Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Population Growth: Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Polystichum: A plant genus of the family DRYOPTERIDACEAE.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Anostraca: An order of CRUSTACEA comprised of shrimp-like organisms containing body trunks with at least 20 segments. The are commonly used as aquarium food.Cultural Evolution: The continuous developmental process of a culture from simple to complex forms and from homogeneous to heterogeneous qualities.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Betula: A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE. The tree has smooth, resinous, varicolored or white bark, marked by horizontal pores (lenticels), which usually peels horizontally in thin sheets.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Islands: Tracts of land completely surrounded by water.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.History, 15th Century: Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Narcissus: A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain ungiminorine and LECTINS.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Mediterranean Region: The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.Passeriformes: A widely distributed order of perching BIRDS, including more than half of all bird species.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Baccharis: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Other plants called broom include CYTISUS; SPARTIUM; and BROMUS.Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Genetic Drift: The fluctuation of the ALLELE FREQUENCY from one generation to the next.Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sex Ratio: The number of males per 100 females.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Endangered Species: An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Nesting Behavior: Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.Inbreeding: The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.Animal Distribution: A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Population: The total number of individuals inhabiting a particular region or area.EuropeChileAfricaClimate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Likelihood Functions: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Population Groups: Individuals classified according to their sex, racial origin, religion, common place of living, financial or social status, or some other cultural or behavioral attribute. (UMLS, 2003)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.LizardsModels, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Genetic Loci: Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.Stochastic Processes: Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Founder Effect: A phenomenon that is observed when a small subgroup of a larger POPULATION establishes itself as a separate and isolated entity. The subgroup's GENE POOL carries only a fraction of the genetic diversity of the parental population resulting in an increased frequency of certain diseases in the subgroup, especially those diseases known to be autosomal recessive.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Genetic Fitness: The capability of an organism to survive and reproduce. The phenotypic expression of the genotype in a particular environment determines how genetically fit an organism will be.Linkage Disequilibrium: Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Adaptation, Biological: Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Markov Chains: A stochastic process such that the conditional probability distribution for a state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Longevity: The normal length of time of an organism's life.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.EnglandMortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.United StatesGreat BritainCross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Probability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.IndiaSocioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.

Geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic variations in the investigation and management of coronary heart disease in Scotland. (1/5270)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether age, sex, level of deprivation, and area of residence affect the likelihood of investigation and treatment of patients with coronary heart disease. DESIGN, PATIENTS, AND INTERVENTIONS: Routine discharge data were used to identify patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) between 1991 and 1993 inclusive. Record linkage provided the proportion undergoing angiography, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) over the following two years. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine whether age, sex, deprivation, and area of residence were independently associated with progression to investigation and revascularisation. SETTING: Mainland Scotland 1991 to 1995 inclusive. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Two year incidence of angiography, PTCA, and CABG. Results-36 838 patients were admitted with AMI. 4831 (13%) underwent angiography, 587 (2%) PTCA, and 1825 (5%) CABG. Women were significantly less likely to undergo angiography (p < 0.001) and CABG (p < 0.001) but more likely to undergo PTCA (p < 0.05). Older patients were less likely to undergo all three procedures (p < 0.001). Socioeconomic deprivation was associated with a reduced likelihood of both angiography and CABG (p < 0.001). There were significant geographic variations in all three modalities (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Variations in investigation and management were demonstrated by age, sex, geography, and socioeconomic deprivation. These are unlikely to be accounted for by differences in need; differences in clinical practice are, therefore, likely.  (+info)

Identifying families with likely genetic protective factors against Alzheimer disease. (2/5270)

Elderly individuals who lived beyond the age of 90 years without dementia were hypothesized to have increased concentrations of genetic protective factors against Alzheimer disease (AD), conferring a reduced liability for this disease relative to less-aged nondemented elderly. However, testing this hypothesis is complicated by having to distinguish such a group from those who may lack genetic risk factors for AD, have had protective environmental exposures, or have escaped dementia for other reasons. Probands carrying genetic protective factors, however, should have relatives with lower illness rates not only for earlier-onset disease, when genetic risk factors are a strong contributing factor to the incidence of AD, but also for later-onset disease, when the role of these factors appears to be markedly diminished. AD dementia was assessed through family informants in 6,660 first-degree relatives of 1,049 nondemented probands aged 60-102 years. The probands were grouped by age (60-74, 75-89, and 90-102 years), and the cumulative survival from AD and 10-year-age-interval hazard rates of AD were calculated in their first-degree relatives. Cumulative survival from AD was significantly greater in the relatives of the oldest proband group (aged 90-102 years) than it was in the two younger groups. In addition, the reduction in the rate of illness for this group was relatively constant across the entire late life span. The results suggest that genetic factors conferring a lifelong reduced liability of AD may be more highly concentrated among nondemented probands aged >/=90 years and their relatives. Efforts to identify protective allele-bearing genes that are associated with very late-onset AD should target the families of nonagenarians and centenarians.  (+info)

Tay-Sachs screening: motives for participating and knowledge of genetics and probability. (3/5270)

A highly-educated, socially aware group of persons presented themselves for Tay-Sachs screening having learned about it mainly from friends, newspapers, radio, and television but not from physicians or rabbis. After learning that screening was possible and deciding that it is in principle a good idea, and after discussing it with relatives and friends but not with physicians and rabbis, they presented themselves for the test. Although the participants knew that Tay-Sachs is a serious disease and that Jews are vulnerable, few of them knew much about the genetics of the disease, its frequency, or the incidence of the carrier state. This experience of screening for Tay-Sachs carriers suggests the need for physicians to learn the relation of genetics to preventive medicine, and for the public to learn more about the biology of man.  (+info)

Disease patterns of the homeless in Tokyo. (4/5270)

In recent years, homelessness has been recognized as a growing urban social problem in various countries throughout the world. The health problems of the homeless are considerable. The purpose of this study was to elicit, with sociodemographic profiles, the disease patterns among Tokyo's homeless. The subjects were 1,938 men who stayed at a welfare institution from 1992 to 1996. Diagnosed diseases/injuries and sociodemographic profiles were analyzed. The disease patterns of the homeless were compared to those of the male general population. Of the subjects, 8.3% were admitted to the hospital; 64.0% received outpatient care. Their observed morbidity rates by disease category were greater than those of the male general population in both Japan and Tokyo. Comorbidity of alcoholic psychosis/alcohol-dependent syndrome to both liver disease and pulmonary tuberculosis were greater than the average (P < .01). Construction work brought a higher risk of pulmonary tuberculosis (odds ratio = 2.0) and dorsopathies (odds ratio = 1.4) than did other jobs (P < .05). Disease patterns among the homeless in Tokyo were characterized by alcoholic psychosis/alcohol-dependence syndrome; liver disease; pulmonary tuberculosis; diabetes mellitus; fractures, dislocations, sprains, strains; hypertension; and cerebrovascular disease. Although the sociodemographic backgrounds of Tokyo's homeless have become more diverse, the principal occupation of the homeless was unskilled daily construction work, which underlay the characteristics of their disease patterns.  (+info)

Marijuana use among minority youths living in public housing developments. (5/5270)

Youths residing in public housing developments appear to be at markedly heightened risk for drug use because of their constant exposure to violence, poverty, and drug-related activity. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a model of marijuana etiology with adolescents (N = 624) residing in public housing. African-American and Hispanic seventh graders completed questionnaires about their marijuana use, social influences to smoke marijuana, and sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics. Results indicated that social influences, such as friends' marijuana use and perceived ease of availability of marijuana, significantly predicted both occasional and future use of marijuana. Individual characteristics such as antimarijuana attitudes and drug refusal skills also predicted marijuana use. The findings imply that effective prevention approaches that target urban youths residing in public housing developments should provide them with an awareness of social influences to use marijuana, correct misperceptions about the prevalence of marijuana smoking, and train adolescents in relevant psychosocial skills.  (+info)

Is choice of general practitioner important for patients having coronary artery investigations? (6/5270)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether particular sociodemographic characteristics of patients with stable angina affected their general practitioners' (GPs') decisions to refer them for revascularisation assessment. DESIGN: Postal questionnaire survey. SETTING: Collaborative survey by the departments of public health medicine in each of the four health boards in Northern Ireland, serving a total population of 1.5 million. SUBJECTS: All (962) GPs. MAIN MEASURES: The relation between GPs' referral decisions and patients' age, sex, employment status, home circumstances, smoking habits, and obesity. RESULTS: 541 GPs replied (response rate 56%). Most were "neutral" towards a patient's sex (428, 79%), weight (331, 61%), smoking habit (302, 56%), employment status (431, 80%), and home circumstances (408, 75%) in making decisions about referral. In assigning priority for surgery most were neutral towards the patient's sex (459, 85%), employment status (378, 70%), and home circumstances (295, 55%). However, most GPs (518, 95%) said that younger patients were more likely to be referred, and a significant minority were less likely to refer patients who smoked (202, 37%) and obese patients (175, 32%) and more likely to refer employed patients (97, 18%) and those with dependents (117, 22%) (compared with patients with otherwise comparable clinical characteristics); these views paralleled the priority which GPs assigned these groups. The stated likelihood of referral of young patients was independent of the GPs' belief in ability to benefit from revascularisation, but propensity to refer and perception of benefit were significantly associated for all other patient characteristics. CONCLUSION: GPs' weighting of certain characteristics in reaching decisions about referral for angiography is not uniform and may contribute to unequal access to revascularisation services for certain patient groups.  (+info)

Factors influencing default at a hospital colposcopy clinic. (7/5270)

OBJECTIVE: To identify factors reducing compliance at diagnosis, treatment, and review stages among women referred with abnormal cervical smears to a hospital colposcopy clinic. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of sociodemographic data from hospital notes of the attenders and defaulters during one year (1989-90) and prospective collection of information by structured interviews of a sample of defaulters and attenders during five months (May-September 1990). SETTING: One hospital colposcopy clinic. PATIENTS: 238 women defaulting on two consecutive occasions and 188 attending regularly (retrospective analysis) and a subset of 40 defaulters and 24 attenders (interview sample). MAIN MEASURES: Sociodemographic data and interview responses about attitudes, behaviour, choice, accessibility cultural understanding, communications, and emotional response. RESULTS: 22 (12%) women defaulted at diagnosis, 24(13%) at treatment, 39(21%) at the first check up after treatment, and 84(45%) at the review stage; 19(10%) defaulted from the first check up after diagnostic examination revealed no need for treatment. Age and social class differed between the two groups. 181(76%) defaulters were under 30 compared with 91(48%) attenders; 14(6%) compared with 41(23%) were over 40(p < 0.001). The proportion of women in social classes 4 and 5 was 33%(20/60) for defaulters and 21%(25/120) for attenders (p < 0.05) and unemployed was 66%(158/238) and 36%(68/188) respectively. 63(28%) defaulters were pregnant compared with 11(6%) attenders (p < 0.001). More defaulters came from gynaecology or antenatal clinics. Most defaulters (93%) had child care responsibilities and they knew and understood less about colposcopy. Their explicit reasons for defaulting included child care commitments and fear and their implicit reasons lack of understanding, inaccessibility of information, and staff attitudes. CONCLUSIONS: Compliance may be improved by promoting women's understanding of treatment and encouraging health professionals to develop a service more sensitive to the various needs of women in different socioeconomic groups.  (+info)

The determinants of infant and child mortality in Tanzania. (8/5270)

This paper investigates the determinants of infant and child mortality in Tanzania using the 1991/92 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey. A hazards model is used to assess the relative effect of the variables hypothesized to influence under-five mortality. Short birth intervals, teenage pregnancies and previous child deaths are associated with increased risk of death. The Government of the United Republic of Tanzania should therefore maintain its commitment to encouraging women to space their births at least two years apart and delay childbearing beyond the teenage years. Further, this study shows that there is a remarkable lack of infant and child mortality differentials by socioeconomic subgroups of the population, which may reflect post-independence health policy and development strategies. Whilst lack of socioeconomic differentials can be considered an achievement of government policies, mortality remains high so there is still a long way to go before Tanzania achieves its stated goal of 'Health for All'.  (+info)

  • Today, there is growing interest among the public in demography, as "demographic change" has become the subject of political debates in many developed countries. (
  • While demography cannot offer political advice on how to tackle demographic change, demographers seek to describe the phenomena related to this change, and to understand their causes. (
  • Download or subscribe to this German-language quarterly, which features popular science articles on the latest demographic research papers by authors of the MPIDR, the Vienna Institute of Demography, the Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung Wiesbaden and the Rostock Centre for the Study of Demographic Change. (
  • Find the latest news and background information on European demography issues at the website of the collaborative network of Europe's leading demographic research centers. (
  • Once a year, the MPIDR opens its doors to about a hundred students from schools in the Rostock area, introducing them to the world of demography, and showing them how demography is being studied at the MPIDR. (
  • I devoted yesterday afternoon and most of today to (finally) producing the updated documentation for Version 3 of the ForagerNet3_Demography model, one of the agent-based models that I've been working with. (
  • These materials are available to teachers at FWU - Das Medieninstitut der Länder , and include an educational film intended to serve as an introduction to the field of demography. (
  • The Business Demography News Release is published on a yearly basis on the NSO's website based on all the registered legal units, normally within 5 months after the end of the reference period. (
  • The 2018 volume features a wide range of subjects, including approaches to measuring religious violence, religious changes in the Indian Subcontinent, religious demography in Lebanon, Baptism and Godparenthood in Catholic Europe, the relevance of social media data for religious demographic research, and the methodological and practical challenges of measuring religiosity in Turkey. (
  • Department of Political Sciences announces lectures held by Mikhail B. Denisenko (Associate Professor in Demography and Head of Department of Demography at the Higher School of Demography, Moscow) within the Master Degree in International Relations. (
  • Singh N, Jensen J, Clark A, Aquadro C. Inferences of demography and selection in an African population of Drosophila melanogaster. (
  • Paleo-demography of the Drosophila melanogaster subgroup: application of the maximum likelihood method. (
  • The Yearbook of International Religious Demography presents an annual snapshot of the state of religious statistics around the world. (
  • Students may take any of the following relevant courses, may pursue the Demography Certificate, and may choose to focus on demography for one of their specialization examinations at the doctoral level or for a master's thesis or dissertation topic. (
  • ECON4710 - Demography of Developing Countries (discontinued) is the course code for the master's students. (
  • This is Europe's only graduate programme in demography with an emphasis on health and social epidemiology, and is designed for those interested in acquiring a technical understanding of the structure and dynamics of population change, its causes and consequences. (
  • Despite Republican gains in the 2010 midterms and Mitt Romney's recent rise in the polls, Teixeira believes that Obama is still well placed on the basis of demography and geography. (
  • I spoke to Teixeira on Tuesday, grouping my questions under three headings: demography, geography, and public opinion/campaigning. (
  • The Yearbook presents data in sets of tables and scholarly articles spanning social science, demography, history, and geography. (
  • Branislav Bleha, Ph.D., the Vice-Dean of the Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Comenius in Bratislava and the Head of Demogeography and Demography Section at the Department of Human Geography and Demography of the same Faculty. (
  • We analyze how temporal variability in local demography and dispersal combine to affect the rate of spread of an invading species. (
  • Demography and the Long-Run Predictability of the Stock Market ," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity , Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 35(1), pages 241-326. (
  • Demography is a scientific journal, published by the Population Association of America, a non-profit professional organization of demographers. (
  • Demography is the flagship journal of the Population Association of America. (
  • The term Demography refers to the overall study of population. (
  • The Demography of Enterprises study began in 2005, whereas the Statistics of Entrepreneurship study began in 2008, whose results were published in specific publications. (
  • The Demography of Enterprises study presents the entry, exit and survival rates, according to the size and economic activity of the enterprises. (
  • Proceeding with the joint study comprising the demography of Brazilian formal enterprises and statistics of entrepreneurship, the IBGE presents in this publication the results of 2017. (
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  • Demography at the Munich Institute for the Study of the USSR. (
  • This yields novel opportunities for inferring recent demography, as one can study the direct traces of coancestry. (
  • Because of the unique design of this program and the growing recognition of the importance of demography, the Certificate program should prove useful to students with diverse backgrounds, from those with an awareness of the relevance of demography for their research interests to employees of government and the private sector who frequently work with demographic data. (
  • Find the latest news and background information on European demography issues at the website of the collaborative network of Europe's leading demographic research centers. (
  • Scientific seminar "Modern Demography" of the International Laboratory for Population and Health Research, HSE. (
  • The program in Spain gave me both theoretical knowledge regarding demography and sociology, and also hands-on experience in qualitative and quantitative research (conducting interviews, focus groups and analyzing data). (
  • This may have contributed to the fact that historical demography has stayed until nowadays a domain of historians, with virtually no support by institutions of demographic research. (
  • Since its founding in 1964, the population research journal Demography has mirrored the vitality, diversity, high intellectual standard, and wide impact of the field on which it reports. (
  • It does so through recognition of common research topics and the construction of a broad theoretical framework incorporating both cultural and biological motivation.Roth, Eric Abella is the author of 'Culture, Biology, and Anthropological Demography', published 2004 under ISBN 9780521809054 and ISBN 0521809053. (
  • Culture, Biology, and Anthropological Demography attempts a rapprochement of two distinct approaches to studying human anthropological demography and human evolutionary ecology. (
  • Select analysis for the New England region is now available in the demography section of NEBHE's recently revamped Trends & Indicators. (
  • NEBHE's Trends & Indicators features an updated section on Demography. (
  • Rejecting demographic fear mongering and cloudy statistical thinking, Why Demography Matters provides a critical assessment of who counts and why, and the meaning of one of the world's most important drivers of change. (
  • At the XXIst World Congress of the International Committee of Historical Sciences (ICHS/CISH) in 2010 in Amsterdam, the International Commission for Historical Demography (ICHD) decided to write an overview of its own history. (
  • 2014). The post-war "population history" (Bevölkerungsgeschichte) which still showed some aspects of the preceding period, has only to be mentioned here as far as it contributes to the understanding of the novelty of historical demography in Germany. (
  • Population History before Historical Demography. (
  • The following lecturers specialize in Demography history. (
  • With its complex history and geo-political standing, understanding the demography and population dynamics of this country is of utmost relevance. (
  • The" industrial revolutionary forces thought to have an impact on inequality can be offset or reinforced" by demography, skill supply and globalization. (
  • To understand similarities and differences in population dynamics of closely related species, I studied demography of two congeneric endangered species, Linum flavum and L. tenuifolium co-occurring in dry grasslands. (
  • Ardisia elliptica (invasive exotic) demography in Florida: Light and moisture dependence. (
  • This paper contributes to the already vast literature on demography-induced international capital flows by examining the role of labor market imperfections and institutions. (
  • Rapid intrahost evolution of human cytomegalovirus is shaped by demography and positive selection. (
  • Analyses of pig genomes provide insight into porcine demography and evolution. (
  • Today, there is growing interest among the public in demography, as "demographic change" has become the subject of political debates in many developed countries. (
  • While demography cannot offer political advice on how to tackle demographic change, demographers seek to describe the phenomena related to this change, and to understand their causes. (
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Demography slays the Democrats here and now | Bradenton Herald
Demography slays the Democrats here and now | Bradenton Herald (
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Brendan Mullan | Demography as Destiny on Livestream
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