Longevity: The normal length of time of an organism's life.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Caloric Restriction: Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.Life Expectancy: Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Sirtuins: A homologous family of regulatory enzymes that are structurally related to the protein silent mating type information regulator 2 (Sir2) found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sirtuins contain a central catalytic core region which binds NAD. Several of the sirtuins utilize NAD to deacetylate proteins such as HISTONES and are categorized as GROUP III HISTONE DEACETYLASES. Several other sirtuin members utilize NAD to transfer ADP-RIBOSE to proteins and are categorized as MONO ADP-RIBOSE TRANSFERASES, while a third group of sirtuins appears to have both deacetylase and ADP ribose transferase activities.Cell Aging: The decrease in the cell's ability to proliferate with the passing of time. Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences CELL DEATH via the process of APOPTOSIS.Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Memory, Short-Term: Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.Sirtuin 2: A sirtuin family member found primarily in the CYTOPLASM. It is a multifunctional enzyme that contains a NAD-dependent deacetylase activity that is specific for HISTONES and a mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase activity.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Erythrocyte Aging: The senescence of RED BLOOD CELLS. Lacking the organelles that make protein synthesis possible, the mature erythrocyte is incapable of self-repair, reproduction, and carrying out certain functions performed by other cells. This limits the average life span of an erythrocyte to 120 days.Betulaceae: A plant family of the order Fagales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida. They have simple, serrate, alternate leaves. Male flowers are borne in long, pendulous catkins; the female in shorter, pendulous or erect catkins. The fruit is usually a small nut or a short-winged samara.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Genes, Helminth: The functional hereditary units of HELMINTHS.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.ReadingTranscription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Telomere: A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Leukemia P388: An experimental lymphocytic leukemia originally induced in DBA/2 mice by painting with methylcholanthrene.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Telomerase: An essential ribonucleoprotein reverse transcriptase that adds telomeric DNA to the ends of eukaryotic CHROMOSOMES.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Genomic Library: A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).Mice, Inbred C57BLSequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Nicotinamidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of nicotinamide to nicotinate and ammonia. EC 3.5.1.19.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.World War II: Global conflict involving countries of Europe, Africa, Asia, and North America that occurred between 1939 and 1945.Nuclear Weapons: A weapon that derives its destructive force from nuclear fission and/or fusion.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Silent Information Regulator Proteins, Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A set of nuclear proteins in SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE that are required for the transcriptional repression of the silent mating type loci. They mediate the formation of silenced CHROMATIN and repress both transcription and recombination at other loci as well. They are comprised of 4 non-homologous, interacting proteins, Sir1p, Sir2p, Sir3p, and Sir4p. Sir2p, an NAD-dependent HISTONE DEACETYLASE, is the founding member of the family of SIRTUINS.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Wechsler Scales: Tests designed to measure intellectual functioning in children and adults.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Verbal Learning: Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Histone Deacetylases: Deacetylases that remove N-acetyl groups from amino side chains of the amino acids of HISTONES. The enzyme family can be divided into at least three structurally-defined subclasses. Class I and class II deacetylases utilize a zinc-dependent mechanism. The sirtuin histone deacetylases belong to class III and are NAD-dependent enzymes.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Chromosomes, Artificial, Yeast: Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.Cosmids: Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Dicarboxylic Acid Transporters: A family of organic anion transporters that specifically transport DICARBOXYLIC ACIDS such as alpha-ketoglutaric acid across cellular membranes.Podospora: A genus of ascomycete FUNGI in the order SORDARIALES, which is found on SOIL and herbivore dung (FECES).Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Nuclear Warfare: Warfare involving the use of NUCLEAR WEAPONS.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.HexosesMultigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Alternative Splicing: A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Mental Recall: The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Sequence Tagged Sites: Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Acer: A plant genus of the family ACERACEAE, best known for trees with palmately lobed leaves.Leukemia L1210Bombacaceae: A plant family of the order Malvales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida of tropical trees.Flight, Animal: The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Executive Function: A set of cognitive functions that controls complex, goal-directed thought and behavior. Executive function involves multiple domains, such as CONCEPT FORMATION, goal management, cognitive flexibility, INHIBITION control, and WORKING MEMORY. Impaired executive function is seen in a range of disorders, e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; and ADHD.Chromosome Walking: A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Polysorbates: Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Stilbenes: Organic compounds that contain 1,2-diphenylethylene as a functional group.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Yeasts: A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Meliaceae: The mahogany plant family of the order Sapindales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.Individuality: Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.Serial Learning: Learning to make a series of responses in exact order.Sirtuin 1: A sirtuin family member found primarily in the CELL NUCLEUS. It is an NAD-dependent deacetylase with specificity towards HISTONES and a variety of proteins involved in gene regulation.Physiological Processes: The functions and activities of living organisms that support life in single- or multi-cellular organisms from their origin through the progression of life.Aptitude: The ability to acquire general or special types of knowledge or skill.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Aging, Premature: Changes in the organism associated with senescence, occurring at an accelerated rate.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Insulin-Like Growth Factor I: A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.Physical Chromosome Mapping: Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Memory Disorders: Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Mice, Inbred DBAOviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Connectin: A giant elastic protein of molecular mass ranging from 2,993 kDa (cardiac), 3,300 kDa (psoas), to 3,700 kDa (soleus) having a kinase domain. The amino- terminal is involved in a Z line binding, and the carboxy-terminal region is bound to the myosin filament with an overlap between the counter-connectin filaments at the M line.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Receptor, Insulin: A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Cell Respiration: The metabolic process of all living cells (animal and plant) in which oxygen is used to provide a source of energy for the cell.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.Ceratitis capitata: A species of fruit fly originating in sub-Saharan Africa but widely distributed worldwide. One of the most destructive fruit pests, its larvae feed and develop on many different fruits and some vegetables.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Contig Mapping: Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Language Tests: Tests designed to assess language behavior and abilities. They include tests of vocabulary, comprehension, grammar and functional use of language, e.g., Development Sentence Scoring, Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Scale, Parsons Language Sample, Utah Test of Language Development, Michigan Language Inventory and Verbal Language Development Scale, Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, Northwestern Syntax Screening Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Ammons Full-Range Picture Vocabulary Test, and Assessment of Children's Language Comprehension.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.Apocynaceae: The dogbane family of the order Gentianales. Members of the family have milky, often poisonous juice, smooth-margined leaves, and flowers in clusters. Asclepiadacea (formerly the milkweed family) has been included since 1999 and before 1810.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Fixation, Ocular: The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.Pattern Recognition, Visual: Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Deafness: A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.Sirtuin 3: A sirtuin family member found primarily in MITOCHONDRIA. It is a multifunctional enzyme that contains a NAD-dependent deacetylase activity that is specific for HISTONES and a mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase activity.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Cinnamomum aromaticum: A plant species of the genus CINNAMOMUM that contains CINNAMATES and has been used in traditional Chinese medicine (DRUGS, CHINESE HERBAL).Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
He's building it into something bigger and better." On January 27, 2017, Schleper married MLB outfielder Denard Span. They ... Schulman, Henry (February 17, 2017). "Giants' Denard Span marries Olympian after adorable proposal". SFGate.com. San Francisco ...
In the third inning, Nate Robertson hit Denard Span. Minnesota starter Scott Baker hit Marcus Thames with a pitch the next ... advancing to second base on a single by Denard Span, and then moving to third on a flyball out. Tigers' starter Rick Porcello ... Span was out but Tolbert was able to score on Porcello's throwing error. The score remained 3-1 until the bottom of the 6th ... the Twins came back in the second half going 41-32 leading up to the tie-breaker while the Tigers went 38-37 over the same span ...
Center fielder Denard Span hurt his knee making a play in the outfield in the last game on May 31, putting him on a day-to-day ... Regular center fielder Denard Span returned from a lengthy stint on the disabled list on August 25, but he played just two ... Center fielder Denard Span was placed on the disabled list effective July 7 after attempting to play through persistent back ... Schad, Tom (April 19, 2015). "Michael Taylor is sent down as Denard Span rejoins Nationals". The Washington Times. Retrieved ...
He struck out the first batter he faced, Denard Span. Flaherty finished the season 0-2 with a 6.33 ERA in 21.1 innings pitched ...
Due to injuries by fellow outfielders Delmon Young, Denard Span, and call-up Jason Repko, Kubel's position was critical to the ... "Twins place Denard Span on 7-day concussion disabled list , HardballTalk". Hardballtalk.nbcsports.com. Retrieved August 27, ...
Gómez beat out center field prospects Denard Span and Jason Pridie for the starting job. The team re-signed closer Joe Nathan ... April 24, 2008: Optioned outfielder Denard Span to Rochester of the International League (AAA). April 25, 2008: Activated ... Denard Span Charles O. Johnson Award (Most Improved Twin) - Alexi Casilla Dick Siebert Award (Upper Midwest Player of the Year ... recalled outfielder Denard Span from Rochester of the International League (AAA). April 11, 2008: Placed pitcher Kevin Slowey ...
"Nationals acquire Denard Span from Twins for Minor Leaguer Alex Meyer". MLB.com. June 19, 2012. Retrieved November 29, 2012. ... After the 2012 season, the Nationals traded Meyer to the Minnesota Twins for Denard Span. The Twins invited Meyer to spring ...
"Giants place Denard Span (shoulder) on DL, Brandon Crawford on bereavement list". ESPN.com. Retrieved April 26, 2017. Staff, ... April 26, 2017 - OF Denard Span is placed on the 10-day disabled list. April 26, 2017 - OF Jarrett Parker is transferred to the ...
In the eighth, Nick Punto led off with a double off New York's Phil Hughes and Denard Span followed with an infield single, but ... Mariano Rivera relieved Hughes and allowed an RBI single to Denard Span. With the Yankees trailing 3-1 in the bottom of the ...
This Twins record remained untouched until Denard Span matched it on June 29, 2010. Landreaux, a Los Angeles native, is the ...
Buster Posey singled home Denard Span in the third and the Giants narrowed the gap to one in the 5th inning, with Span again ... The early going was good for the Giants as Denard Span doubled to lead off the Giants half of the 1st, and came into score on a ... The closest either side came to scoring was in the top of the 6th when, after Denard Span singled and stole second base with ... January 7, 2016 - The Giants sign CF Denard Span to a three-year, $31 million contract. January 13, 2016 - The Giants received ...
In the top of the seventh inning, Berkman's RBI double over the head of the Twins center fielder Denard Span once again took ... After J. J. Hardy flew out, both Denard Span and Orlando Hudson singled to score Valencia. Wood was removed from the game after ...
On November 29, 2012, the Nationals traded minor-leaguer Alex Meyer to the Minnesota Twins for Denard Span. On January 16, 2013 ...
Taylor opened the 2015 season as the Nationals' starting center fielder while Denard Span was on the disabled list. Despite ... Ladson, Bill (April 19, 2015). "Span motors home from first in DL return; Taylor optioned". mlb.com. Retrieved June 2, 2015. ... he was optioned to the Class-AAA Syracuse Chiefs on April 19 to make room on the active roster for Span. He was recalled on ...
San Francisco scored in the third following a Denard Span double and again in the fifth after Span's triple. In the eighth, ... Lackey allowed a leadoff double to Denard Span and a sacrifice fly by Buster Posey to give San Francisco an early 1-0 lead. ... A run-scoring to single by Moore with the bases loaded and a force-out grounder by Span in the fourth put the Giants up 3-1. ...
He won a three-way race for the center field in 2008, beating out prospects Denard Span and Jason Pridie. Gómez's 40-yard dash ...
The Giants won the game in extra innings off a go-ahead home run by Denard Span in the 10th inning. On August 25, Moore took a ...
Zimmerman then threw to third baseman Anthony Rendon, who stepped on third before Denard Span could tag up, for the third out. ...
He ended the outing by hitting Denard Span and Danny Espinosa and was removed from the game due to cramping and dehydration. ...
Fleitz 2004, p. 129 "Denard Span's three-triple game ties record held by many, including Cleveland legend and Bedford native ...
Lester hit a fly ball to deep center field that nearly eluded Denard Span. Span caught the fly ball to end the inning, bringing ...
He started for the Mets in their Wild Card game against the San Francisco Giants, going 1 for 3 and throwing out Denard Span. ...
On December 20, 2017, the Giants traded Woods, Denard Span, Christian Arroyo, and Matt Krook to the Rays for Evan Longoria and ...
... the Giants moved Pagán to left field to make way for Denard Span. Pagán had not played left field since 2010, but accepted the ...
In the first game, the Nationals hit four home runs off of Roberto Hernández, including two by Denard Span and they beat the ...
... is a UK mail-order supplier of vitamins, minerals and health supplements. Established by Derek Coates in 1996, the company is based at the Healthspan House on the Channel Island of Guernsey. Healthspan Direct was founded by Derek Coates in 1996, with an initial catalog of 10 products, eventually expanding to more than 150 products including nutritional supplements, herbal range products, skincare and cosmetic products (under the Nurture name) and veterinary supplements (as VetVits). In 2001, the company was renamed Healthspan. In 2004, the Healthspan filed a lawsuit against Healthy Direct, another health supplement supplier based in Guernsey, claiming that the company had changed its name from C.I. Nutriceuticals Ltd. in order to profit from Healthspan's brand value. The application was dismissed. In 2008, ...
The Gompertz-Makeham law states that death rate is a sum of age-independent component (Makeham term) and age-dependent component (Gompertz function), which increases exponentially with age. The compensation law of mortality (late-life mortality convergence) states that the relative differences in death rates between different populations of the same biological species are decreasing with age, because the higher initial death rates are compensated by lower pace of their increase with age. The Late-life mortality deceleration law states that death rates stop increasing exponentially at advanced ages and level-off to the late-life mortality plateau. An immediate consequence from this observation is that there is no fixed upper limit to human longevity - there is no special fixed number, which separates possible and impossible values of lifespan. This challenges the common belief[1][2] in existence of a fixed maximal human life span. ...
To date, reliable information on the lifespans of domestic cats is varied and relatively scant.[1] Nevertheless, a number of studies have investigated the matter and have come up with noteworthy estimates. Estimates of mean lifespan in these studies range between 13 and 17 years, with a single value in the neighborhood of 15 years.[2][3][4] At least one study found a median lifespan value of 14 years and a corresponding interquartile range of 9 to 17 years.[5] Maximum lifespan has been estimated at values ranging from 22 to 30 years although there have been claims of cats dying at ages greater than 30 years.[1][2][5][6][7][8] According to the 2010 edition of the Guinness World Records, the oldest cat ever recorded was Creme Puff, who died in 2005, aged 38 years, 3 days.[9] Female cats have been evidenced to outlive male cats, while neutered cats and crossbred cats have been ...
Coronin-1A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CORO1A gene. It has been implicated in both T-cell mediated immunity and mitochondrial apoptosis. In a recent genome-wide longevity study, its expression levels were found to be negatively associated both with age at the time of blood sample and the survival time after blood draw. The Coronin protein family was discovered in 1991 by Eugenio L. Hostos. Hostos used a cytoskeletal preparation called the "contracted propeller" that efficiently helped with the purification of cytoskeletal proteins. This technique allowed him to precipitate actomyosin components together with the desired proteins. These protein were named Corona, which is the Latin word for crown, because of the crown-like shape that it forms when making contact with the surface of the cell. Coronin-1a has been the most researched one due to its complexity and intriguing structural components. After research, it was determined that Coronin-1a serves as actin binding facilitator ...
The extension of life has been a desire of humanity and a mainstay motif in the history of scientific pursuits and ideas throughout history, from the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh and the Egyptian Smith medical papyrus, all the way through the Taoists, Ayurveda practitioners, alchemists, hygienists such as Luigi Cornaro, Johann Cohausen and Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland, and philosophers such as Francis Bacon, René Descartes, Benjamin Franklin and Nicolas Condorcet. However, the beginning of the modern period in this endeavor can be traced to the end of the 19th - beginning of the 20th century, to the so-called "fin-de-siècle" (end of the century) period, denoted as an "end of an epoch" and characterized by the rise of scientific optimism and therapeutic activism, entailing the pursuit of life extension (or life-extensionism). Among the foremost researchers of life extension at this period were the Nobel Prize winning biologist Elie Metchnikoff (1845-1916) -- the author of the cell theory of ...
Insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) is a signaling adapter protein that in humans is encoded by the IRS-1 gene. It is a 131 kDa protein with amino acid sequence of 1242 residues. It contains a single pleckstrin homology (PH) domain at the N-terminus and a PTB domain ca. 40 residues downstream of this, followed by a poorly conserved C-terminus tail. Together with IRS2, IRS3 (pseudogene) and IRS4, it is homologous to the Drosophila protein chico, whose disruption extends the median lifespan of flies up to 48%. Similarly, Irs1 mutant mice experience moderate life extension and delayed age-related pathologies. Insulin receptor substrate 1 plays a key role in transmitting signals from the insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) receptors to intracellular pathways PI3K / Akt and Erk MAP kinase pathways. Tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 by insulin receptor (IR) introduces multiple binding sites for proteins bearing SH2 homology domain, such as PI3K, Grb-2/Sos complex and ...
After travelling back in time, Joker learns more about his past life and reunites with his master, Longevity Monk, and his fellows, Pigsy and Sandy. However, he does not want to accept his fate as Monkey because he just wants to get back Pandora's Box and return to 500 years later to save Bak Jing-jing. Zixia falls in love with him after he pulls out her sword from its scabbard because she made a promise to marry the person who can unsheathe her sword. Zixia and Longevity Monk are captured by Bull King, who wants to take Zixia as his concubine and feast on Longevity Monk's flesh to become immortal. Pigsy and Sandy try to rescue their master but he refuses to leave unless Joker promises to fulfil his destiny. Joker goes off in search of Zixia, rescues her, and they flee from Bull King. In the ensuing fight between Joker and his companions against Bull King, Joker falls off a cliff and finds himself back in Waterfall Cave, where he meets Grandpa Buddha and Bak Jing-jing. Bak Jing-jing agrees to ...
... s are sponges with a soft body that covers a hard, often massive skeleton made of calcium carbonate, either aragonite or calcite. Because of their long life span (500-1,000 years) it is thought that analysis of the aragonite skeletons of these sponges could extend data regarding ocean temperature, salinity, and other variables farther into the past than has been previously possible. Their dense skeletons are deposited in an organized chronological manner, in concentric layers or bands. The layered skeletons look similar to reef corals. Therefore, sclerosponges are also called coralline sponges. Sclerosponges were first proposed as a class of sponges, Sclerospongiae, in 1970 by Hartman and Goreau. However, it was later found by Vacelet that sclerosponges occur in different classes of Porifera. That means that sclerosponges are not a closely related (taxonomic) group of sponges. Like bats and birds that independently developed the ability to fly, different sponges ...
The Abondance is a mixed race breed of cattle which originated in the high valleys of Haute-Savoie, France. They are medium-sized, with the female weighing in at between 580 and 680 kilograms (kg) and standing 1.30 metres tall. They are golden brown in color with a white head (apart from the eyes), underside of the abdomen, and extremities of its legs. The bull weighs in at between 645 and 820 kilograms (kg) and stands 1.70 metres tall. Their colour is different, with a chestnut red and a bit of white on the head. Their milk is rich in both fat and protein, with a good balance between the two. The milk is traditionally used to produce Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) cheese such as the reblochon, abondance, tome des Bauges and the beaufort. Typical milk production is 5700 kg per lactation. This breed of cattle is especially appreciated for its ability to withstand extreme variations in temperature, its fertility, its ease of breeding, its milk, its long life and its meat. It comes from ...
Shoushan (Chinese: 壽山, also commonly known in English as Monkey Mountain) is a mountain in Gushan District, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, north of the main entrance to Kaohsiung Harbor. It was named Ape Hill by the Dutch in the 17th century to describe many monkeys on this mountain. It is also called Chaishan (柴山) and includes the Snake Hill (蛇山 - a 17th-century term) in its northern part, and Long Life Hill (壽山) - named by Japanese in 1911-1915 for the crown-prince Hirohito - in the southern part. In some old maps, the peak of the hill is called Saracen's Head. Now it is a nature park where biological diversity can be seen. ...
Cable-stayed bridges with more than three spans are generally more complex, and bridges of this type generally represent a more notable engineering achievement, even where their spans are shorter.. Cable-stayed bridges have the second-longest spans, after suspension bridges, of bridge types. They are practical for spans up to around 1 kilometre (0.6 mi). The Russky Bridge over the eastern Bosphorus in Vladivostok, Russia, with its 1,104 metres (3,622 ft) span has the largest span of any cable-stayed bridge, displacing the former record holder, the Sutong Bridge over the Yangtze River in the People's Republic of China 1,088 metres (3,570 ft) on 12 April 2012.[1]. ...
The city of Clarges in the future is a near-utopia, surrounded by barbarism throughout the rest of the world. Abundant resources and the absence of political conflict lead to a pleasant life that should be stress-free. However, nearly everyone is obsessed with a perpetual scramble for longer life, as measured by slope. Medical technology has led to a great lengthening of the human lifespan, but, in order to prevent the Malthusian horrors of over-population, it is awarded only to those citizens who have made notable contributions. Five categories have been created for those playing the life-extension game, the first four each offering an additional twenty years of life. One's progress can be shown as a graph, whose upward direction indicates a greater likelihood of achieving the next level. Therefore, the slope of one's "lifeline" is a measure of success. A person whose lifeline reaches the vertical terminator is not merely deprived of life-lengthening treatment, they are ...
In the list below, the serving period of cabinet members who served only a part of the cabinet's lifespan are shown in the column "Notes". As according to the Turkish constitution of 1961, some members of the government were replaced by independent members before the elections. ...
I recently spoke to Washington Nationals centerfielder Denard Span about his mission to uplift single parent families. His non- ... DS: This month on August 22, well be in Washington DC hosting our 1st Annual Denard Span Foundation Back to School Bash. We ... His non-profit, The Denard Span Foundation was borne out of a desire to extend assistance proactively, launched with a vision ... If you or an organization you know is interested in working with the Denard Span Foundation to help support single parent ...
Denard Span reacts after being tagged out in a run down between first and second base in the first inning as the Twins play the ... An MRI exam on Denard Spans stiff neck and shoulder taken Monday, Aug. 20, revealed no damage but the Twins center fielder ... Span missed his seventh straight game since being injured while trying to make a sliding catch on Aug. 12. X-rays taken then ... Span will have an MRI taken of his clavicle on Tuesday in San Francisco. ...
5:16pm: In a stunning early-season swap, the Mariners have acquired reliever Alex Colome and outfielder Denard Span from the ... Alex Colome Denard Span Marc Topkin Newsstand Seattle Mariners Tampa Bay Rays Transactions ... Mariners Acquire Alex Colome, Denard Span. By Jeff Todd , May 25, 2018. at 7:26pm CDT. ... Rays fans; How does Denard Span move around in the OF?. ... Span is older and a shell of his former self. Would make ZERO ...
Denard Span to the Washington Nationals in exchange for pitching prospect Alex Meyer... ... Denard Span to Washington: Why the Minnesota Twins Had to Make This Trade. Chris [email protected] @crishad. ... Ken Rosenthal of Fox Sports reported late Thursday afternoon that the Minnesota Twins had traded center fielder Denard Span to ... The concept of moving Span may not be shocking for Twins fans, but there could be a sense of outrage that the Twins were not ...
Poll: Should The Nationals Make Denard Span A Qualifying Offer?. By Jeff Todd , October 14, 2015. at 10:33am CDT. ... The poll re Spans QO is running about 50/50. Reckon thats the best answer. If Span receives/accepts a QO, he and Rendon * ... Accepting a QO means that all of the risk of injury or poor performance are on Spans side, not on the Nationals side. Span ... And thats putting aside that Span checks several "need" boxes for the Nats (LH bat/leadoff/OF). An outfield of Werth/Span/ ...
Hes building it into something bigger and better." On January 27, 2017, Schleper married MLB outfielder Denard Span. They ... Schulman, Henry (February 17, 2017). "Giants Denard Span marries Olympian after adorable proposal". SFGate.com. San Francisco ...
In the third inning, Nate Robertson hit Denard Span. Minnesota starter Scott Baker hit Marcus Thames with a pitch the next ... advancing to second base on a single by Denard Span, and then moving to third on a flyball out. Tigers starter Rick Porcello ... Span was out but Tolbert was able to score on Porcellos throwing error. The score remained 3-1 until the bottom of the 6th ... the Twins came back in the second half going 41-32 leading up to the tie-breaker while the Tigers went 38-37 over the same span ...
1. Denard Span, CF. 2. Orlando Hudson, 2B - 7 for 11 vs Millwood. 3. Joe Mauer, DH - .300 vs Millwood. 4. Jason Kubel, RF - 5 ...
1. Denard Span, CF. 2. Ben Revere, RF. 3. Joe Mauer, 1B. 4. Josh Willingham, LF. 5. Trevor Plouffe, 3B. 6. Ryan Doumit, C. 7. ...
Denard Span OF. Team Catania. 293. Jose Quintana SP. Team OConnell. 294. Matt Joyce. OF. ...
Denard Span, Washington Nationals. Span is hitting .286 with 11 runs, 11 RBI and five stolen bases. He is available in over two ... He also added seven runs during that span. On the year, Pierre is hitting .239 with 16 runs, three RBI and 12 stolen bases. ...
Nationals OF Denard Span went 3-for-5 with a run scored and an RBI. ... Denard Span. WSH. vs NYM. 3-11 L. 3/5. 0. 1. 1. 0. 3. 0. ...
Denard Span (OF) Jose Alvarado (R) Alex Cobb (S) Chih-Wei Hu (R) Alexei Ramirez (SS) Ryne Stanek (R) ...
Denard Span (OF) Brandon Crawford (SS) Miguel Gomez (2B) Nestor Molina (S) Hunter Pence (OF) Chris Stratton (S) ...
Denard Span. Hunter Pence. Gregor Blanco. Mac Williamson. Starters. Madison Bumgarner. Johnny Cueto. Jeff Samardzija. Jake ...
thisisdspan (Denard Span). *@JoeNathan36. *@PatNeshek. *@JustinMorneau. *@TC_00 (TC the Mascot). *@kellythesier ...
Placed OF Michael Cuddyer on the 15-day disabled list with a dislocated right index finger; Recalled OF Denard Span from Triple ...
2 - Denard Span - Twins. #3 - Alex Gordon / Billy Butler - Royals. This is the type of deal I would like to see. Even if we ...
Denard Span. CF. L. L. 24. MLB. Minnesota Twins (MLB), Rochester Red Wings (AAA). ---. ...
Denard Span. cf. Active. Y. 6-1. 180. L-L. 1984-02-27. 34.264. Tampa,Florida. MLB. 2003-2018. 2008-2018. 2002- 1- 20-MIN. Free ...
A sacrifice fly by Ryon Healy scored Denard Span.. "When you have a negative ball-strike ratio, you know things arent going ...
8 Denard Span 14. 9 Carlos Gomez 14. 10 Michael Bourn 13. 11 Peter Bourjos 13. FWIW Fangraphs also has Lee as a plus defender ...
04/06/16 CF Denard Span Flu "?" Thursday vs. Los Angeles Dodgers. 04/01/16 P Matt Cain Arm out indefinitely. ...
Denard Span has spent all season hearing his name in trade rumors. Again, this one falls into the category of not being worth ... Span hit .283/.342/.395 this season, but over the last three years that line is .271/.334/.367. He is affordable at $11.25 ...
We didnt slip or anything," Twins center fielder Denard Span.. The crowd of 38,164, more than 1,000 below capacity, ... Lackey walked Span on four pitches in the third and gave up consecutive RBI singles to Orlando Hudson and Mauer, but retired ... If I dont let em settle in, its just going to prolong what were going through." … Span has only five hits but nine walks ...
  • His non-profit, The Denard Span Foundation was borne out of a desire to extend assistance proactively, launched with a vision to "see communities where single parents are empowered educationally and financially, creating strong foundations for children to enjoy active lifestyles and experience academic and long term success. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • Span scored on Ben Revere's single to left. (yahoo.com)
  • This year was more of the same - .301/.365/.431 - but with one glaring exception: Span made only 275 trips to the batter's box. (mlbtraderumors.com)
  • Span couldn't hold on as he made contact and Shoppach wound up with a two-run double to put Cleveland ahead 4-0. (espn.com)
  • A power hitter with excellent plate discipline, Swisher hit at least 20 home runs in each of nine consecutive seasons from 2005 to 2013, and reached 75 bases on balls on seven occasions in that span. (wikipedia.org)
  • The new additions are earning $11MM (Span) and $5.3MM (Colome) for the season, so they are owed almost exactly that amount (around $11.2MM) the rest of the way. (mlbtraderumors.com)
  • If they do trade him around mid-season and Denard Span is doing well at Rochester that could open up a spot for him at the major league level, similar to what happend with Barlett last season. (blogspot.com)
  • General manager Terry Ryan did his best to get the best possible haul for Span and in the short term this trade may not show much. (bleacherreport.com)