on another neuron to stimulate electrical activity in the receiving neuron. (elifesciences.org)
  • Microtubules in a neuron dendrite (central nervous system), coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM). (sciencephoto.com)
  • UCL neuroscientists have shown that a single neuron, and even a single dendrite, can respond differently to unique sequences of input. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • produce outgrowths called axons and dendrites, by which the cells of the nervous system establish communication with one another to form a functional network. (britannica.com)
  • Many neurones are extremely invaginated and possess branching processes, axons and dendrites. (springer.com)
  • Vasopressin mRNA is delivered to axons and dendrites of rat hypothalamic magnocellular neurones. (ovid.com)
  • The ability of neurons to transmit and receive signals depends on the proper morphogenesis of axons and dendrites. (biologists.org)
  • Axons and dendrites differ in structure as well as function. (biologists.org)
  • The patterns of microtubule PTMs between and within axons and dendrites are thought to be critical for functional compartmentalization, acting by locally regulating microtubule dynamics and/or transport. (biologists.org)
  • To our surprise, we discovered that these motoneuron dendrites are actually dispensable for synaptic targeting, qualitatively normal neuronal activity patterns during behavior, and basic behavioral performance,' explained Dr. Stefanie Ryglewski and Dr. Dimitrios Kadas, the two primary authors of the study. (uni-mainz.de)
  • This Gordon Research Conference reflects the growing understanding that dendrites might play a central role in neuronal computation. (grc.org)
  • To find out, the researchers used a two-photon microscope system and they used patch-clamp electrophysiology to attach a microscopic glass pipette electrode, filled with a physiological solution, to a neuronal dendrite in the brain of a mouse. (kurzweilai.net)
  • Neuronal dendrites are electrically excitable: they can generate regenerative events such as dendritic spikes in response to sufficiently strong synaptic input. (kurzweilai.net)
  • Although such events have been observed in many neuronal types, it is not well understood how active dendrites contribute to the tuning of neuronal output in vivo . (kurzweilai.net)
  • Dendrites effectively act as mini-neural computers, actively processing neuronal input signals themselves. (futurity.org)
  • Overall, our study demonstrates the specificity of defects caused by selective impairments of distinct molecular motors and highlights the critical importance of Unc-104 for the maturation of neuronal structures during embryonic development, larval synaptic terminal outgrowth, and dendrite morphogenesis. (genetics.org)
  • New research from UC Davis and Washington State University shows that PCBs, or polychlorinated biphenyls, launch a cellular chain of events that leads to an overabundance of dendrites -- the filament-like projections that conduct electrochemical signals between neurons -- and disrupts normal patterns of neuronal connections in the brain. (ucdavis.edu)
  • The particular shapes of dendrites are important in neuronal function and circuit assembly. (biologists.org)
  • Dendrites provide the substrate for inter-neuronal communication, and their nonlinear properties play a key role in information processing. (yale.edu)
  • Certain classes of dendrites contain small projections referred to as dendritic spines that increase receptive properties of dendrites to isolate signal specificity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dendrites are branched projections of nerve cells that are involved in the reception of synaptic input. (uni-mainz.de)
  • From the Greek dendron or tree, dendrites are bush like projections sprouting from a nerve's center, or cell body. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Dendrites, the branch-like projections of neurons, were once thought to be passive wiring in the brain. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The branch-like projections of neurons called dendrites are not just passive wiring, but act more like tiny computers, multiplying the brain's processing power. (futurity.org)
  • Dendrite pruning is critical for sculpting the final connectivity of neural circuits as it removes inappropriate projections, yet how neurons can selectively eliminate unnecessary dendritic branches remains elusive. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Malformation of dendrites is also tightly correlated to impaired nervous system function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies of dendrite morphogenesis therefore seek to understand the developmental origin of arbor shape and to shed light on the significance of particular morphologies for nervous system connectivity and function. (biologists.org)
  • Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has developed a new electrolyte that allows lithium-sulfur, lithium-metal and lithium-air batteries to operate well without growing dendrites, tiny pin-like fibers that short-circuit rechargeable batteries. (eurekalert.org)
  • Now a new electrolyte for lithium batteries that's described in Nature Communications eliminates dendrites while also enabling batteries to be highly efficient and carry a large amount of electric current. (eurekalert.org)
  • Shown here are two scanning electron microscope images that illustrate how a traditional electrolyte can cause dendrite growth (a, left), while PNNL's new electrolyte instead causes the growth of smooth nodules that don't short-circuit batteries (b, right). (innovations-report.com)
  • By adding nanodiamonds to an electrolyte solution, they were able to prevent dendrite growth, a major cause of lithium battery fires. (ceramics.org)
  • New research from MIT shows that firmness isn't the most important parameter for developing a solid electrolyte that is effective against dendrite formation-instead, a defect-free surface, which doesn't provide a place for dendrites to form, is key to a better battery. (ceramics.org)
  • These strategies include adding chemicals to the electrolyte to keep them from growing or developing a 'smart' battery that automatically shuts off when it senses that dendrites are invading the barrier between the battery's chambers. (materialstoday.com)
  • They looked not only at the metal part of the dendrite, but also at a coating known as a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), which develops as the dendrite reacts with the surrounding electrolyte. (materialstoday.com)
  • In this paper, two solvents, propylene carbonate (PC) and 2-methyl-tetrahydrofuran (2MeTHF), and four Li + salts, LiPF 6 , LiAsF 6 , LiBF 4 and LiClO 4 were investigated in terms of their effects on the kinetics of lithium dendrite formation in eight electrolyte solutions. (osti.gov)
  • Fig. 6: Galvanostatic cycling of Li-S cells, comparing dendrite-suppressing LESAs with artificial SEI-generating electrolyte additives. (nature.com)
  • Researchers know that the growth of dendrites, which are needle-like lithium whiskers that form internally in battery electrodes, is affected by how ions move in the electrolyte. (materialstoday.com)
  • The researchers also found a feedback mechanism between lithium dendrite growth and heterogeneity of the local ionic concentration that can be suppressed by an artificial solid electrolyte interphase in the second and third stages. (materialstoday.com)
  • Using Stimulated Raman Scattering microscopy, which is fast enough to catch the quickly changing environment inside the electrolyte, we've been able to figure out not only why lithium dendrites form but also how to inhibit their growth,' says Yuan Yang, co- author of the study and assistant professor of materials science and engineering in the Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics at Columbia Engineering. (materialstoday.com)
  • Electrochemical investigations show that stripping and plating of Li and Na and the robust and flexible passivation film formed in situ (by 1,3-dioxolane additive reacting with the Li-Na alloy) suppress dendrite and buffer alloy anode volume expansion and thus prevent cracking, avoiding electrolyte consumption and ensuring high electron transport efficiency and continued electrochemical reactions. (nature.com)
  • Although dendrites do their damage in the battery's electrolyte region, a new study has found that the root of dendrite formation lies deeper, not in the electrolyte but in the underlying electrode. (phys.org)
  • The discovery could transform approaches to preventing dendrite formation by showing that inhibiting the growth of subsurface dendrite structures in the electrode before they extend into the electrolyte may make more sense than attempting to suppress dendrite growth at more advanced stages in the electrolyte. (phys.org)
  • Although dendrites have been widely studied, they have always appeared to emanate from the surface of the Li electrode material, with the bulk of the tree-like dendrite occupying the electrolyte. (phys.org)
  • When the dendrite's "branches" fully cross the electrolyte and reach the opposite electrode, current passing through the dendrite can short-circuit the battery. (phys.org)
  • Using this technique, the researchers could watch as the seeds of dendrite formation appear in the electrode material, and then as the dendrites continue to grow into the electrolyte as the battery is repeatedly cycled. (phys.org)
  • Only at the more advanced stages does the bulk of the dendrite volume lie within the electrolyte. (phys.org)
  • In the future, the researchers plan to further investigate the underlying causes of subsurface dendrite formation, as well as better understand the role of electrolyte properties in dendrite growth. (phys.org)
  • However, this does not prevent the fluctuation of the apparent volume of Li metal layer during filament growth/disappearance, which tends to weaken or even delaminate the Li/electrolyte interface or the blocking layers during cycling, thus allowing additional growth of dendrites. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Besides the axon, neurons have other branches called dendrites that are usually shorter than axons and are unmyelinated. (britannica.com)
  • Dendrites provide an enlarged surface area to receive signals from the terminal buttons of other axons, and the axon also commonly divides at its far end into many branches (telodendria) each of which ends in a nerve terminal, allowing a chemical signal to pass simultaneously to many target cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unipolar neurons have a stalk that extends from the cell body that separates into two branches with one containing the dendrites and the other with the terminal buttons. (wikipedia.org)
  • some others have many short dendrites with profuse branches. (citizendium.org)
  • B ) Apical dendrite and secondary branches from the boxed region in (A). ( C ) Higher magnification image from the boxed region in (B) showing dendritic protrusions. (sciencemag.org)
  • Neurons are made up of a cell body, which has numerous short branches called dendrites, and a cable-like structure called the axon. (elifesciences.org)
  • Fibers synapsing in unclamped regions far out on the apical dendrite caused small, slow synaptic currents, as recorded at the soma, and sometimes elicited complex, multicomponent current spikes, beginning with a small first spike. (nih.gov)
  • Hyperpolarization, or tetrodotoxin applied to basal dendrites and soma, blocked the later spike components without affecting the synaptic current and the first component, which was a synaptically triggered Na+ spike in the apical dendrite. (nih.gov)
  • We conclude that Na+ action potentials are initiated in the apical dendrite in response to synaptic input. (nih.gov)
  • Here we use simultaneous whole-cell patch-pipette recordings from the soma and apical dendrite of neocortical layer 5 pyramidal neurons to directly measure voltage attenuation in cortical neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • Together these findings suggest that nonuniformly distributed Cs-sensitive and -insensitive resting conductances generate a "leaky" apical dendrite, which differentially influences the integration of spatially segregated synaptic inputs. (jneurosci.org)
  • Here we used simultaneous patch-pipette recordings from the soma and apical dendrite of neocortical neurons in brain slices to measure voltage attenuation along the apical dendrites of layer 5 pyramidal neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • We hypothesized that we can model the soma and its apical dendrite with only two compartments, without significant loss in the accuracy of spike-timing predictions. (epfl.ch)
  • The predictive power of this model was tested on electrophysiological experiments where noisy current was injected in both the soma and the apical dendrite simultaneously. (epfl.ch)
  • We used vital imaging of dendrites in living rat brain slices to directly observe dendritic morphogenesis evoked by synaptic activity. (sciencemag.org)
  • In an anatomical screen of neurodevelopmental mutants, we identified the exchange of a conserved residue (R561H) in the forkhead-associated domain of the kinesin-3 family member Unc-104/KIF1A as the genetic cause for defects in synaptic terminal- and dendrite morphogenesis. (genetics.org)
  • Next, we identified a role for Unc-104 in restraining neuromuscular junction growth and coordinating dendrite branch morphogenesis, suggesting that Unc-104 is also involved in dendritic transport. (genetics.org)
  • Thus, besides its known function in axon formation in embryonic pyramidal neurons, LKB1 plays an additional role in regulating polarized dendrite morphogenesis in adult-born granule cells in the hippocampus. (uniprot.org)
  • Dendrite morphogenesis consists of a series of interrelated steps, which include outgrowth and branching, guidance and targeting, cessation of growth and, in some cases, arbor remodeling (see Box 1 ). (biologists.org)
  • In this review, we highlight recent advances in understanding the molecules and mechanisms that function during these key stages of dendrite morphogenesis. (biologists.org)
  • Our studies point to an unappreciated role for α-tubulin K40 and acetylation in dendrite morphogenesis. (biologists.org)
  • Electrical stimulation is transmitted onto dendrites by upstream neurons (usually via their axons) via synapses which are located at various points throughout the dendritic tree. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, synapses involving dendrites can also be axodendritic, involving an axon signaling to a dendrite, or dendrodendritic, involving signaling between dendrites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Communications between neurons involve synapses formed between axons of the presynaptic neurons and dendrites of the postsynaptic neurons. (nih.gov)
  • Electrical stimulation is transmitted onto dendrites by upstream neurons via synapses which are located at various points throughout the dendritic arbor. (medicalxpress.com)
  • This FOA issued by the National Institute on Aging (NIA) invites applications for the study of factors regulating neuroplasticity with a particular emphasis on the age-dependent changes in the functions of dendrites, spines and synapses of key cell types in regions of brain especially vulnerable in Alzheimers disease (AD), and in models ( in vitro and in vivo ) of aging and of AD. (nih.gov)
  • Dendrite s are thought to form receiving surfaces for synaptic input from other neurons. (britannica.com)
  • The growth and refinement of dendrites -- treelike structures that receive input from other neurons in the brain -- is a crucial component of brain development during the first years of life that helps to optimize the function of neural circuits. (eurekalert.org)
  • Building on Marcia Tate's 20 successful "dendrite-growing" teaching strategies, Reading and Language Arts Worksheets Don't Grow Dendrites , based on the very latest research, contains more than 200 activities for delivering brain-based literacy instruction. (sagepub.com)
  • Using complementary techniques such as immunohistochemistry, electrophysiology and computer simulations we demonstrated that these axon-carrying dendrites constitute a privileged channel for excitatory synaptic input. (cuvillier.de)
  • Activation of dendritic voltage-gated ion channels by local synaptic input was tested by simultaneous dendrite-attached patch-clamp recordings and whole-cell somatic voltage recordings made from CA1 pyramidal neurons in hippocampal slices. (sciencemag.org)
  • Dendrite development is an important and unsolved problem in neuroscience. (nih.gov)
  • The lead author was Gary Wayman of Washington State University's Program in Neuroscience, who first described the molecular pathway that controls the calcium signaling in the brain that guides normal dendrite growth. (ucdavis.edu)
  • These newly discovered properties of neurons and dendrites should help answer many questions in computational neuroscience. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • The integrative properties of dendrites are determined by a complex mixture of factors, including their morphology, the spatio-temporal patterning of synaptic inputs, the balance of excitation and inhibition, and neuromodulatory influences, all of which interact with the many voltage-gated conductances present in the dendritic membrane. (nih.gov)
  • In fact, the morphology and mechanisms of formation are distinctly different for metal whiskers and dendrites. (nasa.gov)
  • To examine the effects of synaptic activity on dendritic morphology, a glass electrode (0.4 to 1 megohm) was placed close (∼3 to 10 μm) to a target dendrite ( Fig. 2 A, left). (sciencemag.org)
  • Here we demonstrate a facile and novel dendrite fabrication process with tunable morphology. (aps.org)
  • The dendrites show high catalytic selectivity, activity, and stability for CO$_2$ reduction to CO, along with morphological stability after 18 hours of operation, allowing correlation between morphology and performance. (aps.org)
  • Morphology simulation and mechanical analysis of primary dendrites for continuously cast low carbon steel. (springer.com)
  • A dendrite is a branching, treelike crystal between metals in an alloy, that when grouped have a forest like quality when seen through a microscope. (puzzlepirates.com)
  • The researchers studied dendrite formation by using a miniature electrochemical cell that mimics the liquid conditions inside a lithium-ion battery. (ornl.gov)
  • It gives us a nanoscopic view of how dendrites nucleate and grow," said ORNL's Raymond Unocic, in situ microscopy team leader. (ornl.gov)
  • For the time being, the researchers aren't sure what the underlying mechanism is by which the dendrites nucleate and grow within the electrodes. (phys.org)
  • are medium-size cells with radiating dendrites that are studded with spines. (britannica.com)
  • In the mammalian brain, dendrites develop in a stereotypical sequence: Soon after birth the relatively smooth dendrites of neonates sprout numerous thin filopodia-like protrusions, which are later replaced by dendritic spines as the brain matures ( 6 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Quantitative electron microscopic analysis of preembedding immunogold reactions revealed uniform densities of NCX1 along the shafts of apical and basal dendrites, but densities in dendritic shafts were approximately seven times higher than in dendritic spines. (pnas.org)
  • Imaging experiments using Ca 2+ sensitive dyes revealed that synaptic stimulation raised intracellular Ca 2+ to higher levels in spines than in dendrites, suggesting that spines are individual compartments able to accumulate Ca 2+ ( 1 ⇓ - 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • The effect of inhibitory inputs can vary based on their placement on dendritic spines versus shaft, their distance from the soma, and the branch order of the dendrite they inhabit. (mit.edu)
  • Here, we used conventional and two-photon imaging and electron microscopy to show that lysosomes traffic bidirectionally in dendrites and are present in dendritic spines. (rupress.org)
  • Dendrites receive electrochemical signals, which are known as postsynaptic potentials, from the axons of other neurons, and the information contained in these signals is fired across a synaptic gap or cleft about 0.02 microns or about 8 millionths of an inch wide and transmitted toward the cell body, with the signals fading as they approach their destination. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Typically, axons transmit electrochemical signals and dendrites receive the electrochemical signals, although some types of neurons in certain species lack axons and simply transmit signals via their dendrites. (wikipedia.org)
  • TPLSM imaging of CA1 pyramidal cell dendrites labeled with EGFP (in a slice 9 days in culture). (sciencemag.org)
  • The signaling pathways that mediate dendrite outgrowth in neurons have been characterized in greater detail than those that promote dendrite retraction and pruning. (sciencemag.org)
  • Thus, CaMKIIβ activity at the centrosome alters the access of Cdc20-APC to its substrates, which triggers dendrite retraction and limits dendrite outgrowth. (sciencemag.org)
  • Francis MM, Freeman MR. Dendrites actively restrain axon outgrowth and regeneration. (umassmed.edu)
  • Pyramidal cells are multipolar cortical neurons with pyramid shaped cell bodies and large dendrites called apical dendrites that extend to the surface of the cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, granule, hippocampal, and cerebral cortical neurons developed longer, more branched dendrites when transfected with short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) directed against CaMKIIβ, effects that were also observed after shRNA-mediated knockdown of CaMKIIβ in the cerebellar cortices of rats and organotypic cerebellar slices. (sciencemag.org)
  • These dendrites do not process electrical signals. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Now we have uncovered signals in dendrites that we think are very important for learning and memory. (richarddawkins.net)
  • As the mice viewed visual stimuli on a computer screen, the researchers saw an unusual pattern of electrical signals - bursts of spikes - in the dendrite. (kurzweilai.net)
  • This attribution reflects widespread views of the within-cell job sharing, such that the main function of the dendrites is to receive signals and deliver them to the axo-somatic trigger zone, which actually generates the output pattern. (frontiersin.org)
  • ORNL electron microscopy captured the first real-time nanoscale images of the nucleation and growth of lithium dendrite structures known to degrade lithium-ion batteries. (ornl.gov)
  • March 6, 2015-Scientists at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have captured the first real-time nanoscale images of lithium dendrite structures known to degrade lithium-ion batteries. (ornl.gov)
  • But dendrites-spiky lithium structures that can accumulate on the anode during charging-can short-circuit batteries, posing a serious safety hazard. (acs.org)
  • So scientists are working to master the dendrite problem by investigating how the structures grow and by developing solutions to suppress them, such as building physical barriers or using solid electrolytes to halt dendrite growth. (acs.org)
  • A thought in the brain travels through dendrites much like a human ascending the sculpture and both inevitably lead to the goal of processing the structures of our world. (micheldebroin.org)
  • Dendrites are structures that are specialized to receive and process inputs in neurons, thus their specific morphologies reflect neural connectivity and influence information flow through circuits. (biologists.org)
  • and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), have published a paper on the discovery of subsurface structures as the root of dendrite formation in a recent issue of Nature Materials . (phys.org)
  • Detection of subsurface structures underneath dendrites formed on cycled lithium metal electrodes. (phys.org)
  • S. V. Puram, A. H. Kim, Y. Ikeuchi, J. T. Wilson-Grady, A. Merdes, S. P. Gygi, A. Bonni, A CaMKIIβ signaling pathway at the centrosome regulates dendrite patterning in the brain. (sciencemag.org)
  • Increased expression of a gene linked to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) leads to a remodeling of dendrites during brain development, according to a new study conducted in cultured neurons and an ASD mouse model published in JNeurosci . (eurekalert.org)
  • Structural defects in dendrites are linked to various brain disorders such as autism, Alzheimer's, and schizophrenia. (uni-mainz.de)
  • Computational and theoretical approaches have further refined our views of dendrites and their unique role in brain function. (grc.org)
  • Previous research using dissected brain tissue had demonstrated that dendrites can use those molecules to generate electrical spikes themselves, but it was unclear whether normal brain activity uses those dendritic spikes. (kurzweilai.net)
  • Will medicine advance to the point of engineering neurons, dendrites, axons, and brain chemistry to rehabilitate thugs? (experienceproject.com)
  • have now investigated how transcranial magnetic stimulation affects the activity of dendrites from neurons within the cortex of the rat brain. (elifesciences.org)
  • Transcripts showing subcellular localization only to proximal dendrites in the adult mouse brain. (broadinstitute.org)
  • We are the first to show that non-dioxin-like PCBs alter how the developing brain gets wired by hijacking the calcium signaling pathway and greatly expanding dendrite growth. (ucdavis.edu)
  • The cellular studies showed that PCBs triggered the calcium pathway that led to the aberrant brain architecture, and that dendrite production was normal when that cellular pathway was blocked. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Drs. Jan and Quan will examine the regulation of dendrite development and how abnormal development affects brain function and fly behavior. (autismspeaks.org)
  • This Gordon Research Conference will bring together researchers whose latest findings help clarify how the molecular and electrophysiological properties of dendrites enable them to perform complex computations important for sensory-motor processing and higher cognitive function. (grc.org)
  • A team of University of Michigan researchers has developed a strategy to observe dendrite formation in batteries in real time-observations that will help scientists understand how dendrites form and ultimately develop better future batteries. (ceramics.org)
  • To their surprise, the researchers discovered that the dendrites are crystalline, faceted nanowires that prefer to grow in certain directions. (materialstoday.com)
  • Now, in a paper in Nature Communications , researchers at Columbia University report using Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) microscopy, a technique widely used in biomedical studies, to explore the mechanism behind dendrite growth in lithium batteries. (materialstoday.com)
  • In fact, researchers can attach molecular markers onto the dendrites of specific neurons and monitor their growth during development. (autismspeaks.org)
  • The study, published today in Science and carried out by researchers based at the Wolfson Institute for Biomedical Research at UCL, shows that single neurons, and indeed even single dendrites, the tiny receiving elements of neurons, can very effectively distinguish between different temporal sequences of incoming information. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • Researchers at Northwestern University and Tianjin University now report an effective approach to avoiding dendrite growth on Li-metal anodes by using a scaffold based on crumpled paper ball-like graphene (CGB) particles. (greencarcongress.com)
  • When analyzing the role of dendrites, the experimental challenge is to abolish them selectively in identified Drosophila wing motoneurons without affecting other properties of these specific neurons or others. (uni-mainz.de)
  • Compartmentalized calcium transients trigger dendrite pruning in Drosophila sensory neurons. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Recent studies in Drosophila on the molecular basis of dendrite diversity, dendritic guidance, the cell biology of dendritic branch patterning and territory formation have identified numerous intrinsic and extrinsic cues that shape diverse features of dendrites. (biologists.org)
  • How does activity impact dendrite development in Drosophila ? (biologists.org)
  • The dependence of dendrite growth on Golgi outposts is also conserved in Drosophila . (biologists.org)
  • Dr. Jan and post-doctoral fellow Quan Yuan plan to study dendrite development in Drosophila-the common fruit fly. (autismspeaks.org)
  • To do this, they will screen large numbers of Drosophila to find fly mutants with defects in various aspects of dendrite development. (autismspeaks.org)
  • Dendritic NMDA spike/plateau potentials, first discovered in cortical pyramidal neurons, provide supralinear integration of synaptic inputs on thin and distal dendrites, thereby increasing the impact of these inputs on the soma. (jneurosci.org)
  • Cortex, in turn, regulates this output through massive feedback to distal dendrites of the TC neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • We found that NMDA spike/plateaus can be elicited locally at distal dendrites of TC neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • have been found in distal dendrites, further suggesting that dendrites can control protein homeostasis independently of the cell body. (rupress.org)
  • How then are membrane proteins degraded in distal dendrites? (rupress.org)
  • An action potential propagates the electrical activity along the membrane of the neuron's dendrites to the cell body and then afferently down the length of the axon to the axon terminal, where it triggers the release of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has long been understood that up to thousands of synaptic inputs can arrive at different locations along a neuron's dendrites and that the subsequent integrative process ultimately determines that neuron's output. (grc.org)
  • The term dendrites was first used in 1889 by Wilhelm His to describe the number of smaller "protoplasmic processes" that were attached to a nerve cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In many instances, the dendrites themselves can be the engines of active processes that contribute to computation at the cellular and network levels. (grc.org)
  • The processes occurring in these dendrites have been linked to cognitive function. (elifesciences.org)
  • Dendrites - processes of neurons that are primarily specialized for information input - are one of nature's remarkable architectural feats, and the diverse growth patterns shown by dendritic arbors raise important developmental questions. (biologists.org)
  • morphological and functional characterizations, · dendritic integration and compartmentalization, · dendritic channel distribution and their functional implications, · molecular pathways and signaling networks, · RNA trafficking and local protein synthesis, · functional or structural plasticity and homeostasis, · the role of dendrites in complex processes, including learning/memory, neural computations etc. (yale.edu)
  • Protein kinase LKB1 regulates polarized dendrite formation of adult hippocampal newborn neurons. (uniprot.org)
  • Activated calmodulin kinase then turns on the protein known as CREB that regulates genes that produce Wnt2, a potent molecule and the final arbiter of whether and how dendrites grow. (ucdavis.edu)
  • In cultured hippocampal neurons, the Patronin family member CAMSAP2 stabilizes noncentrosomal microtubules and regulates axon specification and dendrite branching ( 3 ). (rupress.org)
  • Synaptically triggered action potentials in dendrites. (nih.gov)
  • We tested the hypothesis that action potentials originate in apical dendrites of pyramidal cells. (nih.gov)
  • Recent research has also found that dendrites can support action potentials and release neurotransmitters, a property that was originally believed to be specific to axons. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Conserved among both invertebrates and vertebrates, axons contain exclusively "plus-end-out" microtubules while dendrites contain a high percentage of "minus-end-out" microtubules, the origins of which have been a mystery. (ssrn.com)
  • Here we show that the dendritic growth cone contains a non-centrosomal microtubule organizing center, which generates minus-end-out microtubules along outgrowing dendrites and plus-end-out microtubules in the growth cone. (ssrn.com)
  • In cultured mammalian neurons, young axons are enriched in acetylated microtubules in comparison to dendrites. (biologists.org)
  • One of the current UC Davis studies examined dendrite growth in rat pups born to and nursed by PCB-exposed mothers. (ucdavis.edu)
  • The inhibitory effect of CaMKIIβ on dendrite growth required its catalytic activity and a domain that localized the protein to the centrosome through interaction with PCM1 (pericentriolar material 1). (sciencemag.org)
  • We conclude that TMS directly activates fibers within the upper cortical layers that leads to the activation of dendrite-targeting inhibitory neurons which in turn suppress dendritic Ca 2+ activity. (elifesciences.org)
  • This change in the membrane potential will passively spread across the dendrite but becomes weaker with distance without an action potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • The manner in which these potentials propagate from the dendrites to the soma depends on a number of factors, including passive properties such as the membrane resistivity ( R m ), the membrane capacitance ( C m ), and intracellular resistivity ( R i ), as well as the active properties of the dendritic membrane. (jneurosci.org)
  • Simultaneous recordings of membrane voltage and concentration of intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) were made in apical dendrites of layer 5 pyramidal cells of rat neocortex after filling dendrites with the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator Calcium Green-1. (pnas.org)
  • In neurons, lysosomes, which degrade membrane and cytoplasmic components, are thought to primarily reside in somatic and axonal compartments, but there is little understanding of their distribution and function in dendrites. (rupress.org)
  • Given the importance of this organelle in membrane protein turnover, it is plausible that lysosomes exist in dendrites and that their trafficking in dendrites is tightly regulated. (rupress.org)
  • However, these views require revisiting with account of active properties of the dendrites due to voltage-dependent channels found in the dendritic membrane of practically all types of explored neurons. (frontiersin.org)
  • Like soma and axon, the dendrites with active membrane are able to generate self-maintained, propagating depolarizations and thus share intrinsic pattern-forming role with the trigger zone. (frontiersin.org)
  • The portion of the plasma membrane surrounding a dendrite. (broadinstitute.org)
  • This kind of correlation between the severity of dendrite defects and the degree of neural deficiency can also be observed in association with increasing structural damage in progressive neurological disorders. (uni-mainz.de)
  • Defects in dendrite development can lead to abnormal neural connectivity, which reduces the nervous system's ability to function properly. (autismspeaks.org)
  • Dendrite derives from the Greek word "dendron" meaning (lit. (wikipedia.org)
  • For this study, the team used a cryo-EM instrument at Stanford School of Medicine to examine thousands of lithium metal dendrites that had been exposed to various electrolytes. (materialstoday.com)
  • The formation of metal dendrites as the battery charges is a common cause of failure, as dendrites can cause internal short circuits and even thermal runaway. (lightsources.org)
  • Proposed technique for suppressing growth of lithium dendrite s in rechargeable lithium electrochemical power cells involves periodic interruption of steady charging current with short, high-current discharge pulses. (nasa.gov)
  • This image of a lithium metal dendrite, taken with cryo-EM, shows that freezing has preserved its original state, revealing that it's a crystalline nanowire with six well-defined facets. (materialstoday.com)
  • The new images reveal that each lithium metal dendrite is a long, beautifully formed six-sided crystal - not the irregular, pitted shape depicted in previous electron microscope shots. (materialstoday.com)
  • Fibres, called dendrites, which project from the nerve cells into the nasal cavity, are covered only by a thin layer of moisture. (britannica.com)
  • One fundamental problem that is being considered in basic neurobiological research is why nerve cells have so many dendrites. (uni-mainz.de)
  • When combined with morphologically realistic compartmental models of the same cells, the data suggest that the intracellular resistivity of neocortical pyramidal neurons is relatively low (∼70 to 100 Ωcm), but that voltage attenuation is substantial because of nonuniformly distributed resting conductances present at a higher density in the distal apical dendrites. (jneurosci.org)
  • Dendrites bring information from outside sources such as other neurons or sensory cells to the neuron's cell body. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The long outgrowths on immune system dendritic cells are also called dendrites. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Their widely ramified dendrites receive input from other cells, whereas a single axon transmits output to subsequent cells of the network. (cuvillier.de)
  • Fig. 5: Divergent electrochemical performance of Li-NMC-622 cells assembled with thin Li anodes, highlighting the benefits of dendrite-suppressing [email protected] 1 SICs. (nature.com)
  • We present a study of a simplified model of deep pyramidal cells of the cortex with active dendrites. (epfl.ch)
  • We conclude that a simple two-compartment model can predict spike times of pyramidal cells stimulated in the soma and dendrites simultaneously. (epfl.ch)
  • In particular, there appears to be impairments in the growth of dendrites-branch-like protrusions the neurons use to form connections with other nerve cells. (autismspeaks.org)
  • Using data representative of the oxymethylene-linked poly(ethylene oxide)/LiTFSI system, it is shown that dendrites accelerate across cells under all conditions, and that growth is always slowed by lowering the current density. (rti.org)
  • This section of the NASA Metal Whisker WWW Site is being constructed to provide examples of the phenomenon of metal 'DENDRITE' formation. (nasa.gov)
  • Finally, the understanding of the kinetics will gain insight into the mechanism of lithium dendrite formation and provide guidelines to the future application of lithium metal. (osti.gov)
  • Dendrite formation during electrodeposition while charging lithium metal batteries compromises their safety. (nature.com)
  • Fig. 1: Classifying SICs within a universal chemomechanical model for dendrite formation during electrodeposition. (nature.com)
  • Our results show that ion transport and inhomogeneous ionic concentration is critical to the formation of lithium dendrites on the lithium surface. (materialstoday.com)
  • The name Dendrite comes from a microscopic crystal formation of alloys. (puzzlepirates.com)
  • Dendrite formation is one of the most pressing issues in current battery research. (rsc.org)
  • The formation and/or growth of dendrites emanating from Cu or Cu alloy lines into a bordering open dielectric field are prevented or substantially reduced by chemically removing a portion of the surface from the dielectric field and from between the lines after CMP. (google.com)
  • CaMKIIβ activity at the centrosome alters the subcellular localization of a ubiquitin ligase complex and promotes dendrite retraction. (sciencemag.org)
  • However, despite its clinical prevalence, very little is known about the action of TMS at the cellular level let alone what effect it might have at the subcellular level (e.g. dendrites). (elifesciences.org)
  • They will then use these mutants and state-of-the art genetic techniques to examine the functional consequence of abnormal dendrite development at defined development stages and in specific tissues. (autismspeaks.org)
  • Clearly, the electrical properties of the dendritic tree will be determined with greater accuracy if electrical recordings are made directly from the dendrites themselves, preferably using the patch-clamp technique to avoid the electrical leak around the electrode generated by microelectrode recordings. (jneurosci.org)
  • The proximity of the stimulating electrode was absolutely necessary to ensure that the dendrite would receive localized synaptic stimulation ( 17 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • However, lithium dendrite growth was a safety issue which handicapped the application of pure lithium metal in the negative electrode. (osti.gov)
  • at this stage, Li cation depletion partially occurs near the electrode and lithium dendrite protrusions start to appear. (materialstoday.com)
  • Yet when imaged with a commonly used scanning electron microscope, none of the dendrites in the electrode are visible. (phys.org)
  • Dendrite growth in a parallel-electrode lithium/polymer cell during galvanostatic charging has been modeled. (rti.org)
  • Appendages increase receptive properties of dendrites to isolate signal specificity. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Scientists from Stanford University and the US Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory have captured the first atomic-level images of finger-like growths called dendrites that can pierce the barrier between battery compartments and trigger short circuits or fires. (materialstoday.com)
  • uncovered a role for Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIβ (CaMKIIβ) in dendrite patterning. (sciencemag.org)
  • Glutamate-receptor-interacting protein GRIP1 directly steers kinesin to dendrites. (nih.gov)
  • Here we show that an AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate) receptor subunit--GluR2-interacting protein (GRIP1)--can directly interact and steer kinesin heavy chains to dendrites as a motor for AMPA receptors. (nih.gov)
  • We found that deletion of the serine-threonine protein kinase LKB1 or overexpression of dominant-negative LKB1 reduced the polarized initiation of the primary dendrite from the soma and disrupted its oriented growth toward the molecular layer. (uniprot.org)
  • Expression of this construct revealed that the nondiffusable protein is only detectable in dendrites harbouring vasopressin mRNA whereas dendrites devoid of this transcript lack the mutant vasopressin precursor. (ovid.com)
  • https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201810155 ) demonstrate that in dendrites, free minus ends undergo slow and processive growth mediated by the minus end-binding protein Patronin. (rupress.org)
  • Mutagenesis of K40 reveals moderate yet significant changes in dendritic lysosome transport, microtubule polymerization and Futsch protein distribution in dendrites but not in axons. (biologists.org)
  • We performed direct patch-clamp recordings from the dendrites of pyramidal neurons in the primary visual cortex of lightly anaesthetized and awake mice, during sensory processing. (kurzweilai.net)
  • Some disorders that are associated with the malformation of dendrites are autism, depression, schizophrenia, Down syndrome and anxiety. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, recent progress has begun to shed light on the molecular mechanisms that orchestrate dendrite growth, arborization, and guidance. (nih.gov)
  • Recent advances in molecular, electrophysiological, and imaging techniques have led to a new picture of dendrites, and a deeper understanding of their computational role. (grc.org)
  • Dendrite growth and branching during early development is a finely orchestrated process, and the presence of certain PCBs confuses the conductor of that process," said Pamela Lein , a developmental neurobiologist and professor of molecular biosciences in the UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine . (ucdavis.edu)
  • Dendrites 2014 aims to bring together scientists from around the world to present their research on dendrites, ranging from the molecular to the anatomical and biophysical levels. (yale.edu)
  • Dendrites form when metallic lithium takes root on a battery's anode and begins growing haphazardly. (ornl.gov)
  • Instead of growing dendrites, the anode developed a thin, relatively smooth layer of lithium nodules that didn't short-circuit the battery. (eurekalert.org)
  • However, the growth of dendrites and cracks at the Li or Na anode, as well as their corrosive oxidation lead to poor cycling stability and safety issues. (nature.com)