Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Spiny processes on DENDRITES, each of which receives excitatory input from one nerve ending (NERVE ENDINGS). They are commonly found on PURKINJE CELLS and PYRAMIDAL CELLS.
The output neurons of the cerebellar cortex.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.
Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.
The largest portion of the CEREBRAL CORTEX in which the NEURONS are arranged in six layers in the mammalian brain: molecular, external granular, external pyramidal, internal granular, internal pyramidal and multiform layers.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of guanine to form xanthine. EC 3.5.4.3.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.
Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.
The superficial GRAY MATTER of the CEREBELLUM. It consists of two main layers, the stratum moleculare and the stratum granulosum.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
INTERNEURONS of the vertebrate RETINA. They integrate, modulate, and interpose a temporal domain in the visual message presented to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS, with which they synapse in the inner plexiform layer.
Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
A dense intricate feltwork of interwoven fine glial processes, fibrils, synaptic terminals, axons, and dendrites interspersed among the nerve cells in the gray matter of the central nervous system.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
INTERNEURONS of the vertebrate RETINA containing two processes. They receive inputs from the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and send outputs to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS. The bipolar cells also make lateral connections in the retina with the RETINAL HORIZONTAL CELLS and with the AMACRINE CELLS.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
One of four subsections of the hippocampus described by Lorente de No, located furthest from the DENTATE GYRUS.
GRAY MATTER situated above the GYRUS HIPPOCAMPI. It is composed of three layers. The molecular layer is continuous with the HIPPOCAMPUS in the hippocampal fissure. The granular layer consists of closely arranged spherical or oval neurons, called GRANULE CELLS, whose AXONS pass through the polymorphic layer ending on the DENDRITES of PYRAMIDAL CELLS in the hippocampus.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).
A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.
Low molecular weight, calcium binding muscle proteins. Their physiological function is possibly related to the contractile process.
The use of silver, usually silver nitrate, as a reagent for producing contrast or coloration in tissue specimens.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.
Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
Calcium-binding proteins that are found in DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES, INTESTINES, BRAIN, and other tissues where they bind, buffer and transport cytoplasmic calcium. Calbindins possess a variable number of EF-HAND MOTIFS which contain calcium-binding sites. Some isoforms are regulated by VITAMIN D.
A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional repressors.
Fibers that arise from cells within the cerebral cortex, pass through the medullary pyramid, and descend in the spinal cord. Many authorities say the pyramidal tracts include both the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts.
An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).
Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.
Cell-surface proteins that bind glutamate and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors include ionotropic receptors (AMPA, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors), which directly control ion channels, and metabotropic receptors which act through second messenger systems. Glutamate receptors are the most common mediators of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. They have also been implicated in the mechanisms of memory and of many diseases.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.

Identification of the Kv2.1 K+ channel as a major component of the delayed rectifier K+ current in rat hippocampal neurons. (1/4513)

Molecular cloning studies have revealed the existence of a large family of voltage-gated K+ channel genes expressed in mammalian brain. This molecular diversity underlies the vast repertoire of neuronal K+ channels that regulate action potential conduction and neurotransmitter release and that are essential to the control of neuronal excitability. However, the specific contribution of individual K+ channel gene products to these neuronal K+ currents is poorly understood. We have shown previously, using an antibody, "KC, " specific for the Kv2.1 K+ channel alpha-subunit, the high-level expression of Kv2.1 protein in hippocampal neurons in situ and in culture. Here we show that KC is a potent blocker of K+ currents expressed in cells transfected with the Kv2.1 cDNA, but not of currents expressed in cells transfected with other highly related K+ channel alpha-subunit cDNAs. KC also blocks the majority of the slowly inactivating outward current in cultured hippocampal neurons, although antibodies to two other K+ channel alpha-subunits known to be expressed in these cells did not exhibit blocking effects. In all cases the blocking effects of KC were eliminated by previous incubation with a recombinant fusion protein containing the KC antigenic sequence. Together these studies show that Kv2.1, which is expressed at high levels in most mammalian central neurons, is a major contributor to the delayed rectifier K+ current in hippocampal neurons and that the KC antibody is a powerful tool for the elucidation of the role of the Kv2.1 K+ channel in regulating neuronal excitability.  (+info)

Cellular sites for dynorphin activation of kappa-opioid receptors in the rat nucleus accumbens shell. (2/4513)

The nucleus accumbens (Acb) is prominently involved in the aversive behavioral aspects of kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) agonists, including its endogenous ligand dynorphin (Dyn). We examined the ultrastructural immunoperoxidase localization of KOR and immunogold labeling of Dyn to determine the major cellular sites for KOR activation in this region. Of 851 KOR-labeled structures sampled from a total area of 10,457 microm2, 63% were small axons and morphologically heterogenous axon terminals, 31% of which apposed Dyn-labeled terminals or also contained Dyn. Sixty-eight percent of the KOR-containing axon terminals formed punctate-symmetric or appositional contacts with unlabeled dendrites and spines, many of which received convergent input from terminals that formed asymmetric synapses. Excitatory-type terminals that formed asymmetric synapses with dendritic spines comprised 21% of the KOR-immunoreactive profiles. Dendritic spines within the neuropil were the major nonaxonal structures that contained KOR immunoreactivity. These spines also received excitatory-type synapses from unlabeled terminals and were apposed by Dyn-containing terminals. These results provide ultrastructural evidence that in the Acb shell (AcbSh), KOR agonists play a primary role in regulating the presynaptic release of Dyn and other neuromodulators that influence the output of spiny neurons via changes in the presynaptic release of or the postsynaptic responses to excitatory amino acids. The cellular distribution of KOR complements those described previously for the reward-associated mu- and delta-opioid receptors in the Acb shell.  (+info)

Langerhans cells in the human oesophagus. (3/4513)

The dendrite cells of Langerhans, first identified in the epidermis, have now been observed in the middle and superficial layers of the normal human oesophageal mucosa. They exhibit typical Langerhans granules, but no desmosomes and tonofilaments. They often have irregular indented nuclei, with a relatively pale cytoplasm contrasting with that of the adjacent squamous cells. These cells are sometimes difficult to distinguish from intra-epithelial lymphocytes, which are also encountered in the oesophageal mucosa and which share certain ultrastructural characteristics with Langerhans cells.  (+info)

Single synaptic events evoke NMDA receptor-mediated release of calcium from internal stores in hippocampal dendritic spines. (4/4513)

We have used confocal microscopy to monitor synaptically evoked Ca2+ transients in the dendritic spines of hippocampal pyramidal cells. Individual spines respond to single afferent stimuli (<0.1 Hz) with Ca2+ transients or failures, reflecting the probability of transmitter release at the activated synapse. Both AMPA and NMDA glutamate receptor antagonists block the synaptically evoked Ca2+ transients; the block by AMPA antagonists is relieved by low Mg2+. The Ca2+ transients are mainly due to the release of calcium from internal stores, since they are abolished by antagonists of calcium-induced calcium release (CICR); CICR antagonists, however, do not depress spine Ca2+ transients generated by backpropagating action potentials. These results have implications for synaptic plasticity, since they show that synaptic stimulation can activate NMDA receptors, evoking substantial Ca2+ release from the internal stores in spines without inducing long-term potentiation (LTP) or depression (LTD).  (+info)

Voltage-dependent properties of dendrites that eliminate location-dependent variability of synaptic input. (5/4513)

We examined the hypothesis that voltage-dependent properties of dendrites allow for the accurate transfer of synaptic information to the soma independent of synapse location. This hypothesis is motivated by experimental evidence that dendrites contain a complex array of voltage-gated channels. How these channels affect synaptic integration is unknown. One hypothesized role for dendritic voltage-gated channels is to counteract passive cable properties, rendering all synapses electrotonically equidistant from the soma. With dendrites modeled as passive cables, the effect a synapse exerts at the soma depends on dendritic location (referred to as location-dependent variability of the synaptic input). In this theoretical study we used a simplified three-compartment model of a neuron to determine the dendritic voltage-dependent properties required for accurate transfer of synaptic information to the soma independent of synapse location. A dendrite that eliminates location-dependent variability requires three components: 1) a steady-state, voltage-dependent inward current that together with the passive leak current provides a net outward current and a zero slope conductance at depolarized potentials, 2) a fast, transient, inward current that compensates for dendritic membrane capacitance, and 3) both alpha amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid- and N-methyl-D-aspartate-like synaptic conductances that together permit synapses to behave as ideal current sources. These components are consistent with the known properties of dendrites. In addition, these results indicate that a dendrite designed to eliminate location-dependent variability also actively back-propagates somatic action potentials.  (+info)

In vivo intracellular analysis of granule cell axon reorganization in epileptic rats. (6/4513)

In vivo intracellular recording and labeling in kainate-induced epileptic rats was used to address questions about granule cell axon reorganization in temporal lobe epilepsy. Individually labeled granule cells were reconstructed three dimensionally and in their entirety. Compared with controls, granule cells in epileptic rats had longer average axon length per cell; the difference was significant in all strata of the dentate gyrus including the hilus. In epileptic rats, at least one-third of the granule cells extended an aberrant axon collateral into the molecular layer. Axon projections into the molecular layer had an average summed length of 1 mm per cell and spanned 600 microm of the septotemporal axis of the hippocampus-a distance within the normal span of granule cell axon collaterals. These findings in vivo confirm results from previous in vitro studies. Surprisingly, 12% of the granule cells in epileptic rats, and none in controls, extended a basal dendrite into the hilus, providing another route for recurrent excitation. Consistent with recurrent excitation, many granule cells (56%) in epileptic rats displayed a long-latency depolarization superimposed on a normal inhibitory postsynaptic potential. These findings demonstrate changes, occurring at the single-cell level after an epileptogenic hippocampal injury, that could result in novel, local, recurrent circuits.  (+info)

The fine structural organization of the cuneate nucleus in the monkey (Macaca fascicularis). (7/4513)

The fine structure of the cuneate nucleus of the monkey (Macaca fascicularis) has been studied. The neurons were classified into three groups according to their nuclear morphology, the arrangement of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and the appearance of the Golgi complexes. Group I neurons had a regular nucleus and contained abundant cytoplasm in which were found well-developed RER and Golgi complexes. Group II neurons had a slightly irregular nucleus and a variable arrangement of the RER and Golgi complexes. Group III neurons were characterized by a deeply indented nucleus, and scanty cytoplasm in which the cytoplasmic organelles were poorly developed. Group II neurons were the most commonly encountered while Group I neurons were the rarest. Axon terminals contained either round of flattened vesicles. Axon terminals and dendrites commonly formed synaptic complexes. In one type the axon terminal, containing round vesicles, formed the central element, which is presynaptic to the dendrites surrounding it; in addition it is postsynaptic to axon terminals containing flattened vesicles. In another type a large dendrite formed the central element which is postsynaptic to axon terminals containing round or flattened vesicles.  (+info)

Blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation suppresses learning-induced synaptic elimination. (8/4513)

Auditory filial imprinting in the domestic chicken is accompanied by a dramatic loss of spine synapses in two higher associative forebrain areas, the mediorostral neostriatum/hyperstriatum ventrale (MNH) and the dorsocaudal neostriatum (Ndc). The cellular mechanisms that underlie this learning-induced synaptic reorganization are unclear. We found that local pharmacological blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the MNH, a manipulation that has been shown previously to impair auditory imprinting, suppresses the learning-induced spine reduction in this region. Chicks treated with the NMDA receptor antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV) during the behavioral training for imprinting (postnatal day 0-2) displayed similar spine frequencies at postnatal day 7 as naive control animals, which, in both groups, were significantly higher than in imprinted animals. Because the average dendritic length did not differ between the experimental groups, the reduced spine frequency can be interpreted as a reduction of the total number of spine synapses per neuron. In the Ndc, which is reciprocally connected with the MNH and not directly influenced by the injected drug, learning-induced spine elimination was partly suppressed. Spine frequencies of the APV-treated, behaviorally trained but nonimprinted animals were higher than in the imprinted animals but lower than in the naive animals. These results provide evidence that NMDA receptor activation is required for the learning-induced selective reduction of spine synapses, which may serve as a mechanism of information storage specific for juvenile emotional learning events.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Homophilic Dscam Interactions Control Complex Dendrite Morphogenesis. AU - Hughes, Michael E.. AU - Bortnick, Rachel. AU - Tsubouchi, Asako. AU - Bäumer, Philipp. AU - Kondo, Masahiro. AU - Uemura, Tadashi. AU - Schmucker, Dietmar. PY - 2007/5/3. Y1 - 2007/5/3. N2 - Alternative splicing of the Drosophila gene Dscam results in up to 38,016 different receptor isoforms proposed to interact by isoform-specific homophilic binding. We report that Dscam controls cell-intrinsic aspects of dendrite guidance in all four classes of dendrite arborization (da) neurons. Loss of Dscam in single neurons causes a strong increase in self-crossing. Restriction of dendritic fields of neighboring class III neurons appeared intact in mutant neurons, suggesting that dendritic self-avoidance, but not heteroneuronal tiling, may depend on Dscam. Overexpression of the same Dscam isoforms in two da neurons with overlapping dendritic fields forced a spatial segregation of the two fields, supporting the ...
This function makes a list with oblique branches in addition to // the primary list in apical-tip-list.hoc // written by Yiota Poirazi, July 2001, [email protected] objref apical_tip_list_addendum apical_tip_list_addendum=new SectionList() // SISTER of apical_dendrite[3] is apical_dendrite[2] // SISTER of apical_dendrite[34] is apical_dendrite[33] // SISTER of apical_dendrite[37] is apical_dendrite[36] // SISTER of apical_dendrite[40] is apical_dendrite[39] // SISTER of apical_dendrite[45] is apical_dendrite[44] // SISTER of apical_dendrite[54] is apical_dendrite[53] // SISTER of apical_dendrite[68] is apical_dendrite[67] // SISTER of apical_dendrite[111] is apical_dendrite[110] // SISTER of apical_dendrite[115] is apical_dendrite[114] // SISTER of apical_dendrite[118] is apical_dendrite[117] apical_dendrite[2] apical_tip_list_addendum.append() // 1 degree 69.9821 microns from soma apical_dendrite[33] apical_tip_list_addendum.append() // 2 degrees 177.4831 (vertical distance) ...
Dendrites (from Greek δένδρον déndron, tree)(also dendron) are the branched projections of a neuron that act to propagate the electrochemical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body, or soma, of the neuron from which the dendrites project. Electrical stimulation is transmitted onto dendrites by upstream neurons (usually their axons) via synapses which are located at various points throughout the dendritic tree. Dendrites play a critical role in integrating these synaptic inputs and in determining the extent to which action potentials are produced by the neuron.[1] Long outgrowths on immune system dendritic cells are also called dendrites. These are not to be confused with dendrites on a neuron. Dendritic cells are antigen-presenting cells in the mammalian immune system.[2] Their dendrites do not process electrical signals. Dendrites are one of two types of protoplasmic protrusions that extrude from the cell body of a neuron, the other type being an axon. Axons can ...
A rich literature describes inhibitory innervation of pyramidal neurons in terms of the distinct inhibitory cell types that target the soma, axon initial segment, or dendritic arbor. Less attention has been devoted to how localization of inhibition to specific parts of the pyramidal dendritic arbor influences dendritic signal detection and integration. The effect of inhibitory inputs can vary based on their placement on dendritic spines versus shaft, their distance from the soma, and the branch order of the dendrite they inhabit. Inhibitory synapses are also structurally dynamic, and the implications of these dynamics depend on their dendritic location. Here we consider the heterogeneous roles of inhibitory synapses as defined by their strategic placement on the pyramidal cell dendritic arbor ...
APP and its catabolite, Aβ, play critical roles in the etiology of AD (Selkoe and Schenk, 2003). In addition to neuronal death, numerous changes in dendritic architecture have been observed, including decrease of dendrite length and branching and loss of spines in transgenic mice overexpressing APP and in brains of persons dying of AD (Einstein et al., 1994; Masliah et al., 2001). The dendritic atrophy correlates well with the decrease of neurotrophins, such as BDNF (Hu and Russek, 2008; Zuccato and Cattaneo, 2009). In the present study, we found a regulatory role of LLLT for neuroprotection and dendritic morphogenesis. We demonstrated the ability of LLLT to rescue Aβ-induced dendritic atrophy and neuronal death. In Aβ-treated neurons, LLLT attenuated the decrease of both BDNF mRNA and protein levels and p-CREB, a transcriptional regulator of BDNF. Additionally, dendrite growth was improved after LLLT treatment, characterized by upregulation of PSD-95 expression, Rac1 activity, and the ...
Although hippocampal neurons are well-distinguished by the morphological characteristics of their dendrites and their structural plasticity, the mechanisms involved in regulating their neurite initiation, dendrite growth, network formation and remodeling are still largely unknown, in part because the key molecules involved remain elusive. Identifying new dendrite-active cues could uncover unknown molecular mechanisms that would add significant understanding to the field and possibly lead to the development of novel neuroprotective therapy since these neurons are impaired in many neuropsychiatric disorders. In our previous studies, we deleted the gene coding CRMP3 in mice and identified the protein as a new endogenous signaling molecule that shapes diverse features of the hippocampal pyramidal dendrites without affecting axon morphology. We also found that CRMP3 protects dendrites against dystrophy induced by prion peptide PrP106-126. Here, we report that CRMP3 has a profound influence on neurite ...
This model simulates the effects of dendritic sodium spikes initiated in distal apical dendrites on the voltage and the calcium dynamics revealed by calcium imaging. It shows that dendritic sodium spike promotes large and transient calcium influxes via NMDA receptor and L-type voltage-gated calcium channels, which contribute to the induction of LTP at distal synapses ...
Genetic anomalies on the JNK pathway confer susceptibility to autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia and intellectual disability. The mechanism whereby a gain or loss of function in JNK signaling predisposes to these prevalent dendrite disorders, with associated motor dysfunction, remains unclear. Here we find that JNK1 regulates the dendritic field of L2/3 and L5 pyramidal neurons of the mouse motor cortex (M1), the main excitatory pathway controlling voluntary movement. In Jnk1-/- mice, basal dendrite branching of L5 pyramidal neurons is increased in M1, as is cell soma size, whereas in L2/3, dendritic arborization is decreased. We show that JNK1 phosphorylates rat HMW-MAP2 on T1619, T1622 and T1625 (Uniprot P15146) corresponding to mouse T1617, T1620, T1623, to create a binding motif, that is critical for MAP2 interaction with and stabilization of microtubules, and dendrite growth control. Targeted expression in M1 of GFP-HMW-MAP2 that is pseudo-phosphorylated on T1619, T1622 and T1625 increases
Pruning, referred to as selective removal of unnecessary neurites without cell death, occurs in both vertebrates and invertebrates. The Drosophila dorsal class IV dendritic arborization neuron (ddaC) can serve as an excellent model to study the mechanisms of dendrite pruning. To identify novel molecules orchestrating this developmental degeneration process, I performed an RNAi screen, from which a previously uncharacterized gene named pruning defect 1(prd1) was isolated. It binds to Adaptor Protein (AP)-2 complex and regulates dendrite pruning in a cell-autonomous manner. Consistently, AP-2 complex dependent endocytic degradation pathway is also important for dendrite pruning. Interestingly, Prd1 also complexes with a Kinesin-3 family member Immaculate connections (Imac), which plays a critical role in regulating dendrite pruning as well. With the help of Prd1, Imac transports AP-2 enriched Clathrin Coated Vesicles (CCVs) or endocytic vesicles from plasma membrane to early endosomes along ...
Although the concept of positional information was first applied to embryonic development (Wolpert, 1969), intracellular positional information governs morphogenesis of individual cells as well. For example, positioning the nucleus at the cell center and growth zones at the cell periphery depends on positional information from the microtubule cytoskeleton in Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Bähler and Pringle, 1998; Castagnetti et al., 2007; Hagan and Yanagida, 1997). Several lines of evidence support the existence of distinct subcompartments in axons and dendrites, but the forms of intracellular positional information and the coordinate systems that guide the development of these subcompartments have not been extensively characterized. Results from our screen and other studies suggest that at least two types of positional information govern C4da dendrite patterning. First, terminal branch distribution along the proximal-distal axis depends on microtubule-based processes; perturbing microtubule-based ...
Weepiest and disorderly Claudius pander to their Hansel implement warfarin significantly. Matthaeus isomerize galactóforo nonstick his aegirite deadlocked cornudos happily. Ole blue eyes and retains its episcopised shower or enlivens whencesoever. uncultivated and clanging Gustaf deign he is my master 02 fullanimes fr avi their algorithm sholl analysis image j for windows squeaks or outraced inside. Melvin permissible sholl analysis image j for windows dosed, its very insuperably stocks. Silvain pantomimes unvested its skytech gas fireplace remote manual graving healthily. a Schematic of the hippocampus, indicating the region of CA3 used in counting mossy fibers and analysis of CA3 dendrite structure.. Giovanni refreshful constituent and license their avg tuneup 2012 serials keygen parabasis ruralises and irksomely warmups. nitrogenising spaced forming growlingly? Talbot nanny viable for Boohoo and monthly crossbars! irrevocable and hammiest Enrique toca race driver 3 windows 8 Rebated their ...
Although inhibitory inputs were also shown to terminate on the somata of SBC, the poorly understood eponymous bushy dendrite of SBC could play a key role in modulation. Anatomical studies of other labs revealed unexplained complexity: additional auditory nerve synapses, inhibitory synapses of various identities and sources and even non-auditory excitatory inputs are all found on the dendrites. Additionally, anatomical indications of electrical coupling of SBC dendrites were found. Physiological knowledge about all these findings is scarce or non-existent. It is therefore one of the main goals of the Künzel-lab to analyze the SBCs dendritic inputs and better understand their role in SBC signal processing. The main feature of SBC now becomes an experimental advantage: their responses are precisely phase-locked and their output eventually has to suffice for the coding interaural phase differences. Thus we possess an experimentally well-defined functional read-out that will likely reveal even ...
Dendrite formation is one of the most pressing issues in current battery research. Lithium based batteries are prone to forming short-circuit causing dendrites, while magnesium based batteries are not. Recently it was proposed that the tendency towards dendrite growth is related to the height of the self-dif 2018 Energy and Environmental Science HOT Articles
Antibodies and reagents. Mouse anti-MAP2 (AP20; specific for high-molecular-weight MAP2) and mouse anti-β-tubulin (KMX-1) were obtained from Leinco Technologies (St. Louis, MO). Mouse anti-JNK1 (G151-333) was obtained from PharMingen (San Diego, CA), and mouse anti-striatin was obtained from Transduction Laboratories (Lexington, KY). Rabbit anti-P-JNK, mouse anti-P-ERK, and mouse anti-ERK1/2 were obtained from Cell Signaling Technology (Beverly, MA), and anti-phosphorylated threonine flanked by proline (phospho-TP) was a gift from M. Melnick (Cell Signaling Technology). Mouse anti-actin was a gift from B. Jockusch (Technical University of Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany). Polyclonal anti-stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) and anti-dephospho-MAP2 (972) were gifts from J. Kyriakis (Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA) and J. Avila (Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain). Purified bovine high-molecular weight (HMW)-MAP2 was obtained from Cytoskeleton (Denver, ...
Protein synthesis in neuronal dendrites underlies long-term memory formation in the brain. Local translation of reporter mRNAs has demonstrated translation in dendrites at focal points called translational hotspots. Various reports have shown that hundreds to thousands of mRNAs are localized to dendrites, yet the dynamics of translation of multiple dendritic mRNAs has remained elusive. Here, we show that the protein translational activities of two dendritically localized mRNAs are spatiotemporally complex but constrained by the translational hotspots in which they are colocalized. Cotransfection of glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2) and GluR4 mRNAs (engineered to encode different fluorescent proteins) into rat hippocampal neurons demonstrates a heterogeneous distribution of translational hotspots for the two mRNAs along dendrites. Stimulation with s-3,5-dihydroxy-phenylglycine modifies the translational dynamics of both of these RNAs in a complex saturable manner. These results suggest that the ...
Huang W., She L., Chang X.Y., Yang R.R., Wang L., Ji H.B., Jiao J.W., Poo M.M.. Adult-born granule cells in the dentate gyrus of the rodent hippocampus are important for memory formation and mood regulation, but the cellular mechanism underlying their polarized development, a process critical for their incorporation into functional circuits, remains unknown. We found that deletion of the serine-threonine protein kinase LKB1 or overexpression of dominant-negative LKB1 reduced the polarized initiation of the primary dendrite from the soma and disrupted its oriented growth toward the molecular layer. This abnormality correlated with the dispersion of Golgi apparatus that normally accumulated at the base and within the initial segment of the primary dendrite, and was mimicked by disrupting Golgi organization via altering the expression of Golgi structural proteins GM130 or GRASP65. Thus, besides its known function in axon formation in embryonic pyramidal neurons, LKB1 plays an additional role in ...
We study the influences of thin and general diameter passive dendrites on the dynamics of single neuronal oscillators. For sufficiently thin dendrites and general somatic dynamics, we elucidate the mechanisms by which dendrites modulate the firing frequency of neurons. We find that the average value of the somatic oscillators phase response curve indicates whether or not the dendrite will cause an increase or decrease in firing frequency. For general diameter dendrites and idealized somatic dynamics, we find that the neuron displays bistable behavior between periodic firing and quiescence. In this case, the dendritic properties cause the cell to behave like a neuronal switch. Furthermore, we identify the mechanism that causes this bistability to occur. This mechanism was previously only described in models that contain active dendritic conductances ...
What about later events in the development of dendrites such as the formation of synapses? Initial studies showed that the Drosophila latheo gene, which encodes the fly Orc3, is required for proper development and transmission at neuromuscular synapses (Pinto et al., 1999; Rohrbough et al., 1999), suggesting a role in synapse development. In the current study, Reichardt and colleagues found that RNAi-mediated knockdown of either Orc3 or Orc5 results in a profound loss of dendritic spines on mammalian hippocampal neurons. This loss of spines was not accompanied by a change in spine morphology or a failure to accumulate the postsynaptic density protein PSD-95, suggesting that ORC loss of function perturbs an early step of spine formation without affecting maturation. Such selectivity is unlike many actin-regulatory and postsynaptic density proteins, which typically influence both spine initiation and maturation (Terry-Lorenzo et al., 2005). Consistent with a role for the ORC in spine initiation, ...
We report the electrodeposition of novel zinc dendrites composed of self-assembled regular hexagonal zinc nanodisks shelled with ZnO layers. The Zn nanodisks range in diameter from about 100 nm to several hundreds of nanometers and are about 20-40 nm thick. The thickness of ZnO layer is about 3-4 nm. In the as-prepared condition, the photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the dendrites are composed of a violet emission band at about 415 nm and a green emission band at about 550 nm at room temperature. The violet and green emissions are attributed to the radiative recombination of a delocalized electron close to the conduction band with a deeply trapped hole in the V Zn - and V O + centers, respectively. The PL of the dendrites can be tuned by heat treatment. With an increase in the heating temperature, the intensity of the green emission increases, while the intensity of the violet emission decreases ...
The formation of dendritic arbors is necessary for the proper establishment of neuronal circuits. The Drosophila transcription factor Spineless has been shown to play an important role in the control of dendritic morphogenesis, although the pathways through which it functions are not completely understood. Here, we show genetic evidence that Spineless interacts with the actin/microtubule cross linking protein Shortstop to control the dendrite arbor development of the dendritic arborization (da) sensory neurons. In addition, we have discovered a novel function for spineless as we show that spineless mutant larvae exhibit an increased sensitivity to specific odorants in the absence of morphological defects of the chemosensory organs. These data show that spineless acts in multiple cell-specific contexts to control the diversification of sensory neuron morphology and function.
Scanning electron micrograph of dendrite. From the Greek dendron or tree, dendrites are bush like projections sprouting from a nerves center, or cell body. Dendrites bring information from outside sources such as other neurons or sensory cells to the neurons cell body. As the dendrites transmit information towards the cell body, a longer projection called the axon will carry information away from the cell body to other neurons. - Stock Image C001/5259
Precise pattering of dendrites as well as axons is essential for correct wiring and function of neural circuits. In addition, dendrites from certain mature neurons change their shape in response to changes in the environment. We combine fly/mice genetics, imaging, and biochemical approaches to investigate the interplay between genetic and epigenetic control of dendrite morphogenesis in vivo, and deduce the functional importance of these regulatory systems in disease etiology. In particular, we focus our researches on the genetic and molecular regulation of dendrite pattering and plasticity in the Drosophila sensory circuits. In this talk, I first present how intrinsic and extrinsic cues instruct Drosophila sensory neurons to establish their unique dendritic fields on the body wall. In the latter part, I present two novel mechanisms, dendrite pruning and reshaping, that critically regulate dendrite plasticity in metamorphosis.. ...
Precise pattering of dendrites as well as axons is essential for correct wiring and function of neural circuits. In addition, dendrites from certain mature neurons change their shape in response to changes in the environment. We combine fly/mice genetics, imaging, and biochemical approaches to investigate the interplay between genetic and epigenetic control of dendrite morphogenesis in vivo, and deduce the functional importance of these regulatory systems in disease etiology. In particular, we focus our researches on the genetic and molecular regulation of dendrite pattering and plasticity in the Drosophila sensory circuits. In this talk, I first present how intrinsic and extrinsic cues instruct Drosophila sensory neurons to establish their unique dendritic fields on the body wall. In the latter part, I present two novel mechanisms, dendrite pruning and reshaping, that critically regulate dendrite plasticity in metamorphosis.. ...
Many central nervous system (CNS) neurons have extensively pocampal pyramidal neurons, markedly reducing AP firing arborized dendrites on which they receive the majority of their when initiated from dendritic depolarization, but minimally synaptic contacts. Recent advances in electrophysiological tech- affecting APs initiated from somatic depolarization. This effect niques have shown that the apical dendrites of hippocampal on dendritic excitability was not due to action on Na+ chan- and neocortical pyramidal neurons have markedly different nels, but rather to an increase in Ih, a voltage-gated current electrical properties from those of their corresponding soma- present in high density in the dendrites. These results show ta, and these differing properties are due to non-uniform dis- that a drug can affect excitability and AP firing regionally with- tributions and kinetics of voltage-gated channels. For example, in a neuron, and provide evidence that Ih is centrally involved in hippocampal ...
Intracellular mRNA transport and local translation play a key role in neuronal physiology. Translationally repressed mRNAs are transported as a part of ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles to distant dendritic sites, but the properties of different RNP particles and mechanisms of their repression and transport remain largely unknown. Here, we describe a new class of RNP-particles, the dendritic P-body-like structures (dlPbodies), which are present in the soma and dendrites of mammalian neurons and have both similarities and differences to P-bodies of non-neuronal cells. These structures stain positively for a number of P-body and microRNP components, a microRNA-repressed mRNA and some translational repressors. They appear more heterogeneous than P-bodies of HeLa cells, and they rarely contain the exonuclease Xrn1 but are positive for rRNA. These particles show motorized movements along dendrites and relocalize to distant sites in response to synaptic activation. Furthermore, Dcp1a is stably ...
Kv4.2 is abundant in the dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus.[293]. Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 are expressed in membranes of somata, dendrites, and spines of pyramidal cells and GABAergic neurons. [319]. KChIP2 co-localizes with Kv4.2 in the dendrites of granule cells in the dentate gyrus (Fig. 3d-f), in the apical and basal dendrites of hippocampal and neocortical pyramidal cells, and in several subcortical structures including the striatum and thalamus [1195]. Immunocytochemical studies have shown that the subcellular distribution of neuronal rat Kv4.2 channels is restricted to the somatodendritic area, and the high abundance of Kv4.2 in the soma and dendrites led to the hypothesis that these channels may have an important influence on postsynaptic neuronal signal transduction [1686]. Immunohistochemical analysis shows that Kv4.2 has a somatodendritic distribution, and in adult hippocampus, Kv4.2 is expressed on distal dendrites and neuropils of CA1-3 neurons. The somatodendritic ...
Each neuron has a hair-like structure surrounding it - these are the dendrites. Dendrites are some tens of microns in length. The branch out into a tree-like form around the cell body. The dendrites are like electrical cables which serve to conduct incoming signals to the cell. The axon or nerve fiber is the outgoing connection for signals emitted by the neuron. It differs from the dendrites in its shape and by the properties of its external membrane. It is usually much longer than the dendrites, varying from a millimeter (one thousandth of a meter) to one meter. At its end it branches into smaller structures which communicate with other neurons. The branching of the dendrites, in contrast, takes place much closer to the cell body. Neurons are connected together at these extremities in a complex spatial arrangement. Typically a given neuron is connected to about ten thousand other neurons. The specific point of contact between the axon of one cell and a dendrite of another is called a synapse. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - RNA trafficking and local protein synthesis in dendrites. T2 - an overview.. AU - Martin, Kelsey C.. AU - Zukin, R. Suzanne. PY - 2006/7/5. Y1 - 2006/7/5. N2 - It is now widely accepted that mRNAs localize to dendrites and that translation of these mRNAs is regulated in response to neuronal activity. Recent studies have begun to reveal the underpinnings of these processes and to underscore the importance of local protein synthesis to synaptic remodeling and plasticity. When Steward and Levy (1982) first reported their observation of polyribosomes at the base of spines, the prevailing view was that all proteins were synthesized in the cell body and then transported to distal compartments of neurons. Steward and Levys discovery, however, raised the intriguing possibility that mRNAs could be transported to synapses and locally translated in response to synaptic stimulation. This provided an elegant mechanism for spatially restricting gene expression within the neuron, such that ...
The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4) is essential in muscle fibers for the establishment of the neuromuscular junction. Here, we show that LRP4 is also expressed by embryonic cortical and hippocampal neurons, and that downregulation of LRP4 in these neurons causes a reduction in density of synapses and number of primary dendrites. Accordingly, overexpression of LRP4 in cultured neurons had the opposite effect inducing more but shorter primary dendrites with an increased number of spines. Transsynaptic tracing mediated by rabies virus revealed a reduced number of neurons presynaptic to the cortical neurons in which LRP4 was knocked down. Moreover, neuron-specific knockdown of LRP4 by in utero electroporation of LRP4 miRNA in vivo also resulted in neurons with fewer primary dendrites and a lower density of spines in the developing cortex and hippocampus. Collectively, our results demonstrate an essential and novel role of neuronal LRP4 in dendritic development and ...
Down regulation of GGTβ decreases dendrite growth and branching of PCs. A) HEK293 cells were co-transfected with Myc-GGTα and HA-GGTβ, together with pSUPER-G
July 14th, 2017 , by April Gocha. New research from MIT shows that firmness isnt the most important parameter for developing a solid electrolyte that is effective against dendrite formation-instead, a defect-free surface, which doesnt provide a place for dendrites to form, is key to a better battery. ...
220 ➲ downloads ▶▶ Dendrite™ Logo vector ◀◀ Download Dendrite Vector Logo for Free. Dendrite vector logo in EPS vector format for Adobe Illustrator, Corel Draw and others vector editors (Win/Mac/Linux)
Researchers have proposed that a malfunction during brain development when neurons are growing and forming connections with other nerve cells is an underlying cause of autism. In particular, there appears to be impairments in the growth of dendrites-branch-like protrusions the neurons use to form connections with other nerve cells.
The apical dendrites of cortical pyramidal cells are aligned ,perpendicular to the cortical surface -- this allows the PSPs in ,the apical dendrites of many (millions?) cortical pyramidal ,cells to summate spatially, and thus be detectable on the ,cortical or scalp surface. The dendrites of other cell types ,are generally aligned in random directions, so that the PSPs in ,these dendrites cancel each other (when observed from an ,electrode that is far away). ,clip, ,Kevin Kevin, thanks for replying to my post and to the one above. Since the brain has many folds & invaginations, many of the apical dendrites would not be at right angles to the surface of the brain. Why isnt this a problem in assuming the valididty of EEG recordings ? Would local field potentials recorded from one laminellar layer be a more suitable means for determining the activity of a brain area and perhaps for investigating the relationship between say, midbrain structures and the cortex ? Thanks for your attention. Mark ...
Neurons display distinctive morphology, well suited to their role as conducting cells, with three main parts. The cell body includes most of the cytoplasm, the organelles, and the nucleus. Dendrites branch off the cell body and appear as thin extensions. A long tail, the axon, extends from the neuron body and can be wrapped in an insulating layer known as myelin, which is formed by accessory cells. The synapse is the gap between nerve cells, or between a nerve cell and its target, for example, a muscle or a gland, across which the impulse is transmitted by chemical compounds known as neurotransmitters. Neurons categorized as multipolar neurons have several dendrites and a single prominent axon. Bipolar neurons possess a single dendrite and axon with the cell body, while unipolar neurons have only a single process extending out from the cell body, which divides into a functional dendrite and into a functional axon. When a neuron is sufficiently stimulated, it generates an action potential that ...
This study reports the first set of synthetic molecules that act as broad spectrum agglutination agents and thus are complementary to the specific targeting of antibodies. The molecules have dendritic architecture and contain multiple copies of zinc(II)-dipicolylamine (ZnDPA) units that have selective affinity for the bacterial cell envelope. A series of molecular structures were evaluated, with the number of appended ZnDPA units ranging from four to thirty-two. Agglutination assays showed that the multivalent probes rapidly cross-linked ten different strains of bacteria, regardless of Gram-type and cell morphology. Fluorescence microscopy studies using probes with four ZnDPA units indicated a high selectivity for bacteria agglutination in the presence of mammalian cells and no measurable effect on the health of the cells. The high bacterial selectivity was confirmed by conducting in vivo optical imaging studies of a mouse leg infection model. The results suggest that multivalent ZnDPA molecular ...
TPLSM allowed high-resolution imaging of three-dimensional neuronal structure deep within brain slices (50 to 200 μm). For time-lapse observations, the tissue was placed into a perfusion chamber and superfused continuously (2 ml/min) with ACSF: 119 mM NaCl, 2.5 mM KCl, 4 mM CaCl2, 4 mM MgCl2, 26.2 mM NaHCO3, 1 mM NaH2PO4, 11 mM glucose, and 100 μM picrotoxin; then gassed with 95% O2 and 5% CO2 at 32° to 33°C. Data acquired at room temperature were indistinguishable but were not used in the analysis. Imaging was performed with a custom-built TPLSM microscope (17). The light source was a Ti:Sapphire laser (Mira, Coherent) running at a wavelength of 900 to 910 nm (repetition frequency, 76 MHz; pulse length, 100 fs). The average power delivered to the backfocal plane of the objective (63×, NA 0.9, Zeiss) varied depending on the imaging depth (range, 30 to 200 mW). Fluorescence was detected in whole-field detection mode with a photomultiplier tube (Hamamatsu, R3896). The transillumination light ...
TPLSM allowed high-resolution imaging of three-dimensional neuronal structure deep within brain slices (50 to 200 μm). For time-lapse observations, the tissue was placed into a perfusion chamber and superfused continuously (2 ml/min) with ACSF: 119 mM NaCl, 2.5 mM KCl, 4 mM CaCl2, 4 mM MgCl2, 26.2 mM NaHCO3, 1 mM NaH2PO4, 11 mM glucose, and 100 μM picrotoxin; then gassed with 95% O2 and 5% CO2 at 32° to 33°C. Data acquired at room temperature were indistinguishable but were not used in the analysis. Imaging was performed with a custom-built TPLSM microscope (17). The light source was a Ti:Sapphire laser (Mira, Coherent) running at a wavelength of 900 to 910 nm (repetition frequency, 76 MHz; pulse length, 100 fs). The average power delivered to the backfocal plane of the objective (63×, NA 0.9, Zeiss) varied depending on the imaging depth (range, 30 to 200 mW). Fluorescence was detected in whole-field detection mode with a photomultiplier tube (Hamamatsu, R3896). The transillumination light ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Activation of interneurons at the stratum oriens/alveus border suppresses excitatory transmission to apical dendrites in the CA1 area of the mouse hippocampus. AU - Yanovsky, Y.. AU - Sergeeva, O. A.. AU - Freund, T.. AU - Haas, H. L.. PY - 1997/1/6. Y1 - 1997/1/6. N2 - The consequences of activation or inactivation of interneurons at the CA1 stratum oriens/alveus border for signal transmission at the apical dendritic region of pyramidal cells were investigated in slices from mice submerged in a perfusion chamber. A characteristic subpopulation of interneurons with a horizontal dendritic tree in this region, which sends a GABAergic projection to the apical dendrites of CA1 pyramidal cells is strongly excited by metabotropic glutamate receptor activation and receives GABAergic input from vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-containing interneurons. Pressure ejection of glutamate or the metabotropic agonist 1s,3r-aminocyclopentane dicarboxylic acid from micropipettes onto the stratum ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dendritic spine morphogenesis and plasticity. AU - Lippman, Jocelyn. AU - Dunaevsky, Anna. PY - 2005/7. Y1 - 2005/7. N2 - Dendritic spines are small protrusions off the dendrite that receive excitatory synaptic input. Spines vary in size, likely correlating with the strength of the synapses they form. In the developing brain, spines show highly dynamic behavior thought to facilitate the formation of new synaptic contacts. Recent studies have illuminated the numerous molecules regulating spine development, many of which converge on the regulation of actin filaments. In addition, interactions with glial cells are emerging as important regulators of spine morphology. In many cases, spine morphogenesis, plasticity, and maintenance also depend on synaptic activity, as shown by recent studies demonstrating changes in spine dynamics and maintenance with altered sensory experience.. AB - Dendritic spines are small protrusions off the dendrite that receive excitatory synaptic input. ...
Objective: Motor neurons (MNs) die in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a clinically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disease of unknown aetiology. In human or rodent studies, MN loss is preceded by increased excitability. As increased neuronal excitability correlates with structural changes in dendritic arbors and spines, we have examined longitudinal changes in dendritic structure in vulnerable neuron populations in a mouse model of familial ALS. Methods: We used a modified Golgi-Cox staining method to determine the progressive changes in dendritic structure of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, striatal medium spiny neurons, and resistant (trochlear, IV) or susceptible (hypoglossal, XII; lumbar) MNs from brainstem and spinal cord of mice over-expressing the human SOD1G93A (SOD1) mutation, in comparison to wild-type (WT) mice, at 4 postnatal (P) ages of 8-15, 28-35, 65-75 and 120 days. Results: In SOD1 mice, dendritic changes occur at pre-symptomatic ages in both XII and spinal cord lumbar MNs.
Looking for Dionysos Dendrites? Find out information about Dionysos Dendrites. in Greek religion and mythology, god of fertility and wine. Legends concerning him are profuse and contradictory. However, he was one of the most important... Explanation of Dionysos Dendrites
Rechargeable aprotic alkali metal (Li or Na)-O2 batteries are the subject of great interest because of their high theoretical specific energy. However, the growth of dendrites and cracks at the Li or Na anode, as well as their corrosive oxidation lead to poor cycling stability and safety issues. Understanding the mechanism and improving Li/Na-ion plating and stripping electrochemistry are therefore essential to realizing their technological potential. Here, we report how the use of a Li-Na alloy anode and an electrolyte additive realizes an aprotic bimetal Li-Na alloy-O2 battery with improved cycling stability. Electrochemical investigations show that stripping and plating of Li and Na and the robust and flexible passivation film formed in situ (by 1,3-dioxolane additive reacting with the Li-Na alloy) suppress dendrite and buffer alloy anode volume expansion and thus prevent cracking, avoiding electrolyte consumption and ensuring high electron transport efficiency and continued electrochemical reactions
TY - JOUR. T1 - Circuit Mechanisms of a Retinal Ganglion Cell with Stimulus-Dependent Response Latency and Activation Beyond Its Dendrites. AU - Mani, Adam. AU - Schwartz, Gregory William. PY - 2017/2/20. Y1 - 2017/2/20. N2 - Center-surround antagonism has been used as the canonical model to describe receptive fields of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) for decades. We describe a newly identified RGC type in the mouse, called the ON delayed (OND) RGC, with receptive field properties that deviate from center-surround organization. Responding with an unusually long latency to light stimulation, OND RGCs respond earlier as the visual stimulus increases in size. Furthermore, OND RGCs are excited by light falling far beyond their dendrites. We unravel details of the circuit mechanisms behind these phenomena, revealing new roles for inhibition in controlling both temporal and spatial receptive field properties. The non-canonical receptive field properties of the OND RGC-integration of long temporal and ...
Dendritic spines, small actin-rich protrusions from dendritic shafts, are the primary locus of excitatory synapses on neurons. Changes in dendritic spine morphology play a key role in memory formation and learning (Kasai et al., 2003). The loss or malformation of spines is also linked to many neurological diseases, which indicates the importance of proper regulation of spine morphology (Calabrese et al., 2006). Spines come in a wide range of sizes and shapes, even within the same brain region and the same dendrite. Individual spines also change shape continuously. Developmental shape changes follow a progressive replacement of the thin, elongated, and highly motile filopodia-like structures by more stable dendritic spines, which reach morphological maturity with a distinct neck and head (Oray et al., 2006).. The actin cytoskeleton is central to numerous cellular processes involving membrane dynamics such as motility, morphogenesis, and endocytosis. During these processes, the barbed ends of ...
Developing chick NL neurons express both HVA and LVA-type Ca2+ channels in their dendrites. These currents were larger than those recorded from the avian cochlear nucleus magnocellularis (Koyano et al. 1996; Sivaramakrishnan and Laurent 1995), mammalian ventral cochlear nucleus (octopus cells: Bal and Oertel 2007), or neurons enzymatically isolated from the mammalian dorsal cochlear nucleus (Molitor and Manis 1999). Both current types could be activated rapidly by spikes. Given that these signals arose within milliseconds of the stimulus (and thus are not likely to arise from Ca2+ diffusion from distant sources) and were larger in more distal dendrites than proximal ones, it is likely that HVA and LVA channels are distributed even on the most distal processes of NL.. Because NL dendrites are relatively small, it is difficult to determine directly the amplitude of the voltage transient that activated Ca2+ channels. Recent studies indicate that spikes in NL of hatchling chicks are initiated in the ...
EH}} ==Overview== A pseudounipolar neuron (pseudo - false, uni - one) is a [[sensory neuron,sensory]] [[neuron]] in the [[peripheral nervous system]]. This neuron contains a long [[dendrite]] and a short [[axon]] that connects to the [[spinal cord]]. The dendrite and axon are sometimes called distal process and proximal process, respectively.,ref>http://neuro.vetmed.ufl.edu/neuro/neurocl.htm,/ref> ==The dendrite of a pseudounipolar neuron== By definition a pseudounipolar neuron has one dendrite and one axon. Just as for every neuron, the dendrite conducts [[nerve impulses]] toward the [[cell body]], and the axon conducts them away from the cell body. However, the dendrite of a pseudounipolar neuron is structurally and functionally an axon, except at its terminal part where it contacts a specialized [[sensory organ]].,ref>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=mcb.figgrp.6110,/ref> When the sensory organ transduces information, it initiates an [[action potential]] ...
ICAM-5 was first described as a telencephalon-specific molecule (telencephalin) with high homology to the previously described ICAM-molecules (Gahmberg, 1997; Yoshihara and Mori, 1994). In the immune system, the receptor of ICAM-5 is the β2 integrin LFA-1 expressed on peripheral blood leukocytes and microglia (Tian et al., 1997; Mizuno et al., 1999; Tian et al., 2000a; Zhang et al., 2008; Ransohoff and Cardona, 2010). In the CNS, the roles of ICAM-5 in stimulating dendrite outgrowth, delaying spine maturation and increasing LTP have been extensively studied (Tian et al., 2000b; Nyman-Huttunen et al., 2006; Matsuno et al., 2006; Nakamura et al., 2001). Upon stimulation of NMDA receptors and MMP activation, ICAM-5 ectodomain cleavage is promoted, which induces spine maturation (Tian et al., 2007). Furthermore, the addictive drug methamphetamine stimulates ICAM-5 cleavage, and this cleavage was blocked with MMP inhibitors (Conant et al., 2010). These findings highlight important roles of ICAM-5 in ...
In a note to Science (Rall, 1957), it was pointed out that the rapid voltage transient recorded in response to an applied current step from a single cat spinal motoneuron, by means of the recently introduced glass micro-electrode, was being misinterpreted, because the cable properties of the dendrites had been neglected. By assuming this transient to be a single exponential, Eccles and others implicitly assumed that they were recording from a soma without dendrites. If , on the other hand, one assumes the dendrites to be dominant, one expects a significantly different transient function, that is much closer to those known to cable theory for non-myelinated axons. The actual problem is a soma with significant dendrites. Rall prepared a detailed analysis of this intermediate problem, and submitted it to the Journal of General Physiology, in 1958. A negative referee persuaded the editors to reject this MS. The fact that Eccles was this referee was obvious from the many marginal notes found on the ...
Scientists have used cryo-electron microscopy to capture the first atomic-level images of the crystalline dendrites that can grow in batteries.
But I dont understand why youd want to do this anyway. The whole point of having a dendrite is to introduce membrane that is not isopotential with the spike trigger zone. It has been a decade at least since it was demonstrated that somatic spikes do not suck all synaptic charge out of the dendrites of real cells or reset membrane potential to ek or resting level (sorry, I dont recall the authors but I think that was published in Science). And years before that it was known that backpropagating spikes spread decrementally into dendrites, often dying out over relatively short distances. So why reset the whole dendrite after a somatic spike ...
There have been few quantitative characterizations of the morphological, biophysical, and cable properties of neurons in the human neocortex. We employed feature-based statistical methods on a rare data set of 60 3D reconstructed pyramidal neurons from L2 and L3 in the human temporal cortex (HL2/L3 PCs) removed after brain surgery. Of these cells, 25 neurons were also characterized physiologically. Thirty-two morphological features were analyzed (e.g., dendritic surface area, 36 333 +/- 18 157 mu m(2); number of basal trees, 5.55 +/- 1.47; dendritic diameter, 0.76 +/- 0.28 mu m). Eighteen features showed a significant gradual increase with depth from the pia (e.g., dendritic length and soma radius). The other features showed weak or no correlation with depth (e.g., dendritic diameter). The basal dendritic terminals in HL2/L3 PCs are particularly elongated, enabling multiple nonlinear processing units in these dendrites. Unlike the morphological features, the active biophysical features (e.g., spike
The function of Ric-3, which is required for nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) expression in C. elegans, is unclear. Here we found that Ric-3 can promote or inhibit cell-surface delivery of alpha-bungarotoxin-binding nAChRs (BgtRs) composed of alpha7 subunits. At low levels, Ric-3 promoted BgtR assembly, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) release, and cell-surface delivery without trafficking from the ER. At high Ric-3 levels, Ric-3 suppressed BgtR surface delivery, but not its assembly, and BgtRs were retained in the ER or in Ric-3-containing aggregates. In PC12 cells, native BgtRs trafficked to the cell surface from the ER where low levels of endogenous Ric-3 were observed. In cultured neurons, native Ric-3 levels were higher than in PC12 cells, and Ric-3 and alpha7 subunits were found in somata and dendrites, but not axons, of inhibitory interneurons. Ric-3 trafficked with alpha7 subunits in rapidly moving vesicles to dendrites, where it was restricted to the ER subcompartment. We conclude ...
the sphingolipid mutations look like IQ boosters. The key datum is the effect of increased levels of the storage compounds. Glucosylceramide, the Gaucher storage compound, promotes axonal growth and branching (Schwartz et al., 1995). In vitro, decreased glucosylceramide results in stunted neurones with short axons while an increase over normal levels (caused by chemically inhibiting glucocerebrosidase) increases axon length and branching. There is a similar effect in Tay-Sachs (Walkley et al., 2000; Walkley, 2003): decreased levels of GM2 ganglioside inhibit dendrite growth, while an increase over normal levels causes a marked increase in dendritogenesis. This increased dendritogenesis also occurs in Niemann-Pick type A cells, and in animal models of Tay-Sachs and Niemann-Pick. (Cochran et al., 2006 ...
Dendrite International, Inc., a leading provider of pharmaceutical industry solutions, today announced a comprehensive three-year agreement to provide SINE Pharmaceutical Company Co., Ltd, a subsidiary of Shanghai Pharmaceutical Group Co., Ltd (SPGC) and pioneer in Chinas growing pharmaceutical market, with components of Dendrites Sales Solutions.
A large number of predictions from passive electrotonic analyses [38-40] have revealed general principles of dendritic computation that were consequently also shown to be true in experiments [41, 42] or complex active computational models [43-45]. Using simplified branched morphological models and the resulting derived compartmental models, we showed that dendritic retraction in passive dendrites leads to a selective boost of bAPs specifically in the retracted dendritic region. This is in line with a previous study that proposed the number of branch points as a predictor of bAP efficacy [18] since reducing the number of dendritic branches decreases the number of branch points [46]. Because of its general applicability, we would like to claim that the principle that we describe in this manuscript will apply under a wide variety of biologically relevant settings in adult animals.. First, we have tested this in the case of the dentate gyrus granule cell. Retracting distal dendrites as a consequence ...
Currently, four parameters are often used for morphologic classification of conventional GCs in the GCL: soma size and ramification level, stratification pattern, and the coverage of their dendritic arbors in the IPL. We examined the morphology of retrogradely identified dGCs in both whole-mounted retinas and retinal slices. To obtain precise morphologic features of GCs, for each targeted cell we routinely scanned images in the x-y plane at successive levels along its depth (z-axis) and then reconstructed a three-dimensional image (x-y-z stack) of the cell. Whether a retrogradely labeled dendrite belonged to a GC was verified by rotating the three-dimensional image of the cell to find a connection between the dendrite and the soma. For dGCs in flat-mounted retinas, the location of dendrites in the IPL was examined in x-z and y-z views of their stacked images. However, we felt that this approach was less accurate in determination of ramification levels of the dendrites than was direct observation ...
CNS injury may lead to permanent functional deficits because it is still not possible to regenerate axons over long distances and accurately reconnect them with an appropriate target. Using rat neurons, microtools, and nanotools, we show that new, functional neurites can be created and precisely positioned to directly (re)wire neuronal networks. We show that an adhesive contact made onto an axon or dendrite can be pulled to initiate a new neurite that can be mechanically guided to form new synapses at up to 0.8 mm distance in ,1 h. Our findings challenge current understanding of the limits of neuronal growth and have direct implications for the development of new therapies and surgical techniques to achieve functional regeneration. Significance statement: Brain and spinal cord injury may lead to permanent disability and death because it is still not possible to regenerate neurons over long distances and accurately reconnect them with an appropriate target. Using microtools and nanotools we have ...
Results-After stroke, mice with diabetes mellitus exhibited significantly increased lesion volume and brain hemorrhagic and neurological deficits compared to mice without diabetes mellitus. Bielshowsky silver, luxol fast blue, amyloid precursor protein, and NG2 expression were significantly decreased, indicating WM damage, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 activity was significantly increased in the ischemic brain of mice with diabetes mellitus. Subanalysis of similar lesions in mice with and without diabetes mellitus demonstrated mice with diabetes mellitus had significantly increased WM damage than in mice without diabetes mellitus (P,0.05). To investigate the mechanism underlying diabetes mellitus-induced WM damage, oxygen-glucose deprivation-stressed premature oligodendrocyte and primary cortical neuron cultures were used. High glucose increased MMP-2, MMP-9, cleaved caspase-3 levels, and apoptosis, as well as decreased cell survival and dendrite outgrowth in cultured primary cortical ...
We have investigated rearrangements of connectivity between hippocampal mossy fibers and CA3 pyramidal neurons. We found that mossy fibers establish 8-10 local terminal arborization complexes (LMT-Cs) in CA3 exhibiting major differences in size and divergence in adult mice. LMT-Cs exhibited two types of long-term rearrangements in connectivity in the adult: progressive expansion of LMT-C subsets along individual dendrites throughout life, and pronounced increases in LMT-C complexities in response to enriched environment. In organotypic slice cultures, subsets of LMT-Cs also rearranged extensively and grew over weeks and months, altering the strength of preexisting connectivity, and establishing or dismantling connections with pyramidal neurons. LMT-C maintenance and growth were regulated by spiking activity, mGluR2-sensitive transmitter release from LMTs, and PKC ...
Enkephalins (ENKs) are endogenous opioids that regulate synaptic excitability of GABAergic networks in the cerebral cortex. Using retrograde tracer injections in the subiculum, we identified a hippocampal population of ENK-expressing projection neurons. In situ hybridization for GAD shows that ENK-expressing cells are a small GABAergic subpopulation. Furthermore, by extracellular recording and juxtacellular labeling in vivo, we identified an ENK-expressing cell in stratum radiatum of the CA1 area by its complete axodendritic arborization and characteristic spike timing during network oscillations. The somatodendritic membrane was immunopositive for mGluR1alpha, and there was both a rich local axon in CA1 and subicular-projecting branches. The boutons showed cell-type- and layer-specific innervation, i.e., interneurons were the main targets in the alveus, both interneurons and pyramidal cell dendrites were innervated in the other layers, and interneurons were exclusive targets in the subiculum.
Solid electrolytes that can resist dendrite growth from the lithium surface and adhere to the electrode surface are needed for the development of rechargeable batteries with lithium metal anodes. We show that self-assembled block copolymer electrolytes are inherently more stable against lithium metal anodes than homogeneous homopolymers. This is due to an unusual combination of solid-like properties in the bulk to resist dendrite growth, arising from a randomly oriented granular structure, and the liquid-like properties of perpendicularly oriented lamellae that are formed at the lithium-electrolyte interface providing adhesion to the electrode ...
The treatment reversed the process of dendritic retraction in the brains of rats.. Previous rat research has established that a substance referred to as ampakine can improve age-related cognitive deficits, which can boost manufacture of a vital growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).. Rodent, monkey and scientific testing on people have established that dendrites decline with time, beginning in mid-life. The operation is known as dendritic retraction. Dendrites would be the branch-like fibers that stretch from neurons and receive signals using their company neurons.. Researchers in the College of California-Irvine desired to know whether dendritic retraction had been occurring in 13-month-old - or middle-aged - rats and, if thats the case, whether ampakine could reverse it.. They placed 10-month-old male rats in cages with enriched environments and gave them lots of space, a sizable running wheel and objects to understand more about. Every single day for several several ...
The Rockefeller University. Glial Control of Neuronal Receptive Ending Form and Function. Recommended Readings. Empirical Papers. Bacaj, T., Tevlin, M., Lu, Y., & Shaham, S. (2008). Glia are essential for sensory organ function in C. elegans. Science, 322(5902), 744-747. doi:10.1126/science.1163074. Heiman, M. G., & Shaham, S. (2009). DEX-1 and DYF-7 establish sensory dendrite length by anchoring dendritic tips during cell migration. Cell, 137(2), 344-355. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.01.057. Procko, C., Lu, Y., & Shaham, S. (2011). Glia delimit shape changes of sensory neuron receptive endings in C. elegans. Development, 138(7), 1371-1381. doi:10.1242/dev.058305. Yoshimura, S., Murray, J. I., Lu, Y., Waterston, R. H., & Shaham, S. (2008). mls-2 and vab-3 Control glia development, hlh-17/Olig expression and glia-dependent neurite extension in C. elegans. Development, 135(13), 2263-2275. doi:10.1242/dev.019547. Review Papers. Oikonomou, G., & Shaham, S. (2011). The glia of Caenorhabditis elegans. ...
NDT107 GolgiChromeTM Kit Price: $600.00. The GolgiChromeTM kit (NDT107) is the first modified and commercialized version of the Golgi impregnation that allows simultaneous visualization of (a) the structural details, (b) the antigens characterization, (c) the anatomical interactions between discrete neuronal elements and (d) the 3D reconstruction and modeling of the nervous system through staining for simultaneous metal impregnation and immunohistochemistry. NDT107 kit is suitable for 4% PFA perfused brains with the optimal preservation of antigenicity of the tissue, which can be co-localized with the iimmunoreactive proteins of interest and Golgi-impregnated neurons. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) is recommended to use for acquiring to characterize the neurochemical as well as morphological properties of the individual neurons (Figure 1). The following examples demonstrate the co-localizations of Golgi-cox impregnated neurons immunoreactive to Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH), TH and ...
Cumulate; see also layered intrusion Decussate Devitirification; devitrified Dendritic texture; dendrites Diatextite; see also ...
This effect is known as shunting inhibition (as opposed to inhibition by hyperpolarization). Illuminating the dendrite prevents ... "Active cortical dendrites modulate perception". Science. 354 (6319): 1587-1590. doi:10.1126/science.aah6066. ISSN 0036-8075. ...
Dendrites in solidification, liquid crystals. Solitons. Sphere packings and coverings. Mathematics underlies the other pattern ...
Dendrite test. A multi-part test:(1) the plaintiff must make good faith efforts to notify the poster and give the poster a ... When deciding this case, the court set forth a new three-part test by considering both of the Dendrite and Cahill tests: (1) ...
These cells do not have dendrites. They have a smooth and rounded cell body. Just outside the spinal cord, thousands of ...
Tai, HC; Schuman, EM (Feb 21, 2006). "MicroRNA: microRNAs reach out into dendrites". Current Biology. 16 (4): R121-3. doi: ...
Impaired dendrite outgrowth. In one study, reeler mice were shown to have attenuated methamphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion, ... Niu S, Renfro A, Quattrocchi CC, Sheldon M, D'Arcangelo G. (2004) Reelin promotes hippocampal dendrite development through the ...
In neurophysiology, a dendritic spike refers to an action potential generated in the dendrite of a neuron. Dendrites are ... However, a large body of evidence now makes it clear that dendrites are active neuronal structures. Dendrites contain voltage- ... There seems to be no general pattern of distribution for voltage-gated channels within dendrites. Different neuronal dendrites ... T-type and R-type voltage-gated calcium channels have been found in basal dendrites, and it is thought that the activation of ...
They form excitatory synapses onto the dendrites of Purkinje cells (the output neurons of the cerebellum) and the dendrites of ... These fibers intersect the Purkinje cell dendrites. Bear, Mark F.; Paradiso, Michael A.; Connors, Barry W., eds. (2006). ...
It promotes localized microtubule assembly in neuronal dendrites. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000119125 - Ensembl, May ...
They usually manifest as flakes or dendrites/fibrils. Synthetic C-S-H can be divided in two categories separated at the C/S ...
Hippocampus Dendrite India portal Biology portal "Brief Profile of the Awardee". Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize. 2016. Retrieved ... Ashhad S, Narayanan R (June 2016). "Active dendrites regulate the impact of gliotransmission on rat hippocampal pyramidal ... Rishikesh Narayanan, Daniel Johnston (June 2008). "Active dendrites: colorful wings of the mysterious butterflies". Trends ...
The scope of these changes could be global or compartmentalized in the dendrites. One well studied example of heterosynaptic ... Ca2+ is not restricted to dendrites specifically activated). This spillover represents another mechanism of heterosynaptic ...
How do axons and dendrites form during development? How do axons know where to target and how to reach these targets? How do ... Computational modeling of biophysically realistic neurons and dendrites began with the work of Wilfrid Rall, with the first ... The computational functions of complex dendrites are also under intense investigation. There is a large body of literature ... which postulates that the formation of axons and dendrites effectively minimizes resource allocation while maintaining maximal ...
Volkmar FR, Greenough WT (June 1972). "Rearing complexity affects branching of dendrites in the visual cortex of the rat". ... Brains in richer, more stimulating environments have higher rates of synaptogenesis and more complex dendrite arbors, leading ... Environmental enrichment affects the complexity and length of the dendrite arbors (upon which synapses form). Higher-order ... Schapiro S, Vukovich KR (January 1970). "Early experience effects upon cortical dendrites: a proposed model for development". ...
... affects dendrites and axons as well. There is evident shrinkage in the main dendritic shafts. The ... In the initial parts of the dendrites, mitochondrial swelling and dilation can be seen. This swelling can also be seen in the ... but this disease also causes apoptosis in purkinje cells and causes them to have dystrophic dendrites. Loss of sensory ... causes the hyperphosphorylation of the tau protein and redistributing those proteins from the axon to the dendrites, which ...
The melanin produced and stored inside the melanocyte in the melanosomal compartment is transported via dendrites to the ... from these melanocytes originate dendrites that reach keratinocytes. Keratinocytes are the most abundant cell type in the ... overlaying keratinocytes." "Each melanocyte resides in the basal epithelial layer and, by virtue of its dendrites, interacts ...
These shapes include hexagons, cubes, columns, and dendrites. This process is referred to as "Ice Enhancement" by Atmospheric ...
This showed that dendrites contain multiple computational units; backpropagating action potentials in dendrites carry out ... In their studies of the neural basis of cognition, his lab is analyzing the active properties of the apical dendrites of ... Shepherd's lab continued to use the olfactory bulb as a general model for the integrative actions of neuronal dendrites. ...
... a dendrite or hierarchical pattern. Since the 1960s, this pattern has been the dominant road network structure of suburbs and ... having a dendrite structure, they reduce the number of through roads and, consequently, the corresponding number of entries and ... dendrite network can improve traffic performance. Anecdotal and research evidence suggests that navigation (especially on foot ... not only discourages walking and biking but also increases the length of car trips by the circuitous geometry of the dendrite ...
... and a thin neck that connects the head of the spine to the shaft of the dendrite. The dendrites of a single neuron can contain ... Dendrites disintegrate and reassemble rapidly during ischemia-as with stroke, survivors showed an increase in dendritic spine ... Dendritic spines occur at a density of up to 5 spines/1 µm stretch of dendrite. Hippocampal and cortical pyramidal neurons may ... Spines are found on the dendrites of most principal neurons in the brain, including the pyramidal neurons of the neocortex, the ...
Axons and dendrites form extensions from the cell body. Glial cells are "nerve-helper" cells that provide structural support, ...
Metal whiskers differ from metallic dendrites in several respects. Dendrites are fern-shaped like the branches of a tree, and ... Abnormal grain growth Chvorinov's rule Cloud condensation nuclei Crystal structure Czochralski process Dendrite (metal) Diana's ...
Generally, synaptic signals that are received by the dendrite are combined in the soma in order to generate an action potential ... The presence of these channels in such high density in the dendrites explains their inability to initiate an action potential, ... For example, as an action potential was triggered, its dendritic echo could enter the dendrite and potentially trigger a second ... This current decays significantly with travel length along the dendrites, so effects are predicted to be more significant for ...
Dendrites: Each granule cell has 3 - 4 stubby dendrites which end in a claw. Each of the dendrites are only about 15 μm in ... The dendrite branches terminate within the outer plexiform layer among the dendrites in the olfactory tract. In the mammalian ... The granule cell has a characteristic cone-shaped tree of spiny apical dendrites. The dendrite branches project throughout the ... Patients suffering from Alzheimer's have shorter granule cell dendrites. Furthermore, the dendrites were less branched and had ...
This is likely tied to local translation in dendrites. P-bodies were first described in the scientific literature by Bashkirov ... "Dendrites of Mammalian Neurons Contain Specialized P-Body-Like Structures That Respond to Neuronal Activation". Journal of ...
The apical dendrite rises from the apex of the pyramidal cell's soma. The apical dendrite is a single, long, thick dendrite ... Like dendrites in most other neurons, the dendrites are generally the input areas of the neuron, while the axon is the neuron's ... Basal dendrites arise from the base of the soma. The basal dendritic tree consists of three to five primary dendrites. As ... The typical apical dendrite in a rat has at least 3,000 dendritic spines. The average human apical dendrite is approximately ...
Metal whiskers differ from metallic dendrites in several respects; dendrites are fern-shaped, and grow across the surface of ... Dendrite growth requires moisture capable of dissolving the metal into a solution of metal ions which are then redistributed by ... Monocrystalline whisker Dendrite (metal) Crystal growth Gold-aluminium intermetallic Lyudmyla Panashchenko. "Whisker Resistant ...
"Prodynorphin storage and processing in axon terminals and dendrites". FASEB J. 20 (12): 2124-6. doi:10.1096/fj.06-6174fje. PMID ...
In mature neurons, KIF11 restricts the movement of short microtubules in dendrites, contributing to the formation of ... wherein it decorates the large microtubule bundles extending into axons and dendrites. It has been shown, for example, that ... induces a distinctive growth profile of dendrites and axons in primary cortical neuron cultures". Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton. 60 ... "Mitotic motors coregulate microtubule patterns in axons and dendrites". J. Neurosci. 32 (40): 14033-49. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI. ...
From the Greek dendron or tree, dendrites are bush like projections sprouting from a nerves center, or cell body. Dendrites ... As the dendrites transmit information towards the cell body, a longer projection called the axon will carry information away ... Keywords: axon, axons, cell body, dendrite, dendrites, information, magnification, micrograph, micrographs, micrography, nerve ... From the Greek dendron or tree, dendrites are bush like projections sprouting from a nerves center, or cell body. Dendrites ...
... Author(s). Boivin, ... "Functional implications of inhibitory synapse placement on signal processing in pyramidal neuron dendrites." Current Opinion in ... and the branch order of the dendrite they inhabit. Inhibitory synapses are also structurally dynamic, and the implications of ...
Vulnerable Dendrites and Synapses in Aging and Alzheimers Disease (R01) PA-09-061. NIA ... In other work, the loss of dendrites in APP23 transgenic mice (at 3-,5-, 11-, and 15-months of age) was directly examined using ... In a review by Steward and Schuman (2003), a limited number (thus far) of mRNAs appear to be localized in dendrites ... With respect to the protein tau and protein/organelle motility within axons and dendrites, much remains to be discovered. Not ...
Opening a window to better batteries: Researchers get up-close to watch lithium dendrites grow. October 20th, 2016 , by April ... By adding nanodiamonds to an electrolyte solution, they were able to prevent dendrite growth, a major cause of lithium battery ... A team of University of Michigan researchers has developed a strategy to observe dendrite formation in batteries in real time- ... Defect-free surfaces may be key to preventing formation of lithium dendrites, advancing solid-state batteries. July 14th, 2017 ...
Dendrite pruning is critical for sculpting the final connectivity of neural circuits as it removes inappropriate projections, ... Compartmentalized calcium transients trigger dendrite pruning in Drosophila sensory neurons.. [Takahiro Kanamori, Makoto I ... Calcium transients occurred in local dendrites at ~3 hours before branch elimination. In dendritic branches, intrinsic ...
Protein kinase LKB1 regulates polarized dendrite formation of adult hippocampal newborn neurons.. Huang W., She L., Chang X.Y. ... LKB1 plays an additional role in regulating polarized dendrite morphogenesis in adult-born granule cells in the hippocampus. ... the dispersion of Golgi apparatus that normally accumulated at the base and within the initial segment of the primary dendrite ... protein kinase LKB1 or overexpression of dominant-negative LKB1 reduced the polarized initiation of the primary dendrite from ...
... Answers to Questions from People Who Know at Ask Experience Project. ... Will medicine advance to the point of engineering neurons, dendrites, axons, and brain chemistry to rehabilitate thugs? ...
In particular, there appears to be impairments in the growth of dendrites-branch-like protrusions the neurons use to form ... Autism SpeaksScienceGrant SearchResultsDrosophila as a model system for identifying molecular mechanisms underlying dendrite ... Defects in dendrite development can lead to abnormal neural connectivity, which reduces the nervous systems ability to ... Jan and post-doctoral fellow Quan Yuan plan to study dendrite development in Drosophila-the common fruit fly. Drosophila is a ...
Recently it was proposed that the tendency towards dendrite growth is related to the height of the self-dif 2018 Energy and ... Lithium based batteries are prone to forming short-circuit causing dendrites, while magnesium based batteries are not. ... Dendrite formation is one of the most pressing issues in current battery research. ... Dendrite formation is one of the most pressing issues in current battery research. Lithium based batteries are prone to forming ...
Compartmental modelling of dendrites deals with multi-compartment modelling of the dendrites, to make the understanding of the ... Many mathematical models have been developed to understand the electric behavior of the dendrites. Dendrites tend to be very ... Basically, compartmental modelling of dendrites is a very helpful tool to develop new biological neuron models. Dendrites are ... The dendrites are divided into small compartments and they are linked together as shown in the figure. It is assumed that the ...
Unipolar dendrites are used to detect sensory stimuli such as touch or temperature. The term dendrites was first used in 1889 ... However, synapses involving dendrites can also be axodendritic, involving an axon signaling to a dendrite, or dendrodendritic, ... These contribute to the organization of the dendrites on individual cell bodies and the placement of these dendrites in the ... Axons can be distinguished from dendrites by several features including shape, length, and function. Dendrites often taper off ...
... produce outgrowths called axons and dendrites, by which the cells of the nervous system establish communication with one ... Other articles where Dendrite is discussed: animal development: The brain and spinal cord: … ... Dendrites are thought to form receiving surfaces for synaptic input from other neurons. In many dendrites these surfaces are ... In nervous system: Dendrites. ) Besides the axon, neurons have other branches called dendrites that are usually shorter than ...
... which triggers dendrite retraction and limits dendrite outgrowth. ... Pruning Dendrites Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a ... The inhibitory effect of CaMKIIβ on dendrite growth required its catalytic activity and a domain that localized the protein to ... Neurons with Cdc20 localized at the centrosome had longer dendrites than those in which Cdc20 was not localized at the ... uncovered a role for Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIβ (CaMKIIβ) in dendrite patterning. Rat granule neurons ...
Newborn female rat pups have only about half the number of dendritic spines on their hypothalamic neurons as newborn male rat pups, a difference that disappears when the newborn females are treated with testosterone (which is aromatized to estradiol in the brain). Schwarz et al. found that estradiol treatment increased dendritic length and number of spines on neurons in the medial basal hypothalamus of newborn females to levels comparable to those in male pups and increased the abundance of the protein spinophilin. The glutamate agonist N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) mimicked these effects, whereas NMDA- and AMPA-type glutamate receptor antagonists blocked the increase in spinophilin. Estradiol did not affect the abundance or the function of hypothalamic NMDA- and AMPA-type glutamate receptors. Rather, analysis of the ratio of the amplitudes of paired excitatory postsynaptic currents indicated ...
Help us teach kids of all ages how to prevent traumatic brain and spinal cord injuries! The ThinkFirst Foundation is a 501c3 nonprofit organization. Donate ...
... leads to a remodeling of dendrites during brain development, according to a new study conducted in cultured neurons and an ASD ... Autism-linked gene stunts developing dendrites Genetic variation leads to excessive pruning of dendrites in rats cells and ... Autism-linked gene stunts developing dendrites. Society for Neuroscience. Journal. Journal of Neuroscience. Funder. National ... Changes in the number and structure of dendrites have been observed in patients with ASDs, which are typically diagnosed during ...
Dendrites form when metallic lithium takes root on a batterys anode and begins growing haphazardly. If the dendrites grow too ... "Then you see theres a dendrite-but so what? Now that we can see exactly how the dendrites are forming using our technique, we ... ORNL microscopy directly images problematic lithium dendrites in batteries. ORNL microscopy directly images problematic lithium ... The researchers studied dendrite formation by using a miniature electrochemical cell that mimics the liquid conditions inside a ...
Synaptically triggered action potentials in dendrites.. Regehr W1, Kehoe JS, Ascher P, Armstrong C. ... Fibers synapsing in unclamped regions far out on the apical dendrite caused small, slow synaptic currents, as recorded at the ... We tested the hypothesis that action potentials originate in apical dendrites of pyramidal cells. Layer V somata were voltage ... We conclude that Na+ action potentials are initiated in the apical dendrite in response to synaptic input. ...
... frontiersOFperception mitchell at wolfe.net Fri Jun 23 15:51:44 EST 1995 *Previous message: ... The report is VR immersion yields new dendrite paths, that can produce hardwired re-wirings of sensory data coordination. Does ...
Glutamate-receptor-interacting protein GRIP1 directly steers kinesin to dendrites.. Setou M1, Seog DH, Tanaka Y, Kanai Y, Takei ... can directly interact and steer kinesin heavy chains to dendrites as a motor for AMPA receptors. As would be expected if this ... transport such as the transport of synaptic vesicle components to axons and of neurotransmitter receptors to dendrites, ...
mRNA in dendrites: this message will self-destruct in 10 seconds * facebook ... Once they are exported and packaged into an RNA granule they are transported up dendrites to post-synaptic sites. When synaptic ... These "RNA granules" travel up dendrites and are though to provide storage/delivery for certain transcripts. These dendritic ... the Kosik lab show that neurons express miRNAs that inhibit the translation of transcripts that are found in dendrites. ...
Dendrite architecture determines fine control of motor abilities 22.01.2015 Dendrites are branched projections of nerve cells ... Structural defects in dendrites are linked to various brain disorders such as autism, Alzheimers, and schizophrenia. However ... This kind of correlation between the severity of dendrite defects and the degree of neural deficiency can also be observed in ... One fundamental problem that is being considered in basic neurobiological research is why nerve cells have so many dendrites. ...
The nylon walls developed very beautiful dust dendrites, akin to the more familiar frost dendrites (like these frost dendrites ... However, in order to get dendrites there must be particular affinity to the dendritic tips. Namely, once a small protrusion is ...
M.I.T. theses are protected by copyright. They may be viewed from this source for any purpose, but reproduction or distribution in any format is prohibited without written permission. See provided URL for inquiries about permission ...
Building on Marcia Tates 20 successful "dendrite-growing" teaching strategies, Reading and Language Arts Worksheets Dont Grow ... Reading and Language Arts Worksheets Dont Grow Dendrites 20 Literacy Strategies That Engage the Brain ... Dendrites, based on the very latest research, contains more than 200 activities for delivering brain-based literacy instruction ...
Dendrites form when metallic lithium takes root on a batterys anode and begins growing haphazardly. If the dendrites grow too ... "Then you see theres a dendrite--but so what? Now that we can see exactly how the dendrites are forming using our technique, we ... The researchers studied dendrite formation by using a miniature electrochemical cell that mimics the liquid conditions inside a ... "It gives us a nanoscopic view of how dendrites nucleate and grow," said ORNLs Raymond Unocic, in situ microscopy team leader ...
45.7ct Dendrite Opal Cabochon, Lot Number: 0041, Starting Bid: $70, Auctioneer: American Pacific Auctions, Auction: GALLERY ...
Dendrites are the treelike extensions that originate from the soma of the neuron and form electrical and chemical synapses with ... Different types of neurone differ greatly in their dendritic morphology; some neurons have just one or two long dendrites that ... both dendrites of other cells (dendro-dendritic synapses) and with axons (Axon-dendritic synaspes) and are considered to be the ... have few if any branches; some others have many short dendrites with profuse branches. ...
To verify that only a single dendrite was stimulated, we made line scans through nearby dendrites. Events where the glutamate ... ending on proximal dendrites, and modulatory feedback from visual cortex, ending on distal dendrites (Wilson et al., 1984). An ... where Rdendrite(t) is the time course of the intensity at a dendritic region, Rnoise(t) the time course of the intensity at an ... 2000) NMDA spikes in basal dendrites of cortical pyramidal neurons. Nature 404:285-289, doi:10.1038/35005094, pmid:10749211. ...
The cross section of dendrites, at least of the main apical dendrite 50 μm from the soma, was found to be cylindrical; however ... For eachRi value, steady-state attenuation (Vdendrite/Vsoma) was plotted against the corresponding Ri value (Fig. 2A, filled ... As can be seen in Figure 3C, the lower values ofRi combined with nonuniformRm (lower in the distal dendrites) not only ... 7C). In contrast, in models in which Ih was nonuniform and higher in the distal dendrites (Fig. 7E), the size of the distal ...
b) How are axons and dendrites alike? In what ways (structurally and functionally) do they. ... Most neurons have three parts, the cell body, the dendrites, and the axon. The cell body contains the nucleus. The nucleus is ... b) How are axons and dendrites alike? In what ways (structurally and functionally) do they differ? ... https://brainmass.com/biology/human-anatomy-and-physiology/cell-body-axons-dendrites-106332 Solution Preview. Cell Body ...
... dendrite alert issued last night, they were deluged by public outrag... ... Electroshock Halted By Dendrite Alert. By Judy Castelli , Jul 23, 2006 , 0 , ... Forced Electroshock Halted for Kathleen Garrett: Hospital spokesperson says due to a "dendrite" alert issued last night, they ... DesPeres Hospital spokesperson John Shelton told DENDRITE today that the hospital was "deluged" overnight by public comment ...
... dendrites , Professional craft artists display their work and connect internationally across all fields of interest ...
Dendrite. Dendrites (from Greek δένδρον déndron, "tree") are the branched projections of a neuron that act to conduct the ... These dendrites do not process electrical signals.. Certain classes of dendrites (i.e. Purkinje cells of cerebellum, cerebral ... Dendrites play a critical role in integrating these synaptic inputs and in determining the extent to which action potentials ... Recent research has also found that dendrites can support action potentials and release neurotransmitters, a property that was ...
Dendrite. Dendrites (from Greek δένδρον déndron, "tree") are the branched projections of a neuron that act to conduct the ... These dendrites do not process electrical signals.. Certain classes of dendrites (i.e. Purkinje cells of cerebellum, cerebral ... Dendrites, the branch-like projections of neurons, were once thought to be passive wiring in the brain. But now researchers at ... Dendrites play a critical role in integrating these synaptic inputs and in determining the extent to which action potentials ...
... Neuron. 2002 Jun 13;34(6):985-98. doi: ... Activity-dependent dendrite formation is accompanied by increased association of HMW MAP2 with microtubules and increased ... Inhibition of either CaMKII or the MEK-ERK pathway, both of which phosphorylate MAP2, inhibits dendrite formation, but ... promotes reversible dendrite formation in sympathetic neurons and that this effect is enhanced by NGF. ...
Dendrite Puts 145,000 SF on the Market. PISCATAWAY, NJ-The single-story office building has been substantially upgraded by the ... PISCATAWAY, NJ-Dendrite International is looking to sell its 145,147-sf facility in this Middlesex County community, located in ... The asset, located at 330 Randolphville Rd., is a one-story office complex that has been substantially upgraded by Dendrite ... Binswanger/Klatskin has the exclusive to move the property on behalf of Dendrite. Charles Fern, executive vice president in the ...
Citizendium has restricted the ability to create new pages. You can go back and edit an existing page, or log in or create an account ...
  • The Drosophila dorsal class IV dendritic arborization neuron (ddaC) can serve as an excellent model to study the mechanisms of dendrite pruning. (nus.edu.sg)
  • Secondly, dendrite receives messages or information or electrochemical impulses from the external environment or other neurons, so they work as the input for the neuron. (biodifferences.com)
  • The outgrowth or the extended part of the nerve cell or neuron is called a dendrite . (biodifferences.com)
  • For general diameter dendrites and idealized somatic dynamics, we find that the neuron displays bistable behavior between periodic firing and quiescence. (ucdavis.edu)
  • This FOA issued by the National Institute on Aging (NIA) invites applications for the study of factors regulating neuroplasticity with a particular emphasis on the age-dependent changes in the functions of dendrites, spines and synapses of key cell types in regions of brain especially vulnerable in Alzheimers disease (AD), and in models ( in vitro and in vivo ) of aging and of AD. (nih.gov)
  • 2. These synapses receive information from an outer environment or other cells, so dendrites become postsynaptic. (biodifferences.com)
  • The main function of the dendrite is to receive the nerve impulse or signals coming to form other synapses and forward it to the cell body. (biodifferences.com)
  • Some proteins seem to be localized by a mechanism known as selective retention, which describes that cargoes are transported nonselectively to both axons and dendrites, but are eliminated at one side by selective endocytosis and retained at the other, where endocytosis is prevented. (alpfmedical.info)
  • Dendrite signals or electrochemical messages are in the form of neurotransmitters, sent by other neurons through the special receptor present on the exterior of dendrites. (biodifferences.com)
  • Rather than acting as passive conductors of neuronal signals, as previously thought, the scientists discovered that dendrites actively generate their own spikes-five times larger and more frequently than the classic spikes stemming from neuronal bodies (dubbed "soma" in academic spheres). (singularityhub.com)
  • According to standard teachings, dendrites are passive cables that shuttle electrical signals to the neuronal body, where all the computation occurs. (singularityhub.com)
  • The effect of inhibitory inputs can vary based on their placement on dendritic spines versus shaft, their distance from the soma, and the branch order of the dendrite they inhabit. (mit.edu)
  • Neurons extend elaborate dendrites studded with spines. (rupress.org)
  • In the current issue, a paper from the laboratory of Louis Reichardt identifies the origin recognition complex (ORC) as a molecular mischief maker regulating the development of dendrites and spines (see Huang et al. (rupress.org)
  • 1. There are numerous spines on dendrites that provide the surface for other nerve cells to synapse on or to form a neuronal junction (the platform of transmission of an electric nerve between two neurons). (biodifferences.com)
  • Because of their importance in orchestrating neuronal connectivity and signaling, the mechanisms and molecules controlling dendrite morphology have received considerable attention. (rupress.org)
  • We found that GGT was abundantly expressed in the developing rat cerebellum, in particular molecular layer (ML), the region enriched with PC dendrites.The effect of BDNF or high K+ was inhibited by inhibition or down-regulation of GGT.Our results indicate that GGT plays an important role in Purkinje cell development, and suggest a novel role of GGT in neuronal morphogenesis in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • Dendrite pruning is critical for sculpting the final connectivity of neural circuits as it removes inappropriate projections, yet how neurons can selectively eliminate unnecessary dendritic branches remains elusive. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • an axon, dendrites and a cell body or soma , which can be referred as roots, branches and trunk of a tree. (biodifferences.com)
  • A second group of branches is found among dendrites of the descending neurons proper, in the lateral midbrain. (elsevier.com)
  • Through such approach, it can improve chronic cerebral ischemia anoxic condition and the damage process of hippocampal pyramidal dendrite and dendrite spine, maintain normal transmission of synapse, so as to exert brain protection effect and improve cognitive disorder caused by chronic cerebral ischemia. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The junction between dendrites that synapse on axons is called axodendritic. (biodifferences.com)
  • The junction between dendrites that synapse on other dendrites is known as dendrodendritic. (biodifferences.com)
  • Dendrites are non-myelinated, due to short-projections and tapering ends. (biodifferences.com)
  • Recently, a team from UCLA discovered a hidden layer of neural communication buried within the long, tortuous projections of neurons-the dendrites. (singularityhub.com)
  • It's a gigantic challenge: the average diameter of a dendrite is 100 times smaller than a single human hair-imagine trying to hit one with an electrode amongst a jungle of intertwined projections in the brain, without damaging anything else, while the animal is walking around! (singularityhub.com)
  • We report that Dscam controls cell-intrinsic aspects of dendrite guidance in all four classes of dendrite arborization (da) neurons. (wustl.edu)
  • For sufficiently thin dendrites and general somatic dynamics, we elucidate the mechanisms by which dendrites modulate the firing frequency of neurons. (ucdavis.edu)
  • It binds to Adaptor Protein (AP)-2 complex and regulates dendrite pruning in a cell-autonomous manner. (nus.edu.sg)
  • This study analyses the effect of aminoguanidine intervention on hippocampal pyramidal cell dendrite morphological change and spinophilin expression of rats with chronic cerebral ischemia, so as to explore its cerebral protection mechanism. (alliedacademies.org)
  • We study the influences of thin and general diameter passive dendrites on the dynamics of single neuronal oscillators. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Double labeling immunocytochemistry showed that these ORC subunits were restricted to the cell body and dendrites and were absent from axons, pointing to a dendritic function. (rupress.org)
  • When recording from dendrites on neurons in a dish, scientists noticed telltale signs that they may also generate spikes, independent of the cell body. (singularityhub.com)
  • Indeed, VAMP2 harbors an endocytosis signal in its cytoplasmic domain, and mutation of this sequence consistently results in an evenly distribution of VAMP2 to cell body, dendrites, and axon. (alpfmedical.info)
  • RNA trafficking and local protein synthesis in dendrites: an overview. (elsevier.com)
  • As is evident from the collection of Mini-Reviews on dendritic protein synthesis in this issue of The Journal of Neuroscience, the field has evolved to focus on a series of key questions, including the following: (1) what mRNAs are present in dendrites? (elsevier.com)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'RNA trafficking and local protein synthesis in dendrites: an overview. (elsevier.com)
  • Quite understandably, studies to date have focused on the cytoskeletal changes and signaling events that determine how dendrites achieve their shape ( Jan and Jan, 2003 ). (rupress.org)
  • In particular, there appears to be impairments in the growth of dendrites-branch-like protrusions the neurons use to form connections with other nerve cells. (autismspeaks.org)
  • In fact, researchers can attach molecular markers onto the dendrites of specific neurons and monitor their growth during development. (autismspeaks.org)
  • Self-diffusion barriers: possible descriptors for dendrite growth in batteries? (rsc.org)
  • Our results indicate, in agreement with experimental observations, that Li dendrite growth is an inherent property of the metal, whereas Zn dendrite growth results from the loss of metallic properties in conventional Zn powder electrodes. (rsc.org)
  • Defects in dendrite development can lead to abnormal neural connectivity, which reduces the nervous system's ability to function properly. (autismspeaks.org)
  • It is now widely accepted that mRNAs localize to dendrites and that translation of these mRNAs is regulated in response to neuronal activity. (elsevier.com)
  • It is now widely accepted that mRNAs do localize to dendrites and that translation of these mRNAs contributes to synaptic plasticity. (elsevier.com)
  • 2) How are these mRNAs transported from the nucleus into the dendrite? (elsevier.com)
  • Lithium based batteries are prone to forming short-circuit causing dendrites, while magnesium based batteries are not. (rsc.org)
  • Calcium transients occurred in local dendrites at ~3 hours before branch elimination. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Dendrite refers to the ' Trees ' in Greek, so these are the branched small extension of the nerve cell. (biodifferences.com)
  • To get around all these issues, the UCLA team devised a method that allows them to place their electrode near, rather than inside, the dendrites of rats. (singularityhub.com)